Free Essay

Study Habits of Shool Student

In: Social Issues

Submitted By singh14
Words 5099
Pages 21
Research in Higher Education Journal

Development of a multidimensional thinking styles scale based on theory of mental self–government for sixth grade students
Niorn Chaiyapornpattana Prachabumrung School, Bangkok Metropolitan Administration,Thailand Suwimon Wongwanich Chulalongkorn University, Thailand ABSTRACT: This study designed 1) to develop a multidimensional thinking styles scale based on theory of mental self-government for sixth grade student 2) to investigate quality of the developed scale 3) to study profile of styles of sixth grade student and a relation of profile of styles of student in each dimension and background of gender and grade with the group sample of 1,545 sixth grade students from schools affiliated with the Office of Basic Education Commission, Education Department Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, and Office of the Private Education Commission. Thinking styles scale for sixth grade student was utilized in this study and received information was analyzed by using Nominal Response Model (NRM), Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis. The results revealed that: 1) Thinking styles scale comprised 5 dimensions of function, form, level, scope and leaning with reliability at .872, .913, .722, .777 and .799 respectively and construct validity by confirmatory factor analysis found that 5 dimensions of thinking styles scale conformed to the empirical data (CFI were .918 to .975, TLI were .919 to .988 RMSEA were .036 to .046 and SRMR were .060 to .081). 2) The majority of students had judicial styles of function, hierarchical styles of form, local style of level, external style of scope and liberal style of leaning. 3) 96 Profiles of thinking styles be clustered into 3 groups those were Detail Conscious Thinking Procedural Thinking and Achievement Motivation Thinking. The Majority of students had Achievement Motivation Thinking. and 4) Thinking styles of students in each dimension related to their background of gender and grade with the level of significance at .05 Keywords: Thinking Style, Theory of Mental – Self Government, Scale

Acknowledgement This research was financially sponsored by THE 90TH ANNIVERSARY OF CHULALONGKORN UNIVERSITY FUND (Ratchadaphiseksomphot Endowment Fund)

Development of a multidimensional, Page 1

Research in Higher Education Journal Introduction Individual difference has been a topic of study for a long time. Each person has their own personal characteristics that are different from those of others in several aspects such as physical, intellectual, emotional and social. Individual difference causes different expression and behavior of person. The study of individual difference in the early days focused on the intellectual difference. It is believed that personal ability depends on different intelligence, therefore a number of mental ability and professional competency tests were created. Until the 19th century, there were many surveys showing that individual difference not only came from different intelligence but also difference in other characteristics i.e. personality, aptitude and interest (Sternberg, 1997). These findings induced a number of researches on individual difference in other aspects than intelligence as well as the introduction of “style” concept in 1937 by Allport who defined “style” as identifying the difference of individuals in terms of personality and behavior. Thinking styles is considered a kind of intelligence styles which was introduced in 1980 by a researcher in communications and psychology (Harrison and Bramson, 1988). The definition was that “thinking styles is not a mental process but a way or method of thinking chosen by individuals for their ability or aptitude to deal with problems, tasks, and situations.” Thinking styles has different structures from thinking skills in many ways but is equally important to the success in education, working, and living of individuals. The thinking styles will help support, encourage and extract the existing potential to fully use their ability. It could be said that if any individual has good thinking skills and thinking styles conforming to the situations or problem domains to be solved, it will render him more successful than the one who has solely good thinking skills. In addition, a number of research indicated that different thinking styles would also create different level of thinking skills (Yeh, 2002). Due to the fact that difference of thinking styles will affect different ability and behavior of individuals, having different thinking styles and usually estimating an action or behavior of the others from what they think will cause disagreement. Therefore, understanding both their own and others’ styles of thinking will help prevent such misunderstandings. To comprehend their own styles of thinking will enable individuals to know whether their weak point and strong point are appropriate or inappropriate for circumstances. This will help find method to handle with and manage those situations as well as to develop and extend each style of thinking in themselves to create strategies and how to be flexible appropriately with work, study and living in different circumstances. Furthermore, to comprehend others’ styles of thinking will enable to realize their expression and behavior better and to find methods or ways to communicate and interact with such individuals efficiently. In the educational context, thinking styles is an essential part for learners to succeed in learning. The characteristics of subject matter, format of activities and different environment will affect learners with different thinking styles, i.e. one learning environment may have a beneficial effect on learners with one thinking styles but bad effect on those with another thinking styles. Learners can show their true ability when there are learning activities and evaluation conforming to their styles of thinking. Thus, educational activities and evaluation should take the difference of thinking styles into account for the highest benefit of learners. According to the above significance of thinking styles, foreign academics and researchers take an interest in education by undirected thinking. A number of concepts and theories related to thinking styles were introduced. Each theory states different structure and content of thinking styles in terms of its theory basics, element and type. When we synthesize concepts/theories related to thinking styles, it is found that most concepts/theories have multidimensional structure comprising two dimensions

