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Study Habit Theory

In: Philosophy and Psychology

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The aim of the present study is to find out the difference between study habit and

achievement motivation among O levels and matriculation students.

The aim was to determine the various aspects of study habits including homework and assignments, time allocation, reading and note taking, study period procedures, concentration, written work, examination and teacher consultation and their effects on achievement motivation level among the two categories of students i.e. O - level and HSSE i.e. What are the study habits of O-Level and HSSE and their thinking’s about their live motives.
Education is a nation building and globally inter-related activity that unlocks the door to modernization. It is imparted through formal, informal and non-formal ways. For this purpose,there is a need of interaction among the students, teachers and study material. Usually, educational system at the primary level follows the medium of instructions in the national language or mother tongue.
In Pakistan, there are two parallel system for functioning SSC and GCE O-level. Both the systems have their own controversial arguments to stand upon. In the United Kingdom the education reforms authorized to provide Secondary Education of grammer or academic type. In 1944, the Education Act were enforced the fundamental principle of the education Act 1944, which inspired the education system, was the idea of secondary education For All” (Graves, 1988)
In 1988, a major change took place and the prevalent nomenclature of (GCSE) was replaced by the general certificate of education (GCE O-level). Whitaker, 1999
Since 1951, the GCE examinations are being conducted in the United Kingdom at two main levels: the Ordinary level (O-level) and the Advanced level (A-level). In Pakistan these programmed are being offered since 1959. In the United Kingdom the GCE O-level are no more being conducted at all. However, International students outside the UK are still following the same scheme of studies for ‘O’ and ‘A’ level examination. (The British Council, 2002).
In Pakistan there are many institutions which offer GCE O-level to the students but the number of recognized institutions in the British Council is 180. The GCE-O level is a world reorganized programmed. Though the SSC and GCE O-level are running parallel, yet it is commonly assumed that they are creating discrimination between the persons qualifying from these two systems. The GCE O-level system of education is for the elite class while the SSC level system of educations providing education to the common people. No significant research work appears to have been carried out to make the comparative analysis of the GCE
O-level and the SSC education in Pakistan. This study has, therefore been designed to probe the issue at large.

Study Habit: A Habit is something that is done on a scheduled, regular and planned basis that is not relegated to a second place or optional place in one's life. To STUDY is to buy out the time and dedicate self to the application and the task of study which is to become engrossed in a process of learning, practice, enlightenment - education of one's self. Therefore .Study Habit can be derived from the above as buying out a dedicated scheduled and un-interrupted time to apply one's self to the task of learning. Without it, one does not grow and becomes self-limiting in life.

“It is defined as the complex of reading behavior off a person, resulting from the varying degree of interaction, a number of variable factors, when he seeks graphical records for acquiring information or knowledge”. The acquisition of knowledge depends upon the methods of acquiring study habits. It is important and desirable that a probe into the pattern of shabit of students be made. (Summerele, 2010)
Study habits are the backbone of the education. Study habits determine the future of a student. The success in education depends upon how good study habits one possess.One can only go far in life as one study habits (learning /education) take him. How far one want to go, how much one want to learn, to what extent one want to make one’s future, one decide by one’s study habits. (Crow and Crow; 1962)
The students in almost all disciplines are required to demonstrate high intellectual abilities to develop proper understanding of the subject matter and be able to apply this knowledge in real life situation. The importance of adopting effective study habits by students in whole process of learning has always been ignored. Although teachers and parents do desire that students invest time in studies and show good progress, they are hardly made aware of the requirments of higher education in terms of their roles to self study. Secondly, they are not given any orientation towards effective study skills. This process may start at an early level of education because habits like attitudes not develop overnight. (Crow and Crow, 1962) According to Good, the term study habits as the students, way of study whether systematic, efficient or inefficient etc. Good Study habits are perceived to be the determinants of the academic performance.

