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Stress Management

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By pattricksy
Words 10099
Pages 41
CHAPTER 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction “Stress is not what happens to us. It is our response to what happens. And response is something we can choose.” This sagacious saying was quoted by Dr. Maureen Killoran, a certified universalist and an advocate on health and wellness. The quotation imparts to us that stress is not altogether negative as what most people would think at first. It still depends on how an individual sees and copes with the stress placed upon him. If you perceive potentially stressful events as a challenge instead of a threat, less stress will most likely result. Stress does not have to control your life because it can be managed. (http://krystalk.wrytestuff.com/swa560692-Stress-Management-Managing-Stress-Before-Its-Manages-You.htm) However, stress, it seems, knows no age, race, gender, religion, nationality, or socio-economic class. For this reason, it is called “the equal opportunity destroyer,” for when left unresolved, stress can undermine all aspects of your life. (Seaward, 2006) Although it may seem that stress becomes a critical mass in your life once you leave home and get to college, the truth is that manifestations associated with stress started much earlier than college years. It is just that, the peak of the most stressful events in your life happens in college. College students, especially freshmen, are a group particularly prone to stress due to the transitional nature of college life. (Ross, 1999) As one shifts from the known towards the unknown, stressors of all sorts may be experienced by a typical college student. Pressures in college, as evidenced by academic deadlines, professional pursuits, financial matters, peer pressure, and relationships, never fail to make a student’s way to the real battlefield seem insurmountable. Stress is ubiquitous, and many students may require support in developing resilience. Rather than focusing all efforts on removing stressors, programs designed to enhance students’ ability to cope are needed. (Sawatzky, 2012) And this is where stress management comes to the scene. Stress management is a system whose goal is not to eliminate all stress but to limit the harmful effects of stress while maintaining life’s quality and vitality. (Greenberg, 2011) Although stress encompasses a whole spectrum of factors and emotions which may take a heavy toll of human life, it would certainly be dull if all of these stressors were eliminated. And so, an individual must aim to utilize his energies not to terminate, but to facilitate and manage stress.

Statement of the Problem
This study aims to ascertain the stress management techniques employed by the FEU BS Accountancy students in their college life. 1. What is the demographic data of the FEU BS Accountancy students as to: a. Age b. Gender c. Year d. Affiliations e. Residence 2. What are the respondents’ definitions of stress? 3. What are the common stressors affecting the respondents? 4. What are the respondents’ reactions and response when under stress? 5. What are the respondents’ techniques in managing stress?

Significance of the Study The results of the study are deemed significant to the following: College students. This study will impart awareness of the effective ways to reduce the stress they experience in their scholarly life after identifying the common stressors they have to endure.
Incoming college students. This study will equip them with knowledge regarding some pressures or stressors associated with college life and the stress management they can emulate as they move to the challenging world of college. Researchers. This research can be of use to personally gain information about existing stress management techniques they can apply to their daily lives. Parents. This research may be utilized for them to give full support and guidance to their children as they strive to win over the obstacles they may come across in college. Future researchers. This study can be a basis in conducting the next researches related to this topic and can be replicated using other groups of respondents to validate the results of this study.

Scope and Limitations of the Study This study is limited to one institution of higher learning, the Far Eastern University (FEU), Manila. The limitation of the study was dictated by stress management techniques practiced by the BS Accountancy students of the respondent university. The FEU students typify the students from other universities, insofar as college life is concerned. College life seems to overburden students with stressors of all sorts, most especially academic endeavors. And so, stress management is vital in facilitating all these pressures. For the purpose of limitation and validity, the respondents of this study include solely the students enrolled in FEU for the first semester of A.Y. 2012-2013. This study focuses on the definition of stress as perceived by the respondents, the common stressors affecting their performance, their reactions and responses when under stress, and their techniques in managing stress. Analyses of the enumerated stressors and stress management techniques were made as a gauge to determine the stress management practiced by the FEU students.

Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined in order to maintain a common line of thought between the researchers and the readers.
Distress means negative stress or stress that diminishes the quality of life which is commonly associated with diseases, illness, and mal-adaption. Eustress means positive stress or stress that enhances quality of life. Mechanism is an instrument or a process, physical or mental, by which something is done/comes into being or a usually unconscious mental and emotional pattern that shapes behavior in a given situation or environment. Physiological is something being in accord with or characteristic of the normal functioning of a living organism. Psychological is something that is of, relating to, or arising from the mind or emotions. Strain is the physical, psychological, and behavioral outcomes of stress reactivity. Stress is used to describe the level of tension people feel is placed on their minds and souls by the demands of their lives. Stress Management refers to the amelioration of stress and especially chronic stress often for the purpose of improving everyday functioning. Stress Reactivity refers to the fight-or-flight response or the body’s stress reaction that includes an increase in heart rate, respiration, blood pressure and serum cholesterol. Stressor is a stimulus, whether real or imagined, with the potential for triggering and producing stress.

CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
In the attempt to describe the present status of the subject of this study, a review of related literature and studies is hereunder presented. The relevant foreign and local materials synthesized as follows have helped the researcher in developing the research framework and in clarifying the directions of the present study.
Published Foreign Literature Below is the summary of materials published internationally and compiled in order to support this study. Hans Selye, the originator of the stress theory, described stress as a non-specific response of the body to any demand made on it. (Selye, 1957) Therefore, the effects of stress vary in each individual and merely depend on the person who encounters it. Richard Lazarus, a noted researcher, defined stress as a state of anxiety produced when events and responsibilities exceed one’s coping abilities. Physiologically speaking, stress is defined as a rate of wear and tear on the body. (Seaward, 2006) In addition to this, Lazarus’ and Selye’s definition have been expanded as follows. Stress is the inability to cope with perceived (real or imagined) threat to one’s mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being, which results in a series of physiological responses and adaptations. (Seaward, p.5) Thus, the amount of stress experienced by a person depends on how he perceives the pressures and demands placed upon him, all of which may elicit a response and affect the individual in one way or another. Greenberg (2011) compiled the different types of stressors encountered by an individual. Some are environmental, psychological, sociological, and philosophical. This variation ascertains that Selye’s description for stress as “non-specific response” is very reasonable. Thus to a person, what might seem to be a threat to him may not even merit a second thought to another individual. It revealed that though similar amount of stress is placed upon two persons, they still have differences on how they handle them. There are a lot of definitions and concepts associated with stress. Some are: 1. a very complex phenomenon affecting the whole person, not just the physical body, and that involves a host of factors, some of which may not yet even be recognized by scholars and researchers. (Seaward, 2006) 2. Combination of a stressor, stress reactivity, and strain (Greenberg, 2011). Stress is ubiquitous, and many students may require support in developing resilience. Rather than focusing all efforts on removing stressors, programs designed to enhance students’ ability to cope are needed. (Sawatsky et al, 2012). This states that stress is inevitable for students and one must identify its sources and effects and later on, be able to overcome it in his/her own way. As an individual advances from one stage of life to another, a significant realization that with the freedom of choices he has comes the responsibilities that go with it, is being pondered upon especially by college students. College experience is one in which you move from a period of dependence to independence. And for that, the list of college stressors he experiences rather startling. Here are some as listed by Seaward. (2006) * Professional Pursuits. This arises from the question “What do I want to do with the rest of my life?” and is further compounded when there is parental pressure to more toward specific career or the desire to please one’s parents by picking a major they like for you. * Academic Deadlines. Academics mean taking midterms and finals, writing research papers, and completing projects. With all of these to accomplish and comply with, there is an ever present danger that not meeting expectations can result in poor grades. * Financial Matters. The cost of a college education is ever skyrocketing, and the pressure to pay off school fees within the semester can make a student feel like indentured servant, and adds up to his dilemma of budgeting his own money. * Lifestyle Behaviors. Independence from parental control means balancing freedom with responsibility. Stress enters with a vengeance when freedom and responsibility are not balanced. * Peer pressure and relationships. Stress arises when actions of the group are incongruent with one’s own philosophies and values. Also, from the great need to be accepted by new acquaintances, comes the peer pressure and the realization that everyone is entitled to be your good friend.