Development of a multidimensional, Page 2

Research in Higher Education Journal onward. Theory of Mental Self-government introduced by Sternberg in 1988 is regarded as popular theory for study of thinking styles in various countries worldwide (Stephen,2008; Zhang, 2006) because it includes the most elements of thinking styles and structures that correspond with both Western and Eastern contexts. In addition to that, the theory is created from 3 systems namely, intelligence-centered system, personality-centered system and activity-centered system; divides multidimensional styles of thinking into 5 dimensions and produces profile of styles for individuals rather than a single style as identified in other theories. Theory of Mental Self-government explains styles of thinking divided into 5 dimensions; 1) functions which comprise 3 types – legislative, executive and judicial thinking styles; 2) forms which consist of 4 types – monarchic, hierarchic, oligarchic and anarchic styles of thinking; 3) levels are global and local thinking styles; 4) scope is composed of internal and external styles of thinking; and 5) leanings include liberal and conservative thinking styles. As the styles of thinking is a characteristics hidden in each individual, it is difficult to measure directly and the method of measuring general styles of thinking is self report by using a scale created according to related concepts and theories. The tools are in the form of rating scale with situational questions, behavioral terms or individual activities. The study found that the most of researches on styles of thinking would apply thinking styles scale from Theory of Mental Self-government – Thinking Style Inventory: TSI – by adapting to the appropriate context related to education as well as translating the scales in other languages. Thinking styles scale according to the Theory of Mental Self-government is characterized by 13 subscales each of which comprises 8 questions of 7-leveled rating scales. Respondents must set priority of all choices to convert into scores. By this scale, it cannot be clarified that which of thinking styles each individual has in each dimension and also some respondents have all types of thinking styles in the high or low level when we occasionally bring total scores of each scale to compare with norms. With the limitation about clarity of individual thinking styles, Sternberg (1997) suggests that the creation of situational scale with multiple choices of which the number in each dimension equal to that of thinking styles in such dimension will indicate a specific type of thinking styles without priority setting. It will be able to identify clearer individual styles of thinking. Moreover, when considering the quality of Thinking Style Inventory (TSI) scale found in research and study, a low reliability is also showed in a number of researches when the scale is applied for study of thinking styles in Eastern society and culture context. The study found only suggestion for TSI improvement to suit Eastern society context but none of research is to develop such thinking styles scale to resolve the stated issue. With regard to importance and benefit of thinking styles as well as limited study of such issue, the author think that Thailand should turn its attention to the study of thinking styles. Considering from substance in the research or study issues in the past, it can be seen that many issues can be brought to study in Thai context for more extensive and clearer conclusion and also more of them have never been studied. However, study of various issues on thinking styles requires a standard tool conforming to the context of Thai living culture and education. Therefore, the author have an interest to develop a standard and suitable thinking styles scale based on Theory of Mental Self-government for learners and Thai society and culture context. The created thinking styles scaled is a situational scale to analyze profile of styles as well as to study learners’ difference of profile of styles according to background factors as a tool to truly understand the individual difference of learners and to bring obtained information for consideration to the learning activities, educational measurement and evaluation of each learner.

Development of a multidimensional, Page 3

Research in Higher Education Journal The scale, as a result, will enable learners to develop completely their quality and potentiality in terms of intellectual, physical and mental aspect. The development of thinking styles scale is for sixth grade learners because as in this level they are able to perceive abstract information and understand circumstances more as well as to set priorities well. Furthermore, learners in this age are to determine their own personality; to express what they like or are expert in, have ability in social skill, communications, working with others; to learn and pass on model of behaviors resulting in development of individual characteristics in terms of belief, career, motto and goal of living. Aims 1. To develop a thinking styles scale suitable and conforming to Thai culture context as well as based on Theory of Mental Self-government for sixth grade students. 2. To examine quality of a thinking styles scale suitable and conforming to Thai culture context as well as based on Theory of Mental Self-government for sixth grade students. 3. To study profile of styles of sixth grade students and a relation of thinking styles of students in each dimension and background of gender and grade. Methods 1. Population and Sample Study Population is sixth grade students from schools affiliated with the Office of Basic Education Commission, Education Department Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, and Office of the Private Education Commission. Study Samples is 1,545 sixth grade students from schools affiliated with the Office of Basic Education Commission, Education Department Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, and Office of the Private Education Commission by Four-stage random sampling. 2. Development of Thinking Styles Scale 2.1 Procedures of development The development of thinking styles scale based on Theory of Mental Self-government is composed of 9 following steps: Step 1 Determine goal of scale development: Development of this thinking styles scale aims to develop a standard thinking styles scale based on Theory of Mental Self-government for measuring thinking styles of sixth grade students. Step 2 Determine frame of measurement: Development of this thinking relies on the structure of thinking styles based on Theory of Mental Self-government which comprises 5 dimensions of function, form, level, scope and leaning. By synthesizing details of each dimension, many significant issues are found resulting in synthesized structure of thinking styles with following detail of dimensions – 1) functions signify way or method to be chosen by individuals for carrying out activities encompassing 2 elements i.e. characteristics of chosen activities and way of carrying out activities; 2) forms mean aspect of setting priority for things covering 2 elements i.e. setting priority for activities and procedures of operating activities; 3) levels is a way or method to be chosen by each individual for perceiving obtained information including 2 elements i.e. perception of information and consideration of activity details; 4) scopes mean characteristics of individuals’ preference for working with others covering 2 elements i.e. interaction and expression, and working with others; and 5) leanings are characteristics to be chosen by individuals when confronting with social values including 2 elements i.e. acting with social values and dealing with any occurred change.

