Premium Essay

Standardization V Customisation

In: Business and Management

Submitted By jamieallen87
Words 2250
Pages 9
Mid Module Assignment

What is the relevance of the customisation-standardisation debate in international marketing strategy and how might this influence the market entry strategy adopted by a firm seeking to enter overseas markets?

Use relevant and recent examples to illustrate your report.

Your response should be in the form of a written report of between 1500 - 2000 words.

Name: Jamie Allen

Module: International Marketing Strategy

Tutor: Paul Matthews

Submission Date: 29th April 2013

Confidentiality: I have read, understand and adhere to the KOL Confidentiality Policy. Click here to access the KOL Confidentiality Policy.

Academic Integrity Statement: I have read and understood the Academic Integrity guidelines for Kaplan Open Learning and the University Of Essex, and declare that this assignment conforms to all of the rules and regulations contained therein.

Please note: the guidelines can be found in the Student Handbook (see section 6.4).

Assignment Checklist

Please make sure you have completed the below points before submitting your assignment:

• Spelling and grammar check • Referencing completed • Word count fulfilled • Proof read completed • All parts of the question answered


The purpose of this report is to discuss the relevance of customisation and standardisation within international marketing, and how that will have a bearing upon a market entry strategy by a firm who wishes to enter a foreign market. Firstly the definition of the customisation-standardisation debate within international marketing shall be explored. Secondly, a literature analysis of customisation shall be performed. Thirdly, a firm analysis of recent market entries that used customisation shall be carried out; including the main influences this has had on the market strategy adopted by a firm...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Standardization vs Adaptation since it drives the Multinational Company’s ability to reduce cost or respond to local market demands (Bartlett and Ghoshal, 1998). According to Walters (1986) standardization is the implementation of a similar or uniform marketing programme or process across national borders. The standardization strategy indicates the use of a unique market or the homogenization of international products. In few cases standardisation have a 100% uniformity as many organisations have different levels of standardisation and standardise segments of the marketing mix. Levitt (1983) states that the “Global competitor will seek constantly to standardize his offering everywhere… He will never assume that the customer is a king who knows his own wishes.” However, standardisation should not be looked at from only the point of the marketing mix but also the management of an organisation. Sorenson and Weichmann (1975) stated “the intellectual method for approaching a marketing problem, for analysing that problem, and for synthesizing information in order to arrive at a decision, can absolutely be standardized on an international basis." This belief have been supported by many other studies for example, regarding the promotion of multinationals Dunn (1976) suggest “"the methodology of planning is one area where standardization seems to work." Several advantages of standardisation is developed by Carpano and Chrisman (1995), Walters...

Words: 2002 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay


...Objectives • Become world leader in service o Bousbib's vision: "To become the recognized leader in service excellence among all companies%mdash;not just elevator companies—worldwide." o Bousbib challenged ... launch a new initiative that would help make Otis the #1 service company in the world p 235/15 • Continue strong revenue growth • Maintain / improve operating margins, already substantially above industry averages • Establish strategic advantage in emerging markets e.g. China • Make the transition from a manufacturing to a service organization • Reorient Otis to a customer-centric organization • Employ technology to provide an information advantage over service company competitors   Competitors FedEx, UPS, Procter & Gamble, Other Supply Chain Companies like The Wheels Group and Exel plc.   Decisions Test Tom and Ryan     Problems, opportunities and risks • Problem 1: Challenges for e*Logistics p 233/13 • Problem 2: Otis needed to embrace a culture of service and to develop the processes needed to deliver world-class service. Otis had to re-define its processes, beyond service support tools like OTISLINE customer service center and REM elevatore monitoring. • Problem 3: The major problem facing Otis how can they can continue their dominance and profitability within a new market space, which is providing global logistics and service support to firms of any kind, while leveraging their......

Words: 1740 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...John Weatherwax Week 7 En 1320 Research paper New technology break troughs, Research question, less than 30 years ago we had no cell phones If we can talk on a cell phone that is a watch today and where will we be in 30 more years? Just by what I have seen and heard from various producers of cell phones I do believe that the cell phone tech is going to be in the field of a wearable devices the new (in the last few years ) watches are just the start. In the 50’s Dick Tracy had a watch that the new watches mimic so what is next will it implants or projectable it is hard to tell but in my thoughts it will be in the realm of a wearable and possibly a wearable projection device. Articale #1 Cast your mind back to late 2008, when the first Android-powered handset saw the light of day. Obama won his first Presidential election, Apple launched its App Store (the iPhone had appeared the year before), Google announced its own Chrome browser and we got our first look at the company's new mobile OS on the T-Mobile G1. The Android of 2013 is a world away from that 2008 version, where the Android Market was in its infancy, there were no native video playback capabilities and the G1 had no multi-touch support. But Google is going to have to keep innovating and improving its mobile OS to keep the lion's share of the smartphone market. We've taken a peek into the future to consider what Android might look like in the year 2020. With new Android monikers now appearing about......

