Free Essay

Standardized Testing: Its Impact on American Education and Society

In: Social Issues

Submitted By papermaster1
Words 2297
Pages 10
Standardized Testing: Its Impact on American Education and Society: Schools all over the U.S are composed of many different types of students with diverse backgrounds. The goal of state officials is to improve education for students, regardless of their socioeconomic backgrounds, through the use of standardized testing. Its primary purpose for electing service officials in ancient china has led to its adoption in the U.S as a method for seeking improvements in the education system through testing students. However, holding schools and teachers responsible for annually increasing the average scores has shifted the curricula to teaching to the test, in addition to, putting the well being of both teachers and students at risk. Although standardized testing in the U.S. has been in place for over a century, its initial use is associated back to ancient China where the public was selected for jobs through testing. The purpose for standardized tests has always been to measure the knowledge and ability that one acquires. According to Osman Ozturgut, this purpose for testing was originally illustrated in 605 B.C, during the Sui Dynasty. Government jobs were administered to those with fairly high knowledge of Confucian philosophy. However, this would not guarantee a job. In addition to being tested on Confucian philosophy, they were also tested on “military strategy, civil law, revenue and taxation, agriculture, geography…” (3). Standardized tests were used as a method to give applicants with specific abilities the right job. These tests were very important in that it assured the government the competence of those selected for the job. The use of these tests in ancient China set the stage for its use all over the world. The decision for teaching children of all different social classes led the U.S to using standardized tests. As seen in American history, lower class children were rarely educationally advantaged. Prior to the mid 1800’s, American education was pointed toward the elite. Their wealth created the opportunity for education and higher potential for success. However, according to Haladyna, Haas, and Allison, in 1840, America’s view of education shifted toward educating children of other classes as well as the elite. Therefore, standardized tests were used to seek the best educational opportunity for these children by evaluating their abilities in order to teach them efficiently (1-2). Standardized testing increased in the nineteen hundreds and was used as a method for placing students in programs and grade levels based on their scores. Prior to the mid nineteen hundreds, standardized testing began to become more popular. They were used by some facilities as the standard knowledge required by students (Yao 15). However, the use for standardized tests only became more common among several schools, around the mid nineteen hundreds. “Starting from the 1950’s, the federal government began to be involved in education, first through federal funding and later directly through a national standardized testing program…” (Yao 15). Standardized tests were efficient and accurate in predicting student abilities. Its low cost led state authorities to conveniently test students (Perone 134). However, the use of standardized tests reached its peak within the twenty- first century.
The No Child Left Behind Act passed by President Bush in 2001 called for countrywide use of standardized testing. According to Kate Menkin, to improve education in the U.S, President Bush enacted the No Child Left Behind act, which required schools all over the U.S to test students in grades three to eight on the dominating subjects, reading and math. “Ostensibly, standards and assessment offer a way to hold students, educators, schools, districts, and states accountable for student achievement” (Menkin 604). As a result of these standards, school officials are pressured to create better opportunities for all kinds of students to further succeed with each school year. Teachers are to teach more efficiently in order to increase scores on these standardized exams (Menkin 604).
Standardized tests not only set the standard for the amount of material needed to be covered by teachers each year, but also identifies issues within educational systems by the diverse questions asked on the exams. Standardized tests, such as subject tests, create national education standards for each grade level. These exams require all schools to teach the same amount of information that students will be tested on. It provides means for uniform curriculum across the U.S. In addition, subject tests provide school officials with the progress of each student. “Achievement tests are most effective at showing how well students have learned what they have been taught when the tests are clearly related to curricula…” (Cheney 3). Subject tests are given to benefit students. The types of questions asked determine capability of succeeding the more challenging courses. According to Haladyna, Haas, and Allison, grades received on tests aid teachers in determining whether students need help with a certain topic. If so, teachers group students based on their level of achievement. This prevents competition between more or less proficient students and a more efficient environment for learning (269). A very popular state- wide subject exam is the New York State Regents Exam. Such exams are created to assure students and officials of their abilities to successfully complete the following level. In addition, the Advanced Placement exams are given to “assess whether students have mastered what they have been given to study…” (Cheney 2). However, unlike other subject exams, the AP exams only benefit high school students in which they receive college credit in return to high scores. The scores received on different subjects on standardized tests are evaluated to improve the curriculum based on the subject which students received the lowest grades on. “The best predictors of future tests scores are past test scores. The best predictors of students grades are prior grades” (Haladyna, Haas, Allison 267). Previous failure of specific subject material on tests calls for revision of certain teaching methods or styles to increase scores in the future. In other words, it creates the opportunity to find the problem within the curriculum that may have caused high percentage of low grades and find a solution to it (Haladyna, Haas, Allison 267).
