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Study Habits

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Persistence Factors in Secondary School Additional Language Study | The research reported here concerns the voluntary decision of New Zealand (NZ) students, at the end of Year 10, to continue or not to continue with their hitherto voluntary study of Japanese, commencing at the beginning of Year 9 (n = 546). This decision is taken to be a clear indication of persistence, one of three fundamental aspects of motivation, and was investigated in relation to student attitudes towards seven different dimensions of additional language (AL)* learning and certain background variables. Analyses involved the validation of an attitude scale, multivariate testing for associations between persistence, attitude factors and certain background variables, including student ethnic background. Discussion of results included the positing of a multidimensional self-determinative orientation factor, comparisons with similar studies, practical implications and limitations. | APA :http://www.jllonline.co.uk/journal/jllearn/4_1/holt.htm
Baldauf, R.B. & Lawrence, H. (1990). Student characteristics and affective domaineffects on LOTE retention rates. Language and Education, 4(4), 225-48. | Study Habits, Skills, and Attitudes: The Third Pillar Supporting Collegiate Academic Performance | Study habit, skill, and attitude inventories and constructs were found to rival standardized tests and previous grades as predictors of academic performance, yielding substantial incremental validity in predicting academic performance. This meta-analysis ( = 72,431, = 344) examines the construct validity and predictive validity of 10 study skill constructs for college students. We found that study skill inventories and constructs are largely independent of both high school grades and scores on standardized admissions tests but moderately related to various personality constructs; these results are inconsistent with previous theories. Study motivation and study skills exhibit the strongest relationships with both grade point average and grades in individual classes. Academic specific anxiety was found to be an important negative predictor of performance. In addition, significant variation in the validity of specific inventories is shown. Scores on traditional study habit and attitude inventories are the most predictive of performance, whereas scores on inventories based on the popular depth-of-processing perspective are shown to be least predictive of the examined criteria. Overall, study habit and skill measures improve prediction of academic performance more than any other noncognitive individual difference variable examined to date and should be regarded as the third pillar of academic success. | APA: http://www.citeulike.org/user/markgraham24/article/3689462 Marcus Credé, Nathan R. Kuncel. Perspectives on Psychological Science, Vol. 3, No. 6. (November 2008), pp. 425-453 | Study Habits, Skills, and Attitudes: The Third Pillar Supporting Collegiate Academic Performance | Study habit, skill, and attitude inventories and constructs were found to rival standardized tests and previous grades as predictors of academic performance, yielding substantial incremental validity in predicting academic performance. This meta-analysis ( = 72,431, = 344) examines the construct validity and predictive validity of 10 study skill constructs for college students. We found that study skill inventories and constructs are largely independent of both high school grades and scores on standardized admissions tests but moderately related to various personality constructs; these results are inconsistent with previous theories. Study motivation and study skills exhibit the strongest relationships with both grade point average and grades in individual classes. Academic specific anxiety was found to be an important negative predictor of performance. In addition, significant variation in the validity of specific inventories is shown. Scores on traditional study habit and attitude inventories are the most predictive of performance, whereas scores on inventories based on the popular depth-of-processing perspective are shown to be least predictive of the examined criteria. Overall, study habit and skill measures improve prediction of academic performance more than any other noncognitive individual difference variable examined to date and should be regarded as the third pillar of academic success. | APA: http://www.citeulike.org/user/markgraham24/article/3689462 Marcus Credé, Nathan R. Kuncel. Perspectives on Psychological Science, Vol. 3, No. 6. (November 2008), pp. 425-453 | The Effectiveness of Strategic Reading Instruction for College Developmental Readers | Two studies examined the short- and long-term effects of teaching strategic reading to first-year college students in a stand-alone course. In study one, developmental readers (N=36) learned PLAN, a strategic reading heuristic. Significant pretest-posttest growth was found using cognitive, metacognitive, and affective measures, though no gain was found on a measure of self-efficacy. Strategy transfer was found during the next semester according to self-report. In a second study of developmental readers over four years, a larger treatment group (N=51) outperformed a control group (N=78) on a standardized test and average grade in a reading-intensive history course. These developmental readers seemed to learn strategic reading skills that transferred to a future core curriculum course. | APA: http://www.citeulike.org/user/markgraham24/article/7678390 David C. Caverly, Sheila A. Nicholson, Richard Radcliffe . Journal of College Reading and Learning, Vol. 35, No. 1. (0 2004), pp. 25-49. |