Arora (2007) has emphasized 1.) time technique as the most important part of stress management. It encompasses getting organized and giving life a direction. As a limited resource, time should be utilized and allotted efficiently and appropriately in order for us to cope with our daily stress encounters. Another technique proposed by Seaward (2006) is the 2.) relaxation technique where one sets aside few minutes for one’s self. Relaxation techniques have one aim and that is to return the body to a state of balance.
Experts (Hahn, et.al. 2004 and Greenberg, 2011) have proposed effective mechanisms for stress management. Some of those techniques are as follows:

1. Self- hypnosis This is a technique for increased awareness, mental relaxation, and enhanced self- directedness which are taught by trained professionals to people capable of being hypnotized.
2. Relaxation Response This is a physiological state achieved when one is relaxed, most commonly brought about by meditation, with physiological changes which differ from those produced by other relaxation techniques.
3. Quieting This is a relaxation technique designed by psychologist Charles Stroebel to elicit relaxation quickly in practically six seconds. It involves six steps as tested by Charles’s wife, Elizabeth Stroebel. a. Think about something that makes you afraid or anxious. b. Smile inside. This breaks up the anxious muscle facial tension. c. Tell yourself, “I can keep a calm body and an alert mind.” d. Inhale a quiet, easy breath. e. Let your jaw go loose as you exhale; keep your upper and teehth slightly apart. f. Imagine heaviness and warmth moving throughout your body—from head to toes.
4. Exercise It is a means of using the stress products—increased heart and respiration rates, blood fats, muscle tension and the like—so that they are not able to affect one’s health negatively. 5. Conflict Resolution
If an individual becomes effective in resolving a conflict, his or her relationships will be improved, thereby decreasing the number of stressors that one experiences. Less conflict of shorter duration resolved to one’s satisfaction will mean a less-stressed and healthier individual. 6. Meditation.
It is a mind-to-muscle relaxation technique that uses an object of focus in order to clear one’s mind, thereby resulting in beneficial physiological and psychological changes. Other kinds of stress management techniques include the following:
* Getting a hobby
* Artistic Expression
* Taking Medicine
* Time management
* Listening to certain types of relaxing music or Music Therapy

Unpublished Foreign Literature A synthesis of the related foreign sources is presented for better understanding of this research.
Stress may also be defined as a state of bodily or mental tension resulting from factors that tend to alter an existent equilibrium. (http://www.merriam-webster.com/medical/stress) The definition above describes stress as a disruption of balance, which, apparently, is the normal state of an individual’s body. Ross, et. al (1999) stated that college students, especially freshmen, are a group particularly prone to stress due to the transitional nature of college life. Here lie the many experiences and new acquaintances that await the college student as he combats stress. The National Health Ministries (2006) enumerated some of the most common stressors in college life. They are as follows; greater academic demands, being in one’s own in a new environment- with new responsibilities, changes in family relations and one’s social life, financial responsibilities, exposure to new people, ideas and temptations, being away from home often for the first time, making decisions on higher level than one is used to, substance abuse, awareness of one’s sexual identity and orientation, preparing for life after graduation, and psychological make-up can also play a role in vulnerability to depression. People who have low self-esteem, who consistently view themselves and the world with pessimism, or are readily overwhelmed by stress may be especially prone to depression. (http://www.uic.edu/depts/wellctr/docs/Stress%20and%20the%20College%20Student.pdf)
Through the extensive tools which aid college students with stress management, they were able to cope with the pressures and demands of both their personal and scholarly life. (http://pcij.org/stories/stress-and-the-filipino) This entails that nowadays, various interventions are available for the students to utilize as they manage the stress they experience in their lives.
According to Tan (2006), goal setting is also a way to minimize and cope with the stress one encounters. It is also pointed out that goals should be realistic and concrete so that light at the end of the tunnel can be seen. Priorities, another stress management technique that when done correctly, will be a help not a hindrance to stress management. This technique involves understanding priorities and listing priorities in accordance to time management done either for the day, the whole week or the whole month. Exercise, nutrition and sleep are considered techniques that are actually an individual’s basic needs, and the required amounts for each must be met for one to function well and cope up with his/her daily tasks. (http://www.essortment.com/stress-management-techniques-college-students-40346.html) Everyone has their own level of stress tolerance and different ways of managing stress. (Kuehn, 2009) Self-assessment must first be observed in order to handle stress effectively, and for a person to address and ensure his defense from the manifold stressors that may come his way.

Published Local Literature Below is the summary of the materials published locally and compiled in order to support this study. According to Pelismino (2012), there is no complete freedom from stress because stress is not always detrimental and something to be avoided. This statement ascertains that an individual cannot part himself from stress fully because stress exempts no one, and is very much evident in almost all, if not in all facets of life. Also, stress can sometimes be of help by giving people their competitive edge for as long as they know how to deal with it.
Canda (2002) explained in his article “How to Cope with Stress” that stress can be minimized through different strategies which may be adopted to lessen the amount of stress in one’s life. This implies that stress, from being substantially negative to an individual can be minimized up to a tolerable amount that each of us can handle. Calimpong (2002) emphasized that stress can either be helpful or harmful to academic performance, depending on its level. Too great of a stress may turn into a destructive force, hence, affecting the academic performance to decline as stress interferes with it. This proves that stress can be classified as either good, when it helps for the betterment of one’s academic performance, or bad, when it hinders an individual from doing his best as when it becomes a contributing factor to one’s academic failure. Dela Cruz (2002) advised that if one learns to understand his needs and capabilities, he can take control of stress, after all, life is full of stress and no one is immuned from it. This statement asserts that self-understanding is very much vital in dealing with stress and choosing appropriate adaptive techniques for oneself, since stress is an inescapable part of man’s life.

