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Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan
18, Institutional Area, Shaheed Jeet Singh Marg,
New Delhi - 110 602.

YEAR 2012-13


CLASS X – Social Science

Chief Patron Shri Avinash Dikshit Commissioner KVS, New Delhi

Patron Shri J.M Rawat Deputy Commissioner KVS, Jaipur Region

Guidance Sh.K.R Choyal Assistant Commissioner KVS, Jaipur Region

Sh. Dr. R.K Agarwal Assistant Commissioner KVS, Jaipur Region

Convener Ms. Urmil Meena Principal, K.V. No. 1, Alwar

Prepared By Mrs. P. Dixit Principal K. V. No. 4, Jaipur

Mr. Anil Kumar Daila TGT (S.ST.) K. V. No. 1, Alwar

Mrs. Veena Michael TGT (S.St.) K. V. No. 5, Jaipur

Mr. D.C. Garg TGT (S.St.) K. V. Zawar Mines

Mr. Manoj Singh TGT (S.St.) K. V. No. 1, Alwar

Mrs. Sunila Thapar TGT (S.St.) K. V. Phulera

Reviewed by Shri U.R Meghwal Convener
Principal K.V Bhilwara

Shri M.M. Sharma
PGT (History)
K.V Nasirabad

Shri Maliram
TGT (So.Sci)
K.V Bhilwara

Shri K.N. Narwaria
PGT (Hindi)
K.V. Bhilwara

Ms. Bharti Panwar
PGT (English)
K.V. Bhilwara

K.V.NO.4, Jaipur

PGT ( Com.Sc.)
K.V.NO.4, Jaipur

Shri Mukesh Pareek
K.V. Bhilwara


Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is an autonomous body, serving the nation in the field of education, working as a torch bearer for all other institutions.

The Sangathan has always been cultivating unique methodology and approachable activities to make teaching –learning process undemanding and un-wanting, keeping in mind the wider panorama of school education and its responsibilities.

Annually, as per the departmental directions, a luminous and constructive Study Material for the advancement of the students is prepared which includes precious Data.

This year, this significant task is being assigned to the Jaipur Region by the Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan which is indeed a contenting and accountable Assignment.

Very cautiously, the material is prepared and ensured by the endowed and meticulous faculty teachers of the region.

We have attempted our best to make this Study Material a very valuable and handy for the students and to keep it faultless. Thus, executing the ultimate aim of the KVS i.e. Students’ facilitation.

Thanking you J.M Rawat Deputy Commissioner K.V.S R.O Jaipur

Support Material
PART – I (History)
Key Concepts of the lesson- In 1848, Frederic Sorrieu a French artist prepared a series of four prints visualizing his dream of a world made up of democratic and social Republic. During 19th century nationalism emerged forcing many changes in Political and mental world of Europe.
The French Revolution and the Idea of Nation- (1) Growth of nationalism in France (2) Introduction of various measures and practices created sense of collective identity among the people of France.
(3) Rise of Napoleon and his reforms. Revolutionaries help other peoples of Europe to become nation.
(2) The making of Nationalism in Europe-
(1) Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into Kingdom, duchies and cantones these divisions were having their autonomous rulers.
(2) Industrialization in England, Emergence of a working class and liberalism. (3) After the defeat of Napoleon, the European government follows the spirit of conservations conservative regimes were autocratic Revolutionaries at that time fight for liberty and freedom. E.g. Mazzini,s young Italy and Young Europe.
(3) The age of Revolution (1830- 48)
Liberalism and Nationalism, occurrence of revolutions in Brussels and Greece and development of cultural movement in Europe, Hunger Hardship and Popular revolt, Demand for constitutionalism and national unification. Rights for women Results- Frankfurt Parliament (May 1848)
(4) Unification of Germany and Italy- Germany and role of Bismarck and his policy unification of Germany Unification of Italy- Role of Mazzini Garibaldi and victor Emanuel II Separate case and condition of Britain - Glorious revolution of 1688, Act of union of 1707. MCQ
Q.1 Who was Frederic sorrieu?
a) A Philosopher (b) A Painter (c) A Politician (d) A Revolutionaries
Q.2 Which of the following is true with reference to Romanticism?
a) Concept of government by consent b)Freedom for the individual c)Cultural movement d)Freedom of markets
Q.3 What was the basic philosophy of the conservatives?
a) They opposed monarchial forms. b) They were the supporters of democracy c) They wanted to glorify folk art and vernacular language.
d) They stressed the importance of tradition and established institutions and customs. Q.4 Who was count Cavour?
a) The chief Minister of Italy b) Revolutionary of Germany c) A catholic missionary d) The chancellor of Germany
Q.5 Which of the following state lead the unification of Germany?
(a) Bavaria (b) Prussia (c) Rhineland (d) Hanover
Q.6 Who hosted the congress of Vienna in 1815
(a) Cavour (b) King victor Emanuel (C) Bismarck (d) Duke Metternich
Q.7 What was this main objective of the treaty of Vienna of 1815?
(a) To undo the changes brought about in Europe during Napoleonic war.
(b) To plan the unification of Germany (c) To restore the democracy in Europe. (d) To overthrow the Bourbon dynasty
Q.8 Which of the following treaty recognized Greece as an independent nation?
(a) Treaty of Versailles (b) Treaty of Constantinople (c) Treaty of Frankfurt (d) Treaty of Vienna
Q.9 At which of the following places was the Frankfurt assembly convened ?
(a) At the palace of Prussia (b) At the half of Mirrors in palace of Versailles. (c) At the church of st peters (d) At the church of St panli
Short Answers Questions-
Q.1 Explain the concept of a national state
Ans. Most of its citizens developed a common identity. They shared history. This commonness came as a result of great struggle by the leaders and the common people.
Q.2 Explain the measures and practices creating sense of collective identity among the people of France.
Ans. The ideas of the father land (la patrie le citioyen (la citizen) a new French flag emphasized the nation of a united community.
A new French flag, New hymns were composed, A centralized administrative was set up, Internal customs duties were abolished.
Q.3 Explain the decision of the congress of Vienna.
Ans. The bourbon dynasty was restored in France, A number of states were set up on the boundaries of France Prussia was given important new territories, Austria got control) of northern Italy, Russia was given part of Poland.
Q.4 Why the 1830s was the year of great economic hardship in Europe?
Ans Increase in population, unemployment migration, price rise, stiff competition in the market, Bad condition of peasants.
Q.5 Why did national tensions emerge in the Balkan?
Ans. Ethnic variation spread of nationalism Disintegration of Ottoman Empire, claim of independence by using history to prove that they had once been independent. Area of intense conflict, Mutual jealousy matters were further complicated because the Balkans also became the scene of big power rivalry.
Long Answer questions
Q.1 Describe the process by which Germany was unified.
Ans- By 1848, the popular effort failed to succeed in installing constitutional monarch in Germany. Their after the task for unification of Germany was taken over by Prussia and its chief minister Otto von Bismarck who followed a policy of "blood and Iron" within a period of seven years three were fought with demark Austria and France. These states were defeated. In January 1871 the process of unification of Germany was completed. The Prussian kind William I was proclaimed German Emperor.
Q.2 Describe the process of unification of Italy
Ans. 2 during 1830s. G. Mazzini decided to make a programme to unite Italy and formed a society young Italy After earlier failures king victory Emmanuel II took to unify the Italian status through war and he got the whole hearted support of minister Cavour made a tactful alliance with France and defeated Austrians forces in 1859. Now he was able to secure the support of Garibaldi. In 1860 Garibaldi led the famous expedition to south Italy and freed the states from Bourbon rulers in 1861 before the completion of unification victor Emanuel II was proclaimed the king of united Italy.
Extra Questions-
Q.1 Describe the political condition of Europe in mid 18th century.
Q.2 Explain any three characteristics of the term Liberalism
Q.3 Explain the role of Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini in freedom struggle of Italy.
Q.4 Describe the result of the revolutions of the liberals in 1848 in Europe.
Q.5. Why was Giuseppe Mazzini described as the most dangerous enemy of our social orders?
Q.6 what was Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?