Motivation is a driving force that causes the flux from desire to will in life. For example hunger is a motivation that elicits a desire to eat.Motivation has been shown to have roots in physiological, behavioral, cognitive and social areas. motivation may be rooted in basic impulse to optimize well being, minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure. It can also originate from specific physical needs such as eating, sleeping or resting and sex.
Motivation is an inner drive to behave or act in a certain manner. These inner conditions such as wishes, desires and goals, activate to move in a particular direction in behavior.
AVHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION Achievement Motivation is an integrative perceptive based on the premise that performance motivation results from the way broad components of personality are directed towards performance. As a result, it includes a range of dimensions that are relevant to success at work but which are not conventionally regarded as being part of performance motivation. The emphasis on performance seeks to integrate formerly separate approaches as need for achievement with, For example, social motives like dominance. Personality is intimately tied to performance and achievement motivation, including such characteristics as tolerance for risk, fear of failure and others.

MOTIVATION THEORY The theory of achievement motivation is a miniature system applied to a specific Context, the domain of achievement-oriented activities, which is characterized by the fact that the individual is responsible for the outcome (success or failure), he anticipates
Unambiguous knowledge of results, and there is some degree of uncertainty or risk
(McClelland, 1961). Yet it is our belief that the type of theory that views the strength of an individual’s goal-directed tendency as jointly determined by his motives, by his
Expectations about the consequences of his actions, and by the incentive values of expected consequences will have wider utility when these concepts are applied toward other goals. (Atkinson & Feather, 1966, p. 5)
Achievement motivation can, therefore, be defined as the striving to increase or to keep as high as possible, one’s own capabilities in all activities in which a standard of
Excellence is thought to apply and where the execution of such activities can, therefore
Either succeed or fail. (Heckhausen, 1967, p. 4-5)

Goal Setting Theory Goal Setting Theory is based on the notion that individuals sometimes have a drive to reach a clearly defined and state. Often, this end state is a reward in itself. A goal’s efficiency is affected by three features. Proximity, difficulty and specificity. Good Goal setting incorporates the SMART criteria, in which goals are specific, measureable, accurate, realistic and timely. An ideal goal should present a situation where the time between the initiation of behavior and the end state is close.

This explains why some students are motivated to learn how to ride a bike than to master algebra. A goal should be moderate, not too hard or too easy to complete. In both cases, most people are not optimally motivated, as many want a challenge. At the same time people want to feel that there is a substantial probability that they will succeed. Specificity concerns the description of the goal in their class. The goal should be objectively defined and intelligible for the individual. A classic example of a poorly specified goal is to get the highest possible grade. Most children have no idea how much effort they need to reach that goal.
Theory of dynamic s of Action
John W. Atkinson, David Birch and their colleagues developed the theory of “Dynamics of Action” to mathematically model change in behavior as a consequence of the interaction of motivation and associated tendencies toward specific actions. The theory points that change in behavior occurs when the tendency for a new, unexpressed behavior becomes dominant over the tendency currently motivates theory motivating action. In the theory, the strength of tendencies rises and falls as a consequence of internal and external stimuli, inhibitory factors and consummator in

factors such as performing an action. In this theory, there are three causes responsible for behavior and change in behavior.
1- Instigation (Is) – Increase tendency when an activity has intrinsic activity to satisfy.
2- Inhibition ( Iaf ) – decreases tendency when there are obstacles to performing an activity; and
3-Consummation- decreases a tendency as it is performed.