Over the years, scores received on standardized tests have set the ground for labeling students with different socioeconomic statuses. “Standardized tests punish poor, minority, special education, and non-English-speaking students in underfunded schools who must compete with middle class and wealthy students in well funded schools on the same high stakes tests” (E. Anderman, L. Anderman 462). These students lack the resources that may help them succeed. For example, those who don’t have homes to go to are more likely to score lower than other students. According to Mike Rose, these are students who are “too distressed to fit neatly into our classrooms” (120). Although they are intelligent, school officials label them with learning disabilities, which lowers their self-esteem even more. These are the students who don’t fit into the ideal American frame for education (120). As a result, these students are placed in vocational classes or put into the lower tracks. They lack the ability to learn the same way as those students who are more fortunate; therefore, a different teaching method would be more effective (E. Anderman, L. Anderman 462). Standardized testing has become the basis for beneficial opportunities for educational institutions rather than for the students attending the schools. According to Haladyna, Haas, and Allison, schools with the highest average of standardized tests scores are candidates for governmental grants.
Some educators might then produce fraudulent results by dismissing students who are likely to score low, reading the answers to students, or simply correcting students’ answer sheet after the test. Such practices have been well documented, when teachers and other educators feel no recourse other to tamper with the testing process. (268)
By doing this, faculty members miss out on the opportunity to teach their students what they fail to understand. As result, students may suffer on more challenging levels because of their absence of the material needed as a basis. Scores received on standardized tests have been used to filter out weaker teachers as opposed to strengthen their weaknesses. The desire to receive grants as well as maintaining their reputation has led schools to use standardized tests as a method to rate teachers. Teachers who had students with the lowest average of grades on these exams are fired and replaced with teachers who are guaranteed to increase test scores. In other words, schools look for teachers to teach to the test (Haladyna, Haas, Allison 267). The pressure on teachers to increase students’ standardized tests score leaves them to their only option, teaching to the test. The subjects that are covered on these exams include math and reading, therefore, due to the small amount of time given to teach students the material on exams, teachers focus almost entirely on math and reading.
[T]here are two senses in which teaching to the test can indeed be harmful: excessive preparation that focuses more on the format of the test and test-taking techniques than on the subject matter, and the reallocation of classroom time from subjects on which students are not tested (often art and physical education) to those on which they are…. (Phelps 38)
Teaching students test taking skills makes them lose out on the main purpose of education, critical thinking. Teachers teach students exactly what they need to put down on the test papers to get high scores. This results in the students’ inability to think on their own and find answer based on what they know. In addition, emphasis on test grades rather than actual understanding of the information may lead students to cheating. Teaching to the test is very misleading to students. Repetitive test taking skill lessons and acknowledgement that information need to be remembered for exams bring students to believe that intelligence is a result of high scores on exams not actually knowing the information. (R. Styron, J. Styron 24).
The pressure of having to do well on Standardized tests affects student health and motivation, as well as, teachers’ health and anxiety. According to Haladyna, Haas, and Allison, students’ health is put to risk when dealing with standardized exams. As a result of anxiety, students often feel sick prior to exams, which in fact does negatively affect the outcome of scores. In addition, students lose motivation to do well. For instance, upper-class high school students believe that these scores on subject tests don’t affect their acceptance to college. Therefore, they spend more time on studying for other exams, such as the SAT’s and ACT’s, often ignoring the importance of regent’s exams (Haladyna, Haas, Allison 269-270). The pressure to have students receives high scores on exams leave teachers in distress as well. The ideal average of scores on standardized tests leave teachers no choice but to ignore their own method and ideas of teaching and instead teach students only what they need to know for exams. Teachers are left time pressured with teaching the required information in addition to spending time on test taking skills. Teachers are also at risk of losing their jobs as a result of low score outcomes. In addition, results of low scores that may have not been in the teachers hands may make teachers feel incompetent (Haladyna, Haas, Allison 269-270). In conclusion, standardized testing has been around for a long time. Its initial use in ancient China as a method for admitting those seeking government jobs led to its use in the U.S. It is used as an efficient way to track improvement in individual children and as a tool to detect problems within the teaching system. However, the goal for standardized testing have shifted towards advantaging teaching facilities and determining student disabilities rather than helping students overcome their struggles. As a result, curricula have been affected due to the pressure on teachers to improve scores annually. Students have lost the opportunity for critical thinking and problem solving to test taking skills and time management on these exams. As a result, this has impacted teachers and students negatively. The pressure on teachers to improve student scores and the pressure on students to do well on these exams has created health issues for both teachers and students.

