Premium Essay

Still Separate, Still Unequal

In: Other Topics

Submitted By tgoshay
Words 1648
Pages 7
Still Separate, Still Unequal
Segregation is a topic that has been discussed for decades. Segregation in schools wasn't really dealt with. The government basically disguised it and kept it away from the public. Brown V. Board of Education, Plessy V. Ferguson, and Jim Crow Laws was the cover, but it didn't solve anything. Segregation isn't just about race, it's also financially. When money is involved in the situation there's a major advantage. Johnathan Kozol talks about how we're still separate, and unequal. Johnathan Kozol touched on some really great points, when it came down to gproving how we're separate, and unequal. Kozol digs a little deeper to back up his word on being separate and unequal. In the following paragraphs I will summarize Kozol's article "Still Separate, Still Unequal" and continue on what needs to be done to solve this problem.
Many people wonder do segregation still exist, but not many people want to investigate. Jonathan Kozol, did a little more than investigate. Jonathan Kozol pointed out, in most poor neighborhoods the schools have mostly black and Hispanic students (348). The percentage of blacks and Mexicans students were higher than fifty percent. There was a teacher who was 65 years old who taught at a majority black school stated that "Out of eighteen years, this is the first white student I have ever taught" (348). It's not very common that white students attend underclass schools. Kozol stated that there is a school in New York City named Langston Hughes that has 99 percent black and Hispanic students and only 1 percent white (349). Kozol has visited a school named for Martin Luther King Jr. this school was built in a upper middle class white neighborhood. The hope for this school was to have large numbers of white students attending the school just by walking, while black and Hispanic students road the bus or train (349). White…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Still Separate, Still Unequal Analysis

...Still Separate, Still Unequal “Still Separate, Still Unequal”, written by Jonathan Kozol, describes the reality of urban public schools and the isolation and segregation the students there face today. Jonathan Kozol illustrates the grim reality of the inequality that African American and Hispanic children face within todays public education system. In this essay, Kozol shows the reader, with alarming statistics and percentages, just how segregated Americas urban schools have become. He also brings light to the fact that suburban schools, with predominantly white students, are given far better funding and a much higher quality education, than the poverty stricken schools of the urban neighborhoods. Jonathan Kozol brings our attention to the obvious growing trend of racial segregation within America’s urban and inner city schools. He creates logical support by providing frightening statistics to his claims stemming from his research and observations of different school environments. He also provides emotional support by sharing the stories and experiences of the teachers and students, as well as maintaining strong credibility with his informative tone throughout the entire essay. Within this essay, there are many uses of rhetorical appeals including logos, pathos, and ethos. Jonathan Kozol uses reasoning, or logos, to prove that the education systems of today are still as separated and unequal for students based on the color of their skin or their race, as they were 50 years...

Words: 1248 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...Shelbin George Allison Siehnel Writing 201 Reading Response Still Separate, Still Unequal by Jonothan Kozol The general argument made by (Jonothan Kozol) in his work, Still Separate, Still Unequal is that there is still segregation in our schools all around the country. More specifically, (Kozol) argues that education starts even before pre-school and only the wealthy families are able to afford private programs for their children. He quotes Marina Warner “there are expensive children and there are cheap children” (pg6). In this passage, (Kozol) uses this quote to reiterate the point that he was making which was that middle-class/poor families don’t get the same education wealthy families get. The difference between early education is stressed by the author as he talks about wealthy families sending their children to advanced classes even before pre-school begins. Thus resulting in their children being smarter and having a better chance at success in the classroom atmosphere. In conclusion, (Kozol)’s belief is that every child in America should have equal opportunities to strive for excellence. The amount of money you have shouldn’t determine your academic success. In my view, Kozol is right because many individuals are being targeted at a young age and are told that they cannot succeed because of their certain circumstances. However, this shouldn’t be the case, every child should feel like they have the same chance at success. More specifically, I believe......

Words: 444 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...Segregation in Public Schools Mishonda Atkinson Winston Salem State University EDU 2334 April 28, 2015 Abstract After several laws have been passed and civil rights time being over, you would think that segregation in public schools wouldn’t still be going on. Unfortunately, there is still segregation going on in schools. Not only based on race but based on the student’s socioeconomic status. In this paper I will tell you what segregation is, how it has evolved in the past 5 years, and why segregation is important in North Carolina public schools. Segregation in Public Schools According to Webster’s dictionary, the definition of segregation is the practice or policy of keeping people of different races, religions, etc., separate from each other. Gary Orfield(2009) wrote an article stating that schools in the United States are more segregated today than they were in more than four decades. Schools in the US are 44 percent non-white and minorities (mainly African Americans) are rapidly emerging as the majority of public school students. In 1954, Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court ruled that the South’s standard of “separate but equal” was “inherently unequal,” and did “irreversible” harm to black students. Now the most reason for segregation in public schools isn’t race, its poverty. Most of the nation’s dropouts occur in non-white public schools, which leads to African Americans unemployed. Schools that are in low income communities don’t get the same......

