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Strategy

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UNIVERDIDAD TECNOLOGICA CENTROAMERICANA
FACULTAD DE POSTGRADO

ASIGNATURA: 10148 Estrategias Empresariales

Lic. Osmer Moncada

PROYECTO: Resumen Capitulo 1 y 2

SUSTENTADO POR:
Génesis Torres - 21613194

SAN PEDRO SULA, CORTES

05 DE JUNIO, 2016

Índice

1.

Resumen........................................................................................................................................ 2
1.1.
1.2.

2.

Capítulo 1 .............................................................................................................................. 2
Capítulo 2 .............................................................................................................................. 4

Análisis .......................................................................................................................................... 6
2.1.
2.2.

3.

Capítulo 1 .............................................................................................................................. 6
Capítulo 2 .............................................................................................................................. 7

Conclusiones ................................................................................................................................. 8

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1. Resumen
1.1. Capítulo 1
¿Qué es una estrategia y porque es tan importante?
Los administradores de todas las empresas se enfrentan a las siguientes preguntas:






¿Cuál es nuestra situación actual? – Evalúa las condiciones de la industria, el desempeño financiero y la situación en curso del mercado, de los recursos y capacidades de la empresa.
¿Hacia dónde queremos ir? – Dentro de la visión se encuentran los nuevos grupos y necesidades de consumidores surgen para buscar la forma de satisfacerlos. ¿Cómo vamos a llegar? – Formular y ejecutar una estrategia que lleve a la compañía a la dirección deseada.

La estrategia de una compañía consiste en las medidas competitivas y los planteamientos comerciales con que los administradores compiten de manera fructífera, mejoran el desempeño y hacen crecer el negocio.
La estrategia tiene que ver con competir de manera diferente: hacer lo que los competidores no hacen o, mejor, hacer lo que no pueden hacer. Toda estrategia necesita un elemento distintivo que atraiga a los clientes y genera una ventaja competitiva. Una empresa obtiene una ventaja competitiva sustentable cuando satisface las necesidades de los consumidores con mayor eficiencia o eficacia que sus rivales, y cuando la base para ello es duradera a pesar de los esfuerzos de sus competidores por igualar o sobre pasar esta ventaja.
Cuatro de los planteamientos estratégicos más socorridos y confiables para distinguir a una empresa de sus competidores, forjar una lealtad sólida en el cliente y ganar una ventaja competitiva sustentable son los siguientes:
1. Esforzarse por ser un proveedor de bajo costo en la industria, con lo cual se pretende obtener una ventaja competitiva de costos sobre los competidores. Ej. Walmart y
Southwest Airlines.
2. Superar a la competencia con características distintivas como mayor calidad, selección más amplia de productos, mejor desempeño, servicios de valor agregado, modelos más atractivos y superioridad tecnológica. Ej. Apple y Rolex.
3. Centrarse en un nicho pequeño de mercado y ganar una ventaja competitiva al satisfacer las necesidades y gustos especiales de los compradores que conforman ese nicho de mejor manera que los competidores. Ej. Ebay y McAfee.
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4. Procurar los precios más bajos (mejores) por bienes diferenciados que al menos igualen las características y desempeño de las marcas rivales de mayor precio. Esto se conoce como estrategia de proveedor de mejores costos, y reside en la capacidad de ser el proveedor más efectivo en costos de un producto o servicio de nivel superior. Ej. Target.
Acciones y enfoques de negocios
Para escalar, construir o adquirir recursos y capacidades importantes en la competencia.

Para obtener ventas y participación de mercado con mejores características de desempeño.

Para obtener ventas y participación de mercado con precios muy bajos basados en costos aún más bajos. Para ingresar a nuevos mercados geográficos o de productos, o para salir de mercados existentes.

Para fortalecer la posición negociadora de la empresa con sus proveedores, distribuidores y otros.

Planteamientos aplicados en la administración de IyD, producción, ventas y marketing, finanzas y otras actividades básicas.

Para aprovechar oportunidades de mercado emergentes y defenderse contra amenazas externas para las perspectivas comerciales de la empresa.

Para fortalecer la competitividad por medio de alianzas estratégicas y sociedades colaboradoras.