Answer Key of Multiple Choice Questions 1. ( b ) 2. ( c ) 3. ( d ) 4. ( a ) 5. ( b ) 6. ( d ) 7. (a ) 8. ( b ) 9. ( d ) 10. ( d ) 11. ( b ) 12. ( c )

LESSON- 2 (UNIT – 1) THE NATIONALIST MOVEMENT IN INDO- CHINA Key concept of the lesson 1. Emerging from the shadow of china- Indo- china comprises the modern countries Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. They were under the shadow of the powerful empire of china. Colonial domination and resistance- The French controlled their military and economic domination and wanted to reshape the Vietnamese culture. Need for colonialism by French- To supply natural resources and to civilized the uncivilized people they pressurized Vietnamese government to develop infrastructure to make profits 2. The dilemma of colonial education- To Civilized the native influence of Chinese culture use of French language Tokin free school and western style education resistance in schools. 3) Hygiene Disease and everyday Resistance- Plague strikes Hanoi - The French part of Hanoi was built a beautiful and clean city but the native quarter was not provided with any modern facilities. Rat hunt and Vietnamese workers- Limit to French power 4) Religion and anti colonialism- Vietnamese religious beliefs and their movement- It was a mixture of Buddhism, Confucianism and local practices. French missionaries to correct the Vietnamese introduced Christianity scholar's revolt in 1868 Movement against French contest and the spread of Christianity The Hoa Hao moment begin in 1939 by Huynh Phy. Huynh phu. 5. The vision of Modernization- Resistance to French colonialism, Revolutionary society by phan Boi chau, phanchu trinchand to establish a democratic republic go east moment development in china also inspired Vietnamese nationalists. 6. The communist movement and Vietnamese nationalism- Impact of the great depression of the 1930s on the Vietnamese, In Feb 1930 Ho chi minh organized the communist party and in 1940 Japan occupied Vietnam as part of its imperial drive to control southeast Asia so the nationalist had to fight against the Japanese and the French. The French tried to regain its control over Indo china division of Vietnam and war for the unification of the country US entry in the war to control communist power. 7. The Nations and its heroes- Role of women as rebels Heroes of past times women as warriors women in times of peace in agricultural cooperatives factories and production units. 8. The End of War- Peace settlement in Paris in January 1974 continuation of war between the Saigon regime and the NLF occupation of the presidential palace in Saigon on 30 April 1975 and unification of Vietnam. MCQ Q.1 why was Tonkin free school established? a) They wanted to provide western type of education. b) They wanted to provide education according to the local need. c) They wanted to use local language. d) They wanted to provide technical education Q.2 On which factor was the economy of Vietnam based on? a) Tea and Rubber Plantation b) Rice and Rubber plantation c) Rice and wheat Farming d) Rice and Tea plantation Q.3 Which of the following step was taken by the French after Bubonic plague in Hanoi? a) A rat hurt was started b) Chemicals were sprayed c) Tree medicines were given d) None of these Q.4 Who among the following wanted to establish a democratic republic in Vietnam? a) Phan Boi chau b) Phan chu Trinh c) Ho chi minh d) Huynh phu so Q.5 Who was the founder of the Vietnamese communist party? a) Fhan chu Trinh b) Huynh Phu so c) Ho chi Minh d) Phan Boi chau Q.6 Why did the US decide to intervene the Vietnam War? a) United state supported Japan b) Communist had gained power c) United states supported France d) None of the above Q.7 A branch of the Restorations society was established in Tokyo by whom? a) By teachers b) By Industrialist c) By students d) None of the above Q.8 What does NLF stand for? a) National land force b) National legal foundation c) National liberation force d) National liberation front Q.9 Which movement started in against the spread of Christianity by the French. a) The Hoa Hao moment b) The Liberation movement c) The scholars Revolt d) Go east movement Q.10 Which of the following Vietnamese women organized a large army to resist the Chinese? a) Trieu Au b) Nguyen Thi xuan c) Trung sisters d) None of the above Short Answer Questions-
Q.1 Why did the French wanted to educate the people of Vietnam? What was their fear in doing so?
Ans- Civilizing the Vietnamese, they needed local labour force. They fear the if the Vietnamese were educated they would start questioning colonial 36domination. The French citizen living in Vietnam feared that they might lose their jobs.
Q.2 What steps did the French take to counter the Chinese influence in Vietnam?
Ans- Dismantled the traditional system of education, opened French school for Vietnamese they wanted to replace the use of Chinese language.
Q.3 Why did the students formed various political parties in Vietnam?
Ans- 1. The Vietnamese were presented from qualifying for white coloured jobs 2. The students were inspired by patriotic feeling and decided to fight against injustice by 1920 the students started political parties.
Q.4 Who was the founder of the Hao Hao movement in 1937? What was his contribution?
Ans- Huynh Phu started this movement he performed miracles to help the poor. He opposed the sale of child brides gambling using alcohol and opium
Q.5 Explain the main features of go east movement.
Ans- Students went to Japan to acquire modern education, the main aim was to drive out the French from Vietnam Phan Boi chau and many others were forced to seek exile in china.
Long Answers questions
Q.1 How did the Vietnamese use their limited resources in the war against the US under the leadership of Ho chi Minh?
Ans- Roads and footpaths were used for transporting men and material from the north to the south. Suppliers were transported in trucks but they were carried by women porters on their backs. The trail had support hospitals and bases along the way.
Q.2 Explain the four measures taken by the French to solve the problem of plague.
Ans- Rat hunt Was started in 1902 Hired Vietnamese workers to hunt the rat and were paid for each rat caught now the rat was caught in thousand but still there was no end the sewer cleaners discovered innovative way to profit making.
Q.3 How the Vietnam War came to an end?
Ans- Us had failed to achieve its objective and could not get the support of the Vietnamese people thousands of young US soldiers had lost their lives the sense of the war were shown on the T.V therefore strong reactions in the US as well as the other countries.
Extra Questions-
Q.1 Why do the colonies were felt necessary by the French? Explain
Q.2 why did the schools becomes an important place for political and cultural battles in Vietnam?
Q.3 Explain how the women were shown as warriors in Vietnam?
Q.4 Explain the position of women in Vietnam.
Answer Key of Multiple Choice Questions 1. ( a ) 2. ( b ) 3. ( a ) 4. ( b ) 5. ( c ) 6. ( b ) 7. (c ) 8. ( d ) 9. ( c ) 10. ( c )


Brief Concepts of the Lesson- Nationalism in India developed in the colonial context. Mahatma Gandhi arrived in India from Africa in 1915. Under his leadership several mass movements were organized.

1. The first world war, Khilafat and Non Cooperation-

1) War and its effects- Huge increase in defenses expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes. Through the years the prices increased doubling between 1913- 1918 leading to extreme hardship for the common people.