Understanding the meaning of learning centers | Learning centers in institutions of higher education are increasingly becoming more numerous and assuming more important functions. While learning centers have become a commonality in higher educational institutions throughout North America, the term, learning center, is used to describe a host of educational philosophies and phenomena. Researchers have consequently called for a better understanding of learning centers. Based on the assumption that the meaning of a term is its use in language, an examination or analysis of the literature and research appropriate to learning centers was undertaken to derive criteria for more accurate descriptions and observations of learning centers. Two categories of meanings of the term, learning center, were derived from the analysis. As a result of this study, empirical researchers who understand the distinctions in the term, learning center, can now observe the phenomenon of learning centers more accurately by matching the meaning of the term with the phenomenon. It was recommended that future studies and research attempt to continue to clarify the use of the term, learning center, as well as related concepts and ambiguously used terms in the field of education. | APA: http://www.citeulike.org/user/markgraham24/article/7664819 Carl P. Thum. Reading World, Vol. 20, No. 2. (1980), pp. 99-106. | Effects of Learning Skills Interventions on Student Learning: A Meta-Analysis | The aim of this review is to identify features of study skills interventions that are likely to lead to success. Via a meta-analysis we examine 51 studies in which interventions aimed to enhance student learning by improving student use of either one or a combination of learning or study skills. Such interventions typically focused on task-related skills, self-management of learning, or affective components such as motivation and self-concept. Using the SOLO model (Biggs & Collis, 1982), we categorized the interventions (a) into four hierarchical levels of structural complexity and (b) as either near or far in terms of transfer. The results support the notion of situated cognition, whereby it is recommended that training other than for simple mnemonic performance should be in context, use tasks within the same domain as the target content, and promote a high degree of learner activity and metacognitive awareness. | APA: http://www.citeulike.org/user/markgraham24/article/2844035 John Hattie, John Biggs, Nola Purdie. Review of Educational Research, Vol. 66, No. 2. (1 January 1996), pp. 99-136. | Eye-movement records in the investigation of study habits | Sixteen advanced university students read a paragraph from the Thorndike Intelligence Examination, part iii. A photographic technique previously described (J. Exper. Psychol., 1925, 8, 344-362) was used for recording eye-movements. Judged by number of fixations and freedom from regressives, the majority of the readers covered the material at the left end of the lines more thoroughly than they did at the right. Regressive fixations were more frequent in the middle or at the right end than at the extreme left. Slow readers extend fixations to the extremes of the lines, whereas rapid readers do not. "There is a comparatively high correlation (about .70) between perception-time per line and scores on the Thorndike test, which was found to be a serviceable measure of studying ability." Rate varies widely with the material and the purpose of the moment, and unanalyzed gross rate cannot be taken as representing the student's studying ability. "By using 3 more measures of 'studying ability' (Thorndike test score, number of lines read in rapid reading practice, and eye-movement record) it is possible to make a practical diagnosis of studying ability of university students and formulate constructive suggestions for individual cases." | APA: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL& W.R. Miles and H.M. Bell. Journal of Experimental Psychology Volume 12, Issue 5, October 1929, Pages 450-458 | Does Active Learning Work? A Reviewof the Research | This study examines the evidence for the effectiveness of activelearning. It defines the common forms of active learning mostrelevant for engineering faculty and critically examines the coreelement of each method. It is found that there is broad butuneven support for the core elements of active, collaborative,cooperative and problem-based learning. | APA:
Bonwell, C.C., and J. A. Eison, “Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom,” ASHEERIC Higher Education Report No.1, George Washington University, Washington, DC , 1991. | Student Study Habits UsingNotes from a Speech-to-TextSupport Service | Thirty-six mainstreamed high school and college students who are deaf and hard ofhearing received notes from a speech-to-text support service called C-PrintTM. The students, 26classroom teachers, and 10 teachers of the deaf were interviewed about their perceptions of howstudents use their notes to study. Consistent with research on hearing students, high school studentsin this study typically would read the notes only, while college students used multiple study strategieswith the notes. Teachers tended not to know how their students used their notes for studying,and they were sometimes reluctant to teach students about effective note usage. This study supportsthe idea that both students and teachers could benefit from further instruction on note usage andstudy skills. | APA: http://www.sbac.edu/~werned/DATA/RESEARCH/journals/Excep%20Children/speech%20to%20text.pdf Al-Hilawani, Y. A. (1999). A comparison among average- achieving, underachieving and deaf/hard-of-hearing students on effective study skills and habits. International Journal of Special Education, 14(1), 12-24. | Music while you work: the differential distraction of background music on the cognitive test performance of introverts and extraverts | The current study looked at the distracting effects of ‘pop music’ on introvertsʼ and extravertsʼ performance on various cognitive tasks. It was predicted that there would be a main effect for music and an interaction effect with introverts performing less well in the presence of music than extraverts. Ten introverts and ten extraverts were given two tests (a memory test with immediate and delayed recall and a reading comprehension test), which were completed, either while being exposed to pop music, or in silence. The results showed that there was a detrimental effect on immediate recall on the memory test for both groups when music was played, and two of the three interactions were significant. After a 6‐minute interval the introverts who had memorized the objects in the presence of the pop music had a significantly lower recall than the extraverts in the same condition and the introverts who had observed them in silence. The introverts who completed a reading comprehension task when music was being played also performed significantly less well than these two groups. | APA:
Adrian Furnham ; Kathryn Allass. Music while you work: the differential distraction of background music on the cognitive test performance of introverts and extraverts Applied Cognitive Psychology (October 1997), 11 (5), pg. 445-455 | Metacognition, studyhabits and attitudes | This study is conducted to investigate the relationship between fifth grade students’metacognition levels, and their study habits and attitudes. Participants of the study consistof 221 students, 125 female and 96 male, enrolling to six public primary schools in Turkey.The results revealed that there is a medium positive relationship between metacognitiveknowledge and skills and study habits (r = .351, p < .05), study attitudes (r = .415, p < .05)and study orientation (r = .434, p < .05). Additionally, the results of the study showed thatthere is no significant relationship between metacognition and study habits and attitudesfor low and medium achievers but, there is a significant relationship for high achievers. | APA: http://www.iejee.com/2_1_2009/ozsoy.pdf Agnew, N. C., Slate, J. R., Jones, C. H. & Agnew, D. M. (1993). Academic behaviors as afunction of academic achievement, locus of control, and motivational orientation,NACTA Journal, 37(2). | Locus of control, study habits and attitudes, and college academic performance | Examined the relationship between locus of control and 2 academic-related variables-study habits and attitudes, and college academic performance. 