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Strategic and Tactical Use of Icts in the Airlines Industry

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Examples of ICT applications that can be used in physical education

The following applications are considered below:
Cameras
Mobile phone cameras
Motion analysis software
Film editing
Portable media players
Interactive whiteboards
Voice projections systems
Developing FUNctional skills through physical education
Games consoles
Nintendo Wii Fit
Dance mat systems
Pedometers
Pupil response systems
Archos
The use of iPods
Podcasting
The Virtual Learning Environment (VLE)
Video conferencing
Youtube

Cameras
There are a range of hardware applications that can be used with physical education departments. Video cameras can provide footage of experienced performers in action and can be used to inspire, to demonstrate correct techniques and to develop pupils’ understanding and knowledge of the subject. By reviewing their own actions, for example, pupils can evaluate and improve their own games strategies, gymnastics sequences, trampolining routines or dance compositions, particularly if they are able to look at their performances in slow motion or from a different viewing angle.

Within practical situations the use of still and video cameras can highlight personal achievement within lessons. Video footage and photographic images can be cropped and edited and used either a slideshow or highlight DVD. Cameras can also be used as an assessment for learning tool and as a form of classroom management. Furthermore, they can help to create activity cards, worksheets, presentations as well as enable a teacher to break a particular skill or technique down to reinforce learning and demonstrate and show good practice. One example of a useful camera is the Sanyo Xacti video camera which is waterproof and captures footage as a regular video camera would. The storage is through SD memory cards and this allows for easy transfer of data. Footage taken can be observed through a PC, via the interactive whiteboard. The camera is incredibly simple to use and it has a reasonable battery life. The Xacti can been used to capture footage of performances in physical education lessons.

Mobile camera phones
The use of mobile phones in schools is a contentious issue. Some schools may allow pupils to use their mobile phones within physical education lessons. For example, during an orienteering unit of work pupils can take photographs with their phones of the items they were trying to find and use the picture as evidence of completion of the course. Pupils can also set up their own orienteering courses, using their pictures taken with their phones and transferred to the computers within the lesson. Other groups can then have the opportunity to attempt various different courses which could be an excellent way to integrate ICT and literacy into physical education. This could especially work well if there is minimal ICT equipment within the department.

Motion analysis software
The use of motion analysis software within physical education is becoming a more mainstream means of evaluating pupil performance and enhancing learning. There are many software packages available. Software such as ‘dartfish’ can provide pupils with visual images of their performances that can be slowed down but also enlarged. This allows teachers, using a digital camera, to split the screen into progressive frames and is therefore useful for highlighting techniques in some of the athletic field events or trampolining routines. Freeze-framing and overlay facilities are also a useful application. The footage can be saved and stored for moderation purposes. Whilst there are certain advantages in using this type of software there are also some disadvantages. (www.dartfish.com)

Film editing in PE
Video footage taken in one lesson can be edited and used at the beginning of the following lesson to highlight the achievements of pupils but also to identify common faults. This enables teachers and pupils to study individual and team performance across a range of activities. Teachers and pupils can compile footage taken from all the different lessons and use the footage to show other pupils in different classes what to expect using film-editing software. It is imperative, however, that you understand the issues involved in using moving and still images of pupils and that school policies and protocols are adhered to when using ICT to record pupil performance. This includes issues associated with parental permission; filming for a purpose, dress, angles, management of images and access and security of clips. Please refer to AfPE Safe Practice in Physical Education 2008 (Pages 61 – 63).

There are many film-editing software packages that teachers can use to support and enhance teaching and learning in physical education. One package is the film-editing software package iMovie which allows users to edit their own video footage. iMovie imports video footage using a FireWire interface on most MiniDV format digital video cameras. From there, the user can edit the video clips, add titles and add music. Effects include basic colour correction and video enhancement tools, and transitions such as fade-in, fade-out and slides. There are many versions of iMovie with the most up to date being iMovie 09 which has some new features and restored some features from previous versions of iMovie, including basic video effects (such as fast/slow motion and aged film) and image stabilization as well as travel map functions for marking locations where a video was shot. It also has improved audio editing and added full iDVD support. There are other editing software programmes such as Final Cut Express and Final Cut Pro which may be appropriate for more experienced users and advanced work .