2) Gandhiji and Satyagraha- Champaran in Bihar (1917) Kheda in Gujarat (1918). In 1919 nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlett Act was launched by Gandhi. 13th April and Jallianwalla Bagh massacre world war I and Khilafat issued, At the Congress session t Nagpur in Dec 1920, a compromise was worked out and Non cooperation programme was adopted. Movements in towns, Rebellion in country side

2) Towards civil Disobedience- (1) Swaraj Party was founded by CR Das and Moti Lal Nehru for return to council Politics.

(2) Simon commission and boycott

(2) Lahore congress and demand for purna swaraj

3) Dandi march and the civil Disobedience movements- (1) Governments repressive policy 2) Gandhi Irwin Pact and failure of round table conference. 3) Re-launching of movements.

4) Who participated in the movements - the rich peasant communities the poor peasantry the industrial workers in Nagpur and a large scale participation of women took active part in the movement.

5) Limits of the movements less participation by untouchables. - Ambedker for separate electorate and Poona pact.

6) The sense of collective belonging- this sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles role of folklore and songs. 2. Identity of India and Bharat Mata.

MCQ 1 Marks

Q.1 Which of the following in true with reference of Satyagraha?

(A) It emphasized the muscle power (B) It emphasized the Power of truth

(C) Gandhiji successfully fought the racist regime of South Africa with the novel method.

a) Only A is true b) Only B is true c) Both A and B are true d) Both B and C are true

Q.2 At which place congress session of September 1920 held.

a) Nagpur b) Calcutta C) Lahore d) Madras

Q.3 Who was the leader of the Peasant Movements of Awadh?

a) Alluri sitaram Raju b) Baba Ramchandra c) Mahatma Gandhi d) None of the above

Q.4 Under which act the Plantations workers of Assam were not permitted to leave the tea garden?

a) The Rowlatt Act b) Cripps Mission c) The Inland Migration act d) The Inland Emigration act

Q.5 Name the leaders who founded Swaraj Party?

a) CR Das and Motilal Nehru b) CR Das and Jawaharlal Nehru

c) CR Das and Gandhiji d) CR Das and Dr B.R Ambedkar

Q.6 At which of the following place did Gandhiji make salt out of sea water

(a) Ahmedabad (b) Wardha (c) Sabarmati (d) Dandi

Q.7 Who wrote 'Hind Swaraj?

a) Subhas Chandra Bose b) Jawaharlal Lal Nehru c) Mahatma Gandhi d) Sardar Patel Q.8 Which incident forced Gandhiji to halt the Non – cooperation movement?

A) Jallianwala Bagh massacre b) The Rowlett act c) Chauri Chaura

d) Arrest of Alluri Sitaram Rammaya

Q.9 Who among the following led the civil disobedience movement in Peshawar ?

a) Maulana Abul Kalam Azad b) Mohamad Ali c) Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan d) None of the above

Q.10 Who first created the image of Bharatmata?

(a) Abanindranath Tagore (b) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay

(C) Rabindra nath Tagore d) None of the above

Q.11. Which of the following method was not adopted by Dr B.R. Ambedkar to uplift the Dalits?

(a) He signed Poona pact (b) He called them Harijans (C) He demanded separate electorates for them (d) He organized them into Depressed classes association in 1930

Short Answer questions

Q.1 What were the effects of non cooperation on the economic front?

Ans. Foreign goods were boycotted, Liquor shops picketed and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfire many traders refused to import foreign cloth the import of foreign cloth reached to half.

Q.2 What were the causes for the gradual slowing down of the Non- co operation movement in the


Ans. (1) Khadi was more expensive than the mill produced cloth and the poor could not afford it.

(2) British institutions were boycotted but the process of establishing Indian institutions was slow so the students and teachers started joining the British institution again.

Q.3 Describe the main events leading to civil disobedience.

Ans. 1) World wide economic depression

2) Simon commission was constituted in 1929 and no Indian member was appointed.

3) Lord Irwin announced that Dominion State would be granted to India.

4) At the Lahore congress session resolution for purna swaraj was passed.

Q.4 What did freedom mean to Plantation workers in Assam?

Ans. 1) Right to move freely in and out of their enclosures.

2) Retaining link with their villages

3) They were not allowed to leave the tea garden without permission which they wanted.

Q.5 what was the role of women in the civil Disobedience movement?

Ans. 1) Participated is the salt Satyagraha in large number.

2) They participated in protest marches and also manufactured salt.

3) Many women went to jails

4) In rural areas the women considered service to the nation a sacred duty.

Q.6 Explain the problems faced in unifying people.

Ans. All credits of glorious past were attributed to the Aryans and their contributions therefore it became difficult to bring all communities on a single platform.

Q.7 Why and how is the identity of a nation symbolized in a Figure?

Ans. It helps create an image with which people can identify the nation.

2) With the growth of nationalism identify of India came to be associated with the image of Bharat Mata.

Long answer questions

Q.1 What was the outcome of the Poona pact? How did it benefit the dalits?

Ans. The Poona pact of sept. 1932 gave the depressed classes reserved seat in provincial and central legislative councils but they were to be voted in by the general electorate.

Q.2 Explain the differences that emerged the congress and the Muslim league on Political issues.

Ans. The important differences were over the question of representation in the future assemblies that were to be elected Muhammad Ali Jinnah of the Muslim league was willing to give up that demand for separate electorates if Muslim were given reserved seats in the central assembly and representation in proportion to population in the Muslim dominated provinces.

Q.3 How did Mahatma Gandhi organize Satyagraha in various places in India ?
Ans. In 1917 he traveled in champaran ran, Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against oppressive plantation system.
2) In 1919 he organized Satyagraha to support peasants of Kheda in Gujarat.
3) In 1918 he went to Ahmedabad to organize this movement amongst cotton mill workers.
4) In 1919 he launched Satyagraha against Rowlatt act.
Q.4 Explain the factors responsible for the growth of nationalism in the later half of the 19th century.
Ans. 1) Economic exploitation 2) Administrative and economic unification of the country. 3) Western education' 4) Development of Press.
Extra questions
Q.1 What do you know about peasants movement in Awash? Explain
Q.2 What do you know about Gandhi Irwin pact?
Q.3 What was Khilafat movement?
Q.4 What do you know about Alluri Sitaram Raju
Q.5 What were the causes of withdrawal of non co operation movement?
Q.6 Explain the impact of the Jalliawala incidents on the people
Q.7 How could the non co operation become a movement? Explain
Q.8 How was civil disobedience movement was different from Non cooperation movement?

