Free Essay

Struggle for Women in Olympic Sports

In: Other Topics

Submitted By Catalina
Words 2721
Pages 11
The struggle for women’s participation in sports, particularly in Marathons was based on several ideologies that circulated during the second half of the 19th century. These ideologies led women distance runners to join together in an effort that would forever change women’s participation in marathons. By the 1970’s, the Olympic Marathon had come a long way from the dusty roads of Athens. Yet women were still not allowed to compete and the struggle to establish a women’s Olympic Marathon was itself something of a long distance race. Before the 1980s, there were no women’s distance races in the Olympics. In the Moscow Games, the longest race for women was the 1,500 meters, which had been instituted in 1972. Women had been excluded from track and field competition altogether until 1928, when the longest race was the 800 meters. Despite a world record by winner Lina Radke of Germany, many of the competitors had not properly prepared for the race and several collapsed in exhaustion. This let Olympic organizers to consider the race too strenuous for the elimination of all women’s competition from the Games. This drastic move was not taken, but until 1960, when the 800 meters reappeared, no race over 200 meters was contested by women in the Olympics. This is not to say there was no tradition of women’s long-distance running. Women had been forbidden from participating in the ancient Olympics. A women who was caught even as a spectator at the Games could face execution. But women in ancient Greece held their own festival to honor the goddess Hera every five years. Only one athletic event was held a short foot race. When the Olympics were revived in 1896, women were again excluded. But, in March of 1896, Stamatis Rovithi became the first woman to run a marathon when she covered the proposed Olympic course from Marathon to Athens. The following month, a woman name Melpomene presented herself as an entrant in the Olympic Marathon. Race organizers denied her the opportunity to compete. Undiscouraged, Melpomene warmed up for the race out of sight. When the gun went off, she began to run along the side of the course. Eventually she fell behind, but she continued on. She arrived at the stadium with a time of 4 ½ hours. One Greek newspaper wrote that Olympic organizers were discourteous to disallow Melpomene’s entry into the race, but nonetheless it would be nearly a century before another woman would run the Olympic Marathon. Violet Piercy of Great Britain was the first woman to be officially timed in the marathon, when she clocked a time of 3:40:22 in a British race on October 3, 1926. Due largely to the lack of women's marathon competition, that time stood as an unofficial world record for thirty-seven years. On December 16, 1963, American Merry Lepper ran a time of 3:37:07 to improve slightly on Piercy's record. Still, no highly competitive times were recorded simply because there was no women's competition in the race. Before 1972, women had been barred from the most famous marathon outside the Olympics-Boston. That rule did not keep women from running, though. In 1966, Roberta Gibb hid behind a bush at the start of the Boston Marathon, sneaking into the field and finishing the race in an unofficial time of 3:21:25. She was the first woman known to complete the arduous Boston course. Gibb had been inspired to run by the return of her race entry with a note saying that women were not physically capable of running a marathon. The following year, number 261 in the Boston Marathon was assigned to entrant K.V. Switzer. In lieu of the pre-race medical examination, Switzer's coach took a health certificate to race officials and picked up the number. Not until two miles into the race did officials realize that Switzer was a woman, twenty-year-old Kathrine Switzer of Syracuse University. Race director Will Cloney and official Jock Semple tried to grab Switzer and remove her from the race, or at least remove her number, but her teammates from Syracuse fended them off with body blocks. Switzer eventually finished the race after the race timers had stopped running, in 4:20. Switzer had not used her initials on the entry form to deceive the race officials. She was merely a fan of J.D. Salinger and liked the sound of her initials. While Switzer was creating a stir with her unauthorized entry, Roberta Gibb again ran the race, this time being forced off the course just steps from the finish line, where her time would have been 3:27:17. The photographs of race officials chasing after Switzer that appeared in the national papers the next day brought the issue of women's long-distance running to the public. Race officials defended their actions, saying they were only enforcing rules that forbade men and women form competing in the same race and barred women from races of more than one and a half miles. Switzer's story and