Free Essay

Student

In: Business and Management

Submitted By phillemonn
Words 5915
Pages 24
011-0072

Adaptation and application of the SERVQUAL scale in higher education
OTÁVIO JOSÉ DE OLIVEIRA otavio@feb.unesp.br UNESP – São Paulo State University Department of Production Engineering Av. Eng. Luiz Edmundo Carrijo Coube, nº. 14-01 ZIP Code 17033-360, Bauru, SP - Brazil Phone +55 (14) 3103 6122 Fax (14) 3203 6146

EURIANE CRISTINA FERREIRA euricristina@hotmail.com UNESP – São Paulo State University Department of Production Engineering Av. Eng. Luiz Edmundo Carrijo Coube, nº. 14-01 ZIP Code 17033-360, Bauru, SP - Brazil Phone +55 (14) 3103 6122 Fax (14) 3203 6146

POMS 20th Annual Conference Orlando, Florida U.S.A. May 1 to May 4, 2009

ABSTRACT Higher education in developing countries has serious quality problems. In order to change this scenario, it is necessary to invest in quality systems and tools for improvement. The SERVQUAL scale is one of these alternatives. It is used to measure the gap between quality expectations and perceptions in services making it possible to establish action plans. The objective of this paper is to propose an adaptation of the SERVQUAL scale’s generic questionnaire for the higher education service sector and present the main results of its application in students of the production engineering program at São Paulo State University (UNESP) in Brazil. Thirty-eight questionnaires were applied to measure perception in entering students and twenty-eight to measure expectations in graduating students.

Key words: SERVQUAL; Quality management; Service management, Higher education.

1. INTRODUCTION In the current socioeconomic context, the service sector has become increasingly more important, revealing the need to know and study the particularities of its operations and to institute specific management methodologies that fit its context and specificity. But it is necessary to understand that service processes are different from manufacturing processes, especially due to their intangible nature and the direct participation of clients. Aiming to make clients loyal, companies have made every effort to meet their needs and exceed their expectations. The SERVQUAL scale is one of the tools that can help in this sense. According to Oliver (apud SALOMI and MIGUEL, 2005), SERVQUAL is the method that assesses client satisfaction as a result of the difference between expectation and the performance obtained. According to Zeithaml, Parasuraman and Berry (1990), SERVQUAL is universal and can be applied to any service organization to assess the quality of services provided. Higher education institutions are also in search of improvements in teaching service quality to satisfy the expectations of their students and the market. However, since education services have very particular characteristics, the SERVQUAL model must be adapted according to the most important determining factors: reliability, tangibility, responsibility, security and empathy, as proposed by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1985). Thus, the survey question that guided the elaboration of this study was: how is it possible to adapt quality tools, more specifically the SERVQUAL scale, to measure quality in Higher education service activities? The main objective of this paper is to adapt the SERVQUAL scale to the Higher

education service activity and to present the results of its application in an institution for teaching engineering.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW A brief theoretical review will be presented below about Service Management, Quality Management and SERVQUAL.

2.1. Service Management According to Lovelock (2001), services are economic activities that create value and provide benefits to the client at specific times and in specific places as a result of a desired change in, or on behalf of, the one that receives the service. According to Meirelles (2006), a service is essentially intangible and only assessed when combined with other functions, that is, with other tangible productive processes and products. This intangible nature is associated with this process, which à priori cannot be touched. In other words, the providing of a service tends to occur simultaneously with consumption. Production occurs starting the moment the service is ordered and it finishes as soon as the demand is met. Services have some specific characteristics that differentiate them from the manufactured good. Gianesi and Corrêa (2004) say the following special characteristics of service operations are the main ones: intangibility, client participation and simultaneous production and consumption. According to Coelho (2004, p. 36), "in service management it is important to understand how clients assess the quality of the service provided, that is, how quality is perceived by the client".

2.1.1. Higher Education Service The quality of Higher education is fundamental to a country’s development because universities are the ones that prepare the professionals who will work as managers in companies and manage public and private resources and care for the health and education of new generations. “Higher education has been increasingly recognized as a service industry and, as a sector, it must strive to identify the expectations and needs of its clients, who are the students” (MELLO, DUTRA and OLIVEIRA, 2001, p. 130). According to Lovelock (2001), education service is classified as a service with intangible actions, directed towards the minds of people, with continuous delivery, conducted through a partnership between the service organization and its client, and although it provides high personal contact, there is low customization. The institutions must work to obtain a standard of quality that exceeds client and/or student expectations and needs, extrapolating the assessments from legal demands (PEREIRA, 2004). In this study, students in the Production Engineering program at the São Paulo State University (UNESP), Bauru Campus, were given the SERVQUAL questionnaire adjusted to Higher education services. According to the American Industrial Engineering Association (apud FLEURY, 2008), the Production Engineering concerns the design, improvement and installation of integrated systems of people, materials, information, equipment and energy for the production of goods and services. It is based on specific knowledge and abilities associated with physical and social sciences and mathematics, as well as the principles and methods of project engineering analysis in order to specify, predict and assess the results obtained for these systems.

2.2. Quality Management Quality management is a broad theme that encompasses every sort of organization, multinational or national, eastern or western, large or small, services or manufacturing and public or private (DELAZARO, 1998). According to Oliveira (2004), its concept depends on the context in which it is applied, in face of the subjectivity and complexity of its meaning. Bateson (2001, p.363) says “quality is generally considered an attribute in consumer choices”. Quality in services can be defined as a customer satisfaction index for any service, and this satisfaction can be measured by any criteria (SATOLLO et al., 2005). Quality in services provides a competitive factor for continued consumption, especially when intangibility relations are tightened between quality and the services. Responsibility and trust, two of the dimensions of service quality grouped by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1985), generated by prior experience, are important factors for determining perceived quality by clients (ZANELLA, LIMA and LOPES, 2006). Quality is judged according to perceived satisfaction. According to Grönroos (2005, p.54), perceived quality is determined "by the gap between expected quality and experienced quality", that is, it is the difference between client perceptions and expectations. Satisfying the clients’ immediate and explicit expectations should be sought in the short term. However, in the mid and long term, it is important to develop competences to achieve their real needs, even those that are not explicit or are unconscious (COELHO, 2004, p.37). According to the same author, quality is only measured at the end of the process, that is, when the service has been concluded, and there is no way to change client perception regarding the service received.

