Free Essay

Studies

In: Other Topics

Submitted By melodyamor04
Words 3036
Pages 13
Original

Learning Styles Research

Research by Barbara Prashnig For more information, contact: Technology Based Solutions 504 Floral Vale Blvd. Yardley, PA 19067 888.783.2283 www.asktbs.com

1

Table of Contents
Achievement Gains Through Learning Styles Matching ......................................... 3 A Summary of Learning Style Preferences at Various Grade Levels...................... 5 Classroom Discipline............................................................................................... 5 Cognitive Style ........................................................................................................ 6 Counselling ............................................................................................................. 7 Cultural Comparisons.............................................................................................. 8 Emotional Elements and Achievement.................................................................. 11 Formal/Informal Preferences and Achievement .................................................... 11 Gifted/Non-Gifted Students ................................................................................... 11 Intake, Sound and Achievement ........................................................................... 13 Learning Disabilities .............................................................................................. 13 Learning Styles/Teaching Styles........................................................................... 16 Maths Test Scores and Attitudes ..........................................................................16 Mathematics, Reading, and Time Preferences ..................................................... 17 Musical Talent....................................................................................................... 17 Physiological Elements and Achievement............................................................. 18 Reading and Sound .............................................................................................. 19 Reading and Light ................................................................................................. 19 Reading Comprehension and Design (Study Area) .............................................. 20 Rural/Inner City Student Background....................................................................20 Science Achievement with Computer-Assisted Instruction ................................... 21 Social Studies ....................................................................................................... 21 Sociological Elements and Achievement .............................................................. 22 Time of Day Preferences and Achievement.......................................................... 23 Vocational Education/Industrial Arts ..................................................................... 25 Word-Pair Recognition and Mobility ...................................................................... 26 Word Recognition and Temperature ..................................................................... 26

2

Research concerned with identifying the relationship(s) between academic achievement and individual learning style has provided consistent support for the following: a) students do learn differently from each other; b) student performance in different subject areas is related to how individuals do, in fact, learn; c) when students are taught with approaches and resources that complement their unique learning styles, their achievement is significantly increased (DeBello, 1985; Dunn, DellaValle, Dunn, Geisert, Sinatra, & Zenhausern, 1986; Dunn, Dunn, Primavera, Sinatra, & Virostko, 1987; Dunn, Krimsky, Murray and Quinn, 1985; Dunn, Cavanaugh, and Zenhausern, 1982; Giannitti, 1988; Hill, 1987; White, 1981; Hodges, 1985; Jarsonbeck, 1984; Kroon, 19 85; Lemmon, 1985; Lynch, 1981;, MacMurren, 1985; Martini, 1986; Miles, 1987; Murrain, 1983; Pizzo, 1981; Shea, 1983; and Spires, 1983). In addition to the research documentation substantiating the positive effects that occur when students are taught in ways that are responsive to how they each learn, widespread practitioner corroboration has been published based on classroom or schoolwide experiences (Ballinger & Ballinger, 1982; Carruthers & Young, 1980; Cavanaugh, 1981; Dunn, 1981; Fiske, 1981; Dunn & Griggs, 1987, 1989a, 1989b; Gardiner, 1983; Hodges, 1982, 1983; Jenkins, 1982, 1986; Lemmon, 1982, 1985; Pizzo, 1982; Vigna & Martin, 1982; and Wheeler, 1980). This section provides an overview of selected correlational and experimental studies concerned with the identification of students' learning style characteristics with the Learning Style Inventory (LSI).