Development of a multidimensional, Page 4

Research in Higher Education Journal Step 3 Theoretical definition, operational definition, behavior indicators, and creating question layout of 12 items per each dimension totaling 60 items. Step 4 Design and create questions of thinking styles scale: The thinking styles scale to be created is in form of situational scale comprising developed questions to cover determined structure of thinking styles. Each question has 2 – 4 choices based on each dimension of thinking styles and such will be arranged systematically according to each dimension while choices in each item will be alternated to prevent respondents from guessing possible answers. By creating this question, the author hold the principle of creating good question which must have 25% spare of all questions . Thus, the author created 76 items of question and then reviewed them all by considering the suitability of measurement and clarity as choices of language used. Step 5 Examine content validity, content bias, language bias and structure and format bias: I brought the developed thinking styles scale to 7 experts in the field of educational measurement and evaluation, research and psychology to review all developed questions whether or not each item is able to measure according to determined structure by selecting questions with Item Objective Congruence from .50 onward. Moreover, the author also brought the developed thinking styles scale to an expert of Thai language for sixth grade students i.e. 2 teachers and teachers of academic standing in senior professional level of Thai language to review content and language whether or not it is appropriate. The result showed that all items of question have appropriate content and language for sixth grade students. Step 6 First trial of thinking styles scale: the author tested the revised thinking styles scale with 30 sixth grade students in order to examine their understanding of doing thinking styles scale, clarity of language and time to do the scale and obtained the following information – 1) 100% or all 30 students being asked questions understood the content in each item of question well; 2) 5 students being interviewed understood content of questions clearly and able to answer them; 3) Time spent on the test was between 30 minutes to 1 hour with average time of 45 minutes. From the interview of 5 students, it showed that they took a long time because there were a number of questions and they occasionally needed time to take a break. Therefore, the author improved the scale in the second trial by assigning students to do questions divided into dimensions and allowed them 5-minute break before starting the new dimension. Step 7 Second trial of thinking styles scale: the author tested the thinking styles scale received from the step 6 with 200 sixth grade students to examine the quality of tool by items and due to the fact that the thinking style scale in this trial featured situational questions with multiple choices in which characteristics of information was in nominal scale, checking the quality by items will be analyzed by means of prediction ratio with the principle of selecting questions considered from PR values. At least one type of question must have PR values higher than .62 and the analysis result found that questions contained PR values between .24 - .94 with 7 questions below criteria. The above stated result helped eliminate questions below criteria keeping 13 question items in each dimension. Step 8 Application of thinking style scaled to sample: the author applied the revised thinking styles scale to sample of 1,545 persons to examine the tool quality in terms of reliability and validity 1) by means of Item Response Theory analysis using Nominal Response Model (NRM); 2) by means of confirmatory factor analysis in each dimension for structural validity; 3) by means of Item Response Theory analysis using Nominal Response Model (NRM) for parameter values of difficulty, discriminant, information function by items and information function of thinking styles scale; and 4) by means of Mantel – Haenszel and Log Odd Ratio for differential item functioning. Step 9 Making of thinking styles scale and manual: After having examined the quality of tool, the author made the scale with manual in the form of computer program package.

Development of a multidimensional, Page 5

Research in Higher Education Journal

3. Thinking styles of Thai students To study profile of styles and a relation of profile of styles of sixth grade students and their background, analysis of data was carried out with the following procedures: 1. Analyze fundamental data about background factors of sample by using frequencies and percentage. 2. Analyze profile of styles of sample by frequencies and percentage. 3. Analyze to study the relation of thinking styles of students in each dimension of their background i.e. gender, school affiliation and grade using Chi-square Test Statistic.