the surrounding publicity had made the quest for equality in road racing for women a political issue. Coming as it did in the midst of the women's liberation movement, it galvanized women in the belief that it was time to change the rules. On October 28, 1973, the first all women's marathon was held in Waldniel, West Germany. The success of that race was built on the following October when Dr. Ernst Ban Aaken, a West German and a strong supporter of women's running, sponsored the first Women's International Marathon Championship in Waldniel. Forty women from seven countries competed in the event. Two years later, when the race was held again, the forty-five finishers represented nine different countries. Still, with the 1980 Summer Olympic Games on the horizon, Olympic organizers had given no serious consideration to creating a women's marathon. Two reasons were often given for this exclusion. First, some experts claimed that women's health would be damaged by long-distance running. This theory was proved false not only by medical studies, but also by the success of women marathoners during the 1970s. Second, the Olympic Charter stated that to be included in the Games, a women's sport must be widely practiced in at least twenty-five countries on at least two continents (for men's events the requirement was fifty countries on three continents). Women's marathoning, the Olympic organizers argued, was simply not popular enough to include. In the late 1970s, Kathrine Switzer, retired form competitive running, led the way toward the inclusion of a women's marathon in the Olympics. Switzer traveled to Los Angeles in February of 1981 when the Executive Board of the IOC was scheduled to meet. She knew the vote on the race could be close. The Board was made up of nine countries, eight of which were represented at the meeting. The Soviet Union openly opposed the creation of the race, and Switzer feared that Panama and Romania would side with their political ally. Spain, Japan, India, and New Zealand favored the race. Belgium appeared undecided. Five votes were needed for the resolution to pass. On the morning of February 23, Switzer went to the hotel where the meeting was being held. Unsure what she could do to further her cause, she approached the delegate from Belgium in the hall and began to tell him all about the success of women's marathoning-the number of women competing, the quality of their races, their good health. The delegate took careful notes and then disappeared into the meeting. Unable to stand still while she waited for the result, Switzer went out for a six-mile run. At 6:30 that evening, the Executive Board of IOC announced that a women's marathon had been given its approval and would likely be included in the 1984 Summer Games in Los Angeles. The committee had even decided to ignore a rule stating that all new events had to be approved four years in advance of their inclusion in the Games. The Soviet Union was the only country to vote against the race. The struggle was almost over. All that remained was approval of the Executive Board's recommendation by the full membership of the IOC. In September of 1981, the IOC met in Baden-Baden, Germany and made several important decisions, most importantly was the decision that women had finally won the right to compete in an Olympic Marathon in 1984 Summer Olympic games. Following as it did the long battle for inclusion in Olympic competition, the race that took place on August 5, 1984 was something like a victory lap for all women marathoners. Among the favored starters were Norwegian Grete Waitz, who had never lost a marathon she had finished; Portugal's Rosa Mota, who had won the marathon in the European Championships in 1982; and American Joan Benoit, who had set the world record of 2:22:43 in the woman's record many times and had run the first sub-2:30 marathons, had never met Benoit in a marathon race. Benoit was born in Cape Elizabeth, Maine, in 1957. Her earliest athletic passion was skiing, taught to her by her father who had been an army skier during World War II. As a high school sophomore she broke her leg on the slopes. As part of her recovery from that accident she began to run and she found that she liked running just as much as skiing. In college she played field hockey while continuing to run. When she showed up at practice one day sore from a thirteen-mile run the day before, the coach made her sit out the rest of the season and Benoit quit the team and started running full time. In 1979 she entered the Boston Marathon, her second marathon ever, as a Bowdoin College senior and won the women's division, setting an American record in the process. After graduation, Benoit worked as the women's track and cross-country coach at Boston University while she continued to train 100 miles a week. With the promise of the first ever women's Olympic Marathon in 1984, Benoit hoped to be in her best shape ever so she could make a run for the gold.