2.3. SERVQUAL According to Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1985), regardless of the type of service, consumers basically use the same criteria to assess quality. Service quality is a general opinion the client forms regarding its delivery, which is constituted by a series of successful or unsuccessful experiences. Managing gaps in service will help the company improve its quality. But gaps are not the only means clients use to judge a service. They can also use five broad-based dimensions as judgment criteria: reliability, tangibility, responsibility, security and empathy (LOVELOCK, 2001). These dimensions are briefly commented below (BATESON and HOFFMAN, 2001; LOVELOCK, 2001): - Reliability: is the company reliable in providing the service? Does it provide as promised? Reliability reflects a company’s consistency and certainty in terms of performance. Reliability is the most important dimension for the consumer of services; - Tangibility: how are the service provider’s physical installations, equipment, people and communication material? Since there is no physical element to be assessed in services, clients often trust the tangible evidence that surrounds it when making their assessment; - Responsibility: are company employees helpful and capable of providing fast service? It is responsible for measuring company and employee receptiveness towards clients; - Security: are employees well-informed, educated, competent and trustworthy? This dimension encompasses the company’s competence, courtesy and precision; and - Empathy: this is the capacity a person has to experience another’s feelings. Does

the service company provide careful and personalized attention? These elements clearly have a highly subjective factor linked to the person who perceives the service. In reality, according to Kilbourne et al. (2004), every type of service can have determining factors that are considered more important than others, which will depend on environment characteristics or type of activity. It is difficult to measure the quality of service operations because they have the characteristic intangibility. Aimed at solving this problem, Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1985) developed a methodology in which there is a comparison between several orders of expectations and perceptions of service quality by the consumer. These differences between perceptions and expectations are addressed in the quality in service model shown in Figure 1. This model seeks to help managers understand the sources of problems in quality and how they can improve them (COELHO, 2004).

Figure 1: Quality in services model
Source: Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (apud SALOMI, 2005).

SERVQUAL is an instrument to measure quality that stems from this model and

works with the difference in scores (gaps) in the form of a questionnaire. The model’s five gaps are shown in Chart 1.
GAP 1 What is it? GAP 1 is the discrepancy that can exist between the perception of executives and the real expectations of consumers. What causes it? Management’s failure to correctly identify client expectations. How to correct it? Open formal and informal channels of communication from the clients to the top, passing through the people in contact with the public; better market surveys on service quality and apply them with greater frequency, and; reduce hierarchy levels. GAP 2 What is it? GAP 2 is the discrepancy between management's perception of client expectations and the specifications of service quality, that is, it is the supply of low quality even though the company has appropriate procedures. What causes it? Limited resources, lack of operational tools to bring the client’s voice to service specifications; management’s indifference and rapid change in market conditions. How to correct it? Management’s commitment; Make resources available and use tools to bring the voice of the client to specifications (for example, QFD – Quality Function Deployment) GAP 3 What is it? GAP 3 is the discrepancy between service quality specifications and the service actually delivered. What causes it? Lack of knowledge about specifications, lack of ability to carry out the specified or lack of commitment by collaborators. How to correct it? Make specifications known, ensure the necessary profile of the collaborator at recruiting or complete it with training; and assess collaborator performance through greater and better supervision or improvements in team work and in the organizational climate. GAP 4 What is it? GAP 4 is the discrepancy between the service’s specified quality and what the company communicates externally. What causes it? Lack of communication and the client does not know what to expect or more is promoted than actually delivered. How to correct it? Improve the communication between the diverse sectors of the company and between it and the target public for the communications or hold communication to what is actually delivered. GAP 5 What is it? GAP 5 is the difference between what the client expects and what the company actually delivers. What causes it? A gap or a series of gaps from 1 to 4. How to correct it? Correcting those gaps with problems.

Chart 1: Five gaps of the SERVQUAL Model
Source: Adapted from Satolo et al. (2002).

The SERVQUAL scale (questionnaire) has two sections: one to map client expectations in relation to a service segment and the other to map perception in relation to a certain service company (FITZSIMMONS and FITZSIMMONS, 2000). The original SERVQUAL scale uses 22 questions to measure the five dimensions of service quality: reliability, tangibility, security, empathy and responsibility. Chart 2 shows the original version of the questionnaire.

Item 1 2 3 4 5 6

Tangibility

Reliability

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Security

Responsibility

18 19 20 21 22

Empathy

Expectation (E) They should have modern equipment. The physical installations should be visually attractive. The employees should be well-dressed and clean. The appearance of company installations should be conserved according to the service offered. When these companies promise to do something in a certain time, they must do it. When clients have any problem with these companies, the latter must be solidary and make them feel secure. These companies should be of confidence. They should provide the service in the time promised. They should keep their records correctly. It should not be expected that they inform clients exactly when the services are to be executed. It is not reasonable to expect immediate availability of company employees. Company employees do not need to be always available to help clients. It is normal for them to be too busy to readily respond to requests. Clients should be able to believe in the company’s employees. Clients should be able to feel safe in negotiating with company employees. The employees should be polite. The employees should obtain adequate support from the company to perform their tasks correctly. It should not be expected for the companies to pay individual attention to the clients. It should not be expected for the employees to give personalized attention to the clients. It is absurd to expect the employees to know client needs. It is absurd to expect these companies to have the clients’ best interests as their objective. It should not be expected for the business hours to be convenient for all clients.