Portable multimedia players
Portable multimedia players (PMP), sometimes referred to as a portable video player (PVP) or an Internet Media Tablet (IMT), are capable of storing and playing digital media. Digital Audio Players (DAP) that can also display images and play videos are portable multimedia players. Like DAPs, the data is typically stored on a hard drive. Micro drive or flash memory. Other types of electronic devices like mobile phones are sometimes referred as PMPs because of their playback capabilities. Below are some specific examples of multimedia players and how they can be used in physical education lessons to support teaching and leaning.

Interactive whiteboards

An interactive whiteboard is a surface onto which a computer screen can be displayed through a data projector. As it is touch-sensitive it allows teachers to use a pen or finger like a mouse to control the computer from the board and save any changes for future lessons. In addition, multimedia resources can be used as well access to the internet and websites to support teaching and learning. Interactive whiteboards are a useful teaching aid in classroom-based lessons as they can support learning through presentations, demonstrations and modelling, actively engage pupils and improve the pace and flow of lessons. A laptop computer that is linked to a data projector can also enable you to use this type of resource in a sports hall or gym. Teachers can use interactive whiteboards for showing a whole class a particular technique from video demonstrations taken immediately afterwards or in a previous lesson. (www.whiteboards.becta.org.uk; DfES 2004b)

Voice projection systems
The use of voice projection systems are an innovative way of communicating with pupils specifically within physical education. The FrontRow To Go system is one example of a portable voice projection that can be used wherever you teach. The system includes a lightweight, wireless hand-held radio microphone and head microphone which transmits a teacher’s voice to a base-station. This then amplifies, enhances speech frequencies and broadcasts the voice from speakers to the whole class. It is simple to set up and very effective. The system can be used either from a mains electrical socket or has rechargeable batteries giving over six hours of power. The system can increase pupil attentiveness and concentration, improve teaching and learning and reduces voice strain. (www.eurotekhsm.co.uk/pe)

Developing FUNctional skills through physical education
At Hayesbrook specialist Sports College in Kent, the BBALL FUN Programme is a key stage three cross-curricular resource that uses basketball in physical education lessons to teach the functional skills of literacy, numeracy and ICT. This can be applied across the range of invasion games. The flexible scheme of work can be easily moved into the curriculum for Year 7 and 8 and include pupils who have little or no prior experience of basketball to enjoy and learn from the lessons.

Each lesson has five teams of five or six pupils working as players on the court (physical education), coaches and statisticians (numeracy), commentators and journalists (literacy), television camera operators and sports photographers (ICT). The FUN Pack provides task cards for pupils and the lesson rotation plan for teachers to switch teams through the different subject areas for the next lesson. Teams of pupils rotate on a weekly basis and take on the roles identified above. Within the lesson, pupils take part as performers within a structured game either as players or officials. Other pupils act as scorers, timekeepers, coaches or match analysts recording the number of passes or shots. Using video and still cameras other pupils record the game and download the footage or visual images whilst another group provides recorded match commentary and match reports all of which can contribute to the production of a newsletter or added to the school’s website. The West Kent e-learning group has provided eight schools with the essential ICT equipment including camcorders, MP3 voice recorders and digital cameras to enable them to develop the lessons. The FUN resources are also available for use with Rugby and with new curriculum links for year eight. More information can be found at www.bballfun.com

Games consoles
Games consoles are being used in schools to encourage disaffected pupils in physical education lessons in order to increase fitness levels. Some schools are using the consoles to simulate actions of certain activities to improve pupils’ behaviour and teamwork skills through tennis, baseball, snowboarding and skiing for example. Whilst some may think that the use of virtual reality games is contradictory in raising activity levels and attainment there is anecdotal evidence to suggest that, with rigid structures in place using specific games, pupils can be physically active without releasing the console. In one case study project teachers identified pupils between the ages of fourteen and sixteen who had often missed physical education lessons. A games console was bought for each school, along with heart rate monitors to show how much physical activity the teenagers were getting from using the consoles. http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2008/may/06/link.link7)