89 college students were administered (a) the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes; and (b) Levenson's Internal, Powerful Others, and Chance scales, the latter providing separate measures of 2 external control dimensions. Results indicate that internal control was related positively to effective study habits and attitudes and to college academic success, while the opposite was true for powerful others and chance control. Significant differences were found between powerful others and chance control as related to study habits and attitudes and to college grade-point averages. | APA: http://www.mendeley.com/research/locus-of-control-study-habits-and-attitudes-and-college-academic-performance/ Prociuk, T. J., & Breen, L. J. (1974). Locus of control, study habits and attitudes, and college academic performance, 88(1), 91-95. Retrieved from http://www.heldref.org | Test anxiety and study habits | The relationship of facilitating (AAT+) and debilitating (AAT-) test anxiety and study habits was studied. Students with low AAT- scores have more effective study habits and avoid delaying academic tasks. This suggests that test anxious Ss' (high AAT-) test performance is partially affected by ineffective pre-examination behavior. | APA: http://www.mendeley.com/research/test-anxiety-study-habits-11/ Wittmaier, B. (1972). Test anxiety and study habits, 65(8), 352-354. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27536304 | Test anxiety and study habits | The relationship of facilitating (AAT+) and debilitating (AAT-) test anxiety and study habits was studied. Students with low AAT- scores have more effective study habits and avoid delaying academic tasks. This suggests that test anxious Ss' (high AAT-) test performance is partially affected by ineffective pre-examination behavior. | APA: http://www.mendeley.com/research/test-anxiety-study-habits-11/ Wittmaier, B. (1972). Test anxiety and study habits, 65(8), 352-354. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27536304 | Forget What You Know About Good Study Habits | Every September, millions of parents try a kind of psychological witchcraft, to transform their summer-glazed campers into fall students, their video-bugs into bookworms. Advice is cheap and all too familiar: Clear a quiet work space. Stick to a homework schedule. Set goals. Set boundaries. Do not bribe (except in emergencies). And check out the classroom. Does Juniors learning style match the new teachers approach? Or the schools philosophy? Maybe the child isnt a good fit for the school. Such theories have developed in part because of sketchy education research that doesnt offer clear guidance. Student traits and teaching styles surely interact; so do personalities and at-home rules. | APA:
Carey, B. (2010). Forget What You Know About Good Study Habits, 1-5. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/07/health/views/07mind.html?pagewanted=2&src=
ISMR_HP_LO_MST_FB
| Relation of study habits and attitudes to academic performance | Obtained scores on the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes and GPA data from 100 undergraduates; the Pearson correlation of .46 showed a positive relation between GPA and study behavior. Although it is useful to consider the actual amount of time an individual devotes to study, it is concluded that students' attitudes determine the productivity of that study time. | APA:
Cappella, B. J., Wagner, M., & Kusmierz, J. A. (1982). Relation of study habits and attitudes to academic performance, 50(2), 593-594. Retrieved from http://www.ammonsscientific.com/ | Scholastic aptitude decline and changes in study habits and attitudes | 495 college freshmen in 1969 and 412 freshmen in 1979 completed a battery of psychological tests and the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes. The latter measures delay avoidance, work methods, teacher approval, and educational acceptance. Data on Scholastic Aptitude Test scores and high school academic performance were obtained also. There was a decline in both verbal and math scores from 1969 to 1979, but this was accompanied by an increase in better study habits and positive educational attitudes. A low but significant negative relationship between delay avoidance and SAT performance indicated that brighter Ss tended to procrastinate in doing school work. A significant relationship between work methods and SAT scores suggested that those with higher aptitudes have better work methods. The authors propose that the differences in attitudes can be partially attributed to the differing societal influences of the 2 time periods. | APA:
DeVito, A. J., Tryon, G. S., & Carlson, J. F. (1983). Scholastic aptitude decline and changes in study habits and attitudes, 24(5),
411 - 416. Retrieved from +IN+STUDY+HABITS+AND+ATTITUDES#0 | Study habits and test-taking tips. | Everyone experiences test anxiety to some degree. Helpful suggestions about how to reduce test anxiety, how to study for tests, and how to develop good study habits can reduce this anxiety. Studying is different for different types of tests. It is important to learn how to study for multiple choice, true/false, short answer, and essay tests. These skills are also helpful when preparing for a certification examination such as the Dermatology Nurses Certification Exam. Use these tips and techniques to become better prepared for tests, and the suggested methods for reducing anxiety prior to and during tests. | APA:
Gloe, D. (1999). Study habits and test-taking tips., 11(6), 439-443, 447-449. | Study Habits and the Level of Alcohol Use Among College Students | This paper draws on the 1997 and 1999 waves of the College Alcohol Study to examine the effect of alcohol consumption on the study habits of college students. A generalized least squares estimation procedure is used to account for the potential correlation in the unobserved characteristics determining drinking behavior and study habits. Our results reveal that failing to account for the endogeneity of the level of drinking leads to an overestimate of its effect on the likelihood that a student misses a class or gets behind in school. We also find differential effects of drinking on the study habits of freshman students and their upper-year counterparts. | APA:
POWELL, L. M., WILLIAMS, J., & WECHSLER, H. (2004). Study Habits and the Level of Alcohol Use Among College Students, 12(2), 135-149. Retrieved from http://pdfserve.informaworld.com/Pdf/AddCoversheet?xml=/mnt/pdfserve/pdfserve/347700-751320213-713619090.xml | Library skills, study habits and attitudes, and sex as related to academic achievement | Used the multiple regression equation to determine the relationships for college freshmen. The Library Orientation Test appeared to be valid for forecasting college success. | APA:
Corlett, D. (1974). Library skills, study habits and attitudes, and sex as related to academic achievement,34(4), 967-969. Retrieved from http://www.sagepublications.com/ | Problem-solving appraisal, self-reported study habits, and performance of academically at-risk college students | We examined the relations among problem-solving appraisal, self-reported study habits, and academic performance for 63 college students enrolled in a developmental course for academically unprepared students. The participants completed measures of self-appraised problem-solving ability and study habits. Indexes of academic ability and performance were also collected. Regression analyses revealed that problem-solving appraisal was significantly predictive of study habits and semester grade-point average. The results indicate that problem-solving appraisal is related to study habits and academic performance among academically at-risk students, and they suggest that problem-solving appraisal encompasses more than social skill. | APA:
Elliott, T. R., Godshall, F., Shrout, J. R., & Witty, T. E. (1990). Problem-solving appraisal, self-reported study habits, and performance of academically at-risk college students, 37(2), 203-207. Retrieved from http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/0022-0167.37.2.203 |