16 Basic Desire Theory Professor Steven remiss has proposed a theory quite nearly all human behavior. The 16 basic desires that motivate our actions and define or personalities are Acceptance, the need for approval Physical activity: the need for exercise. Curiosity: the need to learn Power: the need for influence of will.Eating: the need for food Romance: the need for sex and for beauty.Family: the need to raise children.Saving: the need of collect.Honor: the need to be loyal to the traditional values of one`s day / ethnic group. Social contact: the need for friends (peer relationship).Idealism: t need for social justice. Independence: the need for individuality. Order: the need for organized, stable, predictable, environments. Social status: the need for social standing / importance .Tranquility: the need to be safe.Vengeance: the need to strike back and to complete. Achievement motivation is of particular interest to educational psychologists because of the crucial role it plays in student learning. However, the specific kind of motivation that is studied in the specialized setting of education differs qualitatively from the more general forms of motivation studied by psychologists in other fields.
THEORIES OF STUDY HABIT According to Palm Beach community college (PBBC, 2008), they recommend that student’s study should have at least three hours out of class for every hour spend in class. They also said that a study with have a special place to study with plenty of room to work. And study should not be cramped. They presupposed that study time will go better if a learned take a few minutes at the start to straighten things up a desk and straight backed chair is usually best “ don’t get to comfortable , a bed is a place to sleep, not to study ‘as what They said. A students must have everything close at hand (book, pencils, paper, coffees, dictionary, computer, calculate tape recorder, etc before starting to study. Standings are not suggested to spend on tome jumping up and down to get things. The PBCC suggests also that distracting noisy should be minimized how every they said that there are some people need sound and come like silence in this case, a learner must finds what works for him or her.

Culprits are family and friends. Consider a “don’t disturb” sign and on your answering machine is the way also to have better study habits according to the PBBC. Franks pongs (2000) did a research project to determine why students fail. What he found to be true in that study habits survey was that more than 30 years ago still rings true to day. Students fail because they do not know how to study. They hope best advice he can give is to develop sound study skill. He said that a students should make sure that he (she has a good study environments , a good desk, as study chair, good light, comfortable room temperature and a quiet atmosphere. That mean he/she should eliminated all external and internal distractions second, get a good over view of the assignments before starting the work. Know what skills facts and ideas that are en expected to master and the ground that are en peered to cover. Start with most difficult subjects first, while the mind is freshest and most receptive. Professor in the developing countries said that the students should be fully equip with high level of analytical skill, the capacity for critical reasoning, self reflection and conceptual grasp and ability to learn autonomously and exercise heritability of mind (Simmons 2003). study habits are said to be improving because of the advent and wide use of the internet and multimedia resources which greatly affects study habits (Liu, 2005) Kareem and Hassan ( 2006) also note the exponential growth digital information, which changes the way students perceive studying and with printed materials that are to be use in facilitating study. Liu (2005) and Ramirez (2003) report that student print material from the internet in order to study and read later on. Inn (2005) also found that Nigerians study from material and downloaded from the internet. Reading is an attempt to absorb the thought of the author and know what the Author is

conveying (Load 1956). Studying is the interpretation of reading materials. Study habits and skills are particularly important for college students, whose needs include time management note taking internet skill, the elimination of distractions and assigning a high priority to study. Friedan (2004) states that good study habits, the student are in critical reflection skills outcome such as selecting, analyzing, critiquing and synthesizing. Nag (2002) states that study habits are learning tendencies that enable work private. The study conducted by Hope L. Graven (2008) on the relationship between an individual’s amounts of caffeine consumption during his study session and the individual’s Study Habits showed that main effect of drinking Caffeine on exam preparation was not significant. The result shows that the more caffeine a student consumes while studying, the more accurately his or her Study Habits would be labeled as ‘Unhealthy’ as determined by the researcher. According to ‘How to Study.Com (2009) Students who are very successful in their desired career have good Study Habits. It is stated in the website that apply these habits to all of their classes. The website also recommends some tips in improving Study Habits. The website also suggests that the studies should try not to study all the subjects in just a period. The website also added that if you try to do much studying at one time. You will tire and your studying will not be effective, space the work you have to do over shorter periods of time, taking short breast will restore your mental energy habits.
Mark Chilly (2000), Successful studies are able to balance social activities with good study. A diversion from studies will alleviate stress and help prevent form becoming fatigued. He said that studies should make sure that he must take a break for and know after studies to meet with

friends, to play some cards, work out at the gym, or to grab with a new acquaint once. For this way, that studies with find concept ration when he do studying, if he plans a social activity after wards life, develop routine study habits. After supper lug your books and home work to the library,
Rational of the Study: This study is an effort to explore the difference of study habits and achievement motivation among students of O-level and matriculation. In context of Pakistani culture, we see that student of metric face difficulty in the maintained of study habits and achievement motivation as compared to O-level students. students of O-level have some difference in their study habits and achievement motivation as compared to metric students. So, present study will be conducted to explore this difference in terms of study habits and achievement motivation. It is also important because of few researches in Pakistan.