Words: 3468 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Global Marketing Summary

...Summary Global Marketing A market-responsive approach Svend Hollensen Second Edition 2001 ISBN 0-273-64644-3 -1- PART 1 Chapter 1 THE DECISION WHETHER TO INTERNATIONALIZE Global marketing in the firm SME: small medium sized enterprises LSE: large scale enterprises Companies wit little international experience and a weak position in their home market have little reason to try to perform on global markets. Instead they should try to establish a stronger position on their home market. A firm that finds itself as a dwarf on the global market may seek ways to increase their net worth by seeking partners, suited for a buy-out on longterm. If a firm already has international competences, it can overcome some of it’s competitive disadvantages by going into alliances with companies representing complementary competences. If you are ready for global marketing or not is bases on two things: 1. The industry of your business (how global is / can it be) 2. The preparedness for internationalisation 1 can be divided into mature; adolescent; immature 2 can be divided in local; potentially global; global Given the character of a company in both segments, one of the nine possible strategies can be chosen. You can find these in figure 1.1 on page 4 of Global Marketing. Difference between management styles of LSE and SME: Many LSE have begun downsizing their companies operations, so in reality, many LSE act like a lot of small differ operations. It can......

Words: 23992 - Pages: 96

Premium Essay

Small and Medium Enterprises

...African Journal of Business Management Vol. 5(4), pp. 1266-1276, 18 February, 2011 Available online at ISSN 1993-8233 ©2011 Academic Journals Full Length Research Paper Challenges and opportunities of Tanzanian SMEs in adapting supply chain management Sama Hamisi Procurement and Supplies Department, College of Business Education, Dodoma Campus, Dodoma, P. O. Box 2077, Tanzania. E-mail: Tel: +255 755 292 850. Fax: +255 026 232 2121. Accepted 19 November, 2010 Around the globe, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) have acquired a significant and pivotal position in the entire economic development process. Over the years, this sector had played a critical role in developing Tanzanian economy through creation of employment opportunities, income generation, equitable distribution of income whence contributing towards poverty alleviation. However, this sector suffers a number of challenges in domestic and global market competition, though, varieties of opportunities in adapting supply chain management exists. In today’s context of fast changing and dynamic economy and dominance of global supply chain systems, the SMEs in Tanzania, besides facing traditional hardships in finance, they misalliance the phenomenon of supply chain management thus fails to find proper place in the domestic and global supply chain leaving TNCs and MNCs to have a greater dominance. As Tanzania’s economic policy is......

Words: 8890 - Pages: 36

Premium Essay

Impact of E-Commerce on Supply Chain Management

...ABSTRACT E-commerce made Supply Chain Management (SCM) technically viable and unleashed the practice of SCM. The Kenya Sugar Industry and particularly Sony Sugar Industry, due to its own characteristics, have not utilised E-commerce for Supply Chain Management as widely as it could have. The purpose of this exploratory study is to increase the understanding of the determinants for adoption of E-commerce in SCM within Kenya and its apparent industry of this study. The study will also aim at testing the value of supply chain structure and company strategies in explaining E-commerce adoption. Questionnaires, mail and email surveys will be conducted to collect the data. Simple interviews and regressions will be used to achieve the objectives and answer the questions generated. The results of this study will be used to confirm whether the literature that perceives E-commerce characteristics and Sony Sugar’s characteristics influence the E-commerce adoption level although not every factors of these two groups will be expected to do so. The study will also show that one of the factors in supply chain structure, E-procurement, is significantly related to the e-commerce adoption level. Key words: E-commerce, Supply Chain, Supply Chain Management, Kenya Sugar Industry, Sony Sugar Industry. LIST OF FIGURES 1. FIGURE 1 Supply chain model in E-Commerce environment 2. FIGURE 2 the E-Procurement Process 3. FIGURE 3 The Independent and the......

Words: 16393 - Pages: 66

Premium Essay

Telecom Industry

...REPORT 2010-2011 Department of Telecommunications Ministry of Communications & Information Technology Government of India New Delhi ANNUAL REPORT 2010-11 DEPARTMENT OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS MINISTRY OF COMMUNICATIONS & IT GOVERNMENT OF INDIA NEW DELHI CONTENTS I. II. III. Indian Telecom Sector: An Overview ...................................................................................1-14 Telecom Commission.................................................................................................................... 15 Department of Telecommunications .....................................................................................17-29 III. 1. III. 2. III. 3. III. 4. III. 5. III. 6. III. 7. III. 8. III. 9. IV. V. VI. VII. Wireless Planning and Coordination ..................................................................30-39 Telecom Engineering Centre .................................................................................40-42 Universal Service Obligation Fund .....................................................................43-47 Controller of Communication Accounts Offices ...............................................48-50 Vigiliance Activities .................................................................................................51-52 Telecom Network Security ....................................................................................53-56 Empowerment of Women......