Improving Students' Study Habits by Demonstrating the Mnemonic Benefits of Semantic Processing | This article describes an in-class exercise that illustrates the advantage of semantic over nonsemantic study habits. The exercise includes a survey of students' current study strategies, followed by the presentation of an abbreviated version of Craik and Tulving's(1975) classic levels-of-processing experiment. We observed significant benefits of semantic processing over nonsemantic processing, and this result motivated an in-depth discussion regarding the limitations of students' intuitions about effective study strategies and methods for improving current strategies. The brief exercise changed students' intended strategies for future studying and helped students learn the concept of semantic processing. | APA:
Bugg, J., DeLosh, E., & McDaniel, M. (2008). Improving Students’ Study Habits by Demonstrating the Mnemonic Benefits of Semantic Processing, 35(2), 96-98 | The study habits and attitudes inventory and its implications for students' success | Enthlt auch die Items! Steinbruch! Developed the Study Habits and Attitudes Inventory to investigate study skills, attitudes, and other aspects of students' behavior that might be predictive of academic success. 47 undergraduates completed a job analysis questionnaire to determine a job de | APA:
Nixon, C. T., & Frost, A. G. (1990). The study habits and attitudes inventory and its implications for students’ success, 66(3), 1075-1085. | Academic success as a function of gender, class, age, study habits, and employment of college students | This study identifies college students' predominant study skill strengths and weaknesses. Students' study skills were examined as a function of age, gender, year in college, academic achievement, study time, and employment status. Participants were 366 undergraduate students (aged 17-49 yrs) enrolled in nine different courses within the College of Education at a university in the mid-South. Students responded positively to only 53.0% of the statements measuring study skills, with study skill weaknesses being identified in the areas of note-taking, reading skills, and time management. Additionally, study skills were related positively to age, GPA, and the number of hours spent studying each week and related negatively to the number of hours spent working each week. A series of discriminant analyses led to the identification of specific study behaviors that discriminated various subgroups. Implications for intervention programs are discussed. | APA:
Lammers, W. J., Onweugbuzie, A. J., & Slate, J. R. (2001). Academic success as a function of gender, class, age, study habits, and employment of college students, 8(2), 71-81. Retrieved from http://www.msstate.edu/org/msera/msera.html | Socioeconomic disparities in cancer-risk behaviors in adolescence: baseline results from the Health and Behaviour in Teenagers Study (HABITS) | BACKGROUND: This study explores the association between socioeconomic deprivation and five factors associated with long-term risk of cancer, in adolescents. METHODS: BMI, fat intake, fruit and vegetable intake, smoking, and exercise were assessed in 4320 students ages 11 to 12, from 36 schools, in the first year of a 5-year longitudinal study of the development of health behaviors (HABITS study). Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation for each student's area of residence was matched to their postcode (zip code). We used multiple logistic regression analyses to investigate the relationship between risky behaviors and socioeconomic circumstances. RESULTS: Univariate analyses showed boys and girls from more deprived neighborhoods were more likely to have tried smoking, to eat a high fat diet, and to be overweight. Girls living in more deprived areas were also less likely to eat five servings of fruit and vegetables or to exercise at the weekend. Most differences persisted after controlling for ethnicity. A clear deprivation gradient emerged for each risk factor, indicating the linear nature of the relationship. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the influence of deprivation on engaging in cancer-risk health behaviors. These patterns may set young people from more socioeconomically deprived social environments on a trajectory leading to increased cancer mortality in adult life. | APA:
Wardle, J., Jarvis, M., Steggles, N., Sutton, S., Williamson, S., Farrimond, H., Cartwright, M., et al. (2003). Socioeconomic disparities in cancer-risk behaviors in adolescence: baseline results from the Health and Behaviour in Teenagers Study (HABITS), 36(6), 721-730 | The Role of Study Habits in Foreign Language Courses | The purpose of this study was to determine which study habits distinguish successful from unsuccessful foreign language learners. Participants were 219 college students from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds, enrolled in either Spanish, French, German or Japanese classes. A canonical discriminant analysis (F [6, 117], p < 0.0001; canonical R = 0.92) revealed that, compared to their high-performing counterparts, students with the lowest levels of foreign language performance tended to report that: (a) they frequently include a lot of irrelevant or unimportant information in their notes; (b) when they have difficulty with their assignments, they do not seek help from their instructor; (c) they put their lecture notes away after taking the test and never consult them again; (d) they have to be in the mood before attempting to study; (e) they have a tendency to doodle or to daydream when they are trying to study; and (f) they do not look up in a dictionary the meanings of words that they do not understand. Implications are discussed. | APA:
Phillip D. Bailey; Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie
Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 1469-297X, Volume 27, Issue 5, 2002, Pages 463 – 473 | Performance on tests of study habits, neuroticism, extraversion, academic self-concept, intelligence and A level by polytechnic students classified as focusers and scanners on a concept matrix test | Examined the relationship between preferred thinking styles and performance using the Eysenck Personality Inventory to measure Extraversion (E) and Neuroticism (N) and scales measuring academic self-concept (ASC), intelligence (I), achievement (A) level, and study habits (SH) with 120 polytechnic students, classified as focusers n = 82) or scanners n = 38). A concept identification matrix test was used for classification purposes. Findings show no significant mean differences between focusers and scanners for E, I, SH, and A levels, however, there were significant mean differences for N and ASC. It is suggested that these results support the notion of personality correlates of cognitive styles within the context of focusing and scanning, on the other hand, the failure to demonstrate the superiority of focusing in A level and SH indicates that neither style is preferred for these variables | APA:
Simon, A., FONTANA, D., & Williams, E. (1986). Performance on tests of study habits, neuroticism, extraversion, academic self-concept, intelligence and A level by polytechnic students classified as focusers and scanners on a concept matrix test, 7, 229-231. | Gameplay Habits among Middle School Students: A Descriptive Study | Computer games as new media culture have become increasing popular among young people. Today most children play a different genre of games at different times depending on their age, maturity, and opportunity. While some researchers advocate that similar to computer literacy and information literacy, game literacy will be one of the requirements for future generation of students, others raised concerns that excessive gameplaying can lead to aggressive behavior and isolation. A pilot study was conducted in a boy's school in the United Arab Emirates to find out gameplaying habits among 234 middle school students, age ranging from 11 to 19 years old. The results suggested that the students are not playing extreme games and they are playing games during the holidays. Further study is suggested to explore in other schools including the gameplay habits among the girls. | APA:
Khine, M. S., & Saleh, I. M. (2009). Gameplay Habits among Middle School Students: A Descriptive Study,37(4), 431-440. |

