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Study Guide Computer Chapter 1,2 3 & 4

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CSC-105 NE Spring 2016
Study Guide – Chapters 1, 2, 3 & 4 &Videos
Chapter 1: Introduction to Information Technology: The Future Now
1. Robots – automatics devices that perform functions ordinarily performed by human beings
2. Online learning (Distance learning) - is designed to provide students with additional learning opportunities & instructors with additional teaching tools (e-learning)
3. Telemedicine, Campus Cruiser (portals) – medical care via telecommunications -
4. Computer / IT uses
5. Cyberspace – encompasses not only the online world & the Internet in particular but also the whole wired & wireless world of communications in general
6. Internet – is a worldwide computer network that connects hundreds of thousands of smaller networks/ World wide web – often called the web – an interconnected system of internet computers (servers) that support specially formatted documents in multimedia form
7. Multimedia files – technology that presents information in more than one medium, such as texts, still images, moving images & sound.
8. Networks A. Client – are linked by a wired or wireless network. The entire network is called client server network / Server Networks – is a central computer that holds collections of data (databases) & programs for connecting or supplying services to PC’s workstations & other devices which are called clients B. Peer to Peer Network
9. Hardware - consists of all the machinery & equipment in a computer system (Keyboard, screen)/ Software – (programs) consists of all the electronic instructions that tell the computer how to perform a task (Windows 8, Microsoft Office 2013)
10. Program (instructions)
11. Data – consists of the raw facts & figures that are processed into information (vote for different candidate)/ Information – is data that has been summarized or otherwise transformed for use in decision making (total votes for each candidate)
12. Information Processing Cycle A. Input – is whatever is put in (input) to a computer system (letters, numbers, colors) B. Processing – is the manipulation a computer does to transform data into information (Computer adds 2+2 to get 4 which is act of processing) C. Output – is whatever is output from (put out of) the computer system-the results of processing usually information (digital files stored on as CD, pictures displayed on a screen) D. Storage – Primary temporary storage (temp files)/Secondary permanently storage (hard drive & CD/DVD)
13. Input (keyboard & mice input devices) / Output devices (Hardware) – (printer & monitor)
14. Application software – enables you to perform specific tasks-solve problems, perform work or entertain yourself (Microsoft Word)/ System software – enables the computer to perform essential operating tasks & makes it possible for application software to run (Windows XP, Vista, Unix)
15. Artificial intelligence – a group of related technologies used for developing machines to emulate human qualities such as learning reasoning communicating seeing & hearing

Chapter 2: The Internet& the World Wide Web: Exploring Cyberspace
1. Wi-fi / 3G / 4G
2. ISP (Internet Server Provider)
3. Networks A. Client / Server Network B. Peer to Peer Network
4. Authentication
5. Packets
6. IP Addresses A. Dynamic B. Static
7. Browsers
8. Cross Platform Network (Ex. Internet)
9. Websites (URL) A. Web addresses 1. Website domain names (.com, .edu, .mil, .gov, .org…)
10. Portals (Campus Cruiser, Google, Bing)
11. Search engines
12. Wiki
13. Wikipedia
14. Multimedia
15. Email A. Email client (Outlook, Thunderbird) B. Web-based email (Gmail, Yahoo) C. Email etiquette (netiquette) D. Email features/format
16. Listservs
17. Blogs
18. Podcasts
19. E-Commerce A. B2B (business-to-business) B. B2C (business-to-consumer) C. C2C (consumer-to-consumer)
20. Web 2.0
21. Convergence device
22. Phishing
23. Cookies
24. Key loggers
25. Malware
26. Passwords