Words: 50069 - Pages: 201

Premium Essay


...The Future of the Internet A Compendium of European Projects on ICT Research Supported by the EU 7th Framework Programme for RTD European Commission I nform ati on S oc i et y and M ed ia Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers to your questions about the European Union New freephone number * 00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11 Certain mobile telephone operators do not allow access to 00800 numbers or these calls may be billed. In certain cases, these calls may be chargeable from telephone boxes or hotels. «The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the European Commission or any of its officials» A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet. It can be accessed through the Europa server ( Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication. ISBN 978-92-79-08008-1 © European Communities, 2008 Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. Printed in Belgium PRINTED ON CHLORE FREE PAPER The Future of the Internet A Compendium of European Projects on ICT Research Supported by the EU 7th Framework Programme for RTD European Commission I nform ati on S oc i et y and M ed ia ••• 2 Preface 5 priorities identified by the Internet Governance Forum: openness, security, access, diversity and critical Internet resources. The use of the Internet in public policies will considerably grow in areas such as education, culture, health and......

Words: 66329 - Pages: 266

Premium Essay


...E-GOST TSER Contract of the European Union HPSE-CT-2002-50026 (Thematic Network) 1st workshop : April 3rd –4th, 2003 (Strasbourg) RESOURCES AND COMPETENCES PERSPECTIVES ON STRATEGY OF THE FIRM: A discussion of the central arguments F. Amesse, A. Avadikyan, P. Cohendet Introduction: In 1994, Wernerfelt received an award for the best paper of the decade in Strategic Management Review (A resource-based view of the firm, 1984). Considering the fortune of the article among practicing managers (Wernerfelt, 1995), he admitted that such a fortune had been leveraged by the 1990 article of Prahalad and Hamel in Harvard Business Review (“The Core Competence of the Corporation”). Directly addressed to people in management and strategy, this article was clearly prescriptive as to the best way to set winning strategies for the firm, especially as to diversification and the abusive use of SBUs (Strategic Business Units) in highly decentralized profit centres. “In the 1990s, top executives will be judged on their ability to identify, cultivate, and exploit the core competencies that make growth possible”. Since the 1990s, the resource based view (RBV) and the core competence approach (CCA) became very attractive for many researchers and consultants. Such interest was well supported by what seemed to be a clear and superior way of setting strategies by large Japanese groups which frequently served as a benchmark case of core competence management. The strong and pervasive......

Words: 14148 - Pages: 57

Premium Essay

Inventory Management

...WRITERS 1. MICHAEL K. CHIRCHIR 2. JOASH N. MAGETO DPS 302 INVENTORY MANAGEMENT A. COURSE OBJECTIVES At the end of this course you will be able to:- • Comprehend the importance of inventory management in an organisation and gain a broad understanding of how inventory management fits into the broader function of supply chain management. • Explain three broad areas of inventory management, namely; demand forecasting, inventory models and warehousing. • Apply inventory control models in day to day business management. B. COURSE CONTENTS LECTURE 1: INTRODUCTION TO INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 1. Introduction 2. Objectives 3. The Concepts of Inventory and Inventory Management 4. Need for Inventory 5. Importance of Inventory Management 6. Scope of Inventory Management 7. Inventory Costs 8. Summary 9. References LECTURE 2: INVENTORY CONTROL SYSTEMS 2.1 Introduction 2.2 objectives 2.3 Fixed Quantity System 2.31 Advantages 2.32 Disadvantages 2.4 Fixed Time System 2.41 Advantages 2.42 Disadvantages 2.5 Hybrid Systems 2.6 Summary LECTURE 3: DEMAND FORECASTING I 3.1 Introduction 3.2 objectives 3.3 meaning of demand forecasting 3.4 Qualitative Judgmental Techniques 3.31 Delphi Method 3.32 Market Survey 3.33 Historical Analogy 3.5 Quantitative methods 3.51 Causal Methods High-Low Method Advantages Disadvantages Visual Fit Method Advantages Disadvantages Simple Regression Analysis Derivation of......

Words: 31485 - Pages: 126

Premium Essay

Lean Management

...THE ROLE OF LEAN MANUFACTURING AND LEAN TECHNIQUES IN THE SUCCESS OF AN ORGANIZATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Requirements of this project were rather stringent as sufficient knowledge of the topic was not enough. It was also necessary to have abundance of devotion and willpower together with an ability and willingness to perform hard labour for successful completion of this project. It would be unfair on my part not to acknowledge the contribution of all those who had encouraged me all through and kept my spirits from flagging and that include my parents, friends and well wishers. These people, though not directly involved with the project, did most certainly provide the ambience that was sorely needed while undertaking such a strenuous task. I feel extremely fortunate that I had Mr/Ms Xxxx as my project leader and cannot thank him/her more for the unstinted encouragement I had received throughout this period. If his/her suggestions that resulted in necessary and timely course corrections were not there, I doubt very much whether this project would have at all seen the light of the day, let alone being successfully completed within the deadline. ABSTRACT The word that is most significant in Lean Manufacturing process is ‘lean’ which literally means a body or a system that does not have any unnecessary or avoidable flab or float. Such flab or float exists in manufacturing systems and are manifested through unnecessary or nil value movements or costs that do not add to the......