Achievement Gains Through Learning Styles Matching
A doctoral investigation conducted by Spires (1983) revealed that implementation of a learning styles program resulted in significant gains in reading and mathematics achievement on standardized achievement tests. The Learning Style Inventory (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 1978) was administered to students in grades 3 through 6, and the Learning Style Inventory Primary Version (Perrin, 1982) to grades K through 2. Analyses of the data indicated that teaching students through their individual learning styles resulted in significantly higher reading and mathematics achievement, particularly on those subtests requiring higher level cognitive abilities, such as reading concepts. A study was conducted to (a) identify how the Dunn, Dunn and Price Learning Style Model had been implemented in seven diverse regions of the United States and (b) develop guidelines for providing instruction for students with learning styles not currently accommodated in conventional classrooms (Klavas, Dunn, Griggs , Geisert, Gemake, & Zenhausern, 1994). Many practitioners had reported that such students often were classified as poor achievers, learning disabled, discipline problems, or dropouts; but that academic reversals had occurred when instruction was redesigned to respond to their particular learning-style preferences as revealed by Dunn, Dunn, & Price's (1989) LSI (Andrews, 1990; Brunner & Majewski, 1990; Elliot, 1991, Klavas, 1993, Perrin, 1990; Stone, 1992). Braio (1995) analyzed the effects of gradually implementing learning-style strategies on reading achievement and attitude toward instruction with 81 special education and 35 low-achieving general education-urban students in grades four, five, and six. Pre-and post-tests concerned with structural analysis instructional units were administered in each of five phases, of two weeks each, to determine reading achievement gains. Significant gains in reading achievement for both groups were revealed when students were taught using gradually-increasing, learning style approaches that included responsiveness to students' varied Sound, Light, Temperature, Seating, Mobility, and Perceptual preferences. Removal of learning-style approaches evidenced decreased achievement. Statistical significance for attitude was achieved by the general education students, but not those in special education, perhaps because these students' classroom environment often reflects a relaxed traditional ambiance. Marino, 1993 argues that students will accept and even learn from homework provided that its design takes into consideration students' learning styles and study skills. He describes an effort at an all-boys

3

high school in Brooklyn, New York, to tai lor class instruction and homework to results obtained from a Learning Styles Inventory. Klavas, 1994 describes how a North Carolina elementary school altered teaching methods to suit varied learning styles of the students based on the results of a Learning Styles Inventory. She discusses changes made based on students' perceptual preferences, time of day preferences, environmental preferences, and sociological preferences. Discipline problems dropped dramatically and test scores rose precipitously. This investigation (Braio, 1995) analyzed the effects of incremental implementation of learning-style strategies on reading achievement and attitude toward instruction via structural analysis with special education and low-achieving general education students in grades four, five and six. To identify individual preferences, the Learning-Styles Inventory (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 1990) was administered to students who attended an urban intermediate school. Two categories were targeted: 81 special education students and 35 low-achieving general education students. Both categories were divided into two sub-groups: group one was incrementally matched according to learning-style preferences for sound, light, temperature, design, mobility, tactual, kinesthetic, auditory and visual elements; group two consisted of unmatched and/or no preferences. Instructional units were divided into five phases of two weeks each. Structural analysis units and varied learning-style preferences gradually were introduced during these instructional phases: (phase 1) compound words using traditional teaching methods; (phase 2) plurals accommodating for sound, light, temperature, design and/or mobility elements; (phase 3) prefixes accommodating for sound, light, temperature, design and/or mobility elements and/or tactual and kinesthetic modalities; (phase 4) suffixes accommodating for sound, light, temperature, design and/or mobility elements and/or tactual, kinesthetic, auditory and/or visual modalities; and (phase 5) contractions using traditional teaching methods. Pre- and post-tests were administered in each of the five phases to determine reading achievement gains. Significant gains in reading achievement for both special education and general education students were found when students were taught using incremental learning styles strategies. To determine attitudinal changes toward reading, the Semantic Differential Scale (Pizzo, 1981) was administered four times throughout this study: before phase 1 (a baseline measure); after phase 1 (traditional teaching); before phase 5 (learning-styles intervention); and after phase 5 (with the return to traditional teaching and the removal of learning styles). Statistical significance for attitude was not achieved for the special education students. However, the general education students' attitudes toward reading became increasingly favourable after learning-style instruction and a decrement occurred after learning-style methods were removed. These data confirmed the importance of matching learning-styles preferences with complementary instructional strategies and environments. Experimental studies (Dunn, Griggs, Olson, & Beasly, (1995) based on the Dunn, Dunn and Price Learning Style Model and conducted between 1980-1990 were identified to determine the value of teaching students through their learning-style preferences. Thirty six studies provided a database of 3,181 participants. Results were synthesized through meta-analysis and the standard normal curve suggests that students whose learning styles are accommodated would be expected to achieve 75% of a standard deviation higher than students who have not had their learning styles accommodated. This finding indicates that matching students' learning-style preferences with educational interventions compatible with those preferences is beneficial to their academic achievement. Through the use of greater tactual, kinesthetic, and global methodology during reading instruction, the fifteen students enrolled in the program experienced an average increase of 73.33 percent in selfconcept, according to the Primary Self-Concept Inventory. These same students experienced an average gain of 7.25 months in reading achievement, as measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills, during five months of instruction (Settle, 1989). After a brief review of the literature on sound, a study by J. Pizzo (1981) is described involving learning style preferences of 64 6th graders. Results of exposure to either noise or sound revealed that Ss' who preferred quiet performed best in a quiet acoustic environment (AE). Ss' who preferred sound performed best in a noisy AE. Ss' in an environment that complemented their learning style