Result Section 1 Result on development of thinking styles scale based on Theory of Mental Self-government for sixth grade students by examining its quality of structural reliability and validity 1.1 Structural validity of thinking styles scale In analysis to show structural validity evidence by means of confirmatory factor analysis with Mplus program in examining the conformity to the empirical data by construct validity by confirmatory factor analysis found that 5 dimensions of thinking styles scale conformed to the empirical data (CFI were .918 to .975, TLI were .919 to .988 RMSEA were .036 to .046 and SRMR were .060 to .081). 1.2 Reliability of thinking styles scale in each dimension In analysis to find the validity of thinking styles scale in each dimension according to the Item Response Theory using Nominal Response Model (NRM) with Multilog program, it was revealed that estimation of validity values in the dimension of function, form, level, scope and leaning was at 0.872, 0.913, 0.722, 0.777 and 0.799 respectively indicating thinking styles scale in each dimension showed the validity values evidence in high level. 1.3 Differential item functioning of thinking styles scale in each dimension In analysis to fine the DIF of thinking scale in each Dimension according to Mantel – Haenszel and Log odd Ratio method with DDFS (Pencield, 2010), it was revealed that 2 items in dimension of function, 1 item of form and 1 item of level had found DIF. Section 2 Result on profile of styles of sixth grade students 2.1 Thinking styles of sixth grade student in each dimension Analysis of thinking styles of sixth grade students in each dimension by basic statistic i.e. frequencies and percentage found that in the dimension of functions, most of students at 51.65 percent had judicial style of thinking, followed by executive style of thinking at 28.03 percent and legislative style of thinking at 20.32 percent respectively. In the dimension of style, most of students at 58.96 percent had hierarchic style of thinking, followed by monarchic style of thinking at 24.79 percent, anarchic style of thinking at 9.13 percent and oligarchic style of thinking at 7.12 percent respectively. In the dimension of level, most of students at 61.36 percent had local style of thinking followed by global style of thinking at 38.64 percent.

Development of a multidimensional, Page 6

Research in Higher Education Journal In the dimension of scope, most of students at 58.06 percent had external thinking style followed by internal thinking style at 41.94 percent. In the dimension of leanings, most of students at 78.51 percent had liberal style of thinking followed by conservative style of thinking at 21.49 percent. percentage Styles

Figure 1: Thinking styles of sixth grade students in each dimension 2.2 Profile of styles of sixth grade students Profile of styles of sixth grade students comprises 5 dimensions of thinking styles – function, style, level, scope and leaning and it was found that most of students at 13.53 percent had judicial – hierarchic – global – external – liberal profile of styles followed by 7.38 percent of judicial – hierarchic – global – internal – liberal profile of styles; and 6.99 percent of judicial – hierarchic – local – external – liberal profile of styles respectively. Section 3 Result on the relation of thinking styles of sixth grade students in each dimension and their background of gender and grade According to the analysis on relation of students’ thinking styles and their background of gender and grade, it was revealed that those 3 backgrounds were related to the styles of thinking in various dimensions with statistical significance at the level 0.5. Gender was related to styles of thinking in the dimension of function, form, scope and grade was related to styles of thinking in the dimension of function, form, level and leanings. Discussion 1. Quality of thinking styles scale 1.1 According to the result on examining structural validity of thinking styles scale in each dimension using confirmatory factor analysis, it was found that the thinking styles scale in every dimension conformed to the empirical data. It was showed from the criteria that all statistical values were in the acceptance criteria being the evidence for structural validity of thinking styles scale. 1.2 According to the result on analyzing of validity value of thinking styles scale, when reliability evidence was presented by means of Item Response Theory analysis using Nominal Response Model (NRM) which gained values indicating thinking styles scale aimed to measure in each

Development of a multidimensional, Page 7

Research in Higher Education Journal characteristics at high level had validity value from .722 to .913. When considering from acceptance criteria of validity value at level of .700 onward (Nunnally and Bernstein, 1994), it can be said that validity value of developed thinking styles scale was above acceptance criteria in every dimension. Thus, such evidence represents reliable validity of thinking styles scale. 2. Study on profile of styles of sixth grade students 2.1 Dimension of function – most of students have judicial styles of thinking which indicates students in the sixth grade like to judge things from both structure and content, to assess rules, procedures and concepts as well as to enjoy analysis-using problem. This is because sixth grade students are in their early adolescence or age range from 11-12 years old which is in the course of physical and emotional change. One characteristics of children in this age range is that they have their own thought, less abeyance to adults, attempt to be independent hence decisionmaking by themselves based on personal experience, belief and value . In addition, children in this age range are developing their ability of analytical thinking and can synthesize things more enabling them to make decision. However, it should be aware that children in this age are still lack of experience, circumspection. The student’s decision making which is thought to be accurate may not always be so because they just follow their belief and concept, therefore, close supervision and advice is necessary to have right experience for next decision-making. 2.2 Dimension of form – most of students have hierarchic styles of thinking indicating that students in the sixth grade like to set priority of target and objective of assigned work as well as to manage time for activities. The main reason why most of students have this type of thinking styles is perhaps due to the fact that the educational system in Thailand nowadays focuses on more procedural teaching-learning i.e. project teaching, experiment as well as teaching aimed to develop the thinking ability of students instilling procedural work into them in the same time. Furthermore, a number of content to study and activities to do requires students to set work plan automatically to finish on time. 2.3 Dimension of level – most of students have local styles of thinking which indicates that they like to do concrete work with detail conforming to Piaget’s Theory of Intellectual Development. It describes that children in this age have mental ability to think reasonably but process of thinking and reasoning to resolve problem still depends on concrete stuff. However, children in this age begin to develop their thinking more about abstract matter by imagining and to see situations and things from various points of view. 2.4 Dimension of scope – most of students have external styles of thinking showing that they are straightforward, assertive and happy to work interactively with other persons and in group according to the social development of children in this age which states that they start to have bigger society, become more mature, and have friends as well as group of friends will play the role in working and daily living. Most of activities for children in this age are group activities. Moreover, because of changing social condition, expression of adolescents to various matters has grown along with media and society resulting in their increasing confidence and assertiveness. 2.5 Dimension of leaning – most of students have liberal styles of thinking showing that they like to work free from regulations and do activities with new form and method as well as be able to handle with any kind of change. This is because children in this age like trial and error, and challenge. In addition, learning nowadays is learner-focused activities enabling students to have more opportunity to think, do and solve problems as well as to deal well with the change of learning.