Answer Key of Multiple Choice Questions 1. ( d ) 2. ( b ) 3. ( b ) 4. ( d ) 5. ( a ) 6. ( d ) 7. ( c ) 8. ( c) 9. ( c ) 10. ( b ) LESSON- 4
The Making of a global world
Brief Concepts of the Lesson - Trade is the activity of buying selling or exchanging goods or services between people firms or countries.
Indentured labour—A bonded labourer under contract to work for an employer for a specific amount to work for an employer for a specific amount of time to pay off his passage to a new country or home.
Tariff – Tax imposed on a country’s imports from the rest of the world. Tariff are levied at the point of entry i.e. the border or the airport.
Corn laws—The laws allowing the British Govt. to restrict the import of corn were popularly known as the corn laws.
Assembly line production – The assembly line is a manufacturing process in sequential manner to added to a product in sequential manner to create a finished product.
Multiple Choice Questions
Q.1: - What was the Bretton wood system? (a) Post war the military system (b) Post war political system (c) Post war international economic system (d) None of these
Q.2: - What did indentured labour mean? (a) Cheap Labour (b) Free Labour (c) Bonded Labour (d) None of these
Q.3: - What were ‘Canal Colonies’? (a) Large Colonies (b) Sea Ports (c) Large Canals (d) Irrigated areas
Q.4: - Which food traveled west from china to be called “Spaghetti’? (a) Soya (b) Groundnuts (c) Potato (d) Noodles
Q.5: - Which disease spread like wild fire in Africa in the 1890’s? (a) Cattle plague (b) Small pox (c) Pneumonia (d) None of these
Q.6: - Which was the Tabled city of gold? (a) Peru (b) Mexico (c) El Doeodo (d) Spain
Q.7: - Who adopted the concept of assembly line to produce automobiles? (a) Samuel Morse (b) Henry Ford (c) T. Cuppla (d) Imam Husain
Q.8: - The Descendants of indentures workers is a Noble Prize winning writer is- (a) Bob Morley (b) V. S. Naipaul (c) Amartya Sen (d) Ram Naresh Sarwan
Q.9: - The great Depression begin in (a) 1927 (b) 1928 (c) 1929 (d) 1930
Q.10: - The Chutney music popular in- (a) North America (b) South America (c) Japan (d) China
Q.11: - Rinderpest is a? (a) Cattle disease in Africa (b) Cattle disease in China (c) Cattle disease in India (d) Cattle disease in Russia
Q.12: - Which of the following is not a economic exchange? (a) Flow of Labour (b) Flow of Capital (c) Flow of Knowledge (d) Flow of Trade
Short Answer Questions
Q.1:- What was the importance of the Indian trade for the British?
Ans.:- 1. Trade Surplus – Britain had a Trade Surplus with Indian. Britain used this Surplus to balance its trade deficit with other countries. 2. Home Charges – Britain’s trade Surplus in India also helped to pay the so called home charges that included private remittance home by British officials and traders, interest payments on India’s external debt and pensions of British officials in India. 3. Major Supplier of cotton – India remained a major supplier of raw cotton to British which was required to feed the cotton textile industry of Britain. 4. Supplier if indenture workers – Many indenture workers from Bihar, U.P., central India migrated to other countries to work in mines and plantations.
Q.2:- How Bretton Woods System Worked? Ans.:- 1. The international monetary system is the system linking national currencies and monetary system. 2. The Briton woods system was based on fixed exchange rates. In this system the national currencies were pegged to the dollar at a fixed exchange rate. 3. The Bretton woods system inaugurated an era of unprecedented growth of trade and incomes for the western industrial nations.

Q.3: - What were the effects of the British Government’s decision to abolish the corn laws?
Ans.:- 1. Food could be imported into Britain more cheaply than it would be produced within the country. 2. British agriculture was unable to compete with imports. Vast Areas of land were left uncultivated and people started migrating to cities or other countries. 3. As food prices fell, consumption in Britain rose. Faster industrial growth in Britain also led to higher incomes and therefore more food imports. 4. Around the world in eastern Europe, Russia, America and Australia land were cleared and food production expanded to meet the British demand.
Q.4: - What were the advantages of invention of refrigerated ship?
Ans.:- 1. This reduced the shipping costs and lowered meat prices in Europe. 2. The poor in Europe could now consume a more varied diet. 3. To the earlier, monotony of Bread and Potatoes many, not all could add meat, butter or egg. 5. Better living conditions promoted social peace within the country and support for imperialism abroad.
Long Answers Type Questions
Q.1: - Explain the impacts of the First World War?
Ans.:- 1. It was the first modern industrial was which involved industrial nations. 2. Machine guns, tanks, aircraft, chemical weapons etc are used on a massive scale. 3. Unthinkable death and destruction. 4. Most of the people killed and injured were man of working age. 5. Declined the household income. 6. Men were forced to join in the war. 7. Women slapped into undertake jobs which they were not used to.
Q.2: - What were the effects of the great Depression on the Indian economy?
Ans.:- 1. The economy depression immediately affected Indian Trade, as India’s exports and imports nearly halved between 1928-1934 2. Agriculture prices fell sharply, but the colonial government refused to reduce revenues. Peasants producing for the world markets were worst hit. 3. Raw jute was produced, processed in the industries to make gunny bags. Its exports collapsed and prices fell by 60% peasants of Bengal fell into debt traps. 4. Peasants used up their savings mortgaged lands and sold their precious jewelry to meet their expanses.
Q.3: - 19th century indenture has been described as a ‘New system of slavery’. Explain .
Ans.:- In the 19th century, hundreds of thousands of Indians and Chinese laborers went to work on plantations in mines and in mines and in road and railways construction projects around the world. 1. In India, indentures laborers were hired under contracts which promises return travel to India after they had worked for five years on plantations. 2. Gradually in India cottage industries declined, land rents rose, land were cleared for mines and plantations. All this affected the lines of the poor. They failed to pay their rents become indebted, and were forced to migrate in search of work. 3. The main destinations of Indian indentured migrants were the Caribbean islands, Trinidad, Guyana, Surinam, Mauritius, Fiji and Ceylon and Malaya. 4. Recruitment was done by agent engaged by employers and paid small commission. Q.4: - “One important feature of the US economy in the 1920’s was mass production.” Explain.
Ans.:- 1. A well known pioneer of mass production was the car manufacturer, ‘Henry Ford’. 2. He adopted an assembly line technique of a slaughter house. 3. He realized that the ‘Assembly line’ method would allow a faster and cheaper way of producing vehicles. 4. This method forced workers to repeat a single task mechanically and continuously 5. This was a way of increasing output per worker by speeding up the pace of work. 6. This doubling go daily wages was considered ‘best cost – cutting decision’ he had ever made.
Answer Key of Multiple Choice Questions 1. ( c ) 2. ( c ) 3. ( d ) 4. ( d ) 5. ( a ) 6. ( c ) 7. ( b ) 8. ( b ) 9. ( c ) 10. ( b ) 11. ( a ) 12. ( c ) Lesson - 5
The Age of Industrialization
Multiple Choice Questions
Q.1: - Guilds were associations of- (a) Industrialization (b) Exporters (c) Traders (d) Producers
Q.2: - Which of the following best defines a Jobber? (a) Employed by industrialists to get new recruits (b) Old trusted worker (c) Person of authority and power (d) Controlled lives of workers
Q.3: - First country to undergo industrial revolution is- (a) Japan (b) Britain (c) Germany (d) France
Q.4: - 18th Century India witnessed the decline of which port town? (a) Surat (b) Bombay (c) Calcutta (d) Madras
Q.5: - The paid servants of the East India Company were (a) Seth (b) Mamlatdar (c) Gomastha (d) Lambardar
Q.6: - Who devised the Spinning Jenny? (a) Samuel Luck (b) Richard Arkwright (c) James Hargreaves (d) James Watt.
Q.7: - When was the first cotton mill set up in India in?