Words: 22914 - Pages: 92

Premium Essay


...A Helping Hand for Europe: The Competitive Outlook for the EU Robotics Industry Authors: Simon Forge and Colin Blackman Editors: Marc Bogdanowicz and Paul Desruelle EUR 24600 EN - 2010 The The mission of the JRC-IPTS is to provide customer-driven support to the EU policymaking process by developing science-based responses to policy challenges that have both a socio-economic as well as a scientific/technological dimension. European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute for Prospective Technological Studies Contact information Address: Edificio Expo. c/ Inca Garcilaso, 3. E-41092 Seville (Spain) E-mail: Tel.: +34 954488318 Fax: +34 954488300 Legal Notice Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of this publication. The report reflects the views of the authors and does not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers to your questions about the European Union Freephone number (*): 00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11 (*) Certain mobile telephone operators do not allow access to 00 800 numbers or these calls may be billed. A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet. It can be accessed through the Europa server JRC 61539 EUR 24600 EN ISBN 978-92-79-17657-9 ISSN......

Words: 50200 - Pages: 201

Premium Essay

Daimler-Chrysler Merger Portrayal

...Knowledge Management Tools and Techniques Practitioners and Experts Evaluate KM Solutions This page intentionally left blank Knowledge Management Tools and Techniques Practitioners and Experts Evaluate KM Solutions Edited by Madanmohan Rao AMSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG • LONDON NEW YORK • OXFORD • PARIS • SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO • SINGAPORE • SYDNEY • TOKYO Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier Elsevier Butterworth–Heinemann 200 Wheeler Road, Burlington, MA 01803, USA Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK Copyright © 2005, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone: (+44) 1865 843830, fax: (+44) 1865 853333, e-mail: You may also complete your request on-line via the Elsevier homepage (, by selecting “Customer Support” and then “Obtaining Permissions.” Recognizing the importance of preserving what has been written, Elsevier prints its books on acid-free paper whenever possible. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Rao, Madanmohan. KM tools and techniques : practitioners and experts evaluate KM solutions / Madanmohan Rao. p. cm.......

Words: 182966 - Pages: 732

Premium Essay

Business Performance Measurement

...This page intentionally left blank Business Performance Measurement Drawing together contributions from leading thinkers around the world, this book reviews recent developments in the theory and practice of performance measurement and management. Significantly updated and modified from the first edition, the book includes ten new chapters that provide a comprehensive review of performance measurement from the perspectives of accounting, marketing, operations, public services and supply chain management. In addition to these functional analyses the book explores performance measurement frameworks and methodologies, practicalities and challenges, and enduring questions and issues. Edited by one of the world’s leading experts on performance measurement and management, Business Performance Measurement will be of interest to graduate students, managers and researchers who wish to understand more about the latest developments in this rapidly changing field. Andy Neely is Deputy Director of the ESRC/EPSRC AIM Research initiative, Professor of Operations Strategy and Performance at Cranfield School of Management, and Visiting Professor of Operations Management at London Business School. Business Performance Measurement Unifying theories and integrating practice Second edition Edited by Andy Neely CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building,......

Words: 191452 - Pages: 766

Premium Essay


...Innovative Business Practices Innovative Business Practices: Prevailing a Turbulent Era Edited by Demetris Vrontis and Alkis Thrassou Innovative Business Practices: Prevailing a Turbulent Era, Edited by Demetris Vrontis and Alkis Thrassou This book first published 2013 Cambridge Scholars Publishing 12 Back Chapman Street, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE6 2XX, UK British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Copyright © 2013 by Demetris Vrontis and Alkis Thrassou and contributors All rights for this book reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. ISBN (10): 1-4438-4604-X, ISBN (13): 978-1-4438-4604-2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter One ................................................................................................. 1 Knowledge Hybridization: An Innovative Business Practices to Overcome the Limits of the Top-Down Transfers within a Multinational Corporation Hela Chebbi, Dorra Yahiaoui, Demetris Vrontis and Alkis Thrassou Chapter Two .............................................................................................. 17 Rethinking Talent Management in Organizations: Towards a Boundary-less Model Carrie Foster, Neil Moore and Peter Stokes Chapter Three .......

Words: 128975 - Pages: 516