Performance (P) XYZ has modern equipment. XYZ’s physical installations are visually attractive. XYZ’s employees are well dressed and clean. The appearance of XYZ’s physical installations is conserved according to the service offered. When XYZ promises to do something in a certain time, it really does it. When you have a problem with XYZ, it is solidary and makes you feel secure. XYZ can be trusted. XYZ provides the service in the time promised. XYZ keeps its records correctly. XYZ does not inform exactly when services will be executed. You do not receive immediate services from XYZ employees. XYZ employees are not always available to help clients. XYZ employees are always too busy to respond to client requests. You can believe XYZ employees. You feel secure negotiating with XYZ employees. XYZ employees are polite. XYZ employees do not obtain adequate support from the company to perform their tasks correctly. XYZ does not pay individual attention to you. XYZ employees do not give personal attention. XYZ employees do not know their needs. XYZ does not have your best interests as its objective. XYZ does not have convenient business hours for all clients.

Chart 2: Original version of the SERVQUAL scale
Source: Oliveira (2008).

These questions should be scored on a Likert scale from 1 to 7. The extremes are marked as agree completely (excellent) and disagree completely (mediocre), as in Chart 3.
7 Excellent 6 Very good 5 Good 4 Satisfactory 3 Little Satisfactory 2 Weak 1 Mediocre

Chart 3: Five Gaps of the SERVQUAL Model
Source: Adapted from Dettmer, Socorro and Katon (2002).

The results of the two sections (perceptions and expectations) are compared to reach a parameter (gap) for each of the questions, that is, the final score is generated by the difference between them (Parameter = Perception – Expectation). A negative result indicates the perceptions are below expectations, revealing the

service failures that generate an unsatisfactory result for the client. A positive score indicates the service provider is offering a better than expected service (COELHO, 2004). Badri, Abdulla and Al-Madani (2004) underscore some services in which the SERVQUAL model can be applied, including the Higher education service, the object of study in this paper.

3. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study began by establishing the objective of the research with a bibliographic study on service management, including Higher education, quality management and the SERVQUAL scale. The SERVQUAL generic questionnaire was then adapted to the characteristics of Higher education, which according to Chagas (2000) should be done within a logical sequence derived from an improvement process. The adapted model was then submitted to a pilot test to identify possible problems and opportunities for improvement. It was then applied to students in the Production Engineering program at São Paulo State University (UNESP) - Bauru Campus. The questionnaire was applied to 38 beginning students, in its expectations version, before they could have contact with course structure, and to 28 concluding students in its perception version. After applying the questionnaires, the data were tabulated and interpreted. The adapted SERVQUAL questionnaire was used in this study to measure gap 5 in the service quality model shown in Figure 1, and the main results were presented through the analysis of data and each dimension. A quantitative study was conducted, which, according to Nakano and Fleury (1996), is used when the solution to a problem is given by an aspect of reality with rigor

and generates conclusions that permit generalizations and replication of results. According to Fleury (2006), the quantitative focus uses data collection and analysis to answer survey questions and it trusts numerical measurement, counting and often the use of statistics to establish a population's behavior standards.

4. PROPOSAL FOR ADAPTATION An adapted version of the SERVQUAL scale for Higher education services was proposed through a review of literature. Chart 4 shows the adapted questionnaire model that was used to conduct the quality expectations and perceptions survey for the Production Engineering program at UNESP/Bauru by its students.
Expectation (E) 1 – Excellent Higher education institutions must have modern equipment, such as laboratories. 2 – Higher education institution installations must be well conserved. 3 – Employees and teachers at excellent institutions of Higher education must present themselves (clothes, cleanliness, etc.) in an appropriate manner for their position. 4 - The material associated with the service provided in excellent institutions of Higher education, such as journals, printed matter, must have a good visual appearance and be up to date. 5 – When excellent institutions of Higher education promise to do something in a certain time, they must do so. 6 – When a student has a problem, excellent institutions of Higher education demonstrate sincere interest in solving it. 7 – Excellent of institutions of Higher education will do the job right the first time and will persist in doing it without error. 8 – Employees and teachers at excellent institutions of Higher education promise their clients the services within deadlines they are able to meet. 9 – The employees and teachers at excellent institutions of Higher education are willing and available during service providing. 10 – The employees and teachers at excellent institutions of Higher education will always show good will in helping their students. 11 – The employees at excellent institutions of Higher education are always willing to explain doubts their students may have. 12 - The behavior of employees and teachers at excellent institutions of Higher education must inspire confidence in the students. 13 – Students at excellent institutions of Higher education feel safe in their transactions with the institution. 14 - The employees and teachers at excellent institutions of Higher education must be polite to the students. 15 – The employees and teacher at excellent institutions of Higher education must have the knowledge needed to answer student questions. Performance (P) 1 – Your Higher education institution has modern equipment, such as laboratories. 2 – Your Higher education g institution installations are well conserved. 3 – The employees and teachers at your institution of Higher education present themselves (clothes, cleanliness, etc.) in an appropriate manner for their position. 4 - The material associated with the service provided in your institution of Higher education, such as journals, printed matter, has a good visual appearance and is up to date. 5 – When your institution of Higher education promises to do something in a certain time, it does so. 6 – When you have a problem, your institution of Higher education demonstrates sincere interest in solving it. 7 – Your institution of Higher education will do the job right the first time and will persist in doing it without error. 8 – Employees and professors at your institution of Higher education promise you the services within deadlines they are able to meet. 9 – The employees and teachers at your institution of Higher education are willing and available during service providing. 10 – The employees and teachers at your institution of Higher education always show good will in helping. 11 – The employees and teachers at your institution of Higher education are always willing to explain your doubts. 12 - The behavior of employees and teachers at your institution of Higher education inspire confidence. 13 – You feel safe in your transactions with your institution of Higher education. 14 – The employees and teachers at your institution of Higher education are polite. 15 – The employees and teachers at your institution of Higher education have the knowledge needed to answer your questions.

Security

Responsibility

Reliability

Tangibility

16 – Excellent institutions of Higher education must have convenient business hours for all students 17 – Excellent institutions of Higher education must have employees and teachers who provide individual attention to each student. 18 – Excellent institutions of Higher education must be focused on the best service for their students. 19 – Excellent institutions of Higher education must understand the specific needs of their students.