(a) 1814 (b) 1824 (c) 1854 (d) 1864
Q.8: - In India, the first cotton mill was set up in- (a) Madras (b) Bombay (c) Kanpur (d) Surat
Q.9: - What was the fly shuttle used for- (a) Washing (b) Weaving (c) Drying (d) Sowing
Q.10:- Who invented the steam engine- (a) James Watt (b) New Camen (c) Richard Arkwright (d) None of the above

Short Answers Type Questions
Q.1: - What was the result of First World War on Indian industries?
Ans.:- First World War gave a great boost to the Indian Industries because of the following reasons- 1. The British mills became busy with the production of War materials so all its exports to India virtually stopped. 2. Suddenly Indian mills got clearance to produce different articles for the home market. 3. The Indian factories were called upon to supply various war related material like- Jute bags, clothes for uniforms, tents and leather boots for the forces and so on.
Q.2: - Who was a jobber? Explain his functions.
Ans.:- Industrialists usually employed a jobber to get new recruits. Very often the jobber was an old and trusted worker. 1. He got people from his village ensured them jobs, helped them settle in the city and provided them money in time of crisis. 2. Jobbers became persons with authority and power. He began demanding money and gifts for the favor he did and started controlling the lives of workers.
Q.3: - What were the problems of Indians weavers at the early 19th century?
Ans.:- 1. Shortage of raw material – as raw cotton exports from India increased the price of raw cotton shot up. Weavers in India were starved of supplies and forced to buy raw cotton at higher prices. 2. Clashes with Gomasthas- the Gomasthas acted arrogantly and punished weavers for delays in supply. So the weavers clashed with them. 3. System of Advances- The Britishers started the system of advances to regularizes the supply. The weavers eagerly took the advances in a hope to earn more but they failed to do so. They even started loosing small plots of land which they had earlier cultivated.

Q.4: - What does the picture indicate on the famous book ‘Dawn of the century’?
Ans.:-1. There is an angle of progress, bearing the flag of the new century and is gently perched on a wheel with wings symbolizing time. 2. The fight is taking into the future. 3. Floating about behind her are the sign of progress- Railway, Camera, Machines, Printing press and factory.
Long Answer Type Questions
Q.1: - Explain the main features of Proto – Industrialization?
Ans.:- Main features of Proto Industrialization- 1. Production was not based on factories. 2. Large scale home based production for international market. 3. Merchants move to country side and supplied money for artisans to produced for international market. 4. It provided alternative source of income. 5. Income from pro-industrial production supplemented their shrinking income from. 6. Helped in fuller use of their family labour resources. 7. Close relationship.
Q.2: - How did the British market expanded their goods in India?
Ans.:- 1. Advertisement of product – Advertisement make products appear desirable and necessary. They try to shape the minds of people and create new needs. During the industrial age, advertisements have played a major role in expanding the market for products. 2. Putting labels on the cloths bundles – The labels was needed to make the place of manufacture and the name of the company familiar to the buyer. When buyers saw ‘MADE IN MANCHESTER’ written in bold on a label. They would feel confident about buying the cloths. 3. Images of Indian Gods gave approval to the goods being sold. Images of Krishna and Saraswati was intended to make the manufacture from a foreign land appear somewhat familiar to the Indian People. 4. Printing Calendars to popularizes their products unlike newspapers and magazines, calendars were used even by people who could not read. They were hung in the tea shops and in poor people’s homes, just as much as in offices and in middle class houses.
Q.3: - ‘The Industrial Revolution was a mixed Blessing.’ Explain?
Ans.:- Blessing of the Industrial Revolution – 1. Production by machines has met the growing need of the growing population of the world. 2. Only machines have made it possible for the mankind to meet the primary necessities of food, cloths and shelter 3. Machines have relieved man of the drudgery of tiring and unpleasant jobs. 4. Machines have brought more leisure. Harmful effects of Industrial Revolution- 1. The industrial Revolution shattered the rural life by turning the farmers into landless labourers. 2. Rural unemployment forced the unemployed farmers to migrate to cities in search of jobs 3. The cities became overcrowded and many problems of insanitation and housing arose. 4. The industrial Revolution gave birth to imperialism
Q.4: - Why the system of advances proved harmful for the weavers?
Ans.:- 1. No chance of bargaining – The weavers lost any chance of bargaining. 2. Leasing of land – most of the weavers had to lease out the land and devote all their time to weaving. 3. Dependency for food on others – most of the weavers after loosing their land became dependent on other for the food supplies. 4. Clashes with Gomasthas – Gomasthas acted arrogantly, marched into villages with police and punished weavers for delay in supply.
Answer Key of Multiple Choice Questions
1. ( d ) 2. ( a ) 3. ( b ) 4. ( a ) 5. ( c ) 6. ( c ) 7. ( c )
8. ( b ) 9. ( b ) 10. ( a )
Lesson - 6
Work, Life and Leisure

Brief Concepts of the Lesson – 1. Metropolis – A large, densely populated city of a country or state often the capital of region. 2. Older cities like London changed dramatically when people begun pouring in after the industrial revolution. Factory or workshop owners did not house the migrant workers. Instead individual landowners put up cheap, and usually unsafe, tenements for the new arrivals. 3. Temperance movement – a largely middle class led social reform movement which emerged in Britain and America from the 19th century onwards it identified alcoholism as the cause of the ruin of families and society and aimed at reducing the consumption of alcoholic drinks particularly amongst the working classes. 4. Libraries art galleries and museums were established in the 19th century to provide people with a sense of history and pride in the achievements of the British.
Multiple Choice Questions
Q.1: - Novel written by Durgacharan Ray about the city of Calcutta is— (a) Nirmala (b) Godan (c) durgesh modin (d) Debganer martye agaman
Q.2: - Which of the following city is called ‘Mayapuri’— (a) Madras (b) Calcutta (c) Delhi (d) Bombay
Q.3: - “The Bitter cry of outcast London” written by— (a) Rudyard Kipling (b) Samuel Richardson (c) Charles Dickens (d) Andrew Mearns
Q.4: - Which of the following film was made by Dada Saheb Phalke? (a) CID (b) Guest House (c) Tezab (d) Raja Harish Chandra
Q.5: - Which was the Indian first city to get smoke nuisance? (a) Bombay (b) Calcutta (c) Madras (d) Surat
Q.6: - Most of the people in the film industry were – (a) Local (b) Migrants from Lahore, Calcutta and madras (c) Foreigners (d) Freedom fighter
Q.7: - Who developed the principal of ‘Garden City’? (a) Ebenezer Howard (b) Charles Dickens (c) Thomas Hardy (d) Andrew Mearns
Q.8: - The first underground railway was built in – (a) New York (b) Calcutta (c) London (d) Dubai Q.9: - What were tenements – (a) Over crowded apartment (b) Official documents (c) Surgical instrument (d) wartime offices
Q.10: - What does a ‘Metropolis’ refer to (a) State (b) Capital (c) Country (d) Town
Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1: - What steps were taken to clean up London?
Ans.:- 1. Attempts were made to decongest localities, green the open spaces reduce pollution and landscape the city. 2. Large blocks of apartments were built. 3. Demands were made for ‘New Lungs’ for the city and the idea of green belt around London was offered.
Q.2: - Give three reasons why the population of London expended from the middle of the 18th century?
Ans.:- 1. Industrialization was the most important factor which attracted people to London. 2. The textile industry of London attracted a large number of migrants. 3. The city of London attracted people from all walks of life like clerks, shopkeepers, soldiers, servants, laborers, beggars etc.

