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Standardization

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Abstract
This research paper discusses the key term: “standardization” that’s chosen as a topic for this study for module four for International Business class. Recent scholarly articles and various publications were examined and reviewed covering standardization process as a measurement to manage global operation of international business. Its limitations and drawbacks are deliberated as well. Through out this research papers, the following subjects were deliberated: reasons for picking this key term as a topic, a specific explanation and definition of standardization and its role, process, a summary for the major article chosen which is titled “A Model of Advertising Standardization in Multinational Corporations” and the main points it covered, a specific discussion covering the relation of this article to key term and to manage global operations and international market, the relation of the four other scholarly articles research and their discussion to the relation to the major article and main key term. Keywords: standardization, global operation, culture, marketing mix, advertising

Standardization

Key Term and Why I am Interested In It
The key term I decided to extend my research on for this week is “Standardization”. After reading the required material for the International Business class, I have acquired a better conceptualization for the aspects and dimensions of doing business abroad. Consequently, I have desired to further my understandings on one of the important topics covered in Chapter 8 of the textbook (Satterlee, 2014) under the notion of global operation management process issues. Upon relying on the assorted scholarly journals and articles I am interested to develop explicit and superior information for the key term standardization. Hence, this will be by covering it’s definition, variables, factors, evolution in time and application in the various business functions whether production, advertising, marketing, accounting or even management. Getting to know about the advantages, disadvantages and limitations in the process of a business standardization will assist in my decision make process for future global operations management across nations. I will apply this key term on the international market for the objective of building a solid understanding for my Global Cultural Analysis Research and my interest in getting to know about its business. From a professional point of view, I am looking forward to learn more about this process in order to differentiate and know where and when to implement standardization verse adaptation in real life. Therefore, I am interested in gaining standardization vs. adaptation process proficiency to be cable of integrate this knowledge into my work field as the business expand internationally.