Objectives of the Study: 1: To examine the relationship between study habits and achievement motivation. 2: To examine the Study habits and Achievement Motivation among O-level and Metric level. 3: To explore the difference between O-level and Metric level in Study Habits and Achievement Motivation.

Hypothesis H1: There would be a positive relationship between study habit and achievement motivation of O-level students and metric students. H2: There would be a significant difference in study habits and achievement motivation of O-level and metric students.

CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Design: This is the comparative study design.

Sampling Strategy The non-probability purposive sampling was used for data collection.
The sample was consisted of 100 students with a distribution of 50 metric and O-level students with an age range of 16-19 years. The sample will taken based on inclusion and exclusion criteria.

Operational Definitions of Variables:
Achievement Motivation Achievement Motivation has been defined as self determination to succeed in whatever activities one engages in, to be academic work, professional work or sporting event, among others. ( Tella,2007)

Study Habits

Two self developed questionnaires of study habit and achievement motivation scale were used to access study habit and achievement motivation respectively. Both the scales consisted statements with respective options ranging from 1-5.
Completely agree
Mostly agree
Agree to some extent
Mostly disagree
Completely disagree
Study habit Questionnaire: The scale was developed by Brown and Holtzman (1996) was used to access study habit of O-level and Metric students. Study habit questionnaire consisted of 88 items. Some of which describe study habit of students that might help in finding the achievement motivation of students. High scores indicated good study habits. The alpha reliability calculated for study habit questionnaire (for the sample of 60 students) was .656, which shows higher degree of internal consistency or reliability. Gravetter and Wallanual, 2007
Achievement motivation Questionnaire: Achievement motivation scale developed by Muthee J. and Emmanual Thomas (2009).The scale consisted of 32 items. All items show achievement motivation of students. The alpha reliability calculated for achievement motivation scale (for the sample of 60 students) was .656 which shows a high degree of internal consistency or reliability. ( Gravetter and Wallanaul , 2007). The scoring is done in such a manner that high scores indicate high level of achievement motivation

Procedure: Prior permission was taken from the respective authors for using their scales, then permission taken from the respective principals of schools for gathering data. The researcher contacted the participants in their respective class rooms. Informed consent was taken from the participant (students) and also explained the purpose of the research to the students. It was assured that their participation was anonymous sand completely voluntarily. Demographic

questionnaire were filled out by the participants and then questionnaires were given to the students in their class rooms. Ethical Consideration: Prior permission was taken from the respective principals of the schools. Informed consent was taken from the participants (students). Participants were informed about all aspects of the research, its risks or benefits. Anonymity of the participants was maintained. Confidentiality of the data was maintained.
Statistical Analysis: Data that collected during the study was analyzed by using SPSS version 20. To test H1 and H2 independent sample t-test was used to test H3.Pearson Correlation also used.

CHAPTER 4: Results: The present research aimed to find out the effects of study habits and achievement motivation on students of O-level and Metric. It was hypothesized that there would be a positive relationship between study habit and achievement motivation of O-level and Metric students and that there would be a significant difference of O-level; and Metric level students in their study habit and achievement motivation.
The statistical analysis involve descriptive analysis of the variables, t-test and pearson correlation method.

RELIABILITY: Variable | N | Α | AM | 32 | .66 | SH | 88 | .83 | Results indicate that this test is highly reliable.