Nintendo Wii Fit
The Wii Fit is a video game that has been designed by Nintendo for the Wii console. The game focuses on exercise which involves an individual using a Wii balance board. The board is a wireless accessory and contains multiple pressure sensors used to measure an individual’s centre of balance. This can be applied to activity games such as skiing, for example. The ‘Wii Fit’ package includes a ‘Wii Fit’ game disk for the Nintendo Wii console containing fitness training related games and activities. The balance board measures a user’s mass and centre of balance. The software can then calculate the user’s body mass index when told of his or her height. The game consists of different sub-games and activitie – some of which are not available until being unlocked by building up credits in the ‘Fit Bank’, including yoga poses, strength training, aerobics, balance games and other exercises. Furthermore, Wii Fit allows its players to compare their fitness by using Wii Fit’s own channel on the menu. (www.nintendo.com/wiifit)

Dance mat systems
There a number of multi-player wireless dance mat systems where pupils can activate panels on a dance platform in sequence with four arrows on a screen and the beat of music. DanceMachine offer a twenty mat system for schools. It has been developed to improve fitness levels through hi-tech sound and visual equipment and is suitable for all key stages. This interactive range of equipment is designed to improve fitness through a large video screen and the latest hi-tech sound equipment. This system tests both mental and physical activity through the many games and music to choose from and offers unlimited hours of physical activity. Interactive fitness equipment offers many benefits to the growing concerns of pupil’s participation in physical activity. Amongst the many benefits to pupils is that they will burn off energy, boost their overall fitness, improve coordination and cardiovascular health. Dance steps are projected on to a wall or screen; users follow the steps displayed by arrows on their individual dance mat. At the end of song or session, users and instructors can see instant feedback on how well they performed, along with a leadership board for motivational competitiveness. Physical activity can therefore be more enjoyable and fitness and coordination is improved. Each dance mat is easily transported to different location by a storage cart that can hold up to sixteen dance mats. The iDANCE multi-player system offers up to thirty wireless dance platforms, simultaneous play and three levels of difficulty which can be seen at the same time and is ideal for mixed levels of ability. (www.pulsefitness.com/kids_dancemachine.htm).

Pedometers
The FitLinxx ActiPed is a next generation pedometer that clips to a shoe and records the wearer’s walking, running or jumping as well as measures the distance travelled, calories burnt and total time of active minutes. This data can be stored and sent wirelessly and securely to an ActiPed account for the wearer to view their achievement and compare with their peer group. (www.actihealth.com)

Other innovative developments using ICT in physical education is the Nike Plus programme. This programme allows pupils to monitor their progress with regards to their levels of exercise in a similar way to other pedometers. This requires an iPod or Nike Plus sport band, sensor for shoes, sensor case to attach to shoe and a receiver for an iPod Nano. As pupils run, an iPod indicates their time, distance, pace and calories burned. And it gives you feedback at the halfway point and in the final lead-up to your goal. You can also see the details of your workout on your iPod. On selected workouts when using it with a Nano/iPod sporting legends such as Lance Armstrong and Venus Williams give periodic motivational help.

Pupils can download all the run information on to the Nike Plus website where they can see a timescale indicating all the information about their run and review their workout. Pupils can store all the runs completed so they can compare them and gain advice and help with training/coaching for any distances. The website also has a whole interactive community all over the world. This allows a person to challenge people, view other racing times and interact with other runners. The Nike Plus website motivates pupils to access learning outside school; increases their running and fitness; improves ICT skills; motivates their learning through self-pacing calculations and estimating distances; undertake courses appropriate to their levels of skill and fitness; set targets to challenge themselves; assess their learning; supports the teaching of appropriate techniques. (nikeplus.nike.com)

Pupil response systems
Interactive pupil response systems are designed to engage and motivate pupils whilst giving the teacher the tools to monitor and record pupil progress. They are sometimes referred to as classroom voting systems, utilising advanced radio frequency technology and integrating with curriculum software. Pupil response systems add increased interactivity into classrooms through interactive writing tablets or wireless slates which presents a cost effective alternative to interactive whiteboard technology. Pupil response systems are essentially a series of handsets that interact with additional software for Windows PowerPoint which allows pupils to interact with the teacher’s presentation. This could be in the form of a quiz or formal assessment. Each pupil has access to a handset and if required can remain anonymous throughout the activity, or it can relate to each pupil individually. The results from each question can be highlighted to the group, via a graph or table, and pupils can compete against one another with a marking system, or a time limit, that can be adopted by the teacher.