Unpublished Local Literature A synthesis of the related local sources is presented for better understanding of this research. The academic performances of students are impinged by the following factors: Gender. The male and female have different responses to stress; men “fight or hide” while women “tend and befriend”- and it’s all because of their hormones (Davis, 2004) Filipinos are actually more prone to dealing with stressful situations through “tiis” (endurance) and “kimkim” (repression). However, men generally are not allowed to cry, much less to go into hysterics: and so they bring out beer and toast their problems away. (Tan, 2006)
Affiliations. Students who were socially participating were less anxious and personally adjust despite the difficulties they were facing. (Sison, 2008) Because of this, they were able to perform well academically. Instead of mourning over the numerous requirements and demands of college life, he can divert some of his attention elsewhere, as in school organizations and other kinds of affiliations.
Residence. The location where the students live or the kind of course they were taking contributed in the success or failure in their college transition. Urban residents were also more people-oriented and less anxious than those from the rural areas. Rural or urban, we all face the stresses of family. (Tan, 2006) From this statement, one can infer that students who live in the rather far-flung communities may be more susceptible to stress as compared to the urban residents who do not spend much of their time commuting to school every day.
Stress management was developed and premised on the idea that stress is not a direct response to a stressor but rather one's resources and ability to cope mediate the stress response and are amenable to change, thus allowing stress to be controllable. (Castillo, et al, 2009) Whatever the context of stress management is, it surely is associated with the efficiency of an individual in facilitating the various stressors pressed against him through the apt stress management techniques that a certain circumstance calls for. Also, the definition is not merely centered on the actual response to a stressor, and is parallel to the definition presented by Hans Selye as mentioned earlier in this chapter.
(http://www.scribd.com/doc/34415589/STRESS-MANAGEMENT-PERFORMED-BY-THE-LEVEL-III-NURSING-STUDENTS-OF-NUEVA-ECIJA-UNIVERSITY-OF-SCIENCE-AND-TECHNOLOGY-WITH-REGARDS-TO-THEIR-CLINICAL-DUTIE)

CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the research design, sources of data, respondents of the study and research locale, the sampling procedures, the instruments used, the validation of the instruments, the procedures in gathering data, and the treatment of data. It discusses briefly why and how such methods and techniques were utilized.

Research Design This study dealt with the relationship of stress management to the academic performance of the college students. The researchers made use of the descriptive method. The researchers chose this because it is suitable, convenient, easy to conduct, and affordable; it can be answered promptly and can be administered to students even without strict supervision. The descriptive study deals with the analysis of the present condition that may lead to the identifications of weakness or problems for which the researcher seeks solutions. (Santiago, 2005) He asserted that it is appropriate to use this method in order to determine the prevailing conditions or the present status of a phenomenon and its relation to selected factors.

Sources of Data The researchers visited and explored different libraries, namely the National Library and the FEU Library to find books and research materials related to the topic. The researchers surfed the Internet for supplementary sources. The researcher had also gathered information through the self-made survey questionnaires answered by the chosen respondents. Respondents of the Study and Research Locale The respondents of this study included sixty (60) third year and fourth year BS Accountancy students from the Far Eastern University, who belongs to sections:
● AC090301 ● AC090401
● AC090302 ● AC090402
● AC090303 ● AC090403 whose ages range from 17-21, both male and female and were enrolled in the first semester of the Academic Year 2012-2013. The respondents were chosen for the reason that, the researchers wanted to know if the respondents practice stress management techniques in order to cope with all the demands and pressures of college life.

Sampling Procedures The researchers will utilize the random sampling in order to get the target population at equal chances, and therefore avoiding bias and prejudice. In line with this, the researcher will employ the lottery method in order to collect sixty (60) BS Accountancy students as respondents. First, a list of the school days were written in small sheets of paper folded in such a manner that they are indistinguishable from one another, and then two folded sheets were drawn from this lot at random. Second, the sheets from the class hours, from 7:30 am to 9:00 pm, were prepared in which three time slots were to be drawn. Then, all the sections of the third year, and of the fourth year, were also written in the small sheets, but from this lot two sections were drawn from the third year, and two from the fourth year, as well. From the day, time and sections drawn at random, thirty (30) third year BS Accountancy students were taken as respondents, as well as thirty (30) students from the fourth year.

Instruments To gather the needed information, the researchers employed the self-made survey questionnaire as their chief source of data in discovering the stress management techniques used by the respondents. In line with this, instructions were assured as concise and simple for the respondents’ convenience. The main parts are the following: Respondent’s Profile. This part sought to determine the personal information of the respondents and aimed to answer the first sub problem of this study. Stress Management. This part utilized check box and dichotomous (Yes-No) questions in order to answer the sub problems stated in Chapter I. It generally aimed to know the stress management techniques employed by the respondents in their college life. The first item discussed the definitions of stress as perceived by the BS Accountancy students of FEU-Manila, and was able to answer the second sub-problem. The second item tackled the academic stressors that interfere with the scholarly life of the respondents and wished to answer the third sub-problem. This succeeding item made use of dichotomous (Yes-No) questions in describing the reactions and responses of the respondents towards the stress they experience in their lives. It sought to determine if the students are knowledgeable about stress management. Finally, the last item described the stress management techniques employed by the target respondents and their reasons for utilizing such. The results of these questions, along with the whole questionnaire were able to answer the remaining sub-problems.

Validation of the Instruments The initial draft of the questionnaire was tried to ten (10) students who are not included in the target respondents. This trial was employed to determine if there are difficult or confusing items in the said questionnaire. All the comments and suggestions after the preliminary assessment by an academic expert were considered, the initial draft was then revised and the final instrument was readied for administration.

Data Gathering Procedure
The survey questionnaire was first tested to the ten (10) college students which were not taken as respondents of the study. After minor revisions have been made, the researchers then distributed the said questionnaires among the respondents. Seventy (70) survey questionnaires were disseminated to the respondents. Moreover, the researchers will ask permission from the respondents’ respective professors before administering the survey so as not to disrupt any class discussions. After the questionnaires have been answered, the researchers will then collect them for the tabulation and analysis of data.

Treatment of Data
In order to answer the specific questions stipulated in Chapter 1, the researchers used this formula in organizing, analyzing and interpreting the gathered data and information: Percentage formula. This was utilized in describing the demographic profile of the respondents. This formula is a useful indicator for determining which items in the test the responses were mostly found and in which items they least found in the study.
%=fn*100
Where f=frequency and n=number of respondents

CHAPTER 4
PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION, AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

This chapter presents how the data are tabulated and presented. It shows the college stress management techniques practiced by the BS Accountancy students of FEU through the data accumulated. They were presented through tables for easier understanding. They were also carefully analyzed and circumspectly interpreted to answer the sub-problems of the researchers’ study.
The researchers prepared a survey-questionnaire to gather information from the respondents regarding their demographic profile, their definition of stress, their reactions and responses when under stress, the common stressors affecting their college life, and the stress management techniques they apply in order to cope with stress. Each part of the survey-questionnaire tried to answer the following questions: 1. What is the demographic data of the FEU BS Accountancy students as to: a. Age b. Gender c. Year d. Affiliations e. Residence 2. What are the respondents’ definitions of stress? 3. What are the reactions and responses of the respondents when under stress? 4. What are the common stressors affecting the respondents? 5. What are the respondents’ techniques in managing stress?
Based on their response, the following results were achieved: I. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE
Tables 1.1 to 1.6 illustrate the demographic profile of the respondents as to age, gender, year, residence, and affiliations.
Table 1.1
Frequency and Percentage of the Respondents’ Age Age | Frequency | Percentage | 17-18 | 32 | 53.33% | 19-20 | 26 | 43.33% | 21 and above | 2 | 3.33% | TOTAL | 60 | 100% |

Table 1.1 shows that 32 students or 53.33% of the total population of the respondents were 17-18 years old, 26 students or 43.33% of the respondents were 19-20 years old and 2 students or 3.33% of the respondents were 21 years old and above. The result above is attributable to the former education system of the Philippines, wherein education in the country is composed of 6 years of elementary education starting at the age of 6 or 7, and 4 years of high school education starting at the age of 12 or 13. In this system, education is not compulsory. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_the_Philippines) Another 4 or 5 years will be for the college education, which means that at about 16-17, Filipino students are expected to be college freshmen. The explanation above further justifies that, on their third or fourth year in the tertiary level, the respondents are already 17 to 18 years old.