Variables | Study habits | Achievement Motivation | .554** |

Results indicate that correlation exist between the achievement motivation and study habit.

T-TEST FOR INDEPENDENT SAMPLE: Independent sample t-test was carried out to find out if there is any significant difference in study habit and achievement motivation of O-level and metric. Variables | O-level | Secondary | T | CI | Cohen’s d | | M SD | M SD | | UL LL | | AM | 79.80 12.5 | 92.27 7.9 | -4.603*** | -7.046 17.88 | 1.1926 | SH | 148.5 19.0 | 137.7 8.9 | 2.923** | 18.871 3.462 | 0.727 |
***p<.05, **p<.05
Note: CI= Confidence Interval, LL= lower limit, SD= Standard deviation, M=Mean, SH= Study habit, AM=Achievement motivation
Results indicate that there is a highly significant difference in achievement motivation and study habit of O-level and Metric students. This indicates that student of O-level has higher achievement motivation than metric students and students of metric have higher study habits than O-level. Many factors are responsible for this but we are not discussing them now.

Discussion: The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of study habit and achievement motivation on student of O-level and Metric. Both groups include the students of O-level and Metric level from different schools of Gujranwala.
The purpose of the following research was to find out the relation relationship of study habit and achievement motivation and also to find out the difference of study habit and achievement motivation of O-level and Metric students. The major variables of this study were study habit and achievement motivation.
It was hypothesized that there would be a positive relationship between study habit and achievement motivation of O-level and Metric students and there would also a significant difference in study habit and achievement motivation of O-level and Metric.
The results of the study indicate that it is a highly reliable test and there is a significant difference also between them i.e. in study habit and achievement motivation of O-level and Metric students.
O-level students have higher achievement motivation level and metric students have higher study habits than O-level.
Our results supported the hypothesis.
Although results indicated that significant difference lies between O-level and Metric students but these are not final words on this topic because of several limitations have been noted in this study. 1. Time was limited so sample size is small. 2. Rare numbers of students of O-level in one city make size too small. 3. IQ plays an important role in study habit and achievement motivation of students that is not calculated. 4. Most of the students of metric undesirably complete the test that affect the study.

Suggestions: 1. Sample size should be increased. 2. It should include participants from more schools of Punjab province so that results should be generalized. 3. In order to make more reliable it is suggested to measure IQ and other extraneous factors in order to explain study habit and achievement motivation of students.

Implications: The present study suggests the researchers to explore other variables that differentiate the O-level and Metric system more accurately.

Atkinson, J. W., & Feather, N. T. (Eds.). (1966). A theory of achievement motivation. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Stratton, Hugh; Orchard, Lionel (1994). Public goods, public enterprise, public choice : theoretical foundations of the contemporary attack on government (1. publ. ed.). Basingstoke i.e.: Macmillan i.e.

Atkinson, John; George H. Lit win (1960). Achievement Motive and Text Anxiety
Conceived As Motive to Approach Success and Motive to Avoid Failure. Bobs-Merrill

Atkinson, John; Joel O. Ray nor (1978). Personality, Motivation and Achievement.
Hemisphere Pub.

Xiang, P., McBride, R., & Guan, J. (2004). Children's motivation in elementary physical education: A longitudinal study . Research Quarterly For Exercise and Sport, 75(1), 71-80.

McClelland, David (1953). The Achievement Motive. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Schultz & Schultz, Duane (2010). Psychology and work today. New York: Prentice Hall

Atkinson, John; David Birch (1970). The Dynamics of Action. New York: Wiley.

Kohl, Julius; John W. Atkinson (1986). Motivation, Thought, and Action. New York: Pager Publishers.