Q.3: - How did people entertain themselves in the ‘chawls’?
Ans.:-1. Magicians, Monkey players or acrobats used to perform their acts on the streets. 2. The Nandi bull used to predict the future. 3. Chawls were also the place for the exchange of news about jobs, strikes, riots or demonstrations.
Q.4: - Explain the social change in London which led to the need for underground?
Ans.:- 1. British made a million houses, single family cottages. 2. Now people could not walk to work and this led to the development of underground railways. 1. By 1880, the expended train services were carrying 40 million passengers in a year.
Q.5: - What was the status of the women folk in the conservative industrial towns?
Ans.:- 1. Women of upper and middle classes faced higher level of isolation, although their lives were made easier by domestic maids. 2. Women who worked for wages had some control over their lives particularly among the lower social classes. 3. As women lost their industrial jobs and conservative people railed against their presence in public plans, women were forced to withdraw into their homes. Long Answer Type Questions
Q.1: -‘Bombay was a prime city if India’. Justify by giving examples.
Ans.:- 1. It was the major outlet for cotton textile from Gujarat. 2. It functioned as a major port city. 3. It was an important administrative centre in western India. 4. It soon emerged as a major industrial centre. 5. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 brought the west close to Bombay.
Q.2: - Describe the life in chawls?
Ans.:- 1. Chawls were multistoried structure built and owned by private landlords such as Merchants, bankers and building contractors. 2. Each chawl was divided into smaller one room tenements which had no private toilets. 3. Many families could reside at a time in a tenement. 4. People had to keep the window of their rooms closed even in humid weather due to close proximity of filthy gutters, buffalo stables etc. 5. Though water was scarce and people often quarreled every morning for a turn at the top observers found that house were kept quite clean.
Q.3:- Explain the life style of workers of mid 19th century in Britain?
Ans.:-1. In most of the industries the demand for labour was seasonal. 2. The workers were getting very low wages. 3. Factories employed large numbers of women. 4. Most of the workers were living in slums. Factories or workshop owners did not house the migrant workers. 5. For the poor workers the street often was the only place for rest, leisure and fun.Q.4: - Describe the problems of traveling in the underground railway?
Ans.:- 1. People were afraid to travel underground. 2. The Compartments were over crowed and polluted by smoke. 3. The atmosphere was a mixture of sulphur, coal and dust with fuel fumes from the gas lamps. 4. Many felt that the iron monsters added to the mess and unhealthiness of the city. 5. Suffocation due to lack of oxygen supply and heat.
Answer Key of Multiple Choice Questions
1. ( d ) 2. ( d ) 3. ( d ) 4. (d ) 5. ( b ) 6. ( b ) 7. ( a )
8. ( c ) 9. ( a ) 10. ( b )
Lesson - 7
Print Culture and Modern World

Multiple Choice Questions
Q.1: - What is calligraphy? (a) Poetry (b) Textbooks (c) Flowers arrangement (d) Stylized
Q.2.: - What was Gutenberg’s first printed book? (a) Ballads (b) Dictionary (c) Bible (d) None of these
Q.3: -What were ‘Penny Chapbooks’? (a) Pocket – sized books (b) Journals (c) Ritual Calendars (d) Newspaper
Q.4: - Who introduced the printing press in India- (a) French (b) Italian (c) Portuguese (d) None of these
Q.5: - Who wrote ‘My childhood My university’. (a) Thomas wood (b) Maxim Gorky (c) George Eliot (d) Jane Austen
Q.6: - When was the Vernacular press act passed? (a) 1878 (b) 1887 (c) 1867 (d) 1898
Q.7: - Who said, “Printing is the ultimate gift of god and the greatest one.” (a) Charles Dickens (b) J. V. Schley (c) Mahatma Gandhi (d) Martin Luther
Q.8: - Which is the oldest printed book of Japan (a) Bible (b) Diamond Sutra (c) Mahabharta (d) Ukiyo
Q.9: - Who wrote 95 theses? (a) Martin Luther (b) Johann Gutenberg (c) J. V. Schley (d) Charles Dickens
Q.10:- Who authored ‘Gitagovinda’? (a) Jayadeva (b) Raja Ram Mohan Roy (c) J. A. Hickey (d) Chandu Menon
Short Answers Type Questions
Q.1: - Explain any three features of handwritten manuscripts before the age of print in India?
Ans.:- 1. They were copied on palm leaves or on handmade papers. 2. Pages were beautifully illustrated. 3. They were pressed between wooden covers or sewn together to ensure preservation. 4. Manuscripts were available in vernacular languages. 5. Highly expensive & fragile. 6. They could not be read easily as script was written in different styles. 7. They were not widely used in everyday life.
Q.2: - Why did the woodblock method become popular in Europe?
Ans.:- 1. Production of handwritten manuscripts could not meet the ever increasing demand for books. 2. Copying was an expensive, laborious and time consuming business. 3. The manuscripts were fragile, awkward to handle and could not be carried around or read easily. 4. By the early 15th century, woodblocks started being widely used in Europe to print textiles, playing cards and religious pictures with simple, brief texts.
Q.3: - What was the role of new ‘visual image’ culture in printing in India?
Ans.:- 1. In the end of 19th century a new visual culture had started. 2. With the increasing number of printing presses visual images could be easily reproduced in multiple copies. 3. Painters like ‘Raja Ravi Verma’ produced images for mass circulation. 2. Cheap prints and calendars were brought even by the poor to decorate the walls of their houses.
Q.4: - “Print popularized the ideas of the idea of the enlightenment thinkers.” Explain.
Ans.:- 1. Collectively the writings of thinkers provided a critical commentary on tradition, superstition and despotism. 2. Scholars and thinkers argued for the rule of reason rather than custom and demanded that everything to be judged through the application of reason and rationality. 3. They attacked the sacred authority of the church and the despotic power of the state thus eroding the legitimacy of a social order based on tradition. 4. The writing of Voltaire and Rousseau were read widely and those who read these books saw the world through new eyes, eyes that were questioning critical and rational.
Long Answer type Questions
Q.1: - How print revolution led to the development of reading mania in Europe.
Ans.:-As literacy and schools spread in European countries there was a virtual reading mania.

1. A new forms of popular literature appeared to target new readers 2. There were ritual calendars along with ballads and folk tales. 3. In England penny chapbooks were carried by petty peddlers known as chapmen and sold for a penny, So that even poor could buy them. 4. In France these law priced books were called Bibliotheque Bleue as they were bound in cheap blue covers. 5. There were romances, histories, books of various sixes, serving developed to combine information on current affairs with entertainment. 6. Periodical pressed developed to combine information on current affairs with entertainment. 7. The idea of scientists and scholars had now become more accessible to the common people.
Q.2: - How did oral culture enter print and how was the printed material transmitted orally? Explain
Ans.:- Oral culture entered print into the following ways – 1. Printers published popular ballads and folktales. 2. Books were profusely illustrated with pictures. Printed material was transmitted orally in the following ways. I. These were sung at gathering in villages, taverns and in towns. II. They were recited in public gathering.
Q.3: - Explain the impact of print on Indian women.
Ans.:- 1. Writers started writing about the lives and features of women and this increased the number of women readers. 2. Women writers write their own autobiography. They highlighted the condition of women, their ignorance and how they forced to do hard domestic labour. 3. A large section of Hindu writing was devoted to the education of women. 4. In the early 20th century the journals written by women become very popular in which women’s education, widowhood, widow remarriage were discussed. 5. Many writers published how to teach women to be obedient wives.
Q.4: - By the end of the 19th century a new visual cultural was taking shapes. Write any three features of this new visual cultural.
Ans.:- 1. Visual images could be easily reproduced in multiple copies. 2. Printers produced images for mass circulation cheap prints and calendars could be brought even by the poor. 3. By the 1870’s caricatures and cartoons were being published in journals and news papers. 4. Mass production of cost and visual images reduced the cost of production. So cheap prints and calendars were available in the market even for the poor to decorate the walls of their homes.
Q.5: - ‘Many Histories have argued that print culture created the conditions within which the French Revolution occurred.’ Explain.
Ans.:- 1. The print popularized the ideas of the enlightened thinkers who attacked the authority of the church and the despotic power of the state. 2. The print created a new culture of dialogue and debate and the public become aware of reasoning. They recognized the need to question the existing ideas and beliefs. 3. The literature of 1780’s mocked the royalty and criticized their morality and the existing social order. This literature led to the growth of hostile sentiments against.
Answer Key of Multiple Choice Questions
1. (d) 2. (c) 3. (a) 4. (c) 5. (b) 6. (a) 7. (d)
8. (b) 9.(a) 10.(a) Lesson – 8
Novels, Society and History