Para fortalecer la posición en el mercado al adquirir otras compañías o fusionarse con ellas. Los cambios en las circunstancias y los esfuerzos constantes de la administración para mejorar la estrategia provocan que la estrategia de una compañía evolucione con el tiempo, por lo que la tarea de formular la estrategia es una tarea en proceso, no un suceso que ocurre una sola vez.
Una estrategia proactiva (o deliberada) consiste en elementos estratégicos ideados y ejecutados conforme a lo planeado; la estrategia reactiva (o emergente) consta de los nuevos elementos que surgen conforme lo exija el cambio de condiciones.
El modelo de negocios establece la lógica económica para ganar dinero en una compañía según su estrategia. Describe dos elementos cruciales: 1) la propuesta de valor para el consumidor y 2) la fórmula de utilidades.
Una estrategia ganadora debe superar tres pruebas:




La prueba de ajuste.
La prueba de la ventaja competitiva.
La prueba del desempeño

El buen desempeño de una compañía es directamente atribuible al alcance de su estrategia y la excelencia con que la ejecuta.
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1.2. Capítulo 2
¿Qué implica el proceso de formulación y ejecución de una estrategia?
El proceso de elaborar y ejecutar una estrategia consta de cinco fases interrelacionadas e integradas:
a. Elaborar una visión estratégica de la dirección de largo plazo que la empresa necesita adoptar, una misión que describe el propósito de la compañía, y un conjunto de valores para guiar la búsqueda de la visión y la misión mencionadas.
b. Establecer objetivos y emplearlos como medidas del desempeño y del progreso de la empresa. c. Diseñar una estrategia para alcanzar los objetivos y llevar a la empresa por el curso estratégico que trazó la administración.
d. Aplicar y ejecutar la estrategia elegida de forma eficiente y eficaz.
e. Vigilar los avances, evaluar el desempeño y poner en marcha medidas correctivas en la visión, misión, objetivos, estrategias o la ejecución de largo plazo con base en la experiencia real, las condiciones cambiantes, las nuevas ideas y las oportunidades dentro de la empresa.

Desarrollar una visión estratégica, misión y valores Establecer objetivos

Ejecutar la estrategia

Diseñar una estrategia para alcanzar los objetivos de la visión

Supervisar los avances, evaluar el desempeño y emprender medidas correctivas Una visión estratégica describe las aspiraciones de la administración para el futuro, y bosqueja el curso estratégico y la dirección de largo plazo de la compañía.
Una visión estratégica bien comunicada es una herramienta para comprometer al personal de la compañía con las acciones que la llevan en la dirección que se pretende.
Las visiones estratégicas se hacen realidad cuando la declaración de visión queda impresa en la mente de los miembros de la organización y luego se traduce en objetivos y estrategias concretas.
Una declaración de misión bien planteada comunica el propósito de una compañía en un lenguaje lo bastante específico para darle a la compañía su propia identidad.
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La diferencia entre una visión estratégica y una declaración de misión es muy clara: una visión estratégica retrata el horizonte de negocios futuro de la empresa (“hacia dónde vamos”); por lo general, la misión describe su actividad y propósito de negocios actuales
(“quiénes somos”, “qué hacemos” y “por qué estamos aquí”).
Los valores de una compañía son las creencias, características y normas conductuales que se esperan de su personal cuando realiza negocios de la compañía y persigue su visión estratégica y su misión.
Los objetivos son metas de desempeño de una organización; es decir, son los resultados y productos que la administración desea lograr.
Se requieren dos tipos muy distintos de metas de desempeño: las que se refieren al desempeño financiero y las que se refieren al desempeño estratégico. Los objetivos financieros comunican las metas de la administración en el aspecto financiero. Los objetivos estratégicos se refieren a la posición de marketing y la vitalidad competitiva de la compañía
Los objetivos financieros se relacionan con los objetivos de desempeño financiero que estableció la administración. Los objetivos estratégicos se relacionan con los resultados planeados que indican si una compañía fortalece su posición en el mercado, su vitalidad competitiva y sus perspectivas comerciales.
El cuadro de mando integral (balanced scorecard) es una herramienta muy utilizada para contribuir a que una empresa alcance sus objetivos financieros al vincularlos a objetivos estratégicos específicos derivados de su modelo de negocio.
En la mayoría de las empresas, planear y ejecutar una estrategia es un esfuerzo de equipo, en el cual todo administrador desempeña una función para el área a su cargo. Es erróneo pensar que la elaboración y ejecución de una estrategia es algo propio sólo de la alta administración. En la mayoría de las compañías, la formulación de la estrategia es un esfuerzo de colaboración que incluye a administradores en diversas posiciones y niveles organizacionales. La formulación de la estrategia rara vez es exclusiva de los ejecutivos de alto nivel.
Un plan estratégico expresa la dirección futura de la empresa, su propósito de negocios, sus metas de desempeño y su estrategia.
Una compañía manifiesta un propósito estratégico cuando persigue sin descanso un objetivo estratégico excepcionalmente ambicioso y se compromete a hacer todo lo necesario para alcanzarlo.
La visión, misión, objetivos, estrategia y planteamiento de ejecución de la estrategia de una empresa nunca son finales; administrar la estrategia es un proceso continuo. Un control corporativo eficaz requiere que el consejo de administración supervise la dirección estratégica de la compañía, evalúe a sus altos ejecutivos, maneje la compensación a ejecutivos y vigile las prácticas de informes financieros.
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2. Análisis
2.1. Capítulo 1
Todas las organizaciones tienen un fin en común, y es generar beneficios para sus accionistas y dueños. La manera en que lo logren depende de muchos factores y de las personas involucradas.
Es por ello que es tan necesario que las empresas diseñen una estrategia que les permita alcanzar sus objetivos. Una estrategia responde a tres preguntas básicas:




¿Cuál es nuestra situación actual?
¿Hacia dónde queremos ir?
¿Cómo vamos a llegar?