Chapter 3: Software: Tools for Productivity & Creativity
1. Application software - Software developed to solve a particular problem for user & software to perform useful work on specific tasks or to provide entertainment/ System software – Software enables the application software to interact with the computer & helps the computer to manage its internal/external resources & manage the hardware
2. System software A. Operating systems (OS) – Essential software of computing system 1. Examples - (Utilities, Windows, Unix) 2. Functions – starts the computer to run application software B. Device drivers – Communicates with peripheral devices (scan, speakers, monitor) C. Utility programs – Support, enhance or expand existing programs in a computer system
3. Booting steps A. Turn on computer B. Diagnostic routine, CPU, other hardware C. BIOS Basic Input / Output System programs are copied to main memory 1. Checks devices such as the memory, monitor… 2. Instructions needed to operate the hardware & find a copy of the OS D. Boot program obtains the OS and loads it into computer’s main memory
4. BIOS (Basic Input / Output System) (Checks devices such as the memory, monitor…)
5. Booting A. Cold boot – Turn on computer’s when computer has been off B. Warm boot – Restart a computer that is already on C. Boot disk – Use a CD or flash drive containing all files to launch OS
6. File management – Program exist in a computer’s secondary storage/List of instructions A. File path – file system arranges the file 1. Hierarchical 2. Path – C:/MyDocuments/Termpaper/section 1.docx
7. Permanent storage devices – CD/flash drive
8. Peripheral devices
9. User interfaces A. Command-driven interface – dot prompt B. Graphical user interface C. Menu driven interface – Windows or Mainframe
10. Application software A. Custom software – JD Edward or Oracle B. Freeware - Firefox C. Shareware –Apple music D. Pirated software – Software obtained illegally in violation of copyright E. Abandonware – Software that is no longer being sold or supported by its publisher but may still not be legally copied F. Productivity software – word processing, spreadsheets (MS office, Chrome)
11. Extensions – Source program file is translated into an executable file. Contains instructions that inform the computer how to perform a particular task A. .txt, .exe, .jpeg, .bmp, .docx, .xlsx, .pptx….
12. Website domain names A. .com, .edu, .mil, .gov…
13. Data compression A. Lossless compression 1. Data decompressed is exactly the same as what went in 2. Used when it is important that nothing be lost 3. For computer data, database records, spreadsheets & word processing files B. Lossy compression 1. Techniques permanently discard some data during compression 2. Involves a certain loss of accuracy in exchange for a high degree of compression 3. File format ex. Jpeg, used a graphics files & sound files.
14. Application Software A. Word – Create, edit format, print, store text, delete, insert, & replace text B. Excel – Labels are descriptive text, Cell are where a row & a column meet, Cell address is the position of the cell, Range is a group of adjacent cells, Values are number or dates entered into a cell, cell pointer shows where data is to be entered, recalculation C. Access – Database is a collection of data that is organized so that its contents can easily be accessed, managed & updated. Structured collection of interrelated files in a computer system 1. Relational database – Data organized into related tables 2. Primary Key – Unique identifier (SS#) D. Power Point – Uses graphics, animation, sound, data, & information to create visual presentation
15. Software suite – Collection of individual programs bundled together in a single package (Office 2013) A. Microsoft Office B. Apple iWork C. Cloud suites
16. PDF (Portable document format) A. Special Application Software B. Multiplatform file format C. Developed by adobe systems D. Allows documents to be used with any operating system E. Captures text graphic F. Formats information from a variety of applications on different platforms G. Enables users to send documents & have them appear on the recipient’s monitor as they were intended ti be viewed H. Used for data that needs to be exchanged among different applications & user

Chapter 4: Hardware: The CPU & Storage
1. Network A. LAN (Local Area Network) – Campus Cruiser B. MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) - Township C. WAN (Wide Area Network) - Internet
2. Hardware v. software
3. Program (Instructions)
4. Solid state
5. Peripheral devices
6. Binary System (0, 1) - Data is represented in a computer A. Representation method for computers B. Two number: 0 & 1 C. Off/on states of electricity or light pulses
7. Bits / Bytes – All data & program instructintions in the computer are represented as binary (machine code) A. Bit 1. smallest unit of information 2. Each 0 or 1 is a bit B. Byte 1. Group of 8 bits 2. 1 character, digit or other value = 8 bits
8. Binary coding schemes A. ASCII / EBCDIC 1. 8-bits / 256 characters B. Unicode 1. 16-bits / 65,536 characters
9. Surge protector – Protects the computer from being damage by power spikes
10. UPS (Uninterruptible power supply) – Battery operated device that provides power for a limited time when there is a blackout
11. Central Processing Unit (CPU) – Brain of the computer/Follows the instruction of software to manipulate data into info A. Control Unit 1. Decipher each instruction stored in the CPU 2. Carries out the instruction 3. Directs movement of electronics signals between main memory & arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) & input/output devices B. ALU (Arithmetic/logic Unit) 1. Performs arithmetic operations, logical operations & controls the speed of those operations 2. Fundamental math operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, & division 3. Logical operations are comparison 4. Compares 2 pieces of data: Equal to (=), greater than (>) etc.
12. Machine cycle – For every instruction carried out, there are 4 basic operations A. Fetches an instruction B. Decodes the instruction C. Executes the instruction D. Stores the result
13. Memory – 2 types of storage: primary & secondary
14. Primary storage A. RAM (Random Access Memory) 1. Memory – main memory 2. Temporary & volatile
15. Secondary storage – Permanent & nonvolatile A. ROM (Read Only Memory) – Cannot be written on or earsed B. Hard drive C. Flash Drives (solid state drive) / external drives
16. Cache – (history) – Speeding up processing A. CPU works much faster than RAM so it often must wait for information B. Temporarily stores instructions & data that the processor uses frequently to speed up processing 1. Level 1 – cache is part of the microprocessor (faster than Level 2 cache) 2. Level 2 – cache is external cache 3. Level 3 – cache is on the motherboard (included with very high end computers
17. Motherboard components A. RAM B. ROM C. Expansion Cards
18. Ports A. Firewire – Intended for multiple devices working with lots of data & requiring fast transmission speeds such as DVD drives, digital video camera & gaming consoles B. USB – (Universal Serial Bus) 1. Used to interface with high speed peripheral devices 1) Scanners & printers 2) Mice, keyboard 2. No need for special expansion cards or other hardware modification to the computer C. Ethernet – Supports a network standard for linking a wired local area network & connecting it to a DSL or a cable modem for high-speed Internet access
19. Optical disks A. Tracks B. Sectors C. Clusters D. CD / DVD E. Pits F. Lands
18. Solid state – No moving parts – nonvolatile (tablets, laptop, desktop)

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