Qwizdom is one interactive pupil response system. At Seaford Head Community College in East Sussex, Qwizdom has been used to develop material from both the GCSE and BTEC syllabi. It has also captivated pupils’ interest, particularly in areas that may be more academic or literature based. It has been used with all Key Stage 4 pupils to evaluate the BTEC physical education course. This has allowed physical education staff to make changes to the curriculum throughout the year in order to enhance the learning environment for each pupil. In addition, Qwizdom has been used within an orienteering unit of work. The lessons were designed to include a strong theme of numeracy and literacy and included clues that pupils could answer using the handsets. The teacher was able to collate and save results, as well as observe the progress of the pupils as the handsets interact with the laptop used on-site by the member of staff. (www.qwizdom.co.uk)

Archos
Archos is an MP4 mass storage unit that has the capability of accessing the web, transmitting video, still images and music through an external source such as a speaker system or interactive whiteboard. The main function within physical education lessons is its ability to record video footage. The player has a small camera attachment that can film any type of activity, such as a dance performance, and it can be instantly played back on the Archos’s 4-inch screen. The screen size allows for students to observe theirs or others’ technique and make comment, or watch the performance. During the playback mode there is also the opportunity to slow the action down to several variable speeds, as well as pause the footage. This is ideal when illustrating areas for improvement, or highlighting good technique and also incredibly visual for the pupils observing. Playback can instantly be transferred to a PC or laptop, and therefore be viewed on the ‘big screen’, or even edited to make into a video. It is a reliable back up for pupils’ written assignments and can make the course content far more interesting and challenging. At Seaford Head Community College, pupils have created videos of good technique during outdoor and adventurous activities whilst using the climbing wall using the Archos to capture the footage. They have then used the school’s ICT suite to edit their footage together to make a short film. The physical education department has also used the Archos equipment to film evidence of completion of BTEC National Diploma work with the Year 12 pupils. It has provided a reliable back up for the pupils’ written assignments and has made the course content far more interesting and challenging.

Archos can save video footage which can be used for starter material at the beginning of a lesson. For example, footage taken from the previous lesson, or information from the internet, or digital television. Clips can be related to the lesson focus, or learning objectives. Information can be stored on the device that will relate to the lesson planned such as a good technique or performance. This could be observed at any stage throughout the lesson by pupils in order for them to enhance and compare their own work against the work of others. Music can be used at any stage and can play whilst the Archos is performing another feature. For example, it would be possible for the Archos to be plugged into speakers for a dance or gymnastics performance as well as film the performance itself.

Wireless internet (wifi) is also a feature as pupils can access the web in wifi areas to aid their research within accredited courses at key stage four and beyond by searching for items related to the work being covered. This does require a licence from Archos and involves a fee. Filming is easy with the ‘Head camera’. Pupils can gain instant feedback on what they have performed and develop work as a result. They can use the slow motion tool on the device to illustrate an action or to evaluate their own and others performance. This information can then be stored on any computer system that has the software installed (this will take three minutes to install). Footage is stored via USB and takes moments to save minutes of work. This can then be used in various ways. For example, it can be added to Movie Maker and edited into a movie. It can also be added to presentations (PowerPoint). To view the footage on a larger scale it takes moments to plug the device in and illustrate the work on the interactive whiteboard. This works via USB again (similar to a memory stick) and can be watched and paused a number of times. Slow motion is not available at a larger scale as the footage is being played through the computer, rather than the Archos unit itself.

Other recordings can be taken from digital TV, terrestrial, video and DVD by linking the device up to a DVR station (also a charger). Using a DVR station alongside the wifi allows the teacher to set a timer on the Archos to record programmes. Data is stored directly onto the device and can be played back. Alternatively, highlights of programmes can be recorded by hand once plugged in using the record and pause functions.