4

preference also had statistically higher attitudinal scores than their mismatched peers, and a mismatched environment affected Ss' reading achievement and attitudes toward intellectual ability and other strengths.

A Summary of Learning Style Preferences at Various Grade Levels
An examination of the ways in which learning style characteristics appeared to change as students advanced from grade to grade was conducted by Price (1980). It was revealed that selected environmental, emotional, sociological, and physical traits appe ared to be stable over time, whereas others tended to parallel the growth curve. A total of 3,972 subjects in grades 3 through 12 completed the LSI during the 1979-1980 school year. Some of the statistically significant findings revealed were: * The higher the grade level, the more Sound and Light were preferred. * The higher the grade level, the less preference was indicated for Formal Design (wooden, plastic, or steel chairs when studying). * Self Motivation decreased during grades 7 and 8, but then a gradual increase was evidenced in each of the grades thereafter. * The higher the grade level, the less Teacher-Motivated students became. * The higher the grade level, the less Motivated in general, students were. The biggest shift was between grades 7 and 8, with grade 11 having the highest peak for being Unmotivated. * An overall decrease in the need for Structure was evidenced the higher the grade. * Although the junior high school years are considered strong periods for Peer influence, there was a greater need to learn/study alone in grades 9, 10, 11, and 12 than during any other interval. * The highest need to learn with Peers occurred in grades 6 through 8; the lowest need was in grade 12, followed by grade 9, with a slight increase in grades 10 and 11. * The younger the student, the more tactual and kinesthetic he/she was. Those modalities were followed by the development of visual strengths and, beginning with grades 5 and 6, the development of auditory strengths. Price (1980) revealed how learning-style changed as students moved from elementary school into adolescence and young adulthood. Others found that learning styles are also different by achievement level, gender, and age (Dunn & Griggs, 1995). Thus g eneral changes in style can be anticipated as students develop.

Classroom Discipline
A survey (Campbell, 1990) of teachers in an elementary school building and a literature review indicated that the causes of the lack of individualizing student learning were related to class size, poor leadership, teacher training, and poorly developed learning style instruments. A practicum was designed for classroom teachers to recognize differential learning styles and incorporate them into their repertoire of teaching. This practicum involved 31 sixth grade students and included five behavioural objectives: (1) improved study habits, attitudes, and behaviour; (2) employment of four distinct teaching methods; (3) administration of the Dunn, Dunn, and Price Learning Style Inventory self-reporting instrument to 27 elementary teachers; (4) in-service on learning styles for all elementary teachers; and (5) parental review of child's learning style inventory results. Outcomes of the practicum showed improved work habits in 27 students, improved classroom attitudes in 26 students, and improved classroom behaviour in 10 students. The students and their classroom teacher found the four group teaching methods that were introduced and demonstrated to them to be an excellent experience.