Development of a multidimensional, Page 8

Research in Higher Education Journal

3. Study on relation of thinking styles of sixth grade students in each dimension and their background of gender and grade 3.1 Relation of thinking styles of sixth grade students and gender showed that gender was related to students’ thinking styles in the dimension of function, form, scope and leaning. Male students had the most legislative styles of thinking while female students had the most judicial styles of thinking. This was because during their adolescence male students had ability of research, study, and experiment enabling them to see structure and principle and apply them to daily life better than female students. Moreover, male students had more independent thought to various circumstances than female students. On the contrary, female students had judicial ability and perception of information for faster and nimbler than male students. The reason why result showed that male students had the most external thinking styles but female students had the most internal thinking styles was probably due to the Thai culture of upbringing – males had characteristics of leadership and grouped in working more than females. Furthermore, the study found that sixth grade female students had more independent role in terms of education than male students prompting the former to prefer working independently than in group. 3.2 Relation of thinking styles of sixth grade students and grade indicated that grade was related to student’s styles of thinking in the dimension of functions, style, level and leaning. Students with good grade tended to have judicial, hierarchic and liberal styles of thinking which was probably due to the fact that students of judicial and hierarchic thinking styles liked critical and synthetic thinking, knew time management and set priority of contents as well as sought new knowledge with technology more than those of other styles of thinking. References Sternberg, R. J. (1997). Thinking Styles. New York: Cambridge University Press. Harrison, A. F., & Bramson, R. M. (1988). An Introduction to Thinking Styles. [Online]. U.S.A: Berkley Publishing Group, and Be Jo Sales Incorp. Retrived June 14, 2009, from www.earthtym.net/sgeneral.html. Yeh, Y. C. (2002). Preservice Teachers’ Thinking Styles, Disposition, and Changes Their Teacher Behaviors. International Conference on Computers in Education. 1: 610 – 611. Retrieved June 16, 2009, from www.computer.org/comp/proceedings/icce/2002/1509/00/15090610.pdf. Yang, S. C., & Lin, W. C. (2004). The relationship among creative, critical thinking and thinking styles in Taiwan high school students. Journal of Instructional Psychology. 31(1): 33 – 45. Stephen, K. (2008). Do thinking styles of entrepreneurs matter in innovation? Journal of Global Business and Technology. 4(2): 24 – 34. Retrieved July 3, 2009 from: www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3753/ is_200810/ai_n31110957. Richmond, A. S., Krank, H. M., & Cummings, R. (2006). A Brief Research Report: Thinking Styles of Online Distance Education Students. International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning. 2(1): 58 – 64. Zhang, L. F. (2006). Does Student – Teacher Style Match/Mismatch Matter in Students’ Achievement? Educational Psychology. 26(3): 395 – 409. Zhang, L. F. (2007). From career personality types to preferences for teachers’ teaching styles: A new perspective on style match. Personality and Individual Differences. 43: 1863 – 1874.

Development of a multidimensional, Page 9

Research in Higher Education Journal Albaili, M. A. (2006). Differences in Thinking Styles among Low -, Average-, and High – Achieving College Students. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology. 17(1-2): 171 – 177. Zhang, L. F. (2000). Are Thinking Styles and Personality Types Related? Educational Psychology. 20(3): 271 – 283. Zhang, L. F. (2001). Approaches and Thinking Styles in Teaching. The Journal of Psychology. 135(5): 547 – 561. Kao, G. Y., Lei, P., & Sun, C. (2008). Thinking Style impacts on Web Search strategies. Computers in Human Behavior. 24: 1330 – 1341. Beuke, C. J., Freeman, D. G., & Wang, S. (2006). Reliability and validity of the Myers – Briggs Type Indicator Form M when translated into Traditional and Simplified Chinese characters. Paper presented at the fifth Psychological Type and Culture – East and West: A Multi – cultural Research Symposium, Honolulu, HI.