Works Cited

"High Stakes Testing." Psychology of Classroom Learning: An Encyclopedia. Ed. Eric M. Anderman and Lynley H. Anderman. Vol. 1. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2009. 461-463. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 20 Dec. 2013.
Cheney, Lynne V. "National tests: What other countries expect their students to know.." National Endowment for the Humanities 57.2 45. Academic Search Complete. Database. 20 Dec 2013.
Haladyna, Thomas, Nancy Haas, and Jeanette Allison. "Continuing Tensions in Standardized Testing." Childhood Education 74.5 (1998): 262-73. ProQuest. Web. 20 Dec. 2013.
Menken, Kate. "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Testing Requirements." Encyclopedia of Bilingual Education. Ed. Josué M. González. Vol. 2. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2008. 604-607. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 20 Dec. 2013.
Özturgut, Osman. "Standardized Testing in the Case of China and the Lessons to be Learned for the U.S." Journal of International Education Research 7.2 (2011): 1. ProQuest. Web. 20 Dec. 2013.
Perone, Vito. "On Standardized Testing." Childhood Education (1991): 11. ProQuest Research Library. Database. 20 Dec 2013.
Rose, Mike. Live on the boundary: a moving account of the struggles and achievements of America's educationally underprepared. New York: Penguin Books, 1989. 67-132. Print.
Solley, Bobbie A. "On Standardized Testing: An ACEI Position Paper." Childhood Education 84.1 (2007): 31-37. Academic Search Complete. Web. 20 Dec. 2013. Yao, Yuankun. "Achievement Tests." Encyclopedia of Educational Leadership and Administration. Ed. Fenwick W. English. Vol. 1. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Reference, 2006. 15-18. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 20 Dec. 2013.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Standardized Testing

...Standardized Testing: Debunking the Myths Trestin M. Holmes Wiley College ENGL 1302 08 OL-English Composition Dr. Don Lawson November 17, 2014 Abstract The purpose of this research is to thoroughly examine the myths and preconceived notions pertaining to standardized testing and compare it with factual evidence. The criteria that will be used to accurately analyze this study will consist of evaluating the overall effectiveness of standardized testing in terms of student achievement, estimating how much of a financial burden standardized testing has proven to be in past years, and observing the adverse impact that standardized testing has had on children from a statistical & realistic standpoint. This will undoubtedly give insight on how much of a detriment standardized testing is in today’s society. Standardized Testing: Debunking the Myths What is Standardized Testing? A standardized test is a test that is administered and scored in a consistent, or "standard", manner. Standardized tests are designed in such a way that the questions, conditions for administering, scoring procedures, and interpretations are consistent and are administered and scored in a predetermined, standard manner. Any test in which the same test is given in the same manner to all test takers is a standardized test. Thesis Standardized tests have been a part of American education since the mid-1800’s and its use has skyrocketed since the induction of 200’2’s “No Child Left Behind......

