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Stroke Case Study Paper

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Stroke is a common, serious and global health care problem; it’s the third most common cause of health and first cause of adult disability (12). The rehabilitation is the major part of his care (13).
Stroke is a neurological deficit caused by an acute focal injury f the central nervous system (CNS) by a vascular cause: a cerebral infraction appears with overt symptoms or intracerebral hemorrhage with no symptoms (10%) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (5%) (14).
The most impairment that can be regarded as a loss or limitation of function in movement or limitation in mobility and muscle contraction, is the most common and widely recognized impairment caused by stroke. The movement of face, arm, and leg of one side of the body are the structures affected
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It has been reported that up to 85% of stroke survivors experience hemiparesis and that 55% to 75% of stroke survivors have continued to have limitation in upper- extremity functioning (2).
Upper limb impairments in people who have had a stroke are well documented and include spasticity, dystonia, and muscle contracture, loss of strength and dexterity, decreased active joint range of motion and lack of movement speed, precision, bimanual coordination, and other common impairment include those of speech and language, vision, cognition and sensation (16,12).
Many factors plays a role in determining the long-term of stroke, the site, size of the initial stroke lesion and by the extent of subsequent recovery. The latter is a complex process that probably occurs through a combination of spontaneous and learning-dependent processes, including restitution (restoring the functionality of damaged neural tissue), substitution (reorganization of partly spared neural to relearn lost function), and compensation (improvement of the disparity between the impaired skills of a patient and the demands of their environment) (12). From 55% to 75% of stroke survivors have a paretic arm that many improve primarily within 6 months (17). Most research of stroke rehabilitation has been about the effect of interventions on recovery in different forms of impairment and
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Definition of mirror visual feedback

Sensory-motor integration is the capacity of the central nervous system to transform different sources of sensory input such as visual feedback to motor actions, it help in for the control of motor performance, skill acquisition, and the detection of motor errors (23).

Mirror visual feedback (MVF) was first introduced in 1992 by Ramachandran et al.,it’s a simple non-invasive technique for the treatment of two disorders that have long been regarded as permanent and largely incurable; chronic pain of central origin (such as phantom pain) and hemiparesis following a stroke (6). Altschuler and colleagues reported in their pilot study the effect of this treatment on “the ability of movement of patients in terms of range of motion, speed and precision”, especially for patients with severe hemiparesis (24, 25).
This therapy has been used to treat phantom limb pain in amputee patients, and in stoke patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1, peripheral nerve injury, brachial plexus avulsion, and the paretic hand (13).In summary, the evidence that MVF increase recovery from severe hemi paresis is higher than other procedures based on active and passive movement execution, but it’s unclear on which symptom can be improved

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