Words: 1114 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...whites have separate facilities even though it is used for the same purpose. They have separate schools for the different races even though it is used for the same purpose. So your race determines what school you can attend. This article states, “Separate education facilities are inherently unequal” (“Diversity” par. 2). The phrase “separate educational facilities” means that there are schools just for whites and another school just for whites. “Are inherently unequal” means that the schools that are for whites, are better than the school blacks are attending. In To Kill a Mockingbird, blacks and whites have separate facilities that is used for the same purpose. Segregation is one of the negative effects of racial discrimination, but violence is also another one. Segregation is a negative effect of racial discrimination in the novel, To Kill A Mocking Bird. Whites do not believe that they are the same as blacks and they deserve a facility to themselves. Calpurnia brings Jem and Scout to a church that is meant for blacks. Lula, a black woman, speaks out to Calpurnia expressing how she feels about bringing two white children, Jem and Scout. Lula told Calpurnia, “’You ain’t got no business bringin’ white chillum here-they got their church, we got our’n’” (158). Lula says “no business bringin’ white chillum here” she shows her dislike towards whites. She prefers to stay separated from blacks. Lula says, “they got their church, we got our’n” means that they have separate......

Words: 758 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Legal Writing Graded Project 2 - Petitioner assist the Browns, as it had long wanted to challenge segregation in public schools. Other parents joined the Browns in their complaint and 12 other parents followed suit. In 1951, the NAACP requested an injunction that would now forbid the segregation of Topeka’s public schools. The case was heard from in two days, June 25-36, 1951, by the U.S. District Court for the District of Kansas. At the trial, Thurgood Marshall, one of the lead attorneys in the case, argued that segregated schools sent the message to black children that they were inferior to whites; and because of this, the schools were inherently unequal. They also argued that the segregation of children in schools based on race under the “separate but equal” policy violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and that it was unconstitutional. Another main argument was that “separate but equal doctrine” was not effective because the accommodations for blacks’ educational institutions were far inferior to those of white.  Expert witness, Dr. Hugh W. Speer testified as follows: "...if the colored children are denied the experience in school of associating with white children, who represent 90 percent of our national society in which these colored children must live, then the colored child's curriculum is being greatly curtailed. The Topeka curriculum or any school curriculum cannot be equal under segregation." The Board of Education's defense was that segregated schools simply prepared......

Words: 1266 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Shame of the Nation

...In The Shame of the Nation, Jonathan Kozol states that the American society is still suffering from one-sidedness education. Mr. Kozol offers a wide bundle of statistical data to support his claim that most public schools are very much so segregated. Jonathan Kozol illustrates a grim reality about the unequal attention given to urban and suburban schools. He shows everyone involved in the education system that public schools are still separate and, therefore, still unequal. In his book he states that “during the 1990s, the portion of black students that attended majority white schools had decreased to a level lower than in any year since 1968. Almost seventy five percent of black and Latino students attend schools that are predominantly minority.”Suburban schools, which are primarily made up of white students, are given a far superior education than urban schools, which are primarily made up of Hispanics and African Americans. In Brooklyn, New York, at Adlai Stevenson High School, “97% of the students population are black or Hispanic, eight-tenths of one percent were white” He further offers some explanations for why such segregation still persists in public schools. He states that although there was great movement towards integration 35 or 40 years ago, soon its goals were abandoned and its victories were reversed.Although Supreme Court decisions such as Brown vs. The Board of Education and federal laws have upheld and supported the ideals of racial...

Words: 499 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Civil Rights Notes

...• NAACP-National Association for the Advancement of Colored People • Plessy Vs. Ferguson-1896-separate but equal • De facto segregation-segregation by custom and tradition • Sweatt vs. Painter-schools had to admit black people • Sit-ins---would sit and refused to move in order to shame managers into integration • Brown vs. Board-Thurgood Marshall-Linda Brown-ended segregation in all public schools • Montgomery Bus Boycott-Rosa Parks-MLK was a leader • MLK-inspired by Gandhi • Southern Christian Leadership Conference-set out to end segregation • Little Rock Nine-Eisenhower hand to order troops in-LBJ helped it pass, but it was weaker • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee • Freedom Riders- rode buses in the south to protest-were beaten by Whites and KKK • Kennedy used civil rights to win election-promised support • James Meredith-applied to college, but was denied even with a court order • Kennedy assassinated, but Lyndon Johnson carries on his support of African Americans • Civil Rights Act of 1964- Gave power to made segregation illegal, gave power to federal gov. to prevent discrimination • Selma March-many were beaten in front of cameras-shocked nation • Voting Rights Act of 1965-allowed for many African Americans to vote-no more literacy tests • Even though discrimination was ending, it didn’t change people’s attitudes • Watts riot- African American neighborhood-had to send in National Guard • Kerner Commission- studied why the riots were......