Table 1.2
Frequency and Percentage of the Respondents’ Gender Gender | Frequency | Percentage | Male | 25 | 41.67% | Female | 35 | 58.33% | TOTAL | 60 | 100% |

Table 1.2 shows that 25 students or 41.67% of the total population of the respondents are males and 35 students or 58.33% of the respondents were females. Although there were more males than females in the Philippines as of 2012, of which 61.1% of people in the Philippines is composed of 15-64 years old (31,103,967 male and 31,097,203 female) as the researchers have researched, there were more females than males in all areas from literacy rate to school participation at all levels. (http://www.affordablecebu.com/load/philippine_government/total_population_of_the_philippines_2012/5-1-0-3004#ixzz27ady9nFw) Data show that more boys than girls dropped out of school as they advance to higher education, ending up with only 76 boys for every 100 girls who entered college. (http://voxbikol.com/article/women-philippines)
Table 1.3
Frequency and Percentage of the Respondents’ Year Level Year Level | Frequency | Percentage | 3rd Year | 30 | 50% | 4th Year | 30 | 50% | TOTAL | 60 | 100% |

Table 1.3 shows that 30 students or 50% of the total population of the respondents are third year students and 30 students or 50% of the respondents were from the fourth year. Table 1.3 illustrates that the respondents, of which were third year and fourth year BS Accountancy students were evenly divided in order to assess the stress management practiced by the respondents from both year levels.
Table 1.4
Frequency and Percentage of the Respondents’ Affiliations Affiliations | Frequency | Percentage | 0 | 24 | 40% | 1 | 22 | 36.67% | 2 | 8 | 13.33% | 3 | 5 | 8.33% | 4 and above | 1 | 1.67% | TOTAL | 60 | 100% |

Table 1.4 shows that 24 students or 40% of the total population of the respondents are not inclined in any affiliations, while 22 students or 36.67% of the respondents are inclined to at least one organization, 8 respondents or 13.33% are inclined to 2 affiliations, 5 respondents or 8.33% are found out to have 3 affiliations and 1 respondent is affiliated to more than 4 affiliations. The students with no affiliations have the greatest number among all the responses. This is primarily because, being in the third year and fourth year, the respondents have no or maybe little time to engage themselves in extracurricular activities as in different affiliations inside and outside the university.

Table 1.5
Frequency and Percentage of the Respondents’ Residence Residence | Frequency | Percentage | Within the university belt | 17 | 28.33% | Outside the university belt | 43 | 71.67% | TOTAL | 60 | 100% |

Table 1.5 shows that 17 students within the university belt. This comprises of 28.33% of the whole population, while 43 students or 71.67% of the respondents reside outside the university belt. More students reside outside the university belt since FEU is a university for the middle class. The students who live within the university belt are actually those who live in boarding houses, dormitories and the like. The table above reveals that majority of the respondents reside outside the university belt and may more likely be subjected to stress as compared to students living within the university belt. This was further supported by Tan (2006) where he said that, students who live in the rather far-flung communities may be more susceptible to stress as compared to the urban residents who do not spend much of their time commuting to school every day. As in this case, the urban residents correspond to the students residing within the university belt. Also, a huge population of the Far Eastern University comprises of students from different provinces from across the country and cities in Metro Manila and so the results may imply that such students were the ones who contribute to the number of students who reside outside the university.

II. STRESS MANAGEMENT
Table 2.1
Frequency and Percentage of the Respondents’ Definition of Stress Definition | Frequency | Percentage | Non-specific response of the body to any demand made on it. | 8 | 13.33% | State of anxiety produced when events and responsibilities exceed one’s coping abilities. | 35 | 58.33% | Rate of wear and tear in the body | 7 | 11.67% | Inability to cope with perceived (real or imagined) threat to one’s mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being, which results in a series of physiological responses and adaptations. | 35 | 58.33% | Table 2.1 shows that 8 respondents or 13.33% of the total population of the respondents defined stress as non-specific response of the body to any demand made on it, 35 of the respondents or 58.33% of the respondents interpreted stress as state of anxiety produced when events and responsibilities exceed one’s coping abilities, 7 of the respondents or 11.67% of the respondents rate of wear and tear on the body, and 35 of the respondents or 58.33% of the respondents believed that stress is Inability to cope with perceived (real or imagined) threat to one’s mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being, which results in a series of physiological responses and adaptations. The second and fourth definitions got the highest number of responses from the BS Accountancy students. It can be observed that both options speak about ‘coping’ which is an essential keyword in identifying stress and other concepts related to it. Coping may vary from one person to another depending on your assessment of the stressful event. Your cognitive reaction to a situation plays a role in determining how stressful a situation is to you. This reaction is characterized by your appraisal of the nature, importance and implications of the event, and by your ability to effectively manage or cope with the event. Your emotional responses to a situation are determined by your appraisal of both the situation and your coping abilities, as well as your temperament. (http://psychcentral.com/lib/2006/stress-and-personality/)

Table 3.1
Frequency and Percentage of the Common Stressors affecting the respondents’ college life Common Stressors | Frequency | Percentage | Academic Deadlines | 40 | 66.67% | Financial Matters | 19 | 31.67% | Peer Pressure and Relationships | 19 | 31.67% | Professional Pursuits | 20 | 33.33% | Lifestyle Behaviors | 26 | 43.33% | Others | 0 | 0% |

Table 3.1 shows the percentage breakdown of the common stressors affecting their college lives. 40 of the respondents or 66.67% of the total population of the respondents said that academic deadlines are their mostly encountered source of stress. Financial matters and peer pressure & relationships both got 19 responses or 31.67%. 20 of the respondents or 33.33% responded that professional pursuits affect their college life. 26 of the respondents or 43.33% perceived their lifestyle behavior as a contributing factor to their stress. However, none of the respondents ticked “others” as their response. “Academic deadlines” include exams, papers, and projects needed to be accomplished by a college student. With all of these to accomplish and comply with, there is an ever present danger that not meeting expectations can result in poor grades. Both third and fourth year students are taking up 27 units this semester, including Accounting, Law, and Taxation subjects which contribute a lot to their academic pressures.
Table 4.1
Reactions and Responses of the respondents’ on accomplishing school requirements on time Reactions and Responses | YES | NO | | Frequency | Percentage | Frequency | Percentage | 1. Do you accomplish your school requirements on time? | 51 | 85% | 9 | 15% | 2. | N=60 |