Words: 1500 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

What Role Should Standardized Testing Play in Texas' Public Education System?

...What role should standardized testing play in Texas' public education system? The methods by which children are educated and academically measured in Texas have evolved over the past few decades, due to federal and state directed education policies. In an effort to establish accountability and improve the nation's competitiveness on a global scale, standardized testing has become a driving component of curricula nationwide. Almost every state, including Texas, governs its public schools under a national policy directive known as the "No Child Left Behind Act" (NCLB). The NCLB requires all states to utilize assessments to determine and report if a school has made adequate yearly progress (AYP) in the proficiency levels of all students. This is a relatively recent shift from local control of schools to centralized governance which is intended to improve education and eliminate harmful disparities in education quality (Ricci 342). Instead of school districts determining education standards, the state and federal governments provide the policy direction. One method to assess education performance and compliance with the centralized policy is the use of accountability measures - i.e., standardized tests. The NCLB, coupled with state policy, is intended to decrease inequality and set an objective measurement in place where school districts, schools, teachers, and even students can be held accountable for their progress or lack thereof. However, there are arguments from......

Words: 10323 - Pages: 42

Premium Essay

Education in America

...Writ 1301 Sophia Andera-Cato Education in America In the words of American philosopher Will Durant, “Education is the transmission of civilization.” To me, this quote represents exactly what education should be in every society. Education is key to the expansion and prosperity of civilization and it is what keeps us, as a human race, growing. All over the world students are learning to improve themselves to eventually improve their society. The problem here is that not everyone values the importance of education as much as they should. From examination of completion rates and analysis of standardized tests, it is clear that America is falling behind many countries, Japan in particular. This disparity between America and Japan is shown not only in academics, but also in competition for jobs. The better the education people achieve, the more advancements the country can have, and the more successful that nation will be as a whole. America needs to refocus its value on education to emphasize its importance to avoid falling behind on a global scale of educated citizens. One of the main reasons America is falling behind Japan is that the high school drop out rate in America is 1.2 million students a year, which is 6,000 students a day (The Broad Center). The fact that this many students are forfeiting their education everyday is disturbing. Students can just ease their way through and earn a high school degree; so dropping out shouldn’t even be an option. In Japan, the......

Words: 2459 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Educational Equality

...The Writing Process 5/2/14 Standardized Testing These days, if a school's standardized test scores are high, people think the school's staff is effective. If a school's standardized test scores are low, they see the school's staff as ineffective. In either case, because educational quality is being measured by the wrong scale, those evaluations are apt to be in error. One of the main reasons that students' standardized test scores continue to be the most important factor in evaluating a school is deceptively simple. Most educators do not really understand why a standardized test provides a misleading estimate of a school staff's effectiveness, as well as education quality for students. Standardized test are not effective measurements of a student’s knowledge, they create negative impacts on curriculum, and they are racially, socially, and economically biased. A standardized test is any examination that's administered and scored in a predetermined, standard manner. There are two major kinds of standardized tests: aptitude tests and achievement tests. “Standardized aptitude tests predict how well students are likely to perform in some subsequent educational setting (SAT-I /ACT), both of which attempt to forecast how well high school students will perform in college. But standardized achievement-test scores are what citizens and school board members rely on when they evaluate a school's effectiveness.” (Popham) One of the most important reasons that students’......