Development of a multidimensional, Page 10

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Pgnc

...STUDY HABITS OF GRADE V PUPILS OF VILLA TERESITA ELEMENTARY SHOOL: ITS RELATION TO THEIR ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE Felisilda, Rose Gay M. Jandayan, Jonil D. Parba, Cleofe C. BOHOL ISLAND STATE UNIVERSITY CANDIJAY CAMPUS Cogtong, Candijay, Bohol March 2012 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE INTRODUCTION Students are facing with many issues in their lives, and because of the competing things for your attention, it’s hard to concentrate on studying. Studying can seem very boring when compared to any other exciting activity. You may even prefer doing non-sense things rather than to study your lessons. Too many people treat studying as the thing to do when you get around to it or have some spare time, too many people look at studying as necessary task, not an enjoyment or an opportunity to learn.( Grohol, 2006 ) Studying is important in our lives, especially to the lives of the students. Each student as unique individual has different abilities, approaches, ways of thinking, interests and ways of studying the lessons. These individual differences have significant influences on ones learning style and acquisition. Each student has different methods and ways of studying and these methods are sometimes helpful but some are not as effective as the others. (Oppapers, 2010) One reason we often don’t start studying until last possible minute is that we have misjudged how long it will actually take as to absorb and understand the material we are studying. If you are a student......

Words: 334 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Study Habits Chapter 1

...STUDY HABITS OF GRADE V PUPILS OF VILLA TERESITA ELEMENTARY SHOOL: ITS RELATION TO THEIR ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE Felisilda, Rose Gay M. Jandayan, Jonil D. Parba, Cleofe C. BOHOL ISLAND STATE UNIVERSITY CANDIJAY CAMPUS Cogtong, Candijay, Bohol March 2012 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE INTRODUCTION Students are facing with many issues in their lives, and because of the competing things for your attention, it’s hard to concentrate on studying. Studying can seem very boring when compared to any other exciting activity. You may even prefer doing non-sense things rather than to study your lessons. Too many people treat studying as the thing to do when you get around to it or have some spare time, too many people look at studying as necessary task, not an enjoyment or an opportunity to learn.( Grohol, 2006 ) Studying is important in our lives, especially to the lives of the students. Each student as unique individual has different abilities, approaches, ways of thinking, interests and ways of studying the lessons. These individual differences have significant influences on ones learning style and acquisition. Each student has different methods and ways of studying and these methods are sometimes helpful but some are not as effective as the others. (Oppapers, 2010) One reason we often don’t start studying until last possible minute is that we have misjudged how long it will actually take as to absorb and understand the material we are studying. If you are a student......

Words: 4826 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Broken Family

...the small unit of society where students got their first learning about the world before they engage themselves in the real scenarios of life. It is believed that parents are the first advisers of their kids who will teach them everything about all aspects of life including education. Filipinos nurture the value of family and their importance to one’s life. Filipinos are well-known of having close family ties that love, respect, support and understand one another. An individual cannot achieve his or her goals without the necessary supports from the family. The family becomes the major inspiration of students to work hard and earn better grades so that one day they can help their family. Most of Filipino students believed that a perfect family can bring them hope, luck, success and a better life in the future. But if these things are not found in one student’s life, delay or halt and even absence of education might occur. There are many difficulties faced by students while they are studying such as financial constraints, drug addiction, suspension from school, involvement in different fraternities, attached in relationships, unwillingness to attend classes and many more. But one of the most crucial problems to be considered that disturb students from their education is having a broken family. There are many reasons why some families are experiencing this kind of problem but one thing is certain, it deeply affects the life of children or students. This kind of problem can......

Words: 3218 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Problems Encountered by Irregular College Students

...CHAPTER I Background of the Study Academic performance really means three things: this means the ability to study and remember facts, it also means being able to think in relation to facts and thirdly, it further means being able to communicate one’s knowledge verbally or practically (www.google.com). A marching band is a company of instrumental musicians performing outdoors for the purpose of entertainment and sometimes in competition. Instrumentations typically include brass, woodwinds and percussion instruments (en.wikipedia.com). The marching band at Partido State University was one of the competing units among the marching bands. They joined military parades, concerts, street parades and many more. It means that joining in marching bands had a lot of trainings and practices to be done. In this regards the academic performance of the band members maybe sacrifice because of double priorities. In addition, the society may have different expectations of the performance of the band members according to their own perspectives. It was observed that there are band members who had incomplete or failing grades. It all depends on how they personally addressed problems as a student and as a band members who got failing grades and incomplete grades faced a consequence of termination as a band scholar. Statemant of the Problem This study aims to determine the problems encountered by the PSU Marching Band Members that affect their academic performance. Specifically this......