Multiple Choice Questions
Q.1: - What is an ‘Epistolary novel’? (a) Novel written in the serious of letters. (b) Novel based on a biographical account (c) Novels written in poetic verse (d) None of these.
Q.2: - It is truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife. The above lines have been illustrated from the novel – (a) Pride and Prejudice (b) Mayor of caster bridge (c) Pamela (d) Treasure Island
Q.3: - Who wrote ‘Hard Times’? (a) Charles Dickens (b) Walter Scott (c) Thomas Hardy (d) Emile Zola
Q.4: - What did “Kissa Goi” means— (a) The art of story telling (b) Moralizing (c) Slave Trade (d) Vagabond
Q.5: - The first novel to be serialized was— (a) Hard Times (b) Oliver Twist (c) Pickwick papers (d) Mayor of caster bridge
Q.6:-The first Indian novel was written in— (a) Malayalam (b) Bhojpuri (c) Punjabi (d) Marathi
Q.7: - The first modern novel in Malayalam is – (a) Sevasadan (b) Pariksha Guru (c) Indulekha (d) Rajesekhara
Q.8: - Who is the author of ‘Pamela’? (a) Leo Tolstoy (b) Samuel Richardson (c) Thomas Hardy (d) Charles Dickens Q.9: - In which year was Emile Zola’s ‘Germinal’ published? (a) 1584 (b) 1885 (c) 1886 (d) 1874
Q.10:-Who wrote the famous novel ‘Jungle Book’? (a) Rudyard Kipling (b) R. L. Stevenson (c) Hunt Jackson (d) Jane Austen
Short Answers Type Questions
Q.1: - “Novels were useful for both the colonial administrators and Indians in colonial India.” Support the statement with example.
Ans.:- To colonial administration – 1. A source to understand native life and customs. 2. It helped to govern Indian society with various communities and castes. 3. Novels helped to know the domestic life dresses religious worships etc. 4. Some of the books were translated into English by British administrators or Christian missioners. To Indians – 1. Indians used the novels as a powerful medium to criticize defects what they considered in the society and to suggest remedies. 2. To established relationship to its past. 3. To propagate their ideas about society. 4. It glorified the accounts of the past and helped in creating sense of National Pride among the readers. 5. Novels helped in creating a sense of collective belongingness on the basis of one’s language. Any other relevant point.
Q.2: - Explain how did novels became a popular medium of entertainment among the middle class during late 19th century.
Ans.:- 1. The world created by novels were absorbing, believable and seemingly real. 2. While reading novels, The readers was transported to another person’s world and began looking at life as it was experienced by the characters of the novel. 3. Novels allowed individuals the pleasure of reading in private as well as publicity. 4. The storied of novels were discussed in homes meetings or even in offices.
Q.3: - What were the advantages of serialized novels—
Ans.:-1. A story is published in installments, keeping the suspense for the next issue. 2. Serialization allowed readers to relish the suspense discuss the characters of a novel and live for weeks with their stories. 3. This was possible science the magazines were illustrated and cheap and affordable.

Q.4: - What were the advantages of vernacular novels?
Ans.:-1. They were written in the language of common people. 2. Vernacular novels produced a sense of shared world between diverse people of a nation. 3. Novels also draw from different styles of languages. A novel may tale a classical language and combine it with the language of street to make them all a part of vernacular that it uses. 4. Novels were read individually. Sometimes in groups also.
Long Answers Type Questions
Q.1:- Explain the contribution of Premchand in Hindi novels.
Ans.:-1. Munshi Premchand was one of the greatest literary figures of modern Hindi and Urdu literature. 2. He began writing in Urdu and then shifted to Hindi. 3. His novels lifted the Hindi novels from the realm of fantasy. 4. Premchand wrote on the realistic issues of the day i.e. communalism, corruption, zamidari dept, poverty and colonialism etc. 5. He wrote in traditional art of “Kissa - Goi”.
Q.2: - How ‘Industrial Revolution’ was reflected in the novels?
Ans.: -1. When Industrial Revolution began factories came up, business profits increased but workers faced problems. 2. Cities expanded in an unregulated way and were filled with over worked and unpaid workers. 3. Deeply critical of these developments, novelists such as Charles Dickens wrote about terrible effects of industrialization on people’s lives and characters. 4. His novel ‘Hard Times’ depicts a fictions industrial town as a grim full of machinery, smoking chimneys and rivers polluted. 5. Dickens criticized not just the greed for profit but also the ideas that reduced human beings into simple instruments of production. 6. Dickens’ ‘Oliver Twist is the tale of poor orphan who lived in a world of petty criminals and beggars. Oliver was finally adopted by a wealthy man and lived happy ever after. 7. Emili Zola’s ‘Germinal’ was written on the left of a young miner but it ends up in desire. It didn’t have happened like Oliver Twist of Dickens. Worlds Famous Novel, Novelists and their work Novelists Novel Main features
1.Potheri Kunhjanbu Saraswativijayam Caste oppression and importance of education for lower caste.

2. Rokeya Hissein Sultan’s Dream Wrote a satiric

3. Bankimchandra Durgesnandini Inspired political Chattopadhayaya Anandmath Movement in India

4. Premchand Sevasadav Raised social issues Rangabhoomi Godan Nirmala

5. Devkinandan Khatri Chandra Kanta A romance with fantasy

6. Daniel Defoe Robinson Crusoe avored colonialism

7. R.L. Stevenson Treasure Inland Praised the work done by colonizers

8. Jane Austen Pride and prejudice Wrote about women in rural society

9.Thomas Hardy Mayor of Caster bridge Wrote about traditional rural communities of England.