Empathy

16 – Your institution of Higher education has convenient business hours for all students. 17 – Your institution of Higher education has employees and teachers who provide individual attention to each student. 18 – Your institution of Higher education is focused on the best service for its students. 19 – Your institution of Higher education understands the specific needs of its students.

Chart 4: SERVQUAL questionnaire adapted to Higher education services

5. PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS Table 1 shows the tabulated results of the SERVQUAL questionnaire applied to the students in the Production Engineering course at UNESP/Bauru. Table 1: Tabulation of data
Expectations Perceptions Frequency of Responses Frequency of Responses 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Average 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Average (P-E) 0 0 1 2 11 9 5 5.536 6 5 10 8 5 1 0 3.114 -2.421 0 0 1 2 7 11 7 5.750 3 6 10 8 3 4 1 3.514 -2.236 5 7 7 3 4 0 2 3.071 0 1 4 4 8 14 4 5.200 2.129 1 2 2 3 9 6 5 4.964 0 2 2 9 11 9 2 4.829 -0.136 Average tangibility = -0.666 0 0 0 0 10 7 11 6.036 0 2 7 5 8 11 1 4.647 -1.389 0 1 1 5 8 7 6 5.321 1 2 5 10 8 7 2 4.457 -0.864 2 1 3 5 6 8 3 4.714 1 1 6 10 11 5 1 4.371 -0.343 Average reliability = -0.865 0 0 3 0 5 11 9 5.821 0 1 2 13 7 11 1 4.800 -1.021 0 2 1 3 1 14 7 5.607 0 1 4 6 11 12 1 4.914 -0.693 0 0 1 5 5 8 9 5.679 1 2 8 5 10 8 1 4.400 -1.279 0 0 1 2 6 7 12 5.964 1 0 4 7 7 9 7 5.114 -0.850 Average promptness = -0.961 0 0 1 2 4 16 5 5.786 2 0 3 10 11 6 3 4.657 -1.129 0 0 2 2 5 10 9 5.786 0 1 1 9 9 11 4 5.143 -0.643 1 1 2 7 10 4 3 4.714 0 1 5 6 15 3 4 4.765 0.050 0 0 1 0 1 6 20 6.571 0 1 2 9 9 10 4 5.057 -1.514 Average security = -0.809 1 1 2 3 9 8 4 5.071 7 2 6 4 9 4 3 3.857 -1.214 4 4 2 5 10 2 1 3.821 2 0 9 8 8 5 3 4.343 0.521 0 1 1 2 2 8 14 6.036 1 1 7 10 11 3 2 4.314 -1.721 0 0 2 4 10 6 6 5.357 1 4 8 11 7 2 2 3.943 -1.414 Average empathy = -0.957 Overall average = -0.852

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

the questions and also for each of the five dimensions, that is, the final score is generated by the difference between the interviewee's perceptions and expectations. We

Empathy

Security

Promptness

Reliability

Tangibility

The results of the two sections are compared to arrive at a parameter for each of

underscore that a negative result must be viewed as an opportunity for improvement and not as a simple problem. Questions 1 to 4 refer to the tangibility dimension, which obtained an overall average of -0.666. The expectation of beginning students in relation to this dimension is high in questions 1 and 2, whereas the corresponding perceptions are the lowest among the entire table of perceptions. Question 3 is the only one in this dimension that has a positive difference between perceptions and expectations (P-E); however this question refers to the presentation (appearance) of employees. This is different from questions 1, 2 and 4, which refer to the physical installation and the institution's equipment. Its results indicate that the institution should invest in improving physical installations and/or equipment. The reliability dimension is analyzed in questions 5 to 7, which obtained an overall average of -0.865. Questions 5 of the expectations questionnaire only received scores of 5, 6 and 7 in its evaluation, revealing that the students recognize this issue as essential for the quality of the service provided. Therefore, the institution must consider the possibility of investing in training and resources so the promised deadlines can be truly met. The other statements in the reliability dimension also received high averages, especially in questions related to expectations. Thus, special attention must be given to this aspect since reliability is the most important dimension for the service consumer (BATESON and HOFFMAN, 2001; LOVELOCK, 2001). Questions 8 to 11 of the questionnaire refer to the promptness dimension and its overall average was -0.961, the worst average among the five dimensions proposed by Lovelock (2001). The difference between perceptions and expectations (P-E) for all questions in this dimension was negative, revealing there are considerable faults in the

service, which are jeopardizing the quality of the service being offered. Minimization of these problems is directly related to the awareness and empowerment of the work force. Questions 12 to 15 in the adapted SERVQUAL scale refer to the security dimension, which obtained an overall average of -0.809. Question 15 (expectations version) obtained the highest average in the entire table, with 20 of the 28 interviewed students scoring it 7, showing that the security dimension is important for the students who are beginning undergraduate studies. This corroborates what was said by Zanella, Lima and Lopes (2006), who consider this dimension one of the most important, along with reliability. The final four questions, 16 to 19, refer to the empathy dimension, which obtained an overall average of -0.957. This is one of the lowest, along with the promptness dimension. The averages for the expectations version varied considerably from 3.821 to 6.036, whereas for perception the variation was a lot smaller, from 3.857 to 4.343. In this dimension, the greatest concern is in understanding and meeting client needs. In the specific case of the surveyed course, there are serious problems in business hours for some important support services for the students (secretary, undergraduate section, internship section, etc.). These factors certainly influenced this evaluation and should be seriously considered by the managers. The overall average for the five dimensions was -0.852. This indicates a great opportunity for improvement in the entire service providing cycle. However, for that to happen, great effort must be made in the following items: training of collaborators in relation to technical as well as behavioral issues, revision in how service processes have been carried out, modernization of infrastructure, including the renovation of buildings and installations, and the adjustment of business hours for some sectors to meet student needs.