Estas tres preguntas nos dan respuesta de cuál es nuestra situación actual, es decir cuál es el análisis de nuestro entorno, cual es la dirección futura de la empresa y cuál es la dirección deseada para trabajar en base a ello.
Es por ello que decimos que una estrategia consiste en las medidas competitivas y los

planteamientos comerciales con que los administradores compiten de manera fructífera, mejoran el desempeño y hacen crecer el negocio.
Parte de establecer una estrategia es encontrar una ventaja competitiva, que haga una diferenciación en la forma en que satisface las necesidades de sus clientes, tomando en cuenta que debe ser única y perdurable en el tiempo, para que pueda ser considerad como ventaja competitiva.
Existen cuatro estrategias genéricas para utilizar, entre ellas se encuentran:





Proveedor de bajo costo en la industria
Tener características distintivas y de mayor calidad
Centrarse en un nicho del mercado
Procurar precios más bajos por bienes diferenciados

Las estrategias de las empresas pueden ser proactivas y reactivas, es decir:



Proactiva (o deliberada) consiste en elementos estratégicos ideados y ejecutados conforme a lo planeado.
Reactiva (o emergente) consta de los nuevos elementos que surgen conforme lo exija el cambio de condiciones.

Una estrategia ganadora debe superar tres pruebas:
 La prueba de ajuste.
 La prueba de la ventaja competitiva.
6



La prueba del desempeño.

2.2. Capítulo 2
Como todo proceso, la elaboración de una estrategia tiene diferentes fases, que permiten la correcta ejecución de la misma, entre ellas están:







Elaborar una visión estratégica
Establecer objetivos
Diseñar una estrategia
Aplicar y ejecutar la estrategia
Vigilar los avances y desempeño

Cuando se refiere a una visión estratégica involucra la definición de las aspiraciones de los ejecutivos para el futuro de su empresa a largo plazo. El siguiente paso es la creación de una declaración de la misión de la empresa, es decir cuál es el motivo o razón de existencia de la empresa, para que fue creada.
Pero no se debe confundir, ya que una visión nos muestra el futuro de la empresa y la misión describe su actividad actual.
Una vez establecida la visión estratégica y la misión de la empresa, esta debe tener valores que son las creencias, características y normas conductuales que se esperan de las personas que laboran en ellas. Aunque muchas veces las compañías no cumplen lo que esta descrito en ellos.
El siguiente paso son los objetivos, que se definen como metas de desempeño de una organización, sin estos es muy difícil llegar a lograr algo, ya que nos muestra donde queremos llegar como compañía. Generalmente se establecen objetivos bajo el estándar
SMART, específicos, medibles, asignable, realista y bajo un tiempo determinado.
Los principales objetivos de una empresa son los estratégicos y financieros, los primeros se refieren a la posición del marketing y la vitalidad de la compañía y los segundos son los que buscan alcanzar el mejor desempeño financiero para la administración.
Una de las principales herramientas para conceptualizar los objetivos financieros es el cuadro de mando integral, ya que vincula ambos objetivos bajo un solo esquema y permite trabajar para alcanzar varios de ellos.
La fórmula de visión estratégica, objetivos y estrategia nos generan el plan estratégico que expresa la dirección futura de la empresa, su propósito de negocios, sus metas de desempeño y su estrategia, es decir la guía para alcanzar metas y objetivos.

7

Una vez establecido todo, es necesario ponerlo en acción y revisarlo constantemente para comprobar avances, cambios, redirección o cambio total. .

3. Conclusiones
Como conclusión podemos decir que una estrategia es esencial para el funcionamiento de las empresas y que hay varios elementos que la integran como ser visión estratégica, misión y objetivos (estratégicos y financieros).
También se debe tomar en cuenta la creación de una ventaja competitiva que permita crear una diferencia única y que perdure en el tiempo.
Existen cuatro estrategias genéricas que permiten a las industrias desarrollarse en un entorno competitivo: bajo costo, alto valor percibido, centrarse en un nicho y bajos precios. Una vez que decide qué estrategia utilizar, es necesario comenzar el proceso de cinco fases para la creación de la estrategia.

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