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Starbucks Case Harvard

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1. Identificación de Competidores por medio de la Cruz de Porter
Hemos decidido para hacer un examen más exhaustivo del caso realizar el análisis de la Cruz de Porter por completo. No sólo enfocándonos en los competidores (Aer Lingus, British Airways) sino también ver las otras variables para poder comprender mejor el escenario en el que se desarrolló la nueva compañía.

RYANAIR
Clientes
Proveedores
Sustitutos
Competidores
ENTORNO COMPETITIVO
ESCENARIO

Poder de negociación de los Clientes: Ryanair ha decidido finalmente ingresar al mercado interno que ofrece la ruta Dublin-Londres. Como consecuencia de la inclusión de una aerolínea adicional a este mercado, resultará inevitable un aumento en la competencia, que se traducirá en bajas de precio a favor del consumidor (Ryanair oferta sus vuelos sin restricciones a un precio de penetración un 52% menor que los que proporcionan AerLingus y British Airways) pero a su vez en altas en los costos para mantener las ventajas competitivas que los hermanos Ryan pretenden resaltar.
Si éste precio de penetración (98 libras irlandesas) no resulta lo suficientemente llamativo como para que el consumidor elija Ryanair como su principal aerolínea para cruzar de Dublin a Londres en lugar de optar por las 2 compañías más tradicionales de la zona, la empresa se encontrará ante una fuerte presión por parte del consumidor, que podría llegar a desestabilizar su estrategia. La fuerza negociadora del cliente, podría obligarlos a replantear si sus estrategias de distinción son realmente efectivas. Podría suceder que el consumidor elija un servicio de primera clase de menor calidad y pague un precio mayor pero optar por un viaje en una compañía con mayor tradición, cuya ventaja competitiva resida en la vasta experiencia en vuelos Dublin-Londres. Si existe un solo tipo de cliente éste tendrá un importantísimo poder de negociación. En cambio, si se logra captar un tipo de clientes un poco más diverso como podrían ser clientes turistas, viajantes no tendrán poder de negociación alguno.
Ryanair deberá llevar a cabo sus planes de diferenciación y posicionamiento atacando a AerLingus y British Airways por precio y calidad de nómina y servicio, pero siempre atento a las pujas que puedan existir por parte del cliente y estar dispuesto a ser flexible ante los cambios que éstos exijan, si no quiere que ésta fuerza competitiva de la que Porter nos habla, atente demasiado en contra de la empresa.

Amenaza de productos sustitutos:“El número total de pasajeros de la ruta había permanecido estancado durante 10 años. Aproximadamente 750000 viajeros optaban por usar el tren y los ferrys en vez del avión”. He aquí los sustitutos que compiten con Ryanair en la ruta Dublin-Londres.
Si el número total de pasajeros que viajan en avión no ha sufrido variaciones significativas en los últimos 10 años, podemos afirmar que ninguna aerolínea ha sido capaz de ganarle “market share” a sus competidores terrestres en el último tiempo. Las vías terrestres exigen precios 74% más baratos que los de AerLingus y British Airways pero a su vez tardan 8 veces más en realizar el recorrido. Aquí la variable precio pareciera ser el árbitro ante la elección de viajar por aire o por tierra. AerLingus y British Airways están cobrando un 244% más que el ferry y el tren.
Si Ryanair ofrece sus viajes a 98 libras irlandesas, estaría cobrando un 78% más que las vías terrestres, pero reduciendo 8 veces menos el tiempo de recorrido. De seguro esta disminución significativa en el precio en relación a lo ofertado por sus competidores, logrará migrar una parte de los consumidores que anteriormente no estaba dispuesta a pagar un 244% más por un avión pero que sí pagaría un 78% más con gusto, con tal de llegar 8 horas antes a destino. A priori, la estrategia orientada a una penetración en base a precios bajos, pareciera ser un buen camino para contrarrestar la fuerza que ejercen los productos sustitutos.

Amenaza de los proveedores: Ésta fuerza pareciera ser la que menor problema traería a Ryanair, si contamos con la vasta experiencia de Tony Ryan, quien a través de su gestión en GuinnessPeatAviation fácilmente podrá conseguir arrendar a sus hijos, un reactor más grande para la ruta. No se especifica bien en el caso el rol que ocupan los proveedores, pero cabe destacar que si estos resultarán muy bien organizados gremialmente y son poseedores de fuertes recursos, de seguro impondrán sus condiciones de precio y tamaño del pedido de reactor.