Reeve, J (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5 Ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
David C. McClelland,” Methods of Measuring Human Motivation”, in John W. Atkinson, ed., Motives in Fantasy, Action and Society (Princeton, N.J.:D. Van Nos-trand, 1958)

David C. McClelland, “Methods of Measuring Human Motivation”, in John W. Atkinson ,ed., The Achieving Society (Princeton, N.J.: D. Van No strand, 1961)

David C. McClelland, “Achievement Motivation Can Be Developed,” Harved Business Review 43 (November- December 1965)

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...STUDY HABITS OF THE GRADE-V AND GRADE-VI STUDENTS IN BALUARTE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, SCHOOL YEAR 2012-2013 A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education of Xavier University (Ateneo de Cagayan) Cagayan de Oro City In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Subject Educ 4: Introduction to Educational Research with Action Research Presented by: Amora, Sharicka Anne Veronica P. Bonote, Paulyn Y. Dupende, Dan Anthony M. Lopez, Conie Grace D. Retes, Hazel Mae P. Salapang, Junelyn March 16, 2013 APPROVAL SHEET This thesis entitled “STUDY HABITS OF THE GRADE-V AND GRADE-VI STUDENTS IN BALUARTE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, SCHOOL YEAR 2012-2013” prepared and submitted by Sharicka Anne P. Veronica Amora, Paulyn Y. Bonote, Dan Anthony M. Dupende, Conie Grace D. Lopez, Hazel Mae P. Retes and Junelyn Salapang in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the subject Educ 4: Introduction to Educational Research with Action Research, has been examined and is recommended for Oral Examination. Ms. Charity Rose B. Absin Adviser ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ PANEL OF EXAMINERS Approved by the committee on Oral Examination with a grade of......

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... Research Title “EFFECTS OF STUDY HABITS ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF HIGHSCHOOL STUDENTS” A research proposal Presented to: Ms. Eliza Enriquez Researchers: Jay Mar M. Basco Kenton Van Fortu Adrian Cablao Chapter I A. Introduction Changes in behavior naturally occur in high school students. Nowadays, students spend their vacant time for doing their habits instead of advancing their studies. Some of this habits make them forgot to do their school responsibilities because of enjoyment that it caused to them. Playing computer games, watching their favorite television shows and hanging out with their friends are the common habits of high school students. Good study habits are the key to learning. Everyone cannot be brilliant but everyone can learn how to study. Effective study habits, even highly intelligent student failed due to inefficient work and lack of knowledge on how to study effectively. Important skills for study have to be learned and practiced. Moreover, students who put in more classrooms how and who work to a more regular program of study have a better academic performance. Study habits tend to be formed in the early grades and in the most instances, do not materially improve after elementary school. Some students often complain about mental inability or strain or lack of interest in studies. Other thinks they are not capable. Purpose of the study The purpose of this study is to provide awareness and......

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Study Habits

...behavior analysis (ABA) is a science that involves using modern behavioral learning theory to modify behaviors. Behavior analysts reject the use of hypothetical constructs[1] and focus on the observable relationship of behavior to the environment. By functionally assessing the relationship between a targeted behavior and the environment, the methods of ABA can be used to change that behavior. Research in applied behavior analysis ranges from behavioral intervention methods to basic research which investigates the rules by which humans adapt and maintain behavior. A daydream is a visionary fantasy, especially one of happy, pleasant thoughts, hopes or ambitions, imagined as coming to pass, and experienced while awake.[1] There are many types of daydreams, and there is no consistent definition amongst psychologists.[1] The general public also uses the term for a broad variety of experiences. Research by Harvard psychologist Deirdre Barrett has found that people who experience vivid dream-like mental images reserve the word for these, whereas many other people refer to milder imagery, realistic future planning, review of past memories or just "spacing out"--i.e. one's mind going relatively blank—when they talk about "daydreaming."[2] Habits (or wonts) are routines of behavior that are repeated regularly and tend to occur subconsciously.[1][2][3] Habitual behavior often goes unnoticed in persons exhibiting it, because a person does not need to engage in self-analysis when......