5

Cognitive Style
Go into any classroom, at any level, in any school, and select a textbook in any subject. Chances are excellent that the textbook is not presented compatibly with how more than half the students in that classroom learn best. How is that possible? A large majority of educators are analytic processors whereas many students at any level are global processors. Neither method is better than the other and both types can learn the same information; they just do it differently. Analytics respond best w hen ideas are presented sequentially with new information building upon past knowledge leading up to eventual understanding of entire concepts. Globals/Holistics, on the other hand, need to "see the whole picture" first. They respond best when a teacher begins with a short story that explains why learning this information is important. Globals must be able to relate new information to what they already know. For a greater understanding of the differences between global and analytic processors, we turn to the research. Kaley (1977) investigated field dependence versus field independence and how it affected sixth-grade readers. She found that of the good readers, half were analytic and half were global. Of the poor readers, 85% were global. She concluded that good readers were field independent (analytic) because they could see each letter, sound it out individually, and piece it together with others to form words. Two years later, Trautman (1979) explored the relationship between selected instructional techniques and cognitive style. He used Contract Activity Packets (CAP' s) with junior-high school social studies classes. Half the objectives were written analytically and half were written globally. Each student completed all the objectives. Trautman's findings indicated that the groups matched with their processing styles achieved statistically higher gains on those objectives than on the objectives written in the unmatched style. Further support for matching instructional techniques to cognitive style was provided by Tanenbaum (1982) who studied high school students enrolled in nutrition classes. Trautman's, Douglas', and Tanenbaum's students all produced significant gains when instructional techniques matched their cognitive styles. At about the same time, Dunn, Cavanaugh, Eberle, and Zenhausern (1982) found that right/left brain dominance was linked with certain learning-style elements. Using a scale for brain dominance developed by Zenhausern, the researchers identified high school students as being either right-brain dominant or left-brain dominant. Their findings revealed that students who were strongly left-brain dominant needed quiet, bright light, formal design, were persistent, and required no intake while studying. Conversely, right-dominant students needed sound, preferred low lighting and informal seating, were not persistent, and often required intake while learning. The findings of Dunn, Cavanaugh, Eberle, and Zenhausern constituted a significant breakthrough in our understanding of the importance of cognitive processing. For the first time, specific conditions under which analytics and globals learn were identified. One of the first correlational studies that revealed a relationship between IQ and cognitive processing was conducted by Cody (1983). She examined the learning styles of highly gifted, average, and underachieving students. Among her findings were that: (a) of the students with an IQ of 145 or higher, 9 of 10 were global: (b) of the students with an IQ of 135 or higher, 8 of 10 were global: (c) of the students with an IQ of 125 or higher, 8 of 10 were analytic: and (d) analytics performed better than globals in school. Furthermore, Cody noted that the learning styles of gifted, average, and underachievers were very different from each other. The most crucial point that teachers need to know is how to teach both analytically and globally. Analytics learn best when information is presented in a step-by-step sequence, whereas globals need to understand the whole concept first; they then focus on the details. To engage a global learner, a

6

teacher should introduce a new lesson with a humorous story and use diagrams, illustrations, and pictures to represent key ideas. It is important to note that many globals prefer to work with peers rather than alone or with a teacher, and they often like to structure their own tasks. Globals appear to concentrate best with Sound, Soft or Low Lighting, an Informal seating arrangement, and some form of Intake. Also, they take frequent breaks while studying and often work on several tasks simultaneously. Analytics, on the other hand, prefer to work on one assignment at a time before proceeding to the next. They prefer a quiet, well illuminated environment and formal seating. Most analytics do not require Intake to concentrate (Dunn, Cavanaugh, Eberle, & Zenhausern, 1982). Many highly gifted students and most underachievers are global. The difference between the two groups is that underachievers tend to become unmotivated and are essentially Tactile/Kinesthetic learners. Globals appear to concentrate best with Sound, Soft or Low Light. It would be wise to vary tasks to increase students' motivation and persistence and to encourage active, hands-on participation while learning. It is interesting to note that the majority of elementary school-age children are global. However, as children develop and progress through the grades, many become increasingly analytic (Dunn, Dunn, 1992, 1993; Dunn, Dunn, & Perrin, 1994).

Counselling
Griggs, Price, Kopal, and Swaine (1984) tested 165 sixth-grade, suburban students for their styles with the Learning Style Inventory (Dunn, Dunn, and Price, 1978). The 19 who revealed either Low Motivation and a High Need for Structure or High Motivation and a Low Need for Structure were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) High Structure & Counselling: Compatible: Low Motivation, High Structure (three students); Incompatible: High Motivation, Low Structure (two students); (2) Low Structured Counselling: Compatible: High Motivation, Low Structure (four students); Incompatible: Low Motivation, High Structure (three students); (3) Control Group: (seven students). All groups met for eight sessions conducted weekly during a two-month period. The treatment objectives, to explore the world of work, were identical, but their strategies differed. A one-way analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data. The independent variable had three levels: Compatible, Incompatible, and Control; the covariate was pre-test scores, and the dependent variable was post-test score on the Occupational List Recall Test (OLRT). The comparison of groups for the adjusted OLRT post-test score was significant (p