Competidores: Analizando a los competidores propiamente dichos de Ryanair, solamente podríamos destacar a British Airways y a AerLingus ya que son los únicos que ofrecen vuelos por la misma ruta que Ryanair. El tema principal aquí, es que cada uno de estos competidores tiene distintas misiones y visiones por lo tanto si cada uno se enfoca en sus puntos principales no tendrían problema de sobresalir en el mercado cada uno por su parte, ya que sus estrategias no se parecen. British Airways busca ser una de las mejores aerolíneas a nivel mundial, tratando de brindar servicios de vuelo a la mayor cantidad de lugares posibles, por lo tanto la ruta Dublin-Londres es una más de sus tantas rutas y no es la principal fuente de sus ingresos.
Por otro lado, AerLingus apuntaba principalmente al tipo de cliente turista, quien optaba por tarifas bajas a la hora de viajar. Inicialmente éste conectaba rutas tales como Irlanda-Londres-Europa continental y más adelante se arriesgó a cruzar el Atlántico. Además, en los setenta al afrontar una gran pérdida, se comenzaron a centrar en brindar otra serie de servicios tales como mantenimiento, sistemas de reservas y servicio hotelero. Pero lo más destacable de AerLingus es su afán por seguir siendo la aerolínea de bandera de su país. Al analizar a los dos competidores más potentes podemos observar que para ellos la ruta Dublin-Londres representa distintas cosas, en el caso de British Airways representa un mínimo de su utilidad. Sin embargo, para Aer Lingus de acuerdo a su presidente “la ruta Dublín-Londres es la única de la red de Aer Lingus con un volumen de negocio que permite un razonable rendimiento del capital” . Por consiguiente, creemos que podría llegar a pensarse que existe la posibilidad de que British Airways reaccione adaptativamente, y que Aer Lingus haga lo mismo pero sólo por el hecho distintivo de que la aerolínea generaba pérdidas con los precios que ya manejaba. Podríamos llegar a analizarlo desde otro punto de vista, el de la reacción represiva. Puede ser que al principio ambas aerolíneas competidoras sientan a Ryanair como una gran amenaza y reaccionen represivamente tratando de eliminarla del mercado, disminuyendo el valor de sus tickets aunque eso los haga incurrir en perdidas, solo para lograr sacar a Ryanair del mercado. Debido a esto, sumado a la idea de que Ryanair ofrecía un servicio de gran calidad a un precio bajo, es que se deberá replantear su estrategia y reubicarse como una aerolínea enfocada en brindas un servicio de baja calidad a un low cost. De esta manera, ambas tres coexisten en el mercado actual.

2. Objetivos British Airways | Aer Lingus | Ryanair | Mostrarse altamente rentable debido a la privatización que se esperaba por parte del gobierno de Margaret Tacher. | Continuar siendo la aerolínea de bandera de Irlanda. | Demostrar la capacidad de la compañía para operar con éxito una aerolínea de vuelos regulares. | Prestar especial atención en los clientes de la clase bussiness | Brindar un servicio “seguro, eficiente, fiable y rentable” | Brindar un servicio de primera calidad. | Continuar operando una de las redes más amplias del mundo. | | Haciéndolo a un bajo precio. |

3. Estrategia
Calidad
Precio
Baja Calidad
Bajo Precio
Calidad Media
Precio Medio
Calidad ALTA
Precio MEDIO/BAJO
GRUPOS ESTRATÉGICOS

A través del diagrama anterior lo que se trata de explicar es como estaba el mapa estratégico cuando Ryanair ingresó al mercado. Se puede observar que British Airways y Aer Lingus eran competidores directos entre sí, tenían una misma o similar estrategia de precios y de servicio. Pero cuando los hermanos Ryan decidieron entrar al mercado, lo hicieron desestabilizando el mismo ¿Por qué? Planeaban una aerolínea de primer nivel en servicio a un costo bajo/medio con respecto a su competencia.
Matriz de George Yip
Estrategia del ingresante Recursos del ingresante | Igual al líder | Diferente del líder | Mayor o Igual al líder | Misma calidad de servicio.Misma ruta (Dublin-Londres) | Oferta de 4 vuelos diarios. | Menor al líder | Aviones con sólo 44 plazas. | 52% menor costo del pasaje. |