Test anxiety versus academic skills: a comparison of two alternative models for predicting performance in a statistics exam. | BACKGROUND: Two competing theoretical models to explain academic performance were proposed. The interference model stresses the detrimental effect of task-irrelevant thoughts during the test-taking situation whereas the deficit model suggests Study Habits and domain-specific skills as main predictors of test performance. AIMS: The study compares the two models by determining the relative contribution of Test Anxiety, Study Habits, and Maths Skill to performance in a statistics exam. SAMPLE: Sixty-six undergraduate students who were enrolled in the first semester of two parallel introductory statistic courses participated in the study. METHOD: Hierarchical regression analyses were performed on the performance in the final statistics exam. The unique variance attributable to Test Anxiety, Study Habits, and Maths Skill was calculated. RESULTS: Both Maths Skill and Test Anxiety added unique variance in explaining performance, whereas Study Habits did not. Although Maths Skill emerged as relatively more important than Test Anxiety, a purely deficit-based account nevertheless appears untenable because interfering effects of Test Anxiety during the examination also contributed an important portion of variance. CONCLUSIONS: It is recommended that cognitive-attentional accounts stressing test anxiety be supplemented by a deficit formulation, and that multimodal counselling address both Test Anxiety and skill deficits. COMMENT: Methodological problems in investigating the causal relationship between skill deficits, anxiety, and performance are discussed. | APA:
Musch, J., & Bröder, A. (1999). Test anxiety versus academic skills: a comparison of two alternative models for predicting performance in a statistics exam., 69 ( Pt 1), 105-116. | Habits?A Repeat Performance | Habits are response dispositions that are activated automatically by the context cues that co-occurred with responses during past performance. Experience-sampling diary studies indicate that much of everyday action is characterized by habitual repetition. We consider various mechanisms that could underlie the habitual control of action, and we conclude that direct cuing and motivated contexts best account for the characteristic features of habit responding-in particular, for the rigid repetition of action that can be initiated without intention and that runs to completion with minimal conscious control. We explain the utility of contemporary habit research for issues central to psychology, especially for behavior prediction, behavior change, and self-regulation. | APA:
Neal, D. T., Wood, W., & Quinn, J. M. (2006). Habits?A Repeat Performance, 15(4), 198-202. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Retrieved from http://cdp.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2006.00435.x |