The use of iPods
An iPod is a brand of portable media players designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The products includes the hard drive based iPod Classic, the touchscreen iPod Touch, the video-capable iPod Nano and the compact iPod Shuffle. The iPhone can function as an iPod but is generally treated as a separate product. iPod Classic models store media on an internal hard drive, while all other models use flash memory to enable their smaller size. As with many other digital music players, iPods, excluding the iPod Touch, can also serve as external data storage devices. Storage capacity varies by model.

The iTunes software can be used to transfer music to the devices from computers using certain versions of Apple Macintosh and Microsoft Windows operating systems. The use of iTunes and its alternatives may also transfer photographs, videos, games, contact information, e-mail settings, Web bookmarks and calendars to iPod models supporting those features. There are a number of potential benefits of using gadgets such as iPods which can engage and motivate pupils through analysis of performance. Pupils can rip and upload videos to their own. A dictaphone can allow pupils to provide commentary to moving images. For teachers it allows practical forms of assessment to take place and provide immediate results and feedback. Clips can be stored in pupil files allowing for reduced marking and paperwork for both teachers and pupils. The iPod shuffle is a digital audio player that uses flash memory which can provide teachers with quick and easy access to music playlists for dance lessons and can be played through a docking station using speakers. Other applications include the iPhone which is an internet and multimedia enabled ‘Smartphone’ designed and marketed by Apple Inc. Functions include a camera phone, portable media player similar to a video iPod and full internet access including web browsing.

Podcasting
A podcast is a series of audio or video digital media files which are distributed over the internet by download, through web feeds, to portable media players and personal computers. A podcast is distinguished from most other digital media formats by its ability to be syndicated, subscribed to and downloaded automatically when new content is added. Like the term broadcast, podcast refers either to the series of content itself or to the method by which it is syndicated; the latter is also called podcasting. The host or author of a podcast is often called a podcaster. Podcasting is becoming increasingly popular in education and is currently being used at Hayesbrook Specialist Sports College, which has enabled pupils and teachers to share information at any time. An absent pupil can download the podcast of the recorded lesson and it is being used as a tool for teachers or administrators to communicate curriculum, assignments and other information with parents and the community. Teachers can record trampolining and gymnastic routines, dance performances, swimming techniques, post-match interviews and pupil debates for example. Podcasting can be a publishing tool for pupil oral presentations within accredited physical education courses at Key Stage 4 and beyond.

The virtual learning environment (VLE)
The virtual learning environment (VLE) has transformed the way in which pupils learn and teachers teach. The virtual learning environment is a global website that allows pupils to access their work and their curriculum from anywhere in the world. It is rights-protected and therefore only parents, students and staff will be able to log in. Pupils work can be set, collected and marked via the VLE, saving on a great deal of paperwork and collection and deadline dates. This, in turn, can empower pupils and inform their own learning. Pupils are able to make more decisions, as tasks will be completed at their own pace and potentially in their own time.

There are many ways in which physical education teachers can optimise pupil’s knowledge and understanding through the use of this technology, which has significant advantages. For example, pupils are able to join subjects (known as courses) and from there they will see the tasks, homework, quizzes and forums linked to the teacher, from home and school. As a teacher you are able to post work for your pupils that will be available around the clock. Your pupils will be able to submit work online and you can feedback to them from anywhere in the world. This allows teachers, parents and pupils to monitor their work and current attainment in physical education.

Using the VLE pupils are able to post their work for others to see and comment on; parents will be able to participate more fully in their children’s learning; learning can continue outside the school day; pupils will be able to participate in collaborative work involving other schools locally and internationally involving external experts; and learning can be more personalised to suit pupil needs. As many pupils make use of interactive online services (such as blogs, messaging and virtual worlds) at home, the VLE allows them to make use of these services in a controlled and safe on line environment.