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Study

...It is possible for students to achieve success in the examination if the correct strategies and study skills are used. Studying effectively does not depend so much on how long one spends with book and notes but how effectively one has been studying. One of the most important recipes for success in examination is to study regularly and consistently. After all ‘Rome was not built in a day’. It is necessary, therefore to draw up a timetable with time set aside for recreation, exercise or television. Equally important is the discipline to stick to the period timetable. Without a study plan or timetable, some subject me be inadequate focus and attention. Another factor that is crucial for examination success is the need to do homework and assignments. Homework and assignments reinforce learning and helps students to identify what they do not know so that remedial work can be done immediately. In addition, homework helps students to practice and reinforce classroom learning. Preparing mind maps is another study skills that can be used to make learning more effective and more meaningful. For subject with a lot of content matter such as History and Biology, mind maps are essential for various reasons. For one, mind maps helps students to focus on the important elements as well as to see relationship between the element more clearly. Next, mind maps are useful tools for revision because the mind can see and remember more easily if ideas and concepts are presented in pictures and...

Words: 251 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Study

...Psychology & Educational Studies 2(3) 72-75 Rjopes © Emerging Academy Resources (2013) (ISSN: 2276-8475) www.emergingresource.org STUDY HABITS AS INFLUENCE OF ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATES IN NIGERIA Ayodele, C.S and Adebiyi, D.R Department of Guidance and Counselling, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Corresponding Author: Ayodele, C.S __________________________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT This study examined study habit as a determinant of academic performance of undergraduates in Nigeria. It also investigated how faculty and gender influence their study habit. The study employed a descriptive research survey type. The research instrument was titled” Study habits determinants Questionnaire”. The face and content validity was ascertained by psychologist and Guidance and Counselling experts. A reliability coefficient of 0.85 was obtained using split half method. The population of the study includes all faculties in the university. Samples were selected through stratified and random sampling techniques. Two hypotheses were generated and were tested using student t-test and ANOVA at 0.05 level of significance. The descriptive analysis revealed that self concept was very strong determinant of study habit, so also was method of study, family background, socio-economic status, peer group and course of study. Again, gender was found to have no significant difference on undergraduates’ study habit......

Words: 1680 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

The Study

...Theories of Study Habits: INTRODUCTION: Rationale and importance. Learning is very important. As human beings we are expected to learn to be able to cope with the new generation. To be able to learn effectively, one must have a good study habits. Study habits are the ways that you study- the habits that you have formed during your school years. Study habits include being organized, keeping good notes, reading your textbook, listening in class, and working everyday. However, there are factors that can hinder students to have a good study habits, which are the learning environment; socioeconomic status; the teacher; nutrition and students’ motivation to study. Study habits are learning tendencies that enable students to work privately. Azikiwe (1998) describes the study habit as “the adopted way and manner a student plans his private readings, after classroom learning so as to attain mastery of the subject”. According to her, “good study habits are good assets to learners because they (habits) assist students to attain mastery in areas of specialization and consequent excellent performance, while opposite constitute constraints to learning and achievement leading to failure”. Good (1998) define the term study habits as: The student’s way of study whether systematic, efficient or inefficient etc”. Going by 9 this definition it literally means that good study habit produces positive academic performance while inefficient study habit leads to academic failure. Your study......

Words: 279 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Study

...Study abroad plan Nowadays, many people like to study abroad. Studying abroad is often considered as a great opportunity which will lead to bright future in one's ride of passage. Not only can we learn different cultures and knowledge from foreign countries, studying abroad can also enrich our lives. I plan to study the International Business by this program in Korea which last for one month. The program in Korea provides contemporary educational experiences of high quality to prepare students to face the challenges from a dynamic world and to meet their responsibilities within a global society. In my opinion, studying abroad is very important to me. Because your eyes are opened to the world. We often grow up thinking that our way of doing things is the only way, or sometimes the best way. But living in a new culture helps us realize new ways of doing things, and also helps us to see that even though we are different, we are all human. And in many cases, not only will you get to know the natives of the country you are visiting; you may get to know classmates from all over the world. The most obvious personal challenge to overseas study is real-life use of a different language. While a person can study a foreign language in his or her own country, it cannot compare with constant use of the language in academic and everyday life. There is no better opportunity to improve second-language skills than living in the country in which it is spoken.......