Words: 664 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Suburban School Policy

...identity of our nation, our suburbs and our public schools. Most of us had never heard of Ferguson, Missouri until it experienced recent civil unrest this past August. As I became curious about the town, I found it was one of many that are experiencing a change from an all-white enclave to home for many Blacks and Hispanics. Indeed, American suburbs are in the midst of an identity crisis. In many metro areas, the affluent and the poor, people of color and whites, the well-educated and poorly educated are “trading places” across urban-suburban boundaries. In fact, the number of Americans living below the federal poverty line is now greater in the suburbs than the cities, and fewer than 20 percent of people in the largest metropolitan areas still live in predominantly white suburbs. Part of this issue was caused by the gentrification of many city neighborhoods, which displaced low-income and working-class families that could no longer afford rapidly rising housing prices. Also in the mix were the thousands of low-income families that were forced to relocate when the high-rise public housing projects were destroyed, and many of them imagined a better way of life in suburbia. But over the last decade many low-income families have also been leaving deteriorating high-poverty neighborhoods in central cities in search of better job opportunities, neighborhoods, and schools and consequently found themselves settled in new pockets of poverty in the suburbs. The decline in......

Words: 1486 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Discriminatory Wage Gap

...Center for American Progress states that to every dollar a man makes, a woman makes 77 cents (Cooper 1). Thus, it is apparent that women are still behind the men in terms of equal pay in the workforce. While women's pay in the workforce has traditionally been less than a man’s it nevertheless has increased over the years; however, as of 2014 there still exists a pay gap which can only be addressed through legislation, enforcement of that legislation and awareness by all that inequality is unacceptable. Throughout history women have never been given equal pay in the workforce and this inequality extends to modern days. “Until the early 1960s, newspapers published separate job listings for men and women. Jobs were categorized according to sex, with the higher level jobs listed almost exclusively under "Help Wanted—Male." In some cases the ads ran identical jobs under male and female listings—but with separate pay scales. Separate, of course, meant unequal: between 1950 and 1960, women with full time jobs earned on average between 59–64 cents for every dollar their male counterparts earned in the same job” (Rowen ). Discrimination began very early in history when women had very few rights. Soon enough, females wanted to attain jobs in order to support a family or themselves. Men and women were given different pay grades which were obviously unequal. There is very little consideration given to women who stay in a job for many years as far as salary goes; also, women in......

Words: 2903 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

History the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immuntites of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws”. This alone proves that not only was the fourteenth amendment disreguarded but was unconstitutional under this amendment. This decision was the beginning of the civil rights movement. It ended the notion of the law of the land “separate but equal” which was a court case set decades before. Earl Warren stated “ We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. . ." During the court case Earl Warren referred to a phrase “ with all deliberate speed” of the way of the court case of Brown v. Bored. The Brown v. Board case was important and a pathway for the civil right movement but , it did not have a huge impact right away because it just asked for change with no date for them to succeed by. The southern states were not willing to change right away. They made it difficult to get the process going in such a way asking the attorney general to come up with plans how the desegregation of school was going to happen.The justices replied with the answer “with deliberate speed”.......

Words: 627 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...and blacks feeling inferior, segregation still seems to exist, especially in high schools and on college campuses. Racial segregation in public schools was the norm across America in the early 1950’s. Although all the schools were supposed to be equal, most black schools were far inferior to the white ones. Linda Brown, a black third-grader in Topeka, Kansas, had to walk one mile through a railroad yard to get to her black elementary school, even though a white elementary school was only a few blocks away. Her father, Oliver Brown, tried to enroll her in the white elementary school, but the principal of the school refused. So, then Mr. Brown went to McKinley Burnett, the head of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in Topeka, and asked him for help. The NAACP was excited about the opportunity to help the Browns because they had already been considering the idea of challenging segregation in the public schools. With Mr. Brown's complaint, they had "the right plaintiff at the right time." 1 Other black parents joined Mr. Brown, and, in 1951, the NAACP requested an injunction that would forbid the segregation of Topeka's public schools. 2 The U.S. District Court for the District of Kansas heard Mr. Brown's case from June 25-26, 1951. At the trial, the NAACP argued that segregated schools sent the wrong message to black children, which was that they were inferior to whites; therefore, the schools were unequal. One of the expert witnesses, Dr.......