Words: 2312 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Capstone

...Introduction A. Social Problem Education plays an important role in the way a particular country progresses. The US has always strived for high education standards; however, recent statistics point out that the country has competitively fallen behind when compared to other developed countries. For this reason, education has played an important role in the US agenda for many years. In January 8th, 2002, the US Congress passed a law called “No Child Left Behind Act” (NCLB), which expanded the role of federal government in education. This law strongly emphasizes the implementation of standardized tests in public schools to measure the progress of students as well as to hold teachers and schools accountable for students’ progress. A social problem that the NCLB is trying to fix is the fact that the quality of education in US’ public schools has decreased during the last years. Alarming statistics have shown that the country’s education system is not as internationally competitive as it used to be. For example, according to a report issued by the Council on Foreign Relations, the United States has slipped ten spots in high school and college graduation rates in the past three decades (CFR). Poor education affects the entire country because of the close relation that progress has with having a skillful workforce. Furthermore, other social problems, such as poverty and crime, are indirectly related to inferior education. An extensive body of research has found that people......

Words: 12443 - Pages: 50

Premium Essay

No Child Left Behind

...01, 2015 NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND 2 No Child Left Behind In 2002 the No Child Left Behind Act was passed in order to ensure quality education for all students in the public schools of the United States. As a piece of both egalitarian and neo-liberal legislation, its aim was to bring quantitative progress to all school-age youth, especially those in lower-achieving schools. No Child Left Behind Act was to achieve this goal by testing students' proficiency in three subjects: math, reading, and science. Through this standardized testing the government would hold schools accountable for the progress of their students. However, the result has been far from the progress intended. As a result of No Child Left Behind, class time is spent teaching to the test, and the social sciences are being ignored. Not only does the drop in social studies education present a risk for the students in high-stakes testing schools, but it also widens the inequality gap between students and presents a threat to the communities around them; for this reason parents, students, teachers and community members should push for increased emphasis on engaging social studies education in schools. Social Studies and the Test While math, reading, and science are tested by every school in the country, social studies is not. It is easy to test math skills on a standardized test; there is only one right answer. It is also easy to test reading comprehension; the text shows the right answer. Reading, and......

Words: 3917 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Philosophy of Education

...The use of standardized testing as part of the accountability movement is a significant educational issue now. The federal No Child Left Behind mandate, as with any other initiative, has a group of supporters as well as a group in opposition. Supporters of NCLB agree with the mandate for accountability to educational standards, and believe emphasis on test results will improve the quality of public education for all students. Proponents also believe that NCLB initiatives will further democratize U.S. education, by setting standards and providing resources to schools, regardless of wealth, ethnicity, disabilities or language spoken. Opponents of NCLB, which includes all major teachers' unions, allege that the act hasn't been effective in improving education in public education, especially high schools, as evidenced by mixed results in standardized tests since NCLB's 2002 inception. Opponents also claim that standardized testing, which is the heart of NCLB accountability, is deeply flawed and biased for many reasons, and that stricter teacher qualifications have exacerbated the nationwide teacher shortage, not provided a stronger teaching force. Some critics believe that the federal government has no constitutional authority in the education arena, and that federal involvement erodes state and local control over education of their children (White). My position on the NCLB mandate is of the opponent. However, I don’t agree that education is not improving; rather, I......

Words: 1248 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Standadized Testing

...Standardized Testing- How Beneficial is it? Student Name Toulmin Model Position Paper English Comp II – 112 Phaire Due Date – mm/dd/yy Word Count – nnn Outline Position Statement: Is ‘No Child Left Behind’ a valid method of assessing school, teacher and student performance? No, I do not think this act is a valid method to assess school, teacher and student performance. Rhetorical Context: This issue will address all the problems that are occurring because of the standardized testing which is taking place in all public schools. This issue is important to parents who have children going to public schools because it gives them an overview of what is wrong with this act. It is also important for the teachers and school administrators since they take some part in shaping the curriculum around standardized testing. Audience Analysis: The audience for this essay will be the parents because they are able to make changes to this act. Many parents may not understand the problems that this act is causing which can be quite harmful for their children. Many parents let the government make laws for the schools, because they think if the government is doing it, it must be right. Claim: The ‘No Child Left Behind’ act is not a valid method to assess school, teacher and student performance. Reasons: There are many reasons why ‘No Child Left Behind is not working. 1. The same tests are used for all......