6. CONCLUSION The quality of Higher education services, especially in developing countries like Brazil, must be viewed as a strategic issue for social and technological development and economic growth. The objective of this study was to provide a small contribution towards improving education service by adapting and using an instrument that, if well used, can generate interesting results for the improvement of undergraduate courses. We underscore that the theoretical reference presented in this paper in a summarized manner played an important role for the researchers, making it possible to adapt the SERVQUAL scale to the reality of educational service processes and applied to an undergraduate course. The scientific method used, a quantitative research based on a survey instrument, provided the necessary conditions to conduct this study, proving to be appropriate and generating results with a considerable degree of applicability, although without forgetting scientific rigor. In relation to application of the scale adapted to the production engineering course at UNESP/Bauru, we observed that the promptness dimension had the largest gap, with an overall average o -0.961, followed by the empathy, reliability, security and tangibility dimensions. Thus, none of the dimensions achieved a mathematically positive result, indicating the perceptions are below expectations and there are faults in the service that are generating unsatisfactory results among the students. This study did not have the objective of generating proposals from the data collected for direct intervention in the reality of the course. However, it is possible to observe interesting results for the potential use of quality tools – broadly promoted

instruments in scientific literature – for the analysis and generation of action plans for improving the course's service processes. In conclusion, it is worth underscoring that the objective proposed in this study was to adapt the SERVQUAL scale to the Higher education service activity and to present the results of its application in an engineering institution, and it was appropriately met.

REFERENCES BADRI, M. A.; ABDULLA, M.; AL-MADANI, A. Information technology center service quality. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 22 n. 8, 2005, p. 819-848. BATESON, J. E. G.; HOFFMAN, K. D. Marketing de serviços. 4. ed. Porto Alegre: Bookman, 2001. COELHO, C. D. A. Avaliação da qualidade percebida em serviços: aplicação em um colégio privado de ensino fundamental e médio. Florianópolis, 2004, 178 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Engenharia de Produção) Programa de Pós-graduação em Engenharia de Produção, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. COIMBRA, S. C. Qualidade em serviço: estudo comparativo dos atributos mais valorizados pelos clientes na avaliação da qualidade em serviços – uma aplicação do modelo SERVQUAL. Araraquara, 2005. DELAZARO FILHO, J. Gestão da qualidade no Brasil: setor de serviços. São Paulo: Núcleo de Pesquisas e Publicações, Fundação Getúlio Vargas, 1998. DETTMER, B.; SOCORRO, C.; KATON, H. T. Marketing de serviços: análise da

percepção da qualidade de serviços através da ferramenta SERVQUAL em uma instituição de ensino superior de Santa Catarina. Revista de Ciência da Administração, vol. 4, n. 8, julho/dezembro 2002. FITZSIMMONS, J. A.; FITZSIMMONS, N. J. Administração de serviços: operações, estratégias e tecnologia de informação. Porto Alegre: Bookman, 2000. GIANESI, I.G.N. e CORRÊA, H. L. Administração estratégica em serviços: operações para a satisfação do cliente. São Paulo: Atlas, 2004. LOVELOCK, C. Serviços: marketing e gestão. São Paulo: Saraiva, 2001. KILBOURNE, W. E. The applicability of SERVQUAL in crossnational measurements of health-care quality. Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 18, n. 7, 2004, p. 524-533. MEIRELLES, D. S. O conceito de serviço. Revista Economia Política, vol. 26, n. 1, janeiro/Março 2006, p. 119-136. MELLO, S. C. B.; DUTRA, H. F. O.; OLIVEIRA, P. A. S. Avaliando a qualidade de serviços educacionais numa IES: o impacto da qualidade percebida na apreciação do aluno de graduação. Revista O&S, vol. 8, n. 21, Maio/Agosto, 2001, p. 125-137. MELLO, S. C. B.; VIEIRA, R. S. G.; FONSÊCA, S. R. B.; NETO, A. F. S. Aplicação do modelo SERVQUAL para a avaliação da qualidade de serviço numa instituição de ensino superior baseado na percepção dos alunos. Anais... In: XXII Encontro Nacional de Engenharia de Produção. Salvador, 2001. NBR ISO 9001:2000 - Sistema de Gestão da Qualidade: requisitos. Rio de Janeiro: ABNT.

OLIVEIRA, O. J. Gestão da qualidade: introdução à história e fundamentos. In: OLIVEIRA, O. J. (org.). Gestão da qualidade: tópicos avançados. São Paulo: Thonsom Learning, 2004. OLIVEIRA, O. J. Ferramentas da qualidade. Bauru: Unesp, 2008. (Material de aula não publicado - disciplina de Qualidade I). PEREIRA, C. Evolução qualitativa na educação superior. In: OLIVEIRA, O. J. (org.). Gestão da qualidade: tópicos avançados. São Paulo: Thonsom Learning, 2004. PARASURAMAN, A.; ZEITHAML, V. & BERRY, L. A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research. Journal of Marketing, vol. 49, p. 41-50, 1985. SAGNEY, S.; BANWET, D. K.; KARUNES, S. A SERVQUAL and QFD approach to total quality education: a student perspective. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 53, n. 2, 2004, p. 143-166. SALOMI, G. G. E.; MIGUEL, P. A. C. Servqual x Servperf: comparação entre instrumentos para avaliação da qualidade de serviços internos. Gestão & Produção, vol. 12. n. 2. São Paulo, Maio/Agosto, p. 279-283, 2005. SATOLO et al. Uma avaliação da qualidade em serviços em uma livraria e papelaria utilizando o SERVQUAL – um estudo exploratório. Anais... In: XXV Encontro Nacional de Engenharia de Produção – Porto Alegre, 2005. SILVA, A. O.; FRANCA, C. O.; MELO, C. O.; PEDROSA, R. S. Qualidade dos serviços oferecidos por instituições públicas e privadas de Salvador nos cursos de

especialização em administração. Salvador, 2004, 58f. Monografia apresentada ao Curso de Especialização em Gestão de Serviços, Universidade Federal da Bahia. ZANELLA, A.; LIMA, L. S.; LOPES, L. F. D. Identificação de fatores que influenciam na satisfação dos clientes de um clube recreativo por meio de análise fatorial. Revista GEPROS, vol. 1, n. 2, Bauru, Janeiro/Abril 2006. ZEITHAML, V. A.; PARASURAMAN, A.; BERRY, L. L. Delivering quality service: balancing customer perceptions and expectations. London: Macmillan, 1990. WAUGH, R. F. Academic staff perceptions of administrative quality at universities. Journal of Education Administration, vol. 40, n. 2, 2002, p. 172-188. We wish to thank FAPESP for financing this study.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Student