Table 4.1 shows that 85% of the respondents, corresponding to 51 students responded positively, while 9 of the respondents or 15% ticked “No” for their answers. This may be due to the fact that, the respondents practice time management as evidenced by their response on what stress management technique they usually apply. The result of the data gathered was supported by the study of Olpin and Hesson (2010), which stated that time management has a positive impact on student’s mental health, and that this may be attributable primarily to enhanced feelings of control over time.
Table 4.2
Reactions and Responses of the respondents’ on the personal quality time they need each day Reactions and Responses | YES | NO | | Frequency | Percentage | Frequency | Percentage | 3. Do you have the personal quality time that you need each day? | 32 | 53.33% | 28 | 46.67% | | N=60 |
Table 4.2 shows that The “Yes” response was checked by 32 students or 53.33% of the respondents, while 28 students or 46.67% of the respondents took “No” for an answer, when asked if they still have the personal quality time each day. The table above revealed that the respondents still have their alone time every day in order to de-stress themselves from all the pressures and demands faced upon them.

Table 4.3
Reactions and Responses of the respondents’ on positively responding on doing something unfamiliar Reactions and Responses | YES | NO | | Frequency | Percentage | Frequency | Percentage | 4. Do you respond in a positive manner when asked to do something for which you are not familiar with? | 39 | 65% | 21 | 35% | | N=60 |

Table 4.3 shows that 39 of the total population of the respondents, which is 65% of the respondents, said that they respond positively while 21 students or 35% of the respondents answered “No”. This response is further supported by an article from http://ezinearticles.com/?Free-Yourself-From-Stress,-Anxiety-and-Fear&id=1434775, which states that, it’s not only you who experiences fear when doing something unfamiliar. Everyone does, even the most outgoing seemingly comfortable or laid back people are scared on unfamiliar territory. And pushing through your fear and anxiety is easier and better than the feeling of helplessness being scared leaves you with.

Table 4.4
Reactions and Responses of the respondents’ on responding to unexpected events openly Reactions and Responses | YES | NO | | Frequency | Percentage | Frequency | Percentage | 5. When you are asked to do something unexpected, do you openly respond to it? | 40 | 66.67% | 20 | 33.33% | | N=60 |

Table 4.4 shows that 66.67% of the respondents, corresponding to 40 students responded affirmatively while 20 of the respondents or 33.33% ticked “No” for their answer in the question, “when you are asked something unexpected, do you openly respond to it?” There are things we are not prepared to face yet we cannot change, and attempting to change these situations may become a series of dramas that only perpetuate to the cycles of stress. (Greenberg, 2011) He also said that acceptance of an unexpected and uncontrollable situation for what it is, rather than wasting energy to change or move away from it is a unique human resource. Dealing with an unexpected event and accepting it is not a sign of defeat, but rather a liberation that allows you to release any emotional baggage and move on with your life.

Table 4.5
Reactions and Responses of the respondents’ on taking problems as a challenge Reactions and Responses | YES | NO | | Frequency | Percentage | Frequency | Percentage | 6. When you encounter problems, do you take it as a challenge? | 46 | 76.67% | 14 | 23.33% | | N=60 |

Table 4.5 shows that The “Yes” response was checked by 76.67% of the respondents or 46 students while 14 students or 23.33% of the respondents took “No” for their answer. The positive response of the respondents may be associated to Olpin and Hesson’s (2010) definition of challenge. The term challenge reflects an outlook on life that enables an individual to perceive change as an opportunity for growth rather than a threat to one’s sense of security or survival.

Table 4.6
Reactions and Responses of the respondents’ on accepting uncontrollable events healthily Reactions and Responses | YES | NO | | Frequency | Percentage | Frequency | Percentage | 7. Do you accept with healthy attitude situations that you cannot control? | 44 | 73.33% | 16 | 26.67% | | N=60 |

Table 4.6 shows that 44 of the total population of the respondents, which comprised 73.33% of the respondents said that they accept with a healthy attitude situations they cannot control while 26.67% or 16 students answered “No”. There is a relationship between the amount of control we think we have and the corresponding amount of stress that we feel. The more control we feel we have over the circumstances, the less stress we tend to feel (Olpin and Hesson, 2010). The healthy attitudes they practice include acceptance, allowance, and a go with the flow attitude.

Table 4.7
Reactions and Responses of the respondents’ on positive outlook towards stress-causing conditions Reactions and Responses | YES | NO | | Frequency | Percentage | Frequency | Percentage | 8. Do you usually respond with positive outlook to stress-causing conditions? | 44 | 73.33% | 16 | 26.67% | | N=60 |

Table 4.7 shows that 73.33% of the respondents, corresponding to 44 students responded positively while 16 of the respondents or 26.67% opt for “No” as their answer. The respondents primarily practice optimism in their college life. Olpin and Hesson (2010) said that, when you approach life with a more accurate interpretation of events around you, this positive perception halts the initiation of the stress response and the resulting disease and ill health, and you also learn that you can turn problems into opportunities to reawaken your enthusiasm for life.

Table 4.8
Reactions and Responses of the respondents’ on finding oneself exhausted in the midst of problems Reactions and Responses | YES | NO | | Frequency | Percentage | Frequency | Percentage | Do you find yourself exhausted in the midst of problems? | 26 | 43.33% | 34 | 56.67% | | N=60 | Table 4.8 shows that the “Yes” response was checked by 43.33% of the respondents or 26 students. On the other hand, 34 of the respondents or 56.67% took “No” for their answers. The table above revealed that the respondents primarily do not feel exhausted or worn out when they are faced with problems, but rather, they are able to endure these impediments and deal with them efficiently. This response was further supported by a research made by Jonathan Smith in 1993, where he explained that, people who believe they cannot cope tend to dwell on personal deficiencies and exaggerate on potential difficulties. In contrast, high efficiency expectancies can contribute to a willingness to take on challenges and persist in the face of challenges and frustrations. And therefore, this enduring belief often makes the difference between success and failure, with the latter contributing more to the stress an individual faces.

Table 4.9
Reactions and Responses of the respondents’ on calmly responding to bombardment Reactions and Responses | YES | NO | | Frequency | Percentage | Frequency | Percentage | 9. When you are bombarded with so many activities, do you deal with them calmly? | 41 | 68.33% | 19 | 31.67% | | N=60 |

Table 4.9 shows that 41 of the total population of the respondents, which corresponds to 68.33% of the respondents, said that they still act calmly even when bombarded with a lot of activities. 31.67% or 19 of the respondents answered “No”. The table above revealed that the respondents calmly respond to the activities faced upon them, and do not feel overloaded though these may exceed the activities they usually accomplish. This response may be attributed to a study made by Greenberg (2011) where he stated that when you look at all of your responsibilities, you might feel overloaded. However, if you write a schedule for them, you would probably recognize that you do have enough time for it all. Only when viewed collectively do they appear overwhelming. Scheduling may be considered to be an aspect in time management, which is also an adaptive technique employed by the respondents.