As she lined up for the start of the Olympic race, though, Benoit felt lucky to be in the field at all. Seventeen days before the Olympic trials she had undergone knee surgery. She recovered quickly and won the qualifying race to secure one of three spots on the American team. Benoit and the two other qualifiers, Julie Brown and Julie Isphording, each received a bronze figurine of a running woman for their success in the Olympic trials. Fittingly, the sculpture was created by none other than Roberta Gibb, who had broken the gender barrier of the Boston Marathon so many years before. On June 17, Benoit had won the Olympic Trials Exhibition 10,000 meters race by an impressive margin. Unlike the marathon, the 10,000 meters had not yet been approved for women's competition in the Olympics, though it would be on the program four years later in Seoul. Benoit traveled to Los Angeles several days before the Games began, but her recent appearance on television made it impossible for her to take training runs without being recognized. After the Opening Ceremonies, the private Benoit flew to Eugene, Oregon, to stay with friends and prepare for the race. Four days later she was back in Los Angeles. She had a near-sleep-less night on August 4, and then the day that women runners had been campaigning for for so long finally dawned. The athletes marched onto the track by nation in alphabetical order, with the United States entering last as the host country. With the athletes in each delegation arranged by height, tiny Joan Benoit was the final runner to enter the Santa Monica College stadium, starting point of the marathon. Fifty competitors from twenty-eight nations left Santa Monica College at 8:00A.M. and began to make their way through twenty-six miles of warm muggy Los Angeles. Ironically, the field was deeper than it might have been if the political struggles of women's long-distance runners had been more successful. The marathon and the 3,000 meters were still the only long-distance races for women in the Olympics. A lawsuit brought by the American Civil Liberties Union and the International Runners Committee to force the inclusion of 5,000 and 10,000-meter races in the 1984 Games had been unsuccessful. So, on the morning of August 5, the greatest women's distance runners in the world took to the streets of Los Angeles. Some were 5,000-meter specialists, some preferred the 10,000 meters, and many were best at the marathon, but all made history. Olympic marathons are usually races of many lead changes and careful tactics. Well thought out pacing and strategically calculated surges help competitors toward victory. In the first women's Olympic Marathon, how-ever, only one tactical decision affected the race for the gold medal. A mere fourteen minutes into the race, American Joan Benoit, who felt the pace was too slow, pulled ahead of the rest of the pack. To many, Benoit's move may have looked foolish. After all, a marathoner needs other competitors to push her along. How could Benoit possibly keep up a winning pace running all alone? But her lead widened over the next several miles, and none of the other runners made an attempt to go after her. They all assumed she was over-extending herself and that the heat would eventually break her, but Benoit was running comfortably and increasing her lead with every stride. The picture of the lone woman in her white painter's cap would become the unforgettable image of this historic race. And she kept on going, unfazed by the 77,000 cheering fans who welcomed her onto the Olympic track. With 200 yards to go, she finally cracked her grim reserve and waved her hat at the crowd, smiling broadly. She finished in 2:24:52, the third fastest women's marathon ever and a time that would have won thirteen of the twenty previous men 5 Olympic marathons. Benoit later admitted that the race had been very easy for her. After appearances on all three major television networks, Benoit flew home to Maine three days after the marathon, anxious to return to her quiet life and avoid the spotlight that had fallen on her at the Olympics. But Joan Benoit (now Joan Samuelson) did find that her life was changed by winning the first women's Olympic Marathon. She became the idol of millions of American women who run. Just as Frank Shorter had touched off a running boom by his victory in 1972, which showed American men the excitement and reward of long-distance running, Joan Benoit legitimized the efforts of all those women who strove to follow in her footsteps. She became, in a single morning, the leader of the American women's running movement and a worldwide celebrity. The first women’s Olympic marathon was an event no one will ever forget. It was the symbol that the struggles that women athletes endured throughout the years were slowly evaporating. American women have struggled to be taken seriously in sports for centuries. The constant obstacles they faced led them to unite to make a difference. It is not quite where it should be, but with Title IX in legislation, things are moving slowly and will continue to move forward for future generations.