Words: 3014 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Seniors 2014: Academically Challenged

... 17 VII. Outputs of the Study 18-19 A. Recommendations B. Action Plan VIII. Bibliography 20 IX. Appendices 21-36 Appendix A – Sample Questionnaire Appendix B – Other Researches 1 ABSTRACT In this research material, we aim to know the problems of a senior high school student especially the K+12 coming. A survey was made containing questions about what we have observed among other senior students. We had 100 respondents from different high schools. We consider you to definitely see the answers to the research questions because we can clearly prove that what we experience are just same with what our respondents face. The result recommends more number of students to participate and a wider area including rural areas. 2 INTRODUCTION It is everyone’s dream to graduate high school. It is because it will be their stepping stone to fully realize their dreams. Graduating high school is not as easy as you think especially when we are on the verge of the K+12 implementation. It is a hard thing to do, especially when something bothers or hinders you to do your main purpose in high school. There are many requirements to pass, hard lessons to learn and different problems to encounter. A senior high school student will never say that it is very easy to graduate secondary education because of the very many struggles he or she faced during his or her 4th year. Right now, every family member of a senior student and even himself are......

Words: 5243 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Dropout Among Secondary School Students in Warri North L.G.a

...CHAPTER ONE 1.0. INTRODUCTION 2.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The United Nations convention of the rights of the child states that every child has the right to an education that develops their personality, talents, mental and physical abilities to their fullest potential. On the contrary to this right, the UN (United Nations) convention estimated that 1.3 million American and also Nigerian students drop out of school. The problem of high school dropout has generated increased interest among researchers, policy makers and educators in recent years. “Dropout” may refer to dropping out of school or one who quits from school (Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 2000). Dropout rates of teens in secondary school are of great interest to educators across the country. An analysis has been done by researchers to identify the risk factors related to high school dropout rates. The analysis shows various factors for dropping out of school which include: school related, family related and job relates causes as well as influences from peers and residential mobility. These risk factors are then related to what educators can do to improve been programming efforts as well as decrease high school dropout rates (National Educational Longitudinal study, 2000). Dropping out of school is an issue faced by many teens today. According to the United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (2011), it enumerated some factors which causes dropout among secondary......

Words: 8677 - Pages: 35

Premium Essay

Community Health

...Community Health C229 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! CKA Task 1 Sharon Wiggins Western Governors University ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Community Health C229 ! ! Date Spent ! ! 6/19/15 ! 6/19/15 ! 6/19/15 ! 6/29-7/2 ! 7/11/15 1200-1700 ! 8/30/15 1100-1600 ! 9/4/15 1100-1200 ! ! 9/9-10/15 0800-1700 0800-1200 ! ! Fieldwork Study Activity Location and Contact Time Windshield Survey Dakota County, Minnesota 10 Cultural Survey Dakota County, Minnesota 5 Scavenger Hunt Dakota County, Minnesota 10 Childhood Obesity attended conference, interviewed other attendees and exhibitors 8757 Rio San Diego Dr, San Diego, CA 92108 (619)692-3800 30 Festival of Farms attended festival interview with community members and exhibitors Lakeside Prairie Farm 20503 180th Ave Barrett, MN 56311 320-492-2526 5 Minnesota State Fair attended & interviews and surveys 1265 Snelling Ave St Paul, MN 55108 (651) 288-4400 5 Dr Koch interviewed Dr. Koch Physician Fairview Ridges Clinic 303 E Nicollet Blvd # 160 Burnsville, MN 55337 (952) 460-4000 1 Communities for Health attended conference, interviewed other attendees, exhibitors Duluth Convention Center 350 Harbor Dr Duluth, MN 55802 (218) 722-5573 12 1 Community Health C229 ! 9/12/15 1200-1500 ! ! 9/18/15 0800-1200 ! 9/19/15 0800-1300 Farm Fest attended,......

Words: 4546 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Metro

...BUCHAREST UNIVERSITY OF ECONOMIC STUDIES BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION FACULTY (ENGLISH Section) Analysis of Metro GroupInternational Business project | | Students: Custură Ruxandra Gabriela Imre Botond Munteanu Teodora Metro Group 1. Description of the company 1.1 Field of activity Metro AG, is otherwise known as Metro Group, established in 1964 by Otto Beisheim. It is a German global diversified retail and wholesale/cash and carry group based in Düsseldorf. It has the largest market share in its home market, and is one of the most globalised retail and wholesale corporations.  It is the fifth-largest retailer in the world measured by revenues (after Wal-Mart, Carrefour, Tesco and Kroger).  Metro Group has 280.000 employees, from 180 nations, with over 2.200 outlets in 32 countries in Europe, Africa and Asia. With this force, Metro Group is one of the most important international retailing companies. In Metro AG portfolio we can find some internationally strong sales brands like: * Metro Cash & Carry - the world's market leader in cash & carry; * Real Hypermarkets – purchased by Auchan; * Media Markt and Saturn - Europe' s leader in consumer electronic retailing; * Galeria Kaufhof - the system leader in the department store business. When doing business, Metro AG goes after important values such as: * Responsibility towards our customers, stockholders and the public; * Innovative strength is one key to success; ...