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Study Habits

...the academic achievement profile in mathematics of the junior students of Eastern Visayas State University? 2. What are the characteristics of the junior students in the terms of: 3.1 study habits 3.2 study attitudes 3.3 type of secondary school they graduated 3. Is there a significant relationship of student, study habits and academic achievement in mathematics? 4. Is there a significant relationship between students study attitude and academic achievement in mathematics? 5. Is here a significant relationship between the type of school where the student graduated and their academic achievement in mathematics? Hypothesis 1. There is a significant relationship between the study habits and academic achievement in mathematics. 2. There is a significant relationship between the students study attitudes and academic achievement in mathematics. 3. There is a significant relationship between the secondary school where the junior students graduated and their academic achievement in mathematics. Null Hypothesis 1. There is no significant relationship between the study habits and academic achievement of students. 2. There is no significant relationship between the students study attitudes and academic achievement in mathematics. 3. There is no significant relationship between the types of school where they graduated to their academic performance in......

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...the pupils do not know how to study on their own initiative. Some cannot work out their assignments; others cannot take part actively in the class recitation, and others do not know the art of note taking. There have been many instances which showed that majority of the students display inability to discriminate between relevant and irrelevant information they got from their references. Quite a number of students simply pick up the words from the pages of the books or printed materials while comprehending the meaning of it. These and many others are results of poor method of study habits. Thus, developing the youth requires early training in the schools. According to Covey (1989), “To focus on technique is like cramming your way through school. You sometimes get by, perhaps even get good grades, but if you don’t pay the price day in and day out, you’ll never achieve true mastery of the subjects you study or develop an educated mind.” It is said that aside from the knowledge, endurance and perseverance equipped with hard work, determination and positive attitude towards education is a must. Instead of using leisure time unwisely it is better to use it in doing important things especially in school. Young generations today have great assets to build upon if only their potentials could be tapped. Good study habits are prime factor to the learning of the youths. It will contribute to a successful academic future of every individual. Good learning habits lead to good grades and......

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...CHAPTER 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies Local Literature   Foreign Literature (Scott Young) What are Good Studying Habits? I’m just another student like yourself. I don’t believe there is one perfect key to excellent grades that will work for everyone. But there are some common themes to improving study habits and not all of them require investing more time. In fact, most of these suggestions will be aimed at reducing your total time usage, by studying smart–not just hard. I believe learning is a product of investment. If you make small, efficient investments in learning throughout the term you can spare yourself the frustration of cramming near the end. Your grades will thank you and your social life doesn’t need to wither and die to learn more each term. Here are some tips for improving your study habits next term: 1. Use 30-Day Trials. Popularized by Steve Pavlina, trial periods work under the principle that by committing to a change for a month, it will become a habit. Since it is study techniques you want to reinforce, pick one or two habits and work on them for an entire month. 2. The Learn-It-Once Approach. Spend your time learning things as they come up in your courses. Attend classes with the perspective that you could be tested at any moment. It should only be material that you were just presented that you might not have had time to fully learn. Waiting before tests, assignments or finals is taking things too far. 3.......

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...Literature and Studies Introduction his chapter included relevant sources of information from foreign literature, local literature, foreign studies and local studies which tackle the existing activities that promote good study habits. Local Literature According to Muega (2003), students need to acquire reasoning skills that would enable them to think critically and to make the right decisions claims on issues. Reasoning entails presentation of arguments. It is when one makes conclusions from what he reads. It is from reading and reasoning one gets to extend his knowledge crtically. To expand Muega’s ideas, according to Acido (2008), data have revealed that the major difference between students with below average, average, and above average reasoning skills centers on their study habits—whether they have good or bad study habits, and their attitude towards learning a particular skill—whether they are interested or not, are responsible for their learning or not, and take responsibility over what they do or not. Acido proves Zolten & Long’s idea that the awareness on the responsibilities of a college student is essential to increase studying skills. Professors in the developing countries said that the undergraduate students should be fully equip with high level of analytical skills, the capacity for critical reasoning, self-reflection and conceptual grasp and ability to learn autonomously and exercise flexibility of mind (Simmons2003). Study habits are said to......

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