Encyclopedia of women and sport in America. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1998.LOCATION: Schlesinger: Ref. 796.03 O35e
Layden, Joseph. Women in sports: the complete book on the world's greatest female athletes. Santa Monica, CA: General Pub. Group, c1997.

Samuelson, Joan Benoit. Running tide. 1st ed. New York: Knopf, 1987.
Woolum, Janet. Outstanding women athletes: who they are and how they influenced sports in America. 2nd ed. Phoenix, Ariz.: Oryx Press, 1998.


Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Natasha Watley Research Paper

...Every year in February Americans celebrate Black History Month. Black history month is a time of reflection and remembrance during which the struggles and achievements of many famous African Americans are recognized, celebrated, and honored. This event grew out of “Negro History Week” that was established by Carter G. Woodson in 1926. The influential African American that I chose to recognize is Natasha Watley. Watley is a two-time Olympic medalist who has overcome many obstacles on her journey. Natasha Watley was born November 28, 1981 in a town called Canoga Park in California. Her parents were Edwin and Carolyn Watley. Her father, Edwin enjoyed the sport of basketball so much that he really wanted Natasha to follow in his footsteps....

Words: 629 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...piece of swimwear that offers the wearer modesty as well as sun protection. lt is becoming a huge hit not only among conservative women, but also with cancer patients, burn victims, and senior citizens. According to Zanetti’s testimony, which can be found on the company’s Website (, she migrated to Australia from Lebanon at a very young age. As a young Muslim/Arab girl, she faced many challenges growing up in the city of Sydney. She was an active person and liked to participate in community activities and sport; however, she found herself restricted due to her cultural background and religious beliefs. Zanetti missed out on all the sporting opportunities that Australia has to offer. Her dream was to create a garment suitable for Muslim girls in Sydney to wear while playing sports. She was inspired to design the Burqini after watching young Muslim girls struggle to play netball (which is similar to basketball) in bulky layers. Zanetti decided to create specialized sportswear for the active Muslim woman. Zanetti’s Burqini is a full-coverage swimsuit. The name “Burqini” is derived from the words burqa (a black covering worn by some Muslim women) and bikini. It hit the international market in January 2007, and since then devout Muslim women have been snapping it up. The polyester suits are designed to adhere to Islamic traditions that require women to dress modestly. The Burqini was also designed to eliminate the risk of drowning that...

Words: 706 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Olimpics

...The Olympics: Excellence, Friendship and Respect The Olympics: Excellence, Friendship and Respect Introduction The Olympics were for many years a great event to unite countries, cultures and outstanding athletes, a display of endurance, strength and dynamics upon the glory of being the first, which is reason enough to attract fanatics around the world every four years, and here we will explore the beginning, reason and effect it causes to us, the spectators. (Jorge Zalazar, 2012) History According to historical records, the first ancient Olympics can be trace back to 776 B.C. (before Christ) They were dedicated to the Olympian gods and were stage in the ancient plains of Olympia. They continue for nearly 12 centuries, until Emperor Theodosius decreed in 393 A.D. (Anno Domini, in the year of the lord) that all such “pagan cults” be banned. The Olympic Games were closely linked to the religious festival of the cult of Zeus, aimed to show the physical qualities and evolution of the performance accomplished by young people, as well as encouraging good relation between the cities of Greece. (Ancient Olympic Games.2012) The games were held every four years during august and September and the word “Olympiad”, which referred to the four years interval between competitions, was commonly used to measure time. (Olympic dates and history.2012) The Games were initially one day event until 684 B.C., when they were extended to three days. In the 5th century B.C., the games were......