Table 4.10
Reactions and Responses of the respondents’ on accepting challenges that exceed one’s limitations Reactions and Responses | YES | NO | | Frequency | Percentage | Frequency | Percentage | 10. Do you accept challenges that are above your limitations? | 35 | 58.33% | 25 | 41.67% | | N=60 | Table 4.10 shows that 58.33% of the respondents, corresponding to 35 of the total population of the respondents answered positively while 25 students or 41.67% of the respondents ticked “No” for their answer. The question may be related to question number 5, which is about taking problems as a challenge. Their positive response may be seen as an indicator that they are able to see challenges as opportunities rather than threats.

Table 5.1
Frequency and Percentage of the Stress Management Techniques applied by the Respondents STRESS MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES | Frequency | Percentage | Training | 11 | 18.33% | Getting a hobby | 25 | 41.67% | Artistic Expression (Drawing, Painting, etc.) | 16 | 26.67% | Time Management | 34 | 56.67% | Quieting | 24 | 40% | Conflict Resolution | 11 | 18.33% | Meditation | 17 | 28.33% | Taking Medicines | 5 | 8.33% | Music Therapy | 45 | 75% | Self-Hypnosis | 5 | 8.33% | Relaxation Response | 36 | 60% | Exercise | 18 | 30% | Others | 9 | 15% | Table 5.1 shows the stress management techniques that the respondents apply in dealing with the stress they face in their college lives. ‘Training’ was employed by 11 students, or 18.33% of the total population of the respondents. The second technique which is ‘Getting a hobby’ got 25 ticks from 41.67% of the total population of the respondents. 16 of the respondents, corresponding to 26.67% of the population opt for ‘Artistic Expression’ such as drawing, painting, etc. as their adaptive technique. ‘Time management’ was applied by 56.67% of the respondents comprised of 34 students while 24 of the respondents or 40% checked ‘Quieting’ as their answer. ‘Conflict Resolution’ got 11 responses from the 18.33 % of the total population of the respondents.17 students or 28.33% of the respondents, however, chose ‘Meditation’ as their stress management technique. The eight option, ‘Taking Medicines’ got a total of 5 checks from the 8.33% of the total population of the respondents. ‘Music Therapy’ was considered by 75% of the respondents consisting of 45 students as adaptive technique they apply in their college life. ‘Self-Hypnosis’ was employed by 5 students or 8.33% of the respondents while the option, ‘Relaxation Response’ got 60% of the respondents or 36 checks. The response ‘Exercise’ was considered by 18 students or 30% of the respondents. ‘Others’ was ticked by 9 students, comprising of 15% of the total population of the respondents, and showed other adaptive stress management techniques like sleeping and eating, praying, drinking alcoholic beverages and smoking, reading the Bible, drinking coffee and watching movie. Music therapy, among the other stress management techniques, was employed by majority of the respondents. The data gathered matched accordingly to the studies stated below.
(Scott, 2007) Music therapy has been the top stress management technique for teens for it has shown numerous health benefits for people with conditions ranging from mild (like stress) to severe (like cancer). When dealing with stress, the right music can actually lower your blood pressure, relax your body and calm your mind.
(Russell, 2001) Music heightens mental functioning, promotes healing and helps you feel calm and relaxed. It is considered a creative art therapy. Experts propose that it is the rhythm of the music that has a calming effect on us. A therapist encourages the use of different kinds of instruments. One way listening to music can manage the degree of your stress as it relaxes tensed muscles.

CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary, conclusions, and recommendations of this study undertaken by the researchers. This illustrates the overall results and data gathered throughout the study. The main purpose of this study is to find out the stress management techniques employed by the FEU BS Accountancy students. It also seeks to answer the sub-problems as follows:

1. What is the demographic data of the FEU BS Accountancy students as to: a. Age b. Gender c. Year d. Affiliations e. Residence 2. What are the respondents’ definitions of stress? 3. What are the common stressors affecting the respondents? 4. What are the respondents’ reactions and response when under stress? 5. What are the respondents ‘techniques in managing stress?

FINDINGS
This study is all about the “Stress Management Techniques practiced by the FEU BS Accountancy students in their college life.” The descriptive method of research was utilized and the self-made survey questionnaires served as the main data gathering instrument. There are 60 respondents who fill up the survey questionnaire. The results of the questionnaire were tabulated and interpreted from which the findings and conclusion were drawn. The following are the summary of findings of the study based from all the data presented, analyzed and interpreted in Chapter IV.

1. The demographic profile of the respondents as to: 2.1 Age. 2.2.1 17-18 years old— frequency of 32 or 53 percent of the respondents 2.2.2 19-20 years old— frequency of 26 or 43 percent of the respondents 2.2.3 21 years old and above—frequency of 2 or 3 percent of the respondents 2.2 Gender. 2.3.4 Male—frequency of 25 or 42 percent of the respondents 2.3.5 Female—frequency of 35 or 58 percent of the respondents 2.3 Year. 2.4.6 Third year—frequency of 30 or 50 percent of the respondents 2.4.7 Fourth year—frequency of 30 or 50 percent of the respondents 2.4 Affiliations. 2.5.8 No affiliations—frequency of 24 or 40 percent of the respondents 2.5.9 1 affiliation—frequency of 22 or 37 percent of the respondents 2.5.10 2 affiliations—frequency of 8 or 13 percent of the respondents 2.5.11 3 affiliations—frequency of 5 or 8 percent of the respondents 2.5.12 4 affiliations and above—frequency of 1 or 2 percent of the respondents 2.5 Residence. 2.6.13 Within the university belt—frequency of 17 or 28 percent of the respondents 2.6.14 Outside the university belt—frequency of 30 or 50 percent of the respondents 2. The definitions of stress as perceived by the respondents. 2.1 Non-specific response of the body to any demand made on it—frequency of 8 or 13 percent of the respondents 2.2 State of anxiety produced when events and responsibilities exceed one’s coping abilities—frequency of 35 or 58 percent of the respondents 2.3 Rate of wear and tear in the body—frequency of 7 or 12 percent of the respondents 2.4 Inability to cope with perceived (real or imagined) threat to one’s mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being, which results in a series of physiological responses and adaptations—frequency of 35 or 58 percent of the respondents 3. The common stressors affecting the respondents’ college life.
The first three in rank are: 3.1 Academic Deadlines—frequency of 40 or 67 percent of the respondents 3.2 Lifestyle Behaviors—frequency of 26 or 43 percent of the respondents 3.3 Professional Pursuits—frequency of 20 or 33 percent of the respondents 4. The reactions and responses of the respondents when under stress.
4.1 The respondents accomplish their school requirements on time—frequency of 51 or 85 percent of the respondents
4.2 They still have the personal quality time they need each day—frequency of 32 or 53 percent of the respondents
4.3 The students respond in a positive manner when they are asked to do something they are not familiar with—frequency of 39 or 65 percent of the respondents
4.4 They openly respond when asked to do something unexpected—frequency of 40 or 67 percent of the respondents
4.5 The respondents take their problems as challenges—frequency of 46 or 77 percent of the respondents
4.6 They accept the situations they cannot control with healthy attitude—frequency of 44 or 73 percent of the respondents
4.7 The students usually respond to stress-causing conditions with positive outlook—frequency of 44 or 73 percent of the respondents
4.8 The respondents do not find themselves exhausted in the midst of problems—frequency of 34 or 57 percent of the respondents
4.9 Even with so much activities ahead of them, the students still deal with them calmly—frequency of 41 or 68 percent of the respondents
4.10 The respondents accept challenges that are above their limitations—frequency of 35 or 538 percent of the respondents
5. Stress management techniques applied by the respondents. The first three in rank are as follows: 6.1 Music Therapy—frequency of 45 or 75 percent of the respondents
5.2 Relaxation Response—frequency of 36 or 60 percent of the respondents
5.3 Time Management—frequency of 34 or 57 percent of the respondents