Words: 293 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Study

...[pic] __________________________________________________________ UNIVERSITY COMPULSORY SUBJECT EXAMINATION FOR THE BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONS) ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONS) BUSINESS MANAGEMENT BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONS) BUSINESS STUDIES YEAR OF STUDY: YEAR 1 UCS 1000: STUDY SKILLS FEBRUARY 2009 Reading time: 15 minutes Writing time : 2 Hours _________________________________________________________ INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES This paper contains three sections: Section A, Section B and Section C. Answer ALL questions in the answer booklet provided. This paper makes up 40% of the total assessment of this subject. This paper is printed on FOUR (4) pages Section A [20 marks] There are TEN questions for Section A. Answer ALL questions in complete sentences. |1. |State TWO reasons why it is important to set goals in learning. | | |(2 marks) | |2. |Why is it important for college students to do prior reading before lectures or tutorials? | | |(2 marks) | |3. ...

Words: 554 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Study

...Introduction Organizational behavior is the study of the behavior of individuals in organizations. It studies the science and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. The purpose of the study is to improve relationships in organizational context and therefore improve the process of achieving the organizational goals and objectives. Definition of organizational behavior “Actions and attitudes of individuals and groups toward one another and toward the organization as a whole, and its effect on the organization's functioning and performance.” Evolution of Management theory Behavioral science approach This Approach focuses on the psychological and sociological processes that influence the performance of workers. This approach focuses on the workers, not the job itself. The behavioral science was influenced to a large extent by the human relations movement, namely the Hawthorne experiments (e.g. influence of lightning on performance etc.) in the 1930s. Human relations approach The human relations approach evolved in the 1960s and included research from Herzberg, Maslow, and McGregor etc. They tried to find ways to motivate employees based on their needs. 1. McGregor X and Y theory McGregor stated the XY theory of management that says that there are two types of management approaches. A type Y manager sees people as individuals with intrinsic motivation to achieve the organizational goals. Therefore the job of...

Words: 862 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Study

...Case Study Format 1. Title Page Should include the following information: • Your Official Name (as it appears on Seneca College documents) • Your Student Number • Course Name and Number • Professor's name • Name of the Case • Due Date Background Only the key background points are to be included here. The reader of your case does not want to know that the company was founded in 1900 and (the name of every president since then) rather he or she only wants to know the facts necessary to understand the problem/opportunity and your analysis. • describe the key issues only i.e. Market growing, cash flow problems etc. Problem/Opportunity • Identify the main and secondary problems/opportunities. • Attempt to summarize each problem/opportunity in one or two sentences (underline these so that they stand out). • Provide rationale for why you believe these are the problems or opportunities. This section should follow the underlined sentence(s) mentioned above. As necessary list any assumptions you have made. • Analysis should be done from a symptom or a cause perspective Recommendations and Rationale • Number each recommendation. • Attempt to summarize each recommendation in one or two sentences (underline these so that they stand out). • An in depth......

Words: 379 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Case Study Case Study Case Study

...This case study is an excellent example of how different types of parties can be brought together in a large scale transaction and how the original energy of those early meetings can be lost over time. I imagine that when Anthony Athanas was purchasing those old piers back in the 1960s many, if not all, of his colleagues, friends, and family members told him that he was off his rocker. I’m sure Athanas was looking at this land as his family’s ticket to financial prosperity and somewhat of a legacy that he could leave to his descendants for years and years to come. One of the items I wish the case would have divulged is the amount of money that Athanas had invested in the properties. For me this information would have given an insight to his net worth and how much he had riding on this investment. I assume it was substantial given his actions later in the process. Twenty years later Athanas’ dreams came true and all those naysayers were more than likely green with envy. The amount of pride Athanas’ had in his investment at that moment had to have been insurmountable. Being approached by a big time real estate development company and their extremely wealthy client, Hyatt Corporation, must have made Athanas feel larger than life and made him feel like something he isn’t, which is a developer himself. The case doesn’t give much insight into whether Athanas had any representation or anyone consulting him throughout the process. From the beginning, I saw this as matchup...