4. Fortalezas y Debilidades
Analizando las fortalezas y las ventajas competitivas tanto de Ryanair como de sus principales competidores, British Airways y Aer Lingus, podremos tener una noción más amplia de a donde apunta cada uno en el mercado, y poder obtener de esta manera una “predicción” de su toma de decisiones en el futuro. De este modo, podremos anticipar desde ciertos aspectos si la estrategia de Ryanair logrará ser viable o no. | British Airways | Aer Lingus | Ryanair | Fortalezas | Establecida como la aerolínea de mejor calidad y que transporta más pasajeros.Amplia gama de rutas.Sus canales de distribución: tanto telefónicamente, in situs y por agencias. | Respaldo del gobierno por su fuerte nacionalismo.Otra fuente de ingreso por su diversificación. | Experiencia del Sr Ryan.Precio bajo del ticket.Servicio de calidad. | Debilidades | Se buscaba privatizarla por lo que debía rendir al máximo. | Presenta pérdidas.Dependencia de los pasajeros que hacían turismo.Aviones que debían ser cambiados y que representaba una alta inversión. | Estructura de costos: cómo iba a mantener sus precios bajos brindando un servicio de óptima calidad.Avión turbopropulsor de sólo 44 plazas.Falta de permiso para avión más grande. |

Aer Lingus, su principal ventaja competitiva, es que al ser la aerolínea de bandera Irlandesa tiene todo el apoyo del gobierno de ese país, tanto política como económicamente. Es debido a esto, que esta aerolínea ha podido superar tiempos de crisis, sobretodo en su comienzo. Gracias a este apoyo, es que pudieron mantener su eslogan como una empresa líder, ofreciendo un transporte aéreo que fuera “seguro, eficiente, fiable y rentable” y a cambio el gobierno obtenía varios y diversos beneficios para la comunidad irlandesa; “desarrollo nacional, promoción del turismo, empleo, contribución a la balanza de pagos y servicios educativos, sociales y culturales”. Luego de la crisis en los años setenta, la empresa se vio obligada a buscar nuevos métodos para obtener ingresos. De aquí, sale la otra gran ventaja competitiva que tiene Aer Lingus, ya que consiguió establecerse en diversos negocios más que rentables tales como, servicios de mantenimiento y formación de ingeniería a otras aerolíneas, asesoramiento informático y procesamiento de datos, negocios hoteleros y hasta en robótica, dejando de darle tanta importancia a la ruta aéreaDublín-Londres.
El otro competidor de importancia de Ryanair es British Airways. Esta compañía es conocida por su calidad a lo largo de su trayectoria y es por eso que la eligen tantas personas alrededor del mundo, al punto de ser la aerolínea que transporta más pasajeros internacionales en el planeta. Esta es la principal ventaja competitiva que tiene la aerolínea bandera del Reino Unido, ya que posee una de las redes más amplias del mundo a través de 145 destinos en 68 países y teniendo un manejo propio de servicios tanto de pasajeros como de tierra en el Reino Unido y en Nueva York. Basándonos en esta teoría, la introducción de Ryanair al mercado no debería resultarle en ningún tipo de inconveniente a British Airways.
En el caso de Ryanair, una de las fortalezas de la compañía es la experiencia que tienen ambos, Cathlan y Declan Ryan en el rubro de las aeronaves, gracias a su padre Tony Ryan. Este último, fue el que invirtió su confianza y su dinero en el nuevo emprendimiento de sus hijos. Si bien la inversión en términos monetarios de Tony, que fue de un millón de libras Irlandesas, es de gran volumen, no se puede de ninguna manera comparar con los caudales de dinero que manejan sus principales competidores, haciendo de esto una posible barrera de entrada al mercado para los hermanos. Ahora bien, una vez establecidos en el mercado y con la aprobación de la ruta de vuelo entre Dublín y Londres, la principal herramienta o ventaja competitiva de la compañía es el precio de los pasajes, el cual es considerablemente menor que el de sus competidores, intentando atraer a un público que no es explotado por British Airways como tampoco por Aer Lingus, el público que viaja en trenes y ferrys. Aparte de la reducción de la tarifa y lógicamente la gran reducción en el tiempo de viaje entre destinos, Ryanair ofrecería comidas y servicios comparables al nivel de sus competidores y “se esforzarían por prestar un servicio de primera clase al cliente.”