Answer Key of Multiple Choice Questions
1. ( a ) 2. ( a ) 3. ( a ) 4. ( a ) 5. ( c ) 6. ( d ) 7. ( c ) 8. ( b )
9. ( b ) 10. ( a ) 11. ( a ) 12. ( a ) 13. ( d ) 14. ( a ) 15. ( b ) 16. ( d )
Lesson – 1
Resources and Development

Multiple Choice Questions
1. Coal, iron ore, petroleum, diesel etc. are the examples of
a) Biotic resources b) Abiotic resources
c) Renewable resources d) Non Renewable resources
2. Which one of the following term is used to identify the old and new alluvial respectively ?
a) Khadas & Tarai b) Tarai & Bangar
c) Bangar & Khadar d) Tarai & Dvars
3. Which one of the following soil is the best for cotton cultivation ?
a) Red soil b) Black soil
c) Laterite soil d) Alluvial soil
4. How much percentage of forest area in the country according to the National Forest Policy.
a) 33% b) 37%
c) 27% d) 31%
5. Which type of soil develops due to high temperature and evaporation ?
a) Arid Soil b) Forest Soil
c) Black Soil d) Red Soil
6. Which one of the following resources can be acquired by the Nation ?
a) Potential resources b) International resources
c) National resources d) Public resources
7. Which one of the following is responsible for sheet erosion ?
a) Underground water b) Wind
c) Glacier d) Water
8. Which one of the following method is used to break up the force of wind?
a) Shelter belt b) Strip Cropping
c) Contour ploughing d) Terrace farming
9 Which one of the following is the main cause of land degradation in Madhya Pradesh ?
a) Mining b) Overgrazing
c) Deforestation d) Over Irrigation
10. Which one of the following statements refers to the sustainable development ?
a) Overall development of various resources
b) Development should take place without damaging the environment.
c) Economic development of people.
d) Development that meets the desires of the members of all communities.
Short Answer Type Questions :
Q1. What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in hilly areas ?
Ans. 1) Terracing on hilly area 2) Buildings Dams on hilly areas 3) Afforestation
Q2. When and why was the Rio-de-Janero Earth summit held ?
Ans. 1992 Rio-de-Janero (Brazil) Earth summit To achieve sustainable development in order to combat environment damage, poverty and disease, it laid emphasis on global cooperation mutual needs and shared responsibilities.
Q3. Write two characteristics each of Khadar and Bangar ?
Ans. Khadar (New Alluvium) 1) New Alluvium a new soil 2) Very fertile soil less Kankar nodules Bangar (Old Alluvium) 1) Old Alluvium or Old soil 2) Not to fertile, often contains Kankar nodules
Q4. What type of soil is found in river deltas of the eastern coast ? Give three main features of this type of soil.
Ans. Alluvial Soil 1) Most important soil 2) Such a soil is the result of deposits of river. 3) Very fertile soil.
Q5. What do you, mean by land use pattern ? Name the factors that determine the use of land.
Ans. Utilization of land for various purposes such as cultivation grazing of animals mining construction of roads etc. Factors 1) Topography 2) Climate 3) Human Factor 4) Accessibility
Q6. Long Answer type questions
1. Classify resources on the basis of ownership into four categories. Mention the main feature of each.
Ans. (1) Individual resources: Owned privately by individual. Example houses pasture etc. (2) Community Owned resources : accessible to all the members of the Community. Example : Play ground park etc. (3) National resources : within the political boundaries of the country. Example : Minerals, forests etc. (4) International resources : The oceanic resources beyond 200 Km. of the Exclusive Economic Zone belong to international institutions.
Q2. What is resource planning ? Write any three utility of resources.
And. Resource Planning : Resource Planning is a technique of skill of proper utilization of resources. 1. They are beneficial to human being 2. Different types of things are made by them. 3. Resources are limited. Do not waste the great gifts of the nature.

Q3. Distinguish between the Renewable and Non- Renewable Resources.
Ans. Renewable Resources
1) These Resources are those which once mined and used can be regenerated.
2) These Resources which may be obtained continuously. Example : Land, water plants etc. Non Renewable Resources.
1) These Resources are those which once mined and used cannot be regenerated.
2) All mineral Resources are limited. Example : Coal, Mineral-oil etc.
Q4. Describe briefly the distribution of soils found in India.
Ans. (1) Alluvial Soil (2) Black Soil (3) Red and Yellow Soil (4) Laterite Soil (5) Mountain Soil (6) Desert Soil (Explain it)
Q5. What is regur soil ? Write its two features. Mention any two regions where regur soil is found.
Ans. Regur soil – Black Soil Features 1) made up extremely fine 2) have good capacity to hold moisture. 3) develop deep cracks during hot weather. 4) rich in calcium carbonate, potash and lime Regions 1) Maharashtra – Malva Plateau 2) Madhya Pradesh and Chhatisgarh Plateau
Answers key of MCQ : (1) d (2) c (3) b (4) a (5) a (6) c (7) d (8) a (9) c (10) b Lesson – 2
Forest and Wild Life Resources
Key Concepts of the lesson -
Trees and animals species:
(1) Normal species (2) Endangered species
(3) Vulnerable species (4) Rare species
(5) Endemic species (6) Extinct species

Types of Forest 1) Reserved forests 2) Protected forests 3) Unclassified forests
Biodiversity Biodiversity is immensely rich in wildlife and cultivated species, diverse in form and function, but closely integrated in a system through multiple network of interdependences.
Multiple Choice Questions
Q1. The diverse flora and fauna of the planet are under great threat mainly due to :
(a) Global Warming (b) Lack of water availability
(c) Insensitivity to our environment (d) Increasing pollution
Q2. Which one of the following is an endangered species of Manipur ?
(a) Blue Sheep (b) Asiatic Buffalo
(c) Sangai (brow anter deer) (d) Cattle
Q3. “The species that are not found after searches of known or likely areas where they may occur” are known as :
(a) Normal species (b) Vulnerable species
(c) Extinct species (d) Rare species
Q4. Which one of the following is a medicinal plant used to treat some types of cancer ?
(a) Himalayan Yew (b) Himalayan Oak
(c) Madhuca insignis (d) Hubbardia heptaneuron
Q5. In which year, the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act was implemented ?
(a) 1970 (b) 1971
(c) 1972 (d) 1974
Q6. Which one of the following was launched in 1973 ?
(a) Project Tiger (b) Indian Wildlife Act
(c) Wildlife Act (d) Indian Wildlife Protection Act

Q7. Which one of the following is located in West Bengal ?
(a) Corbett National Park (b) Sundarbans National Park
(c) Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary (d) Bandhangarh National Park
Q8. In which one of the following states is Periyar Tiger Reserves Located ?
(a) Rajasthan (b) Assam
(c) Uttranchal (d) Kerala
Q9. Which one of the following States has the largest area under permanent forest ?
(a) Uttar Pradesh (b) Jammu & Kashmir
(c) Punjab (d) Madhya Pradesh

Q10 Which one of the following is a great achievement of the Chipko Movement ?
(a) More trees are planted
(b) Development in Himalayan region
(c) Successfully resisted deforestation
(d) Soil erosion get declined.
Short Answer Type Questions :
Q1. In what ways the forests were harmed by the colonial government ?
Ans. (1) For expansion of railways. (2) For expansion of agricultural field. (3) For expansion of commercial and scientific forestry. (4) For expansion of milling activities. (Any three)
Q2. What do your know about “Permanent forest estates ? Name the state which has the largest area under these forest estates.
Ans. Reserved and protected forests are also referred to as “Permanent forest estates” (1) These forest states are maintained for the purpose of producing timber and other forest produce and for protective reasons. State : Madhya Pradesh (75 percent of its total forest area)
Q3. Humans are dependent on the ecological system for their existence. Explain.
Ans. As a part of the ecological system human beings are dependent on it for their existence. For example : (1) We breathe in air, we drink water, we grow crops in soil, etc. These are the non living components of the ecological system. (2) On the other hand plants, animals and other microorganisms recreate the quality of these non living components.
Q4. Distinguish between reserved and protected forests.
|Reserved Forests |Protected Forests |
|(1) The reserved forests are regarded as the most valuable. |(1) