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Study Guide Chapter 3

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Religion can be defined as Religion is the relationship between a human being and the superhuman power.

The various ways in which religion is expressed include (name five only) feelings of fear, legend, myths, prayer, rituals, and the application of religious precepts to the conduct of social life.

Early modernization theorists viewed religion (with regard to politics) as an obstacle to modernization; Religion undermines socio-economic development; It undermines the development of modern states; They hoped that modernization of the Third World would lead to gradual decline of religion from public life; eventual disappearance of religion; That did not happen; Religion is very much alive; It remains part of politics.

Dependency theorists view religion as unimportant; Give it only an occasional footnote in their writings; They blame colonial powers for having used religion to colonize today’s Third World.

Political scientists have developed the following nuanced understanding of the relationship between religion, state and modernity they argue that all religions have legitimized the state’s authority at some point in history; in some respects, religious leaders and institutions may inhibit development; they oppose important aspects of social change; de-legitimize the political system; can try to make it look unpopular; they may encourage, facilitate development; modernization can induce the political secularization can induce peaceful co-existence between state (politics) and religion.

By saying that “religion has been a resilient force in the Third Word” we mean it has been challenged throughout history and the world; But it remains alive and active.

By saying that “religion has been a pervasive force (in the Third Word)” we mean It has penetrated nearly every society. Including Third World’s; Nearly all the people are members of a religion or a...

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