Words: 1448 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Women in Sports

...Women in Sports Women in Sport: How Title IX Changed the Sport World Author Author Affiliation Abstract It has been said over from the beginning of time until today; behind every strong man is an even stronger woman. Throughout history, women have continuously made their imprint on the world. Women fought tirelessly to prove they could be just as good as their male counterparts. To assist in that effort, Title IX of the Education Amendment of 1972 was created and implemented. How did Title IX really change the world? More importantly, how did Title IX impact females in the sports world. With that theory mind, the real question should be are women truly equal in the sport world? Is it a possibility to ever be truly equal with all of the obstacles in today’s society? Women in Sports “A strong woman believes that she’s strong enough to face her journey…but a woman of strength has faith that it is in this journey she will become strong!” Maya Angelo. 776 B.C. - The first Olympics are held in ancient Greece. Women are excluded, so they compete every four years in their own Games of Hera, to honor the Greek goddess who ruled over women and the earth. This is the first account of women competing in some type of sports. After many years of discrimination and not being offered the same opportunities, President Nixon signed the Title IX of Education Amendment on June 23th, 1972. Title IX must be explained and explored to how it affected not only women in general but......

Words: 937 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Media in a Pluralistic Society.

...Media in a Pluralistic Society (Communications) It wasn’t until the 1960’s that women started to break into the previously male-dominated world of sports broadcasting. With many setbacks, difficulties and a large male audience and workforce to win over, female sports broadcasters have endured many challenges and earned the positions they have today. Although the ratio is still what some would consider unfair, the examination of some of the pioneers of female sports broadcasting can help us gain a better understanding of both the evolution of female sports-broadcasting and the unique role in which they play today. Considered three of the most influential figures in female sports broadcasting history, Jane Chastain, Gayle Gardner and Jeannie Morris each have a career and story detrimental to the progression and current position of women in sports broadcasting today. Jane Chastain is documented and credited with being the first woman to work for a large network, and is also widely considered the fist woman to do play-by-play. Being the icebreaker, her role is important but however, her struggles and setbacks as a woman were not well documented. Jeannie Morris’s however, were. A talented journalist and writer, Morris didn’t have a difficult time breaking into the field. Morris was also thought to of gotten the job through her husband’s assistance, Johnny Morris, who is the all-time leader in receiving yards for the Chicago Bears. Morris may have gotten her foot in the......

Words: 1338 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Cultural Awareness In Iraq

...Providing an image that is as complete as possible is important to the outside world. As for women’s role in Iraqi society, I would say that women have sacrificed much to participate in developing Iraqi society, and most fields are open for them. For a person who is not from Iraq, the general stereotype would be that women have no role at all, and if they do, then it must be a very restricted one. The reality is that the role of Iraqi women is very effective. The role of Iraqi women has dramatically changed twice. First, after the Gulf War in 1991, and second after the war in 2003. The major alteration of the Gulf War in 1991 occurred because large numbers of women started to work outside the house in order to help support their families after the economy in Iraq was highly damaged. Women’s focus was on the profession of teaching. Although the salaries were insufficient, women maintained their careers. Part of the reason was the independence experienced by women in general. The other change was after the war in 2003, when Iraqi women started to join the military and police force in addition to the profession of translation with Iraqi and American personnel (Al-Khayyat,...