Words: 1190 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Study Habits

... Research Title “EFFECTS OF STUDY HABITS ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF HIGHSCHOOL STUDENTS” A research proposal Presented to: Ms. Eliza Enriquez Researchers: Jay Mar M. Basco Kenton Van Fortu Adrian Cablao Chapter I A. Introduction Changes in behavior naturally occur in high school students. Nowadays, students spend their vacant time for doing their habits instead of advancing their studies. Some of this habits make them forgot to do their school responsibilities because of enjoyment that it caused to them. Playing computer games, watching their favorite television shows and hanging out with their friends are the common habits of high school students. Good study habits are the key to learning. Everyone cannot be brilliant but everyone can learn how to study. Effective study habits, even highly intelligent student failed due to inefficient work and lack of knowledge on how to study effectively. Important skills for study have to be learned and practiced. Moreover, students who put in more classrooms how and who work to a more regular program of study have a better academic performance. Study habits tend to be formed in the early grades and in the most instances, do not materially improve after elementary school. Some students often complain about mental inability or strain or lack of interest in studies. Other thinks they are not capable. Purpose of the study The purpose of this study is to provide awareness and......

Words: 3413 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Study Habits

...THE STUDY SKILLS AND HABITS OF ATENEO DE ILOILO- SANTA MARIA CATHOLIC SCHOOL HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter one consists of six parts: (1) Background of the Study, (2) Statement of the Problem, (3) Hypothesis, (4) Definition of Terms, (5) Delimitation of the Study, and (6) Significance of the Study. Part One, Background of the Study, represents the rationale that supports this research endeavour. It gives the reason behind the choice of the problem and provides a strong foundation for the conduct of this study. Part Two, Statement of the Problem, presents the problem and states the general and specific research questions that this study sought to answer. Part Three, Hypothesis, states and advances the hypotheses that were tested in this study. Part Four, Definition of Terms, includes the meanings of the terms that are essential in the development and understanding of this study. Part Five, Delimitation of the Study, includes the discussions of the scope and factors that delimit the scope of this study. Part Six, Significance of the Study, enumerates the persons and institutions that might benefit from the findings of this research. Background of the Study Study skills and habits are techniques or strategies used every time a student is studying. Some students would have the same study habits or may have a different one. Their kind of study habits depends whether a specific study is effective for them. Definitely, the......

Words: 7023 - Pages: 29

Premium Essay

Study Habit

...don’t appear to do as much time and effort do well? Success in school is not determined by intelligence as knowing how to study. Studying is a skill. Being successful in school requires a high level of study skills. Student must learn this skill, they must developed and practice then effectively to achieve. Sometimes study habits used in high school do not work for college students. A good study habit composed of: time management, self-discipline, organization, motivation, concentration and effort. Study habit is the way on how you study from your prep years until today. Study habits can be effective one or not effective one. Excellent study habit includes having hard copy of lectures/discussions, advance reading on the lessons to be discussed for the following days, listening attentively in class while the teacher is having lecture on the subject matter and proper grouping of things and all belongings for school so that it will make you easier to access on your things in school or even at home when doing your homework, bring home seatwork, quizzes, activities, project and other school requirements. Having notes is a good way to practice, keeping notes of all the important discussion on the lesson discussed and listening is a good practice of a disciplined and responsible student. Many different factors affect the study habits of students. The ability to study and concentrate can do increased by finding a quiet place where you can concentrate. Distractions such as phones,......