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...student’s study techniques or simply “study habits” on how he/she will comprehend the topics discussed by his/her instructors. Based on the statement above, we can say that study habits play an important role in a student’s academic performance. “Study habits are the ways that you study – the habits that you have formed during your school years. It is one of the most important factors that affect his/her understanding regarding a certain subject. It can be good ones or bad ones. Good study habits include being organized, keeping good notes, reading your textbook, listening in class, and working every day. Bad study habits include skipping class, not doing your work, watching TV or playing video games instead of studying, and losing your work. It means you are not distracted by anything; you have a certain place to go where it is quiet everyday where you study and do homework the manner with which you consistently use to study for school or college.” Therefore, if a student possesses bad study habits, he/she has a greater chance of getting failing grades compared to a student who has good study habits. No one wants to get failing grades. All students definitely want to get a passing grade in all of their subjects. Some even aim for excellent grades. In the world of employment, educational attainment is a must but that may not be enough. Many companies prefer those applicants with an educational attainment combined with good academic performance. So, the students must study......

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Study Habit

...* introduction Study habits are the ways that you study - the habits that you have formed during your school years. Study habits can be good ones, or bad ones. Good study habits include being organized, keeping good notes, reading your textbook, listening in class, and working every day. Bad study habits include skipping class, not doing your work, watching TV or playing video games instead of studying, and losing your work. It means you are not distracted by anything, you have a certain place to go where it is quiet everyday where you study and do homework. Basically it means that you are doing the best you can to get the grades you want. It means you are not distracted by anything, you have a certain place to go where it is quiet everyday where you study and do homework. The manner with which you consistently use to study for school or college or even for next day lesson plans if you're a teacher. Study Habit of every student is one of the most important factors that affect his or her understanding regarding a certain subject. It means, if a student possesses poor study habits, she has a greater chance of getting failing grades, if compare to a students who has a good study habit. But “habit” as it was defined from the Introduction to Psychology, means “a learned, or fixed way of behaving to satisfy a given motive”. By this definition alone, we can say that the person involves is the one making or forming his own habit. Maybe, habits can be affected by outside......

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Study Habits

...& STUDIES The review of related literature for this study focuses on the factors affecting the study habits of high school students. The review focuses on identifying different factors that affect or cause changes in a student’s study habits. The chapter begins with a definition of study habits, followed by the significance, factors that affect study habits – student’s attitude, teachers, parents, etc. – and ways on how to improve one’s study habit. The research outcomes germane to study habits and a matching relation to grades, participation in class, and academic. DEFINITION OF STUDY HABITS According to Romeo M. Losare Jr. (2009) study habits simply mean how a pupil manages his/ her time in such a way that he/she can review and study regularly. He also said that Study habits are the ways that you study - the habits that you have formed during your school years. Study habits can be good ones, or bad ones. Good study habits include being organized, keeping good notes, reading your textbook, listening in class, and working every day. Bad study habits include skipping class, not doing your work, watching TV or playing video games instead of studying, and losing your work. Zenaida Honggang (2009) stated that study habits are flexible. It is anytime, anywhere learning. It is also anchored on by teaching on life skills beyond obtaining information. Richard J. Field (2006) agrees with the book Council for Exceptional Children (2005) which stated that study habits......