...Revision of Critical essay *Introduction In today's society there is a lot of pressure on students academically to have a good performance and with that comes a lot of stress. Some students find a way to try to balance their hectic school life style whether it be some kind of recreational activity. One of those activities is sports and whether it can make a better student. I believe that yes it can increase your performance academically because it teaches you skills such as focus, fitness and communication with others. In the article “do athletes make better students, Natalie Gil written for the guardian.com. Natlie Gil claims that studies show that doing both can benefit studies and sports performance, providing motivation and preparation. Natalie Gil also goes on to state that it helps organization and pervents procrastination and that being fit alters students mood in a good way claiming a healthy body is a healthy mind. Lastly, Natalie Gil goes on to show evidence that it also helps with communication and team work whether at school or later in landing a career. Pathos Natalie Gil Appeals to the stress and desire to succeed in today's world as students upcoming in today's society. She also uses the points or appeal to support her view or stance on the subject that athletes do make better students and that this will lead to success not only in their academic life but also in their career choice Logos ......

Words: 616 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Student

...THE RATE OF INVOLVEMENT OF KPTM KL’S STUDENTS IN SPORTS AT THE COLLEGE Prepared by : MUHAMMAD AEZHAD BIN AZHAR CVB130724387 MUHAMMAD FARHAN BIN ABDUL RAHMAN CVB130724287 RAHMAN MUSTAQIM BIN KHOSAIM CVB130724279 MUHAMMAD AIMAN BIN MOHD HUSNI CVB130724388 Prepared for : Madam Jaaz Suhaiza Jaafar Submitted in partial fulfillments of the requirement of the 106km course. TABLE OF CONTENTS NUMBER | CONTENTS | PAGES | 1. | ACKNOWLEDGEMENT | 3 | 2. | INTRODUCTION | 4 | 3. | OBJECTIVES | 5 | 4. | METHODOLOGY | 6-7 | 5. | GRAPH | 8-11 | 6. | CONCLUSION | 12 | 7. | APPENDIX TABLE | 13 | 8. | APPENDIX | 14-17 | ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all,we really want to thankful to Madam Jaaz Suhaiza Jaafar because allowed me to do this mini project until we’ve successfully completed it.We want thankful too because madam helped us a lot such as give instructions or order how to make it properly done until we’ve finished it. If we didn’t get help from madam,its really hard to us for completed it in a short time. We also want to very thankful too all our 50 respondents which all of them its from KPTM KL students who was in diploma,degree or professional. They all was nice and very friendly with us and nobody refuse to give a little time to fill up our questionnaire. We really want to wish thanked you so much because without them we can’t finished our mini project. Last but not least,thank you so much too our...

Words: 2116 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Student

...are important to be included in the evaluation of teaching effectiveness. These factors are as the criteria for the evaluating of educational effectiveness. Some of these factors still work as a criterion for the evaluation process. While, the other factors have to be excluded from the evaluation and not to be given as much weight. Therefore, the main goal of this study is to ask administrators about which items still valid until the now and have to be included in the evaluation process and which of these items are invalid to be an evaluation criterion. This article also offers the main sources of data for evaluation of faculty performance as one of the important components of evaluation of educational effectiveness. There sources are students’ evaluation tools, teaching portfolios, classroom visitation reports, and scholarship activities. These sources offer significant information about the faculty performance and consequently they will contribute significantly in assessing and evaluating the teaching effectiveness. There are some items of evaluation have to be included and be given more weight in any evaluation process of the educational effectiveness because they have a significant relation to the success of the evaluation process. These items are currency in field, peers evaluation, classroom visits, professors preparations. While, there are some items have to be excluded because they do not contribute in success of evaluation of teaching effectiveness...

Words: 325 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Student

...SOX testing, I was also assigned to assist building the Compliance Universe for the whole organization. I appropriately allocated my time and energy to these two projects, so that I completed most of my work in a high quality and on a timely basis. I am a dedicated team player who loves communicating with people. I interviewed Hologic’s employees to understand key business processes, joined all the staff meetings and presented my ideas and achievements to the team, collaborated with colleagues to work on other projects to meet the deadline. I am also a person with great research and analytical skills. I used CCH, FASB Codification and some other information sources to finish my cases in academic study. Even though I am an international student, I believe that I am better for this position than anyone else. Companies like Signiant need global perspective people. I majored in International economy and trade during undergraduate study. I have knowledge about foreign currency, international transactions and taxes. All I need is a chance to learn and contribute in a fast-paced company like Signiant. The enclosed resume briefly summarizes my educational background and experiences, I would like to meet with you for an interview during which I can fully express my capacity and desire to work for Signiant. In the meantime, if you need any additional information, please contact me by phone at 781-502-8582 or via e- mal at liulezi2012@hotmail.com Thank you for your time and...

Words: 319 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Student

...Study of Asia-Pacific MBA Programs Bloomberg Business week posted an article on March 17th 2014 titled, Elite Business Schools Hike Tuition for the Class of 2016. This article draws a comparison between tuition costs for the class of 2015 for selected US MBA programs and the class of 2016. Tuition costs are increasing more and more every year, for this reason looking at other alternatives may be more cost effective. The following study provides and interpretation of tuition cots both local and foreign in the Asia-Pacific region. From this study we can see the comparison between tuition costs and starting salaries. We can also see other deciding factors such as admission requirements. Finally this study provides a recommendation for an MBA program in the Asia-Pacific region. Please note Table 1.1 listing the study’s programs with their correlating graph ID. Table 1.1 Business School | Graph ID | Lahore University of Management Sciences | LUMS | Indian Institute of Management (Calcutta) | IIMC | University of New South Wales (Sydney) | UNSW | Indian Institute of Management (Bangalore) | IIMB | Curtin Institute of Technology (Perth) | CIT | Massey University (Palmerston North, New Zealand) | MU | University of Queensland (Brisbane) | UQ | University of Adelaide | UA | Monash Mt. Eliza Business School (Melbourne) | MMEBS | Melbourne Business School | MBS | Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology | RMIT | Macquarie Graduate School of......