Words: 5612 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

Factors Affecting Students Decision to Drop Out of School

...FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENTS’ DECISION TO DROP OUT OF SCHOOL A Research Paper Presented to Center for Social Development Research Cor Jesu College Digos City In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For Academic Research by HERMOGENES C. ORION, JR, Ed.D ERIKKA JUNE D. FOROSUELO, DM-HRM JEAN M. CAVALIDA, MA, RGC March 2013 COR JESU COLLEGE Sacred Heart Ave., Digos City 8002 Davao del Sur Philippines APPROVAL SHEET ------------------------------------------------- As a requirement for Academic Research, this research paper entitled: FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENTS’ DECISION TO DROP OUT OF SCHOOL has been prepared and submitted by HERMOGENES C. ORION, JR., ERIKKA JUNE D. FOROSUELO, JEAM M. CAVALIDA ------------------------------------------------- APPROVED by the Oral Examination Committee DR.MARIA ELENA MORALES DR. LETICIA CANSANCIO Panel Member Panel Member DR. ALEX D. NIEZ Chairperson ------------------------------------------------- Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for Academic Research. DR. ALEX D. NIEZ College Dean MAY......

Words: 22080 - Pages: 89

Free Essay

Field Study

...discover and develop the individual’s intellectual and creative powers, leadership potentials and self-esteem 6. To cultivate the habit of critical thinking and scientific approach in problem solving and decision making; 7. To educate the individual in a wholesome atmosphere characterized by responsive academic freedom, mutual respect, cooperation and WESNECAN FELLOWSHIP. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES 1. To strengthen research capabilities of faculty and students in order to publish researches in referred journals. 2. To strengthen and increase linkages with local, regional, national and international organizations. 3. To intensify participation of faculty, staff, students and alumni in the community extension programs. 4. To strongly support training for faculty and staff in the use of technology and information resources to enhance teaching, learning and to improve productivity and service quality. 5. To create more opportunities for alumni to participate and support institutional programs, projects and activities. 6. To recruit and retain faculty and staff with outstanding professional qualifications and commitment to advance the college’s vision, mission and objectives. 7. To upgrade and complete major facilities projects identified in the current campus improvement program. 8. To attract incoming students with the potential of becoming competent leaders endowed with desirable and acceptable personal and social values. ......

Words: 15721 - Pages: 63

Free Essay

Business Management Method

...LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 47 IV. CONCLUSIONS 48 REFERENCE 49 APPENDIX LIST OF TABLE Table 4.1 Reliability Test for employees of HSBC bank - Work interference With Family and Family interference with work …………………………………. 36 Table 4.2 Reliability Test for employees of HSBC bank – Job and Family Role Strain Scales 36 Table 4.3 Reliability Test for employees of HSBC bank – Work- Family conflict 36 Table 4.4 Reliability Test for employees of HSBC bank - Person – Control over areas for work and family 37 Table 4.5 Reliability Test for employees of HSBC bank – Job Stress 37 Table 4.6 Reliability Statistic of Cronbach’s Alpha 37 Table 4.7 Descriptive Statistics of Work interference with family interference with work 38 Table 4.8 Descriptive Statistics of Job and family role Strain scales 38 Table 4.9 Descriptive Statistics of Work – Family conflict 38 Table 4.10 Descriptive Statistics of Control over areas for work and family 39 Table 4.11 Descriptive Statistics of Job Stress 39 Table 4.12 The Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient 40 Table 4.13 Multiple Regression of Hypothesis 1 41 Table 4.14 Multiple Regression of Hypothesis 2 42 Table 4.15 Multiple Regression of Hypothesis 3 43 Table 4.16 Multiple Regression of Hypothesis 4 43 Table 4.17 Hypothesis Statistic 44 ABSTRACT The nature of work of bankers and family life may most often expose them to high level of stress which has the potential of affecting their productive capacity. This study......

Words: 12613 - Pages: 51

Free Essay

The Origins and Development of the English Language (Textbook)

...and Development of the English Language, Sixth Edition, continues to focus on the facts of language rather than on any of the various contemporary theoretical approaches to the study of those facts. The presentation is that of fairly traditional grammar and philology, so as not to require students to master a new theoretical approach at the same time they are exploring the intricacies of language history. The focus of the book is on the internal history of the English language: its sounds, grammar, and word stock. That linguistic history is, however, set against the social and cultural background of the changing times. The first three chapters are introductory, treating language in general as well as the pronunciation and orthography of present-day English. The succeeding central six chapters are the heart of the book, tracing the history of the language from prehistoric Indo-European days through Old English, Middle English, and early Modern English up to the present time. The final three chapters deal with vocabulary—the meaning, making, and borrowing of words. This sixth edition of a book Thomas Pyles wrote some forty-five years ago preserves the outline, emphasis, and aims of the original, as all earlier editions have. The entire book has, however, been revised for helpfulness to students and ease of reading. The major improvements of the fifth edition have been retained. A large number of fresh changes have also been made, especially to make the......

Words: 164520 - Pages: 659