Explanation of The Key Term
One type of strategies required for international business process expansion beyond the local borders is called “standardization”. Standardization is the practice of following and maintaining a uniform system or product when expanding across nations. The actual process is an analogy for the key term “adaptation”, where the first expresses uniformity and not being influenced by external factors where as, the latter deals with customization and meeting the needs and demands of the variables in the foreign nation such as: culture, climates and personal preference. Standardization maintains the various aspects of the production process and ensures product uniformity. Additionally, such a standardization process is portrayed to “maintain the various aspects of the production process and ensure product uniformity. Additional cost savings accrue because machinery, training, and processes can be kept uniform across standardized production facilities.” (Satterlee, 2014, p. 249). As a leader and successful manager, it is not only vital to understand the concept that “standardization of business processes can improve organizational efficiency, reduce error rates, and provide a variety of other savings, but it must be approached with care and the involvement of the stakeholders, including the people “in the trenches” who will have to implement and use the standards” (Prosser, 2005) in order to succeed and produce actual competences in global operation business but also to be aware that it is a double-edged sword strategy where it many benefit when used properly, or can be harm when poorly designed.
Major Article Summary The major article that I chose to summarize is titled “A Model of Advertising Standardization in Multinational Corporations”. This enclosed scholarly article covers a comprehensive study to develop the main measurement standards of the factors for the advertising standardization process in the multinational corporations. Throughout this article, the MNC vs. subsidiary degree of control over advertising standardization is carefully examined and justified. Hence, in reference to Solberg (2000), the important structural factors of the extent of standardization in a foreign market related to the amount of influence of subsidiaries in making marketing decisions and the HQ headquarter market knowledge. In addition, this study covers and analyzes the findings of other researchers (Martenson, 1987; Rau & Preble, 1987; Tai & Wong, 1998) stating that this work lacks incorporated structure between advertising standardization decision and a dimensional structure of its degree of control. Moreover, this article reviews and assesses other factors such as the environmental conditions and similarities in market positions between MNC’s and subsidiary’s and their relation in determining the level of advertising standardization. Therefore, This article provides extensive support of the hypothesized factors affecting those variables. Least but not last, this article provides elaborated information supporting the research performed, ascertaining the adequacy of mediator model between the various factors and the level of advertising standardization and establishing the proportional relation of the MNC’s degree of control over the subsidiary market in relation MNC’s knowledge of the subsidiary market, its position as well as its environmental conditions.
Discussion
Relation between this article, standardization and module five. This major article displays a structural model of different factors and variables examining the relation between the effects of the MNC’s level of control in selecting the advertising standardization over subsidiaries. Throughout this article elaborated information and empirical analysis of this MNCs and subsidiaries market knowledge and environmental conditions are addressed; consequently, demonstrating factors and variable to take in consideration when managing global operation especially MNC’s type. Hence, this article provided examples and results of the different variables and factors that play a major role in determining this global market entry in specifically in this case it was addressed in the advertising section of business. And as outlined by this modules objective, this article successfully met the goal of evaluation methods useful in global entry markets. Based on this research and from my acquired readings, I learned about global entry market and strategies such as standardization vs. adaptation based on assessing the market, culture, climate, and production variables in the subsidiary market.
Relation of this article to the other four scholarly articles.
The research paper objective is to develop a better understanding of the key term standardization, which was covered through the definition earlier. The study of the major article has outline the importance of assessing different variables and factors to determining process system. As mentioned previously, in this case it was MNCs and subsidiaries interrelation with several variables and the control of their advertising standardization. Conversely, the four scholarly articles enclosed within this research paper endorse supplementary materials to this point of view. The article titled “International Marketing Standardization: A Meta-Analytic Estimation of Its Antecedents and Consequences” deliberate the major study by providing supplementary research based on a meta-regression analyses for this key term from a international marketing aspect a view point. Furthermore, “Standardized/Adaptation of International Marketing Strategy: Necessary Conditions for the Advancement Of Knowledge” is another supportive article delivering theoretical basis for the framework of the standardizing or adapting in global operation process. In addition, both of the articles “Standardization Preferences: A Function of National Culture, Work Interdependence and Local Embeddedness” and “A Cross-Cultural Study of Luxury e-Branding: Standardization vs. Adaptation, Product Category, and Country-of-Origin” validate the major article main points of MNCs vs. subsidiaries market control as well as familiarity in market. Hence, those two articles expand on and tackle the role of culture in determining the operation process. The first relates to so by examining Hofstede dimension of culture whereas the latter elaborates by offering practical example concentrating on the luxury brands in the Chinese vs. U.S. culture and their effects on the standardization process.
In conclusion, not only does this research paper provide articles to examine the main key term “standardization” from a theoretical standpoint, but also it focuses on the practical aspect of this process.

References
Laroche, M., Kirpalani, V. H., Pons, F., & Zhou, L. (2001). A model of advertising standardization in multinational corporations. Journal of International Business Studies, 32(2), 249-266. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/197168131?accountid=12085
Lin, E. (2012). A cross-cultural study of luxury e-branding: Standardization vs. adaptation, product category, and country-of-origin. Xing Xiao Ping Lun, 9(1), 91-120. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1013847831?accountid=12085
Newburry, W., & Yakova, N. (2006). Standardization preferences: A function of national culture, work interdependence and local embeddedness. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(1), 44-60. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400179
Prosser. T, (2005). Business process standardization in complex organizations–making it work. Musings on effective management, Retrieved from http://oneffectivemanagement.wordpress.com/2008/04/09/business-process-standardization-in-complex-organizations-making-it-work/
Ryans,John K.,,Jr, Griffith, D., & White, D. S. (2003). Standardized/adaptation of international marketing strategy: Necessary conditions for the advancement of knowledge. International Marketing Review, 20(6), 588-603. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/224310673?accountid=12085 Satterlee, (2014) Cross Border Commerce, With Biblical Application (Second ed.). Raleigh, NC: Synergistics International Inc.
Tan, Q., & Sousa, C. M. P. (2013). International marketing standardization. Management International Review, 53(5), 711-739. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11575-013-0172-5

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