CONCLUSIONS Based on the observations done on the foregoing findings, the researchers have formulated the following conclusions: 1. Majority of the third and fourth year BS Accountancy students taken as respondents were aged 17-18 years old, female, have no affiliation, and reside outside the university belt. 2. Stress, as perceived by the respondents, is a state of anxiety produced when events and responsibilities exceed one’s coping abilities. They also define stress as the inability to cope with perceived (real or imagined) threat to one’s mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being, which results in a series of physiological responses and adaptations. 3. Among the manifold stressors that affect the respondents in their college life, academic deadlines impinge them the most. Meanwhile, the results showed that the rest of the stressors can still affect the respondents somehow. 4. The respondents basically accomplish their school requirements on time, and still have the personal quality time they need each day. They also practice optimism, calmness and openness in response to something stress-causing, unfamiliar, unexpected, or beyond their control. They take their problems as challenges and still do not feel exhausted in the midst of such problems. Also, when they are bombarded with so many activities, they deal with them calmly and accept even those which exceed their limitations. 5. The respondents are properly educated in dealing with their daily stresses. To cope with it, they even practice stress management techniques. Among these techniques, music therapy was employed by majority of the respondents in order to lessen their stress. However, all the other stress management techniques suggested were also practiced by the respondents in one way or the other. RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the findings and the formulated conclusions, the following recommendations are posited: 1. After identifying the common stressors that affect the respondents’ scholarly life, college students may employ the same or more of the stress management techniques practiced by the respondents in order to deal with their individual stress. 2. Incoming college students must be properly equipped with enough knowledge concerning stress management for them to become confident in dealing the pressures and demands of college life. Hence, improper coping with stress will be lessened and prevented. 3. The researchers, being more knowledgeable with regards to stress management, must employ the apt stress management techniques to themselves in order to develop further their ability and capacity to cope with stress. 4. Parents must support their children all the time to establish an open and harmonious relationship with them and guide them in becoming more efficient and resilient in combating the stress that they may experience throughout their college life. 5. Let this study be used as a basis by the next researchers to conduct a more comprehensive research on the existing stress management techniques. Also, the results of this research may be utilized in order to create a stress management program suitable for the future respondents in relation to this study.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS
Arora, Anjali. 2007. 5 Steps to counteract stress. Manila: WS Pacific Publications, Inc.
Dorland, Su. 2009. Exam stress? No worries!. Milton, Queensland. : WrightBooks.
Greenberg, Jerold S. 2011. Comprehensive stress management, 12th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Olpin, Michael and Margie Hesson. 2010. Stress management for life: a research-based, experimental approach, second edition. Wadsworth: Cengage Learning.
Seaward, Brian Luke. 2006. Essentials of managing stress. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.
Selye, Hans. 1957. The stress of life. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.

JOURNALS
Castillo, Nelia G. September 2002. 60 second stress managements for helping children cope with school. The Modern Teacher.
Pelisimo, Milagros L. September 2002. Stress and children. The Modern Teacher.
Calimpong, Rowena B. September 2002. Stress and classroom performance. The Modern Teacher.
Canada, Rodrigo Q. September 2002. How to cope with stress. The Modern Teacher.
Davis, Jeanie Lerche. April 24, 2004. Stress and the sexes. Women’s Journal.
Sawatzky, Richard G, et.al. January/ February 2012. Stress and depression in students: the mediating role of stress management self-efficacy. Nursing Research.

THESES
Villamoran, Erlinda P, and et.al. February 13, 2006. Factors affecting the academic performance of freshman college students of selected state universities and colleges.
Sison, Lovelyn P. 2008. Students’ conditions, social-personal adjustment and trait patterns relative to academic performance. Manila.
Paz, Charmaine Anne C. 2010. Stress management in relation to the social maturity of SBSN seniors.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_the_Philippines http://krystalk.wrytestuff.com/swa560692-Stress-Management-Managing-Stress-Before-Its-Manages-You.htm http://pcj.org/stories/stress-and-the-filipino http://psychcentral.com/lib/2006/stress-and-personality/ http://voxbikol.com/article/women-philippines http://www.affordablecebu.com/load/philippine_government/total_population_of_the_philippines_2012/5-1-0-3004#ixzz27ady9nFw http://www.articlesfactory.com/articles/self-help/stress-management-managing-stress-in-a-busy-world.html http://www.essortment.com/stress-management-techniques-college-students-40346.html http://www.freepatentsonline.com/article/College-Student-Journal/62839434.html http://www.merriam-webster.com/medical/stress http://www.scribd.com/doc/34415589/STRESS-MANAGEMENT-PERFORMED-BY-THE-LEVEL-III-NURSING-STUDENTS-OF-NUEVA-ECIJA-UNIVERSITY-OF-SCIENCE-AND-TECHNOLOGY-WITH-REGARDS-TO-THEIR-CLINICAL-DUTIE http://www.uic.edu/depts/wellctr/docs/Stress%20and%20the%20College%20Students.pdf

APPENDIX

Questionnaire
GENERAL DIRECTIONS: (1) Please accomplish this questionnaire very carefully and neatly. (2) Please share your frank, honest, and sincere answers.

I. Respondent’s Profile
Please fill in the necessary information. Name (optional): ___________________________ Year: 3rd yr. 4th yr. Age: 17-18 yrs. old Gender: Male 19-20 yrs. Old Female 21yrs. old above Residence: within the University Belt outside the University Belt Affiliations: no affiliations 3 affiliations 1 affiliation 4 affiliations and above 2 affiliations

II. Stress Management
Directions: please check the box in each number that corresponds to your answer. A. What is your definition of stress? (You may check more than one.) Non-specific response of the body to any demand made on it. State of anxiety produced when events and responsibilities exceed one’s coping abilities. Rate of wear and tear on the body. Inability to cope with perceived (real or imagined) threat to one’s mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being, which results in a series of physiological responses and adaptations.