Words: 970 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

The Great Tackle

...The Great Tackle: Indian Women and Football By Nupur Gokhale Scabbed knees. Aiming random flying kicks at a miniature ball. Tugging and pulling at t-shirts. Finally scoring and running around with a wild victory cry. I’m sure even the adult in you cannot forget these memories of playing football with your childhood friends, not having a care in the world about your safety and appearance or more importantly about the gender in question. Then when and why, did football become a man’s sport? For women who choose to ignore that stereotype, pursuing the sport professionally or even as a hobby in India can prove to be an uphill task. As a girl who plays football as a hobby and pursues it as a distant professional dream, stepping out onto a field dominated by the opposite sex can be mortifying and exhilarating at the same time. In a country like India, that is traditionally and educationally rigid, girls playing football is considered a rarity. In Bangalore schools specifically, the Physical Training instructors tend to stick to the gender assigned sports and those who deviate receive a sever tongue lashing. Having played for the Karnataka state team, my first encounter with stereotyping as a hurdle and how I jumped it not-so-gracefully but while creating controversy nonetheless was in school itself. Only after the boys of my school vouched for capabilities was I allowed to be a part of the house team, an opportunity that was earlier that was not available to girls. Now it seems......

Words: 875 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Advantages Of Female Athletes In Sport

...Are elite female athletes recognised for their ability or sexuality? Women have traditionally been considered as fragile and unable to perform the tasks that a man could. Understanding this, women were never considered to be apart of sports or activities that may involve the two qualities strength, stamina. A number of studies (Harris, 2005; Messner, Duncan & Jenson, 1993; Vincent, 2004; Rowe and Brown, 1994) discovered that in relation to female athletes most media coverage was for their looks rather than their athletic ability and skills. However the men were evaluated on the skill of the sport while women became the object to observe. Compared to the pictures taken of men and women, the men’s pose’s were more athletic were as the women’s...

Words: 1060 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...biggest sport in terms of player population and global revenue in the world.among the top team-sports. This includes professional athletes, who sign athlete endorsement deals as well. Adidas products are made available to the consumer in a variety of ways. In North America, the company opened up thousands of its signature retail shops and outlets carrying the latest and top-selling products; not to mention, big name retail store-chains such as Foot Locker, Champs Sports and Finish lines are significant contributors to sales of Adidas products. Moreover, their official website offers online shopping opportunities with special offers available to the public1. When it comes to selecting sportswear to purchase, consumers have numerous brands to choose from. Adidas, Nike, Under Armour, Puma and Asics just to name a few. Factors that affect the purchasing decisions of consumers vary individually, but the main reasons can be identified as quality, design, and brand image. As Adidas has more than one product segment, including performance, lifestyle and fashion, customers compare Adidas’s products with other brands using a set of varying criterion. Another factor that plays a crucial role that affects purchasing decisions are design and quality. Many consumers will have to decide what to buy from a wide array of high-quality brands and products and will ultimately assess these products and brands on design and quality as consumers already expect quality from most major sports......

Words: 2973 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Comminication Essay

...there latest figures reviling UK women are the fattest in Europe. Obesity rates have been on a slow climb for the last 10 years which is why it has become one of the NHS main focuses. According BBC health, “Obesity is caused by two simple factors - an unhealthy diet (typically too rich in sugar and fats and not enough fibre and carbohydrate) and not doing enough exercise to burn off the calories consumed.” In 2009, 16% of boys aged 2 to 15, and 15% of girls were classed as obese between the ages of 2-15 The Health and Social Care Information Centre. This large percentage of obesity amongst children needs to be addressed before it become out of hand acceptable in society. David Cameron announced earlier this year that obesity costs the NHS £4 billion a year and that is looking to grow. This issue does need to be tackled to stop the growth of obesity not only to save money but lives too. This essay will be outline Tesco’s ‘great school run’ and the NHS ‘get fit with the Olympics’ campaigns to encourage people to become more active and analyse how they communicate with their publics differently in striving for the same result. It will also look at the similarities and differences applying different theories to each of the campaigns to come to the conclusions of their overall effectiveness. With participation in sport dropping between 2009 and 2010 (Mintel) and obesity levels growing, changes need to be made in people habits in participating in sport and eating healthy.......

Words: 2603 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

How Did The Greeks Influence Western Civilization

... These power struggles also made people begin to think and questions their lives through the study of philosophy. One of the civilizations...