At Hailsham Specialist Sports College in East Sussex, the VLE is being piloted to enhance collaboration with feeder primary schools by having online mentoring of Year 6 pupils by current Year 7 pupils, helping to ease the transition to secondary school. Cross-curricular learning is also facilitated through use of the VLE. Current examples of this working are the science and physical education project run in Year 7 by physical education teachers. Pupils are able interact online with teachers and each other to discuss and formulate answers to questions relating to learning objectives from lessons ‘out of school time’. This type of learning environment and this specific cross-curricular work has been recognised as a model of good practice and is growing rapidly. With many schools moving toward a more interactive way of teaching and learning it is likely that these types of practices will be commonplace in many schools by the start of the next decade.

Video conferencing
In schools video conferencing can be used for formal teaching, using guest teachers, multi-school projects and community events. Once connected, pupils can see the other person on a TV screen and ask questions. The equipment required includes a TV monitor, camera, microphone, speaker and a compressed video system which can be transmitted through an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). Video conferencing can provide pupils with the opportunity to learn in different ways, which might include a focus on a particular topic being covered in physical education at examination level. This could be arranged with another physical education department where teachers can offer particular expertise within an examination syllabus allowing for the sharing of information. This may be particularly useful for post-sixteen courses in physical education that have an international dimension and allow pupils to research a particular topic unique to one country. Equally, teachers could make use of video conferencing for cross-moderation of pupils’ practical and theoretical work in physical education in post-fourteen and post-sixteen accredited courses. This interactive approach to teaching can be highly motivating for pupils and improve their communication and presentation skills. In addition, memory retention can potentially be improved and a range of different learning styles can be catered for and can provide a much broader forum where learning can take place.

The use of YouTube within schools.
YouTube is a video-sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. It uses Adobe flash video technology to display a wide variety of user-generated video content, including movie clips, television clips and music videos, as well as amateur content such as video blogging and short original videos. Most of the content on YouTube has been uploaded by individuals, although media corporations including the BBC offer some of their material via the site. The wide range of topics covered by YouTube has turned video sharing into one of the most important parts of internet culture. YouTube is fast becoming an effective medium for gaining and presenting images in schools.

This has many advantages for a physical education teacher wishing to visually describe a sport, an action, a skill or technique to a class. For example, if you are introducing a new invasion game to pupils such as Kabbadi, video clips taken from YouTube can be shown to highlight the main principles and purpose of the game. Ofsted (2009) cited one school where this was very effective in which the inspector observed the following.

Video clips from YouTube on the boxing match between Mike Tyson and Oliver McCall were used to discuss somatic and cognitive impact on physiological arousal when participating in sport and its effects on performance, following the breakdown of McCall in the ring. This led to discussion of the importance of temperament under pressure, drawing on examples such as an England versus Germany penalty shoot-out and the missing of an easy conversion which would have won the rugby league challenge cup. The teacher then led a session expertly on the impact of confidence, peaking in performance and self-talk, comparing performances of Usain Bolt and Asafa Powell. The use of visual cues, contemporary examples and discussion combined with the teacher’s excellent subject knowledge helped to consolidate students’ understanding of a complex topic very well. Ofsted (2009: 36)

Most schools now have facilities for internet access to be shown and the use of large spaces such as the school hall for assemblies to present images from YouTube can be hugely effective. YouTube is beneficial because it is fast. Teachers and pupils can type in the sport wanted and a whole variety of differing images are displayed. There is also software to download videos from YouTube and save them onto a computer which would cut out the need for the internet when showing the class. However, it requires knowledge of the internet and in some cases an internet connection is needed. There also needs to be clear guidance on its use by teachers and pupils which in some cases requires forms of governance in terms of access. The website at Seaford Head Community College currently utilises YouTube for publicity, promotional and marketing purposes as well highlighting pupil achievements and experiences including performing arts and physical education.

Task: Reflect on the range of ICT discussed above and list the advantages and disadvantages of using these items within your lessons.

Acknowledgements

We would like to acknowledge the help and support of Kevin Morton (Seaford Head Community College), Craig Bull (Hayesbrook Specialist Sports College), Andy Gore, Sam Carter and Ben Gould (University of Brighton) for their assistance in researching the information on the website.

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