B. What are the common stressors affecting your academic performance? (You may check more than one.) Academic Deadlines Professional Pursuits Financial Matters Lifestyle Behaviors Peer Pressure and Relationships Others pls. specify: _________

C. What are your reactions and responses when under stress? | YES | NO | 1. Do you accomplish your school requirements on time? | | | 2. Do you have the personal quality time that you need each day? | | | 3. Do you respond in a positive manner when asked to do something for which you are not familiar with? | | | 4. When you are asked to do something unexpected, do you respond irritably? | | | 5. When you encounter problems, do you take it as a challenge? | | | 6. Do you accept with healthy attitude situations that you cannot control? | | | 7. Do you usually respond with positive outlook to stress-causing conditions? | | | 8. Do you find yourself exhausted in the midst of problems? | | | 9. When you are bombarded with so many activities, do you deal with them calmly? | | | 10. Do you refuse to accept challenges that are above your limitations? | | |

D. What stress management techniques do you apply? (You may check more than one.) Training Meditation Getting a hobby Taking Medicines Artistic Expression (Drawing, Painting, etc) Music Therapy Time Management Self-Hypnosis Quieting Relaxation Response Conflict Resolution Exercise Others. Specify: ______________

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...Stress management Abstract Stress management (SM) is a widely used term with a seemingly obvious meaning. The research literature contains many studies evaluating its effectiveness, but it is not clear how many different forms of SM exist and how efficacious they are for which target problem. One hundred and fifty-three studies on SM were analyzed to determine consensus in definitions and therapy protocols. Results showed that a typical delivery format exists (mostly group form, 8–10 sessions in length and multitechnique), but the number of techniques used was very large, techniques were inconsistently labeled are often poorly described. It is concluded that in outcome research, the term "stress management" is operationally defined with such variability that comparisons of SM outcome studies are not meaningful at this time. Author Keywords: Stress management; Arousal reduction; Coping; Therapy outcome [pic] [pic] Introduction This paper questions whether or not stress management (SM) researchers agree on what SM is, what the necessary treatment ingredients are and whether or not comparisons of different studies using SM are possible and meaningful. Previous experience with the conduct of controlled studies of SM for health outcomes [1 and 2] and the desire to continue this line of research motivated us to begin examining the efficacy of SM with the possible goal of conducting a meta-analytic review. A minimal, yet pivotal, requirement for considering......

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Stress Management

...literature and studies from other researches relevant to the present study. Related Literature       Many researches have been conducted to know what stress is all about and its effects to human if it exceeds beyond our control.         Selye as cited by Berry (1997) defined stress in physiological terms as a non-specific or generalized bodily response.   This response results when any demand is made on the body, whether it is an environment condition that we must survive or a demand that we make ourselves in order to accomplish a personal goal.   Selye distinguished between two forms of stress.   Distress is the response to negative events and eustress (euphoria) is the response to positive events.         Stress is good and will motivate people to succeed, but too much stress can affect one’s performance (http://www.chow.com).   Greener as cited by de Jesus (2010:p.22) opined that most people can cope with and even need a certain amount of stress to perform to the peak of their ability but when demands for dealing with it outstrip resources, strength or time, it becomes dangerous.         Feldman (2005) said that stress is a normal part of life and not a necessary a bad part of life.   However, it is also clear that too much stress can take a toll on both physical and psychological health.   According to Stuthers (2000), stress is what people feel when they are worried or uncomfortable about something.   This worry in the mind can make the body feel bad.   They......

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...IMPACT OF ACADEMIC STRESS AMONG THE MANAGEMENT STUDENTS OF AMET UNIVERSITY – AN ANALYSIS Dr.D.Rajasekar ABSTRACT The study examined the “Impact of academic stress among the management students. Stress management encompasses techniques to equip a person with effective coping mechanisms for dealing with physiological stress. Students have different expectations, goals, and values that they want to fulfill, which is only possible if the students are integrated with that of the institution. The objective of the study is use to find out the present level of stress, source of stress and stress management techniques that would be useful for management students. The study takes into account various criteria like physical, psychological, individual, demographical and environmental factors of stress among the management students. The sample comprises of 100 students of AMET Business School, AMET University. Data was collected through structured academic stress questionnaire by using convenient sampling method. Keywords: Stress, Academic Stress, Student stress; Stress among management students. INTRODUCTION The education sector in India is evolving, led by the emergence of new niche sectors like vocational training, finishing schools, child-skill enhancement and e-learning. The Indian education system, considered as one of the largest in the world, is divided into two major segments of core and non-core businesses. While, schools and higher education for the core group,......

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Stress Management

...TERM PAPER MPOB L LOVELY INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT topic:- stress management SUBMITTED TO:- Ms. MANBIR KAUR GILL SUBMITTED BY:- NAME:- PRASHANT KUMAR ROLL NO:- RT1901 “A19” SUB:- MPOB REG NO:- 10900829 PROG :- MBA (1ST) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT | I would like to take this opportunity to express my gratitude towards all those people who have helped me in the successful completion of this term paper, directly or indirectly. I would also like to express my sincere gratitude towards Ms. Manbir kaur gill (my term paper guide) for her guidance and help which she willingly provided at every step of my term paper. PRASHANT KUMAR M.B.A 1st SEMESTER TABLE OF CONTENT INTRODUCTION 1 ORGANIZATION SIGNIFYING 4 LITERATURE REVIEW 5 RESEARCH METHODOLGY * SECONDARY DATA 8 DATA ANALYSIS ...

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Stress Management

...Name: Course: Institution: My response to stress When I am all worked by stress, I am usually very restless and often lack sleep. I also experience mild headaches. Everything usually seems very boring and I get very dull. When stressed up, I am usually very irritable and gets annoyed I project a very bad temper. I therefore isolate myself and contact very few or no one at all. These are my general reactions to stress. I am most concerned about how easily I get annoyed and can lash out at very slight things. If this persists, I can end up hurting myself or other people. I therefore try to control my stress levels to avoid incidences that I might regret. I have found some easy ways of dealing with my reactions. When I feel stress building up, first thing I do is to momentarily give myself a break from what is stressing me. For instance if it is an exam that is making me stressed up, I momentarily stop reading for the test, slide into my track suite, carry my mp3 player and earphones and go for a jog. This usually sets my mind to other issues in my life. As I progress with the jog, I keep playing in my head positive encouraging phrases. My all-time favorite is, ‘let me make it happen, like I always do!’ With this phrase continually running through my head, I usually begin feeling relaxed and mostly even find myself smiling. At that moment, I know that the paper is no longer affecting me. I then get back home, still playing the message, take a warm bath and pray. This helps me......

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... Psychology and Management of stress Task 1 Outline and evaluate (i) Selye’s (1956) General Adaption Syndrome of stress. The General Adaption Syndrome (GAS) is Selye’s belief that that the body has physiological ways in which to deal with long term and short term stress and its and that prolonged exposure to stress can result in illness. He started this in the 1930’s and based this on researching hormones of rats and found that the rats had stress response to his research. He believed that regardless of the type of stressor, the reaction of the stressor was always the same. (Rice et al 2010p100) Selye’s model has three stages: Alarm stage – This is where the environmental stimuli is viewed as a stressor and the ‘fight or flight’ instinct is aroused and the first reactions are aroused. This is where the automatic nervous system (ANS) is activated and the sympathetic branch of the nervous system to release adrenaline and noradrenaline, which in turn raises the heart rate, blood pressure, perspiration and digestion, slows. This stage is usually disappears quickly through the parasympathetic branch which returns everything to normal. If it continues we then move to the next stage Resistance stage – This is where the environmental stressors are still there, and the body physiologically starts to adapt and adjust. Arousal is still high and the high level of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) is still in the body. ACTH will try to resist stress by conserving......

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