Words: 1351 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Gender Stereotypes In Laura Hillenbrand's Unbroken

...and expectations. To get boys to pick up a book, assure them that guys can read to, and try offering them non fiction, history, or a sports novel. Studies have displayed that on average, women read more than men. Alter acknowledges, “Girls also tend to read more than boys, as 18% of boys say they read daily, while 30% of girls do” (1). There are a few reasons boys lack in the literature department;...

Words: 1258 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Eating Disorders in Athletes

...2015 Kellyanne Michael Eating Disorders in Athletes 2 Eating Disorders in Athletes Looking in your mirror at home, do you always like what you see? Most people come to accept themselves and their body image just the way it is. Other’s struggle to achieve the perfect body. They strive to be what they see all the time in fashion magazines and movies. It’s a never ending obsession to be thin and perfect. This inevitably can lead to eating disorders. Eating disorders can cause someone to have a negative image of themselves and food becomes their enemy. It’s not news that eating disorders are a huge problem in the United States but what about eating disorders in sports specifically. Athletes are not immune to disorders just because they are considered the elite in their perspective sport. It is said that at least thirteen percent of athletes have some type of eating disorders. This paper will discuss the types of eating disorders that are prevalent in athletes, what causes athletes to not eat healthy and what we can do as parents, coaches, physicians and a community to help our athletes with healthy eating habits and regular exercise. Before eating disorders in athletes can be discussed it’s important to know what is defined as an eating disorder......

Words: 2028 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Wilma Rudolph Accomplishments

...When she returned home to Clarksville after the Olympics the Governor of Tennessee, Buford Ellington, a prominent segregationist, wanted to celebrate. “At her wishes, her homecoming parade and banquet were the first fully integrated municipal event in the city’s history” (Wikipedia). Wilma received many awards during her time competing, including the Associated Press Woman of the Year and United Press Athlete of the Year Awards. Even more impressing, though, was that she was able to visit President John F. Kennedy in 1961. Following these accomplishments, in 1962, at the age of 22, Wilma, the “Fastest Woman Alive”, retired from her racing career and became an elementary school teacher as well as a track coach. When she quit, she said it was because “I couldn’t top what I did, so I’ll be remembered for when I was at my best” (Litsky). While her competition days were behind her, the awards kept rolling in. To add to awards she had received in the early 1960s, she was given the National Black Sports and Entertainment Hall of Fame in 1973 and inducted into the U.S. Olympic Hall of Fame in 1983. In 1983 she also started the Wilma Rudolph Foundation, which worked to help promote athletics in minority youth. “She did more than promote her country. In her soft-spoken, gracious manner, she paved the way for African-American athletes, both men and women, who came later”...

Words: 1059 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Coca Cola vs. Pepsi

...@03428256 EXP 102-004 Professor Jacob 10/08/2014 Coca-Cola v. Pepsi: Cola Changes the World When I eat at a restaurant which I have never been to, I always order Coke without knowing what the restaurant’s special is. And my friends who join me the meal do the same thing. Nowadays, cola is becoming an important even necessary part of our daily life. Even though we are informed that cola is relatively unhealthy, we still cannot resist the incomparable taste. Unlike other industries which consists of numerous manufacturers, in “cola industry”, Coca-Cola and Pepsi are prevailing. But do you know thoroughly about these two products even you think you do? Meanwhile, some customer still struggle in choosing one of them. So it is meaningful to compare such two successful products in several aspects, which turns out that they do have similarities and differences. Both Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo Inc. are magnates in manufacturing beverages. According to their company names, it is clear that they became famous essentially for Coca-Cola and Pepsi. You may ask how these two incredible drinks were invented. Luckily, they hold distinct but similarly wild early stories of birth to tell. Coca-Cola came to the world with the help of one man called Colonel John Pemberton. Pemberton became seriously injured during the Civil War and consequently became addicted to morphine. However, abusing morphine was the disaster......

Words: 2093 - Pages: 9