Words: 1814 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Civil Right Kansas, Virginia and the district of Columbia involving public schools system that mandates separate schools from blacks and whites. While the cases were different in nature, however they made the same claim: separate is not equal. Arguing the case before the Supreme Court were, for the Petitioners who were predominantly parents of student of color. They claimed that their children were not receiving an equal education. According to the article “Brown v. board of education,” “The district court found that the facilities provided for colored students were largely equal to those provided to white student. Reasoning that it was required to follow U.S. Supreme Court precedent validating “separate but equal”, the district court ruled in favor of the school board”. [Brown v. Board of education, prg.3]. This demonstrate that the previous case Plessy v. Ferguson influence the decision of the district court because it state that while separate and equal have the same conditions it does not violated the 14 amendment. However, the plaintiffs decided to appeal the case to the Supreme Court. According to the text book “American Government roots and reform”, explicates that Thurgood Marshall who was chief counsel for the plaintiffs and the LDF lawyers argued that the most mutual one that demonstrates segregation was the separate and schools systems for blacks and whites were innately unequal. Therefore, this violates the “equal protection clause: state it on the fourteen amendment. [pg...

Words: 746 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Brown V. Board of Eduacation

...On May 17, 1954, in the case of Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka, the U.S. Supreme Court ended federally sanctioned racial segregation in the public schools by ruling unanimously that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." A groundbreaking case, Brown not only overturned the precedent of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), which had declared "separate but equal facilities" constitutional, but also provided the legal foundation of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. Although widely perceived as a revolutionary decision, Brown was in fact the culmination of changes both in the Court and in the strategies of the Civil Rights Movement. (see case summaries below) The Supreme Court had become more liberal in the years since it decided Plessy, largely due to appointments by Democratic Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman. Though still all-white, the Court had issued decisions in the 1930s and 1940s that rendered racial separation illegal in certain situations. Now consolidated under the name Brown v. Board of Education, the five cases came before the Supreme Court in December, 1952. The lead attorney on the case, Thurgood Marshall, and his colleagues wrote that states had no valid reason to impose segregation, that racial separation — no matter how equal the facilities — caused psychological damage to black children, and that "restrictions or distinctions based upon race or color" violated the equal protection clause......

Words: 317 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Brown V Board of Education

...conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of 'separate but equal' has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. Therefore, we hold that the plaintiffs and others similarly situated for whom the actions have been brought are, by reason of the segregation complained of, deprived of the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment (Cozzens).”  This was a major breakthrough for the civil rights movement. Schools had officially become desegregated, but there is still a lot of work to be done. Today, the schools are in some way segregated. One way is due to the fact that parents who can afford to send their kids to a private school will. Those who can’t, send their kids to public schools. One isn’t “inferior” to the other, but this is an example of economic segregation. Another example is the schools in an area with a dominating race. These schools will tend to have more of one race than a balanced mix. In a perfect world there would be desegregated schools, at this point it’s mostly integrated. Everyone lives and realizes those who do not learn from history are doomed to repeat it. Segregation in any form, especially in schools, belittled African Americans. The Brown vs. Board was a milestone for the civil rights movement, this helped try to reverse any damage that was done. The public, overall, doesn’t have the same perspective as they did fifty years ago. “Separate but equal” isn’t a general rule anymore. A more......

Words: 437 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Jim Crow

... If needed, violence would be used to keep Blacks at the bottom of the racial chain. Below are some examples of the unequal social norms that Blacks had to go endure. 1. A black male could not offer his hand (to shake hands) with a White male because it implied being socially equal. 2. Blacks and Whites were not supposed to eat together. If they did ear together, Whites were to be served first. 3. Under no circumstance was a black male to offer to light the cigarette of a White female – the gesture implied intimacy. 4. Blacks were always introduced to Whites, never Whites to Blacks 5. Whites did not use the courtesy titles of respect when referring to Blacks. For example, Mr., Mrs., Miss., and Sir were never used when speaking to or referring to Blacks. Blacks were called by their first names. However, Blacks had to use courtesy when referring to Whites. 6. If riding with a White person, Blacks had to sit in the back seat, or the back of a truck. Stetson Kennedy gives examples of rules that Blacks observed in speaking with Whites, Author of Jim Crow Guide: 1. Never assert or even imply that a White person is lying. 2. Never credit dishonorable intentions to a White person. 3. Never Comment upon the appearance of a White female. 4. Never laugh derisively at a White person. All aspects of life were separate but unequal. Author C. Vann Woodward states, “Hotel and restaurants were generally off limits for all Negroes, free or slave,......

Words: 2194 - Pages: 9