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Study Habits

...Many experiences and studies found out that several factors of this study could absolutely change and affect the grades of the students. Not a single factor can definitely pointed out as a predicting grade. It has been interplay of so many factors – gender, IQ, study habits, age, year level, parent’s educational attainment, social status, number of siblings, birth order, etc. In fact, almost all of existing environmental and personal factors are a variable of academic performance. In this research study, focus is on the effect of study habits in the academic performance of students, specifically the second year BS Accountancy students. BS Accountancy is one of the toughest courses in the world. It is extremely specialized: the curriculum requires study sufficient for professional practice (often at the major-level) in financial accounting, management accounting, auditing, and taxation. The curriculum also includes general coverage of management and business mathematics, and intermediate coursework in business law and economics. Thus, in order for them to fulfill the requirement of the curriculum, accounting students needs to have a proper time management and study habits. Study habits, defined as the regular tendencies and practices that one depicts during the process of gaining information through learning. Studying itself was not that easy. It requires strategies and techniques to have a very effective study habits. There is no required study habit for everyone; it......

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Study Habits

...How can we improve our study habits? Everyone has the experience students, starting from kindergarten to high school or university. For most people, it’s not hard to become a student, but becoming a student who has great grades is not easy. You must want to know what causing this difference. The answer is good study habits. In the process of schooling, many students actually don’t have good study habits. If you want to have a good score, the good study habits can help you more likely to achieve your goals. Improving our study habits can occur in three stages: developing learning habits, using four study skills and understanding the benefits of good habits. First of all, students should develop a way of learning. In fact, most of them don't realize that they don’t have completed good study habits. The article “Why ‘good’ study habit may be bad for learning” (2010) talks, "Clear a quiet work space. Stick to a homework schedule. Set goals. Set boundaries. Do not bribe." But this approach to home studying may be the result of "sketchy education research" and, as such, completely wrong.” This article shows us that our traditional sense of learning habit is not correct. Consequently, you might ask what good study habits are. The good study habits including setting a regular time to study that fits in with the student's family schedule; removing distractions; gathering necessary supplies; recording assignments in an assignment book or on a calendar; note-taking and organizing for......

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Study Habits

...CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM INTRODUCTION Study Habit is a behavior in studying which is done by frequent repletion. It can develop one’s skills in studying which is very important among young individuals, especially on students in order to retain information learned in the present for their future benefits. It is also in which the student will make the same repetition so it will be easy to them for their studies. As they say, childhood years is the best time to start training an individual to study so that as he grows older, he will be able to do it habitually which is essential for his academic performance. Academic Performance indicates a student’s performance in different subject areas; on how active a student attends and participates in every school work and activities (such as examinations, quizzes, oral recitation, extracurricular activities, etc. ); how well he or she can meet the standards set out by the institution itself. Furthermore, it is the ability to study and remember facts; being able to study effectively and see how yourself in relation to facts; and being able to communicate your knowledge verbally or down on pape. The academic performance of a student is partly based on his or her study habits. According to the study of University of California (2007) when a student has an effective and good study habits, he or she can excel academically. http://www.scribd.com/doc/11822201/university-of-california/dialogue (retrived: Jan 22, 2014) The extent of......

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Study Habits

...Common Study Habits Among Students in the Tertiary Level In: People Common Study Habits Among Students in the Tertiary Level ABSTRACT The study investigated the common study habits among students in the tertiary level using school like St. Nicolas College as a case study. Thirty (30) students were given a questionnaire from different department and year level in the area. The instrument utilized for the study was a questionnaire named “Common Study Habits among Students in the Tertiary Level”. A hypotheses were tested and the result showed that some students like to get up early in the morning and study; most will say that late night studying is most productive, the preparations of students for their upcoming examinations. Data was analyzed using percentage. Based on the findings, students perform well in school simply because they have a good study habits. In some cases, students do not know where to begin, do not fully understand the material, are not motivated by it, or feel that there was too much work given to them with too little time to complete or study it. INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Research on the correlation between study habit and students in tertiary level has studied to find out the other possible effective study habits of a student. What are study habits? Study habits are the ways that you study - the habits that you have formed during your school years. Study habits can be good ones, or bad ones. Good study habits include being......

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Study Habits

...motivation. It requires constant check-ups. It requires maintenance. Successful studying comes with your firm decision to succeed in doing it. Usually, you study because you need to (and sometimes you don’t even when you need to), but it’ll be better if you study because you really want to. When you don’t have to force yourself, only motivate. Adding desire to do studying is like adding a special ingredient to a dish. The dish will come out more delicious & more nutritious. You can’t gain any negative effect on studying. Having pimples and dark circles under your eyes don’t count. There are a lot of factors that affect the good study habits of students. In addition, these factors usually affect teenagers the most since during teenager years a person go through something called “the stage storm”. We can all expect lots of little things that compete with the student’s attention and attention to studying. Technology today is one of the greatest factors that affect the study habits of students. The time they spend on playing online games and posting to social media sites should have been invested to more productive activities. Of course it is not wrong to do those things but to do them excessively is. We can also trace a student’s poor study habits during her younger years. If his/her study habits are not developed well during preschool & elementary days, there’s a greater tendency for her to be uninterested in studying. Family problems, especially financial......