Words: 3907 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Student

...playing a basic rule in the education, and the government was searching for a solution to eliminate this phenomenon. They found that establish public schools overall the states will improve a lot of the poor income people to be introduced in the educational field, and over the years will produce community with cultured educated society. The education is varies in all levels, starting from preschool reaching to postgraduate like masters and doctoral degree. The insurance of improvement in education that any non U.S graduate must have multiple exams prior to admission e.g. TOEFL, ILETS, GRE, GMAT. Nowadays there are gradual increase in the numbers of international students want to continue their educations in United States. The improvement of the education in United States is very obvious and attracts the students worldwide, and they release a lot of plans in progress. All the opportunities social, health, economic, academic will depend on the basic structure...

Words: 306 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Student

...Retention(n), retain verb (used with object) the ​continued use, ​existence, or ​possession of something or someone:Two ​influential ​senators have ​argued for the retention of the ​unpopular ​tax.The retention of ​old ​technology has ​slowed the company's ​growth.​water/​heat retention Particularly(adv) Especially(adv) Deter(v) to make someone less likely to do something, or to make something less likely to happen caydırmak, vazgeçirmek, yıldırmak Perception(n) BELIEF [C]› what you think or believe about someone or something algılama, sezgi, görme The public perception of him as a hero is surprising. NOTICE [U] the ability to notice something fark etme, farkına varma, tanıma, görme Alcohol reduces your perception of pain. Conationimpulse Unanimous agreed by everyoneoy birliği ile üzerinde uzlaşılan; herkesçe kabul edilen; genel kabul görenThe jury was unanimous in finding him guilty. unanimity     /ˌjuːnəˈnɪməti/ noun [U]› when everyone agrees about somethinggenel/toplumsal uzlaşı; oy birliği ile anlaşma; genel kabul; fikir birliğiunanimously adverb›oy birliği ile kabul edilmişThe members unanimously agreed to the proposal. dissonancenoun [U]  UK   /ˈdɪs.ən.əns/  US   /ˈdɪs.ə.nəns/      › specialized music a ​combination of ​sounds or ​musical ​notes that are not ​pleasant when ​heard together:the ​jarring dissonance of Klein's ​musical ​score› formal ​disagreement dissonant adjective UK   /ˈdɪs.ən.ənt/  US   /ˈdɪs.ə.nənt/ specializedor formal ›a dissonant......

Words: 335 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Student

...Student Handbook 2015/2016 www.praguecollege.cz Table of Contents Introduction Message from the Director Mission, Vision and Values Why study at Prague College Admissions A short guide to Prague College qualifications English for Higher Education Foundation Diploma in Business Foundation Diploma in Computing Foundation Diploma in Art & Design Professional Diplomas in Business Professional Diplomas in Computing Higher National Diploma BA (Hons) International Business Management BA (Hons) International Business Management (Flexible Study Programme) BA (Hons) Business Finance & Accounting BA (Hons) Graphic Design BA (Hons) Fine Art Exp. Media BSc (Hons) Computing BA (Hons) Communications & Media Studies MSc International Management MSc Computing Accreditation & Validation UK/Pearson Credit system Transfer of credits Student support Accommodation Study Advising and Support Financial support Visas for foreign students Scholarships Benefits for students Study abroad Internships Assistance in employment Counselling Centre Student Resources Computer labs Online Learning Centre (Moodle) Prague College email Physical library Digital Library ISIFA Images Textbooks and class materials Graphic Design/Interactive Media/Fine Art materials and costs Personal computers Message boards and digital signs Newsletters Open lectures, seminars and events Student ID cards Centre for Research and Interdisciplinary Studies......

Words: 27092 - Pages: 109

Free Essay

International Student

...[pic] TOPIC: INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES ABOUT HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE UK Student: Pham Trang Huyen My Student ID: 77142444 10 weeks Pre-sessional course December, 2013 List of content Abstract 3 1. Introduction 4 2. Literature review 5 2.1. Higher Education in the UK 5 2.2. Teacher-student relationships and the quality of teaching 5 2.3. Different learning styles 6 2.4. Group work 7 2.5. Financial issues 8 3. Methodology 9 4. Results 10 5. Discussion 14 6. Conclusion 16 List of References 17 Appendix 19 Abstract Higher education is a competitive business which produces huge benefits for the UK economy. This paper reveals international students’ attitudes about UK higher education and focuses on direct factors which can affect students’ opinions. Reports of international students’ attitudes already carried out in Leeds Metropolitan University are analyzed and the main findings are emphasized. A total of eighteen international students interviewed provided data on their experience in UK education that involves the challenges they have faced and what they have achieved. The project concludes that not only UK tuition fees but also the quality of education can affect international students’ decision to study in the UK. Therefore measures should be taken......

Words: 3732 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Working Student

...INTRODUCTION Many students of HRM in Taguig City University work part-time Employment during school could improve grades if working promotes aspects that correspond with academic success, such as industriousness or time management skills, or instead reduce grades by reducing time and energy available for school work. Otherwise, working might be associated with academic performance, yet not directly influence it, if unobserved student differences influence both labor supply and grades. Unmotivated students might neither work for pay nor receive good grades because they put little effort into the labor market or school. In contrast, HRM students uninterested in academics might work long hours that would otherwise have been devoted to leisure. Students might misjudge the link between college achievement and future earnings when making labor supply decisions. If so, obtaining a consistent estimate of how such decisions affect academic performance is prospectively important for policy consideration. Some of HRM students in Taguig City University Students are more likely to work than they are to live on campus, to study full time, to attend a four-year college or university, or to apply for or receive financial aid. Students work regardless of the type of institution they attend, their age or family responsibilities, or even their family income or educational and living expenses. Most HRM students at Taguig City University face many challenges in their already busy everyday lives...