5. Reacción de los competidores
Como analizamos más arriba, la reacción que se podían dar eran de dos tipos: adaptarse o reprimir. En este caso, debido a los intereses en juego para BA y para Aer Lingus ambas compañías optaron por reprimir, o como lo llama el texto actuar como un competidor tigre, es decir, actuar rápidamente e intensamente frente al ataque.
Siendo que BA estaba por ser privatizada no podía darse el lujo de mostrarse vulnerable por lo que decidió reducir los precios de sus billetes en esta ruta, al ser una empresa que operaba a nivel mundial y la más grande del mundo, realizar esta operación no representaba grandes variaciones en sus números. Por otro lado, Aer Lingus defendería el orgullo de ser la línea de bandera de Irlanda, por consiguiente, las pérdidas que generase bajar los precios para poder sacar del mercado a Ryanair serían cubiertas por el Estado.
En la actualidad, Ryanair es una empresa que se dedica a vuelos de bajo costo y servicio bajo, es decir, tuvo que redefinir su estrategia y optar por ubicarse en el cuadrante inferior izquierdo del mapa de grupos estratégicos (bajo precio – baja calidad). De hecho, hoy en día está buscando la aprobación para poder transportar pasajeros parados en sus rutas.

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...Case 1: Starbucks 1. Several factors that accounted for the success of Starbucks, the first being its excellent coffee. Starbucks prided itself on its premium, high-quality, coffee; an alternative to normal coffee that was not offered much in the 90s. Its second factor to success is the company’s superior customer service philosophy, which they defined as “customer intimacy” including everything from recognizing a customer and recognizing their drink to customizing a drink to a customer’s preferences. Lastly, the physical environment of the coffeehouses (furniture, décor, lighting, layouts), were used to create an up-scale and inviting ambience that encouraged lounging. These factors of success along with appealing to its target customers of white-collar, serious coffee lovers who were affluent, well-educated, often female and typically between the ages of 25 and 44, helped create a not only a brand but a coffee culture as well. Starbucks’ coffee shops developed an upscale, sophisticated, classy brand image. It was where a customer could indulge in the affordable luxury of drinking the best coffee on the market in a modern and social environment. 2. Starbucks in 2002 was very different than the Starbucks of the 1990s, mostly as a result of the company’s astonishing growth. The two main differences coming from the company’s expansion are its accessibility and customer base. With now with over 5,000 stores and experiments with new retail formats like drive-troughs,......

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...MG Case 1.1 Starbucks – Going Global Fast Starbuck Corporation is an American coffee company and coffeehouse-chain founded in 1971 in Seattle, Washington. In 1987, the three owners sold the Starbucks chain to Howard Schultz, a former employee, and quickly began to expand, going from 17 coffee shops in Seattle to over 20,891 shops in 62 countries: United States, Canada, Japan, China, United Kingdom, South Korea, Mexico… Since 1987, Starbucks has opened on average two now stores every day. However Starbucks is now facing some challenges. The sales have dropped from $10.4 billion in 2008 to $9.8 billion in 2009. The corporation had to close 475 stores in the United States in 2009 to reduce costs. The market is saturated across the United States and Canada, and Starbucks is now facing employee’s dissatisfaction. 1. The controllable elements are about the firm characteristics and research and development. The firm’s characteristics are: the products (Hot and cold beverages, snacks, pastries…), the price (premium prices for their products), promotion (the firm has saved a lot of marketing cost by relying on word of mouth), channel of distribution (20,891 outlets in 62 countries which shows that Starbucks has good controlled over its channel of distribution). Research and development has an important part of the firm. It has controlled over its R&D process, it has installed automatic espresso machines to increase the speed of service and also offered the prepaid card......

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...Running Head: Starbucks Starbucks Case Analysis Victor F. Hogan The George Washington University PSPR 6210: Corporate Social Responsibility July 15, 2012 Starbucks serves a total of four billion paper cups to their customers each year. During Earth Month 2010, Starbucks created a way for their customers to make an environmental impact and try reusable mugs. If one Starbucks customer switches to reusable mugs, then that one person saves seven trees each year. The Starbucks public relations team developed an integrated communications campaign focused around five key phases that underscored the company’s support for environmental responsibility and a premier customer experience. Through research done by Edelman, Starbucks found that the number one issue consumers’ care about is the environment, and nearly two-thirds of consumers are more likely to trust brands that are socially and ethically sound. Starbucks found that through their website, MyStarbucksIdea.com, that recycling and cups were the top socially responsibility ideas. With the millions of people that visit Starbucks’ 16,000 locations around the world, the company decided that they would put their mass appeal to good works and help along with the green movement. Starbucks recycled cup promotion in recognition of Earth Month 2011 was meritoriously conveyed due to the corporations strategic “green” initiatives. The company...

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