Words: 3075 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Knowledge

...The purpose of this essay is to describe and analyze the cultural myths and ideologies that surround the knowledge that is being distributed to public schools by examining a history text. A cultural myth refers to “the dominant ideologies of our time” (Chandler). For example, a group of people could have a belief in a myth while another group might believe otherwise. I will analyze a seventh grade history by using the method of semiotics. An examination of the history book shows that children are being deprived from a lot of historical information. In this paper I will argue that the educational system only centers it’s purpose of education and learning on the human capital ideology. This subject is important because like Joel Spring states in “The Knowledge Industry: for many young children these textbook are the only source of knowledge and the information that’s is being distributed to our children is not necessarily true or complete. As a result students are being restricted from learning how to be thoughtful and productive because teachers are being forced to teach according to a strict curriculum. The method of semiotics refers to the study of the way people make meaning. According to Daniel Chandler in “Semiotics For Beginners, a sign is a fundamental unit in the method of semiotics. A sign has two components, a signifier (the carrier of meaning) and a signified (the meaning that has been made). To describe the relationship between the signifier and the......

Words: 2699 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Legal Implications

...Berkeley Journal of Gender, Law & Justice Volume 7 | Issue 1 Article 2 September 2013 The Legal Implications of Gender Bias in Standardized Testing Katherine Connor Ellen J. Vargyas Follow this and additional works at: http://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/bglj Recommended Citation Katherine Connor and Ellen J. Vargyas, The Legal Implications of Gender Bias in Standardized Testing, 7 Berkeley Women's L.J. 13 (1992). Available at: http://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/bglj/vol7/iss1/2 Link to publisher version (DOI) http://dx.doi.org/ This Article is brought to you for free and open access by the Law Journals and Related Materials at Berkeley Law Scholarship Repository. It has been accepted for inclusion in Berkeley Journal of Gender, Law & Justice by an authorized administrator of Berkeley Law Scholarship Repository. For more information, please contact jcera@law.berkeley.edu. The Legal Implications of Gender Bias in Standardized Testing Katherine Connort Ellen J. Vargyast TABLE OF CONTENTS I. II. INTRODUCTION ....................................... THE FACTUAL CONTEXT ............................. A. The Scope of the Problem ............................ 1. Post-Secondary Admissions Tests .................. 2. Vocational Aptitude Tests and Interest Inventories. B. Causes of Gender Differences in Test Scores ........... 1. Post-Secondary Admissions Tests .................. 2. Vocational Aptitude Tests and Interest Inventories. C. Validity of the Tests .......................

Words: 43113 - Pages: 173

Premium Essay

Nclb

...2001 (NCLB) is a federal law that mandates a number of programs aimed at improving U.S. education in elementary, middle, and high school by increasing accountability standards. The aproach of NCLB is based on theories in education that high expectations and goal setting will result in greater educational achievement for most students. High standards for all students as well as educators are quality goals, however, using standardized tests to measure success is not the most effective method. Having high standards is a necessary part of our nation's success, it sets a high level of accountability and provides benchmarks for both the student and educators. Those schools that are categorized as performing poor are required to have supplemental asistance like tutoring, after school programs or even replacing teacher completely. Schools risk being restructured or even taken over by the state is after five years of not making adequate yearly progress. But standardized testing is an ineffective way of assessing individual student performance. This type of test gives reason to teach according to what is on the test, rather than for authentic learning. When using standardized tests there is no room to account for differennt learning styles and strengths of each student. Everyone learns differenntly but with this type of test doesn't allow for individuality. NCLB believes that boosting standardized tests scores should be the primary goal of schools, this asumption leads to the one size...