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Study Habits

...Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Study habits are the behaviors use when preparing for tests or learning academic material. Students have their own habitual practices that they used to help them study and learn. Good study habits can help students achieve and/or maintain good grades. Study habit of every student is one of the most important factors that affect his or her understanding regarding a certain subject. It means, if a student possesses poor study habits, she has a greater chance of getting failing grades, if compare to a student who has a good study habit. In this study, the students will know the better techniques and discipline on having a proper study habits, therefore their academic status will improve and they will have a chance to have a high grades. Statement of the problem The study aimed to know the Study Habits of the CBE students in TIP-QC. Specifically it sought answers to the following questions; 1. What is the profile of respondents? 2. Social economic status 1.1 Age; 1.2 Gender; 1.3 Civil status; 3. What is their learning materials available at home / learning facilities available at home? 4. What is the nature of relationship between students study habit and their family background? Assumption This study is conducted based on the following assumptions: 1.) That the students will set aside their study; 2.) That the students will be aware to their study habits; Importance of the Study Students.......

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Study Habits

...ready to fail. Relationship between Study habit and Education has been proven since day 1. Since, study habit refers to the method or technique used by a certain student that effectively helps him or her in anchoring him or her on his studies. Given with this definition good study habit can literally mean a positive result on academic performance while inefficiency in study habit usually leads to academic failure. Several types of study habits, and several methods but this is all about their effectiveness in helping each student. Background of the study Study habit has a great effect in achieving a degree. A Good Study Habit is the key and this research aims to understand it in a deeper and more informative way. The study was conducted inside the Dr. Carlos S. Lanting College. With 49 respondents that answered survey questionnaires confidentially it shows a result that answers the questions formulated by the researchers. References had been gotten from internet and book from the Library of the Dr. Carlos S. Lanting College and also from other researchers particularly the students who’s currently in their 1st-3rd year. The researchers aim to investigate what appears to be one of the most helpful habits in studying. Statement of the problem This research aims to answer what is the most helpful or effective study habit of DCLC – BS Marine Engineering students to pass their courses. Specifically, this study sought to answer the following......

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Study Habits

...STUDY HABITS OF THE GRADE-V AND GRADE-VI STUDENTS IN BALUARTE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, SCHOOL YEAR 2012-2013 A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education of Xavier University (Ateneo de Cagayan) Cagayan de Oro City In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Subject Educ 4: Introduction to Educational Research with Action Research Presented by: Amora, Sharicka Anne Veronica P. Bonote, Paulyn Y. Dupende, Dan Anthony M. Lopez, Conie Grace D. Retes, Hazel Mae P. Salapang, Junelyn March 16, 2013 APPROVAL SHEET This thesis entitled “STUDY HABITS OF THE GRADE-V AND GRADE-VI STUDENTS IN BALUARTE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, SCHOOL YEAR 2012-2013” prepared and submitted by Sharicka Anne P. Veronica Amora, Paulyn Y. Bonote, Dan Anthony M. Dupende, Conie Grace D. Lopez, Hazel Mae P. Retes and Junelyn Salapang in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the subject Educ 4: Introduction to Educational Research with Action Research, has been examined and is recommended for Oral Examination. Ms. Charity Rose B. Absin Adviser ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ PANEL OF EXAMINERS Approved by the committee on Oral Examination with a grade of......

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Study Habit

...INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE & BIOLOGY 1560–8530/2002/04–3–370–371 http://www.ijab.org Relationship of Study Habits with Educational Achievements AISHA RIAZ, ASMA KIRAN AND NIAZ H. MALIK Division of Education and Extension, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad–38040, Pakistan ABSTRACT Study implies investigation for the mastery of facts, ideas or procedures that are yet unknown or only partially known to the individuals. A number of factors are associated with this cause, out of which the effectiveness of study habits occupies a pivotal place. In order to check the influence of study habits on the learning out comes of the students, a survey was conducted in the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad by interviewing all the 150 B.Sc. and M.Sc. Home Economics students. The results indicate a strong impact of study habits on the educational performance of learners. Key Words: Educational achievements; Schedule of study; Study habits INTRODUCTION The low understanding level accompanied by discouraging achievements of the students has become cause of great concern of our country and has bothered badly the educationists, parents, government and even the foreign countries at the eve of evaluating our students’ knowledge. The educationists have made a number of systematic efforts to find out the causes of deterioration and suggested remedies thereof. Almost all the commissions and education policies including 1999-2000 have not only acknowledged the......

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