Words: 903 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Study Habits

...THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SUBJECT LOADS AND STUDY HABITS AMONG THE ACCOUNTANCY STUDENTS OF HOLY CROSS OF DAVAO COLLEGE A Research Paper Presented to Mrs. Nelia B. Aga by Manalo, Ma. Reignsel Angelica V. Copreros, Ariela September 2015 The Relationship between Subject Loads and Study Habits Among the Accountancy Students Of Holy Cross of Davao College _________________ A Research Paper Presented to Mrs. Nelia B. Aga _________________ In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for English 103 __________________ by Manalo, Ma. Reignsel Angelica V. Copreros, Ariela B. September 2015 ii HOLY CROSS OF DAVAO COLLEGE STA. ANA AVENUE, DAVAO CITY Approval Sheet This research entitled “The Relationship between Subject Loads and Study Habits Among the Accountancy Students of Holy Cross of Davao College”, prepared and submitted by Ma. Reignsel Angelica V. Manado and ArielaCopreros, in partial fulfillment on English 103, Methods of Research and Technical Writing, has been examined and recommended for acceptance and approval. Mrs. Nelia B. Aga Instructor ii Acknowledgement The researchers would like to thank from the bottom of their heart to the people who became part of the conduction of this study. And also who are there to support financial or even emotional so that this study becomes successful. First and for most, the researchers would like to express their sincere thanks to our Almighty God because He...

Words: 11161 - Pages: 45

Premium Essay

Study Habit

...effects of students’ living environments have been studied for many years to analyze students living environment factors that influenced the students’ academic results which can either be positive or negative. Dakin’s (2008) study on College Success among Students Who Reside in Different Environment is an example of a study about the student’s environment, which focused on academic study habits, and student satisfaction. His study attempts to uncover environmental influences on a college student’s ability to succeed. The environmental conditions that were found if duplicated to a larger student population could benefit future college students’ decisions about their living arrangements while attending college. Kizlik (1997) stated that each student doesn’t have the same study needs. They study differently, and there are some study habits that works for one student but may not work for another. However, there are some general ways that seem to produce good results. No one would argue that every subject that the student have to take is going to be so interesting that studying it is not work but pleasure. Keleey (1997) said that there are also factors that the student must consider in choosing his or her study place. One factor is the time of day. A bad study environment can distract a person. If the student is uncomfortable with his or her environment, due to some causes like the temperature is too hot or too cold, it might disturb the student in doing his or her works. Not a......

Words: 912 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Study Habits

...DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE STUDY HABITS Mayland Community College S.O.A.R. Program Revised April 2002 GET THE STUDY HABIT Did you ever stop to wonder what sets apart the really successful students from the average ones? Why do some students who appear to study all the time just get by, while others who don’t appear to put in as much time and effort do well? Is it all related to IQ and genetics or are some other factors involved? The truth is that success in school is not so much determined by sheer intelligence as knowing how to study. Studying is a skill. Being successful in school requires a high level of study skills. Students must first learn these skills, practice them and develop effective study habits in order to be successful. Very often the study habits and practices developed and used in high school do not work for students in college. Good study habits include many different skills: time management, selfdiscipline, concentration, memorization, organization, and effort. Desire to succeed is important, too. In this module you will discover your areas of strength and identify your weaknesses pertaining to studying. You will learn about your preferred learning channel, tips to organize your studies, and ways to help you remember what you study. The skills you will learn about in this module can be applied in other areas of your life as well: your job, your career, or any activity that requires thought, planning, information processing, and selfdiscipline. You’ll......

Words: 4204 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Case Study

...A Case Study by any Other Name Cathy Foster Liberty University   A Case Study by any other Name Researchers have different methods of observing their subjects. Among the most popular is the case study. Case studies are used a lot in psychology and one of the most famous psychologists that used case studies to detail the private lives of his patients was Sigmund Freud. What is a Case Study? “A case study is an observational method that provides a description of an individual” (Cozby & Bates, 2012). During a case study the individual is usually a person however that’s not always the situation. The case study can also be a setting, which can include a school, business, or neighborhood. A naturalistic observational study can sometimes be called a case study and these two studies can overlap (Cozby & Bates, 2012). Researchers report information from the individual or other situation, which is from a “real-life context and is in a truthful and unbiased manner” (Amerson, 2011). What are some Reasons for Using a Case Study Approach? There are different types of case studies. One reason to use a case study is when a researcher needs to explain the life of an individual. When an important historical figure’s life needs explaining this is called psychobiography (Cozby & Bates, 2012). The case study approach help answer the “how”, “what”, and “why” questions (Crowe, 2011). What are Some Advantages and Disadvantages to the Case Study Approach? Some......

Words: 548 - Pages: 3