Words: 3103 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

The School to Prison Pipeline

...The School to Prison Pipeline: The Criminalization of American Students The School to Prison Pipeline: The Criminalization of American Students Kimberly N. Wright Western Governors University Introduction Your permanent record! The thing that was held over most of our heads when we were in school. Your teacher or maybe your parents threatened that your bad behavior was going to end up on your “permanent record” and ruin your life. We shrugged them off, thought they were being dramatic or crazy and didn’t think much of it. Unfortunately for some students, the School to Prison Pipeline is making the threat of a bad permanent record all too real, as well as the consequences behind it. What is happening? Research suggests that The School to Prison Pipeline is damaging to students because it disproportionately affects poor, minority, and special needs students and is supported by unfairly applied disciplinary policies like “zero tolerance” and the standardized testing requirements backed by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. The School to Prison Pipeline, or Cradle to Prison Pipeline as some may refer to it as is the set of rules and policies that are currently funneling school children into the juvenile and criminal court systems. While order is needed in classrooms, the School to Prison Pipeline is a disservice to students and society given that these policies heavily impact special needs, minority, and poor students. With......

Words: 2688 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Classroom Management

...Assessment without High-Stakes Testing Protecting Childhood and the Purpose of School David Mitchell, Douglas Gerwin, Ernst Schuberth, Michael Mancini, and Hansjörg Hofrichter 1 Picture a breezy spring morning at the beach. White-tipped waves roll rhythmically up the sand, washing away footprints like a blackboard eraser on a classroom blackboard. A group of children on a school outing marches purposefully along the shore through the edge of the frothy waves. A couple of eager kids stride out in front. The teacher walking along with the main group of the class notices that one of the boys is lagging behind. The teacher slows her step to find out why this child is not keeping up with his class. There are several possibilities: 1. The child is unable to keep up with the group, due to some disability, physical or emotional, or simply exhaustion for lack of sleep or nourishment; 2. The child is unwilling to keep up with the group, due to a lack of interest or, perhaps, a surfeit of distractions along the way; or 3. The child does not know how to keep up with the group, possibly because he is new to this experience and has not been taught how to hold his balance against the waves. In each of these cases, the teacher will respond differently. In the first case, she may scoop up the boy and carry him, or ply him with a quick snack or a sip of water. In the second, she may draw his attention to something of interest up ahead or coax him with some gentle words of sympathy and......

Words: 6180 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

No Child Left Behind vs Obama

...How Current Education Reform Legislation is Effecting Learning In recent years, education – specifically the quality of public education – has been a hot topic of discussion for both Republicans (George W. Bush) and Democrats (Barrack Obama). American society has changed drastically during the past decade or so in terms of the way it approaches public education, partially due to legislation by the national government, partially due to legislation written by the state governments and partially because American culture is different than it once was. America now finds itself at a crucial point in history, where something must be done in these hard economic times to combat low quality, inner city education while at the same time maintaining the high quality of much suburban education. Americans are asking themselves, “What is the government doing to change our schooling system to make it better?” The response is a long and complex one, though there is still no answer, as our schools are constantly changing and growing in many different ways. First, there was President Bush’s “No Child Left Behind Act” and now President Obama’s “Race To The Top.” Both of these government reforms have had a large impact on education and American society as a whole. To have a good understanding of the current legislation regarding education reform, one must first understand the legislation before it: The No Child Left Behind Act. The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA) was......

Words: 1841 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Common Core

...for college and the workforce. In essence, the Common Core defines what a student should know and be able to do at different grade levels. The Common Core is beneficial to all students, especially for those students interested in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Math education or ‘STEM’ fields. They both teach problem solving skills and focus on learning to use Common Core modules for optimum results. In addition, students learn to think outside the box, they learn how to create a good argument, defend the argument, and look for patterns. Learning these skills will increase their problem solving and reasoning abilities, which prepares them for STEM jobs. Desiree Hall, writes, “The new work is challenging, based on rigorous new Common Core State Standards…they have to explain how they got it. That’s a real brain workout”(Hall). Moreover, the implementation of the Common Core makes it harder for students to forget about STEM courses because students were submerged in math, science, and English. Finally, the Common Core affects the reading and English tests by using more STEM vocabulary, which also supports student readiness. Another added benefit can be seen at the socioeconomic level for society. Successful transition and support of the Common Core will decrease the number of...

Words: 1588 - Pages: 7