Words: 2898 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Student Adversity

... Adversity allows an individual to develop a sense of discipline, as well as encouraging individuals to exercise their mind to confront a problem or conflict. Specifically, students who encounter hardships are more inclined to try harder, which promotes competition within the school. Although adversity may be beneficial towards some students, challenges can be detrimental for students who lack confidence. For instance, some students develop a mentality of despair; they believe that if one has to work hard, then the person does not have the natural ability for the assignment. Based on the effects of adversity aforementioned, I believe that students can both benefit from the obstacles faced in school with the proper mentality or the effects could be hindering. Students face adversity every day, regardless of how transparent the obstacle may be; some problems may not be as evident as others. According to Carol S. Dweck, author of Brainology, all students face adversities throughout their high-school career, specifically, the challenge of overcoming a fixed mindset. In this excerpt, “The belief that intelligence is fixed dampened students’ motivation to learn, made them afraid of effort, and made them want to quit after a setback”, Carol portrays the illusion that students have over intuitive intelligence (Dweck 2). Students who share this belief of a...

Words: 1029 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Student Handbook

...Student Handbook (Procedure & Guideline) for Undergraduate Programmes 2014 Revised: April 2014 UCSI Education Sdn. Bhd. (185479-U) VISION AND MISSION STATEMENT OF UCSI UNIVERSITY VISION STATEMENT To be an intellectually resilient praxis university renowned for its leadership in academic pursuits and engagement with the industry and community MISSION STATEMENT  To promote transformative education that empowers students from all walks of life to be successful individuals with integrity, professionalism and a desire to contribute to society  To optimize relationships between industry and academia through the provision of quality education and unparalleled workplace exposure via Praxis Centres  To spearhead innovation in teaching and learning excellence through unique delivery systems  To foster a sustainable culture of research, value innovation and practice, in partnership with industries and society  To operate ethically at the highest standards of efficiency, while instilling values of inclusiveness, to sustain the vision for future generations 2 UCSI Education Sdn. Bhd. (185479-U) Graduate Attributes Getting a university degree is every student‟s ultimate dream because it opens doors to career opportunities anywhere in the world. A university degree is proof of one‟s intellectual capacity to absorb, utilize and apply knowledge at the workplace. However, in this current competitive world, one‟s knowledge and qualifications...

Words: 28493 - Pages: 114

Premium Essay

Student Policy

...Student Academic Policies Computer Usage: Sullivan University Systems (SUS) provides computer networking for all staff, students and anyone else affiliated with the university community. Sullivan University will provide a platform that is conducive for learning while maintain and respecting the user privacy. Users are authorized to use the accounts only. Passwords should be protected, please keep the confidential (Computer Usage. (2012) Sullivan University. Student Handbook 2012-2013, pp. 12-14.). While using the SUS users have a responsibility and are expected to follow some key rules: 1. Do not abuse the equipment 2. Computers must be used for course work 3. No unauthorized down loading 4. At no time will user install software of any kind Disciplinary action for violations of the Computer usage of policy will be enforced and are as follows: 1. Loss of computer privileges 2. Disconnection from the network 3. Expulsion 4. Prosecution The Compute usage policy is standard and pretty straight forward. The statement lets students know what is and is not proper usage. What I would have like to have seen is a social media portion in the usage policy. Academic Integrity: Cheating and Plagiarism is a violation of the University’s Academic Integrity Policy. All students are expected to submit their own work. Penalties for those who are found guilty of cheating may include: (Academic Integrity. (2014, January 1) Sullivan University. Sullivan University 2014......

Words: 320 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Student Satisfaction

...Academic Factors Affecting Student Satisfaction at the University of Buckingham. Introduction The University of Buckingham is the only independent University in the United Kingdom. Many studies have acknowledged the benefits of the private universities compare to public universities. Private universities are more customized: small classes, strong relationship between students and lecturers. Frankly speaking, service quality and student satisfaction is significantly higher in private universities. Intensifying competition and more demanding customers have led universities to identify what is important for students. Furthermore, higher education is recognized as a service industry and it should deliver a high service quality, meet the expectations and needs of students (Cheng and Tam 1997). Given that relevant research on academic factors affecting student satisfaction is limited, the purpose of this study is to identify the level of student satisfaction at the University of Buckingham in correlation with the academic factors with the following research questions being addressed: 1. Does academic factors (high standard of teaching with quality lecturers, course availability, course content, academic advising, variety of courses and class sizes) influence the level of Student Satisfaction at the University of Buckingham? 2. What are factors that have the highest impact on the level of student satisfaction at the University of Buckingham? 3. Does......

Words: 2319 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Working Students

...dramatic changes in how students are funding their college educations. Adult degree seekers, first-generation students, students of color, and students from low-income backgrounds have become a mainstay in the growing mix in college today. This new mix challenges the persistent image of the of the “traditional,” direct-from-high school, white, middle-class college student on a residential campus, who may work part time, is dependent on parents, and graduates within four years. In fact this picture represents less than 27% of college students today (Choy 2002). Today’s college students face a complex set of dilemmas about whether to attend college, where to attend, how to pay, how much to work, how many jobs to take, how to pay credit card bills and car payments, how to juggle family and children, and how to balance these competing priorities while in school. The amount of time students spend working has been of increasing concern for the educators that serve them and, in some instances, the students themselves. Recent data would indicate that 80% of American undergraduates worked while attending college in 1999-2000 (King, 2003).This represents an 8% increase over the class less than a decade previously, among whom 72% worked (Cuccaro-Alamin & Choy, 1998). Further, there appears to be a strong body of literature that points to the positive effects of not working versus working while attending college. One of the most difficult things we as students face is trying to......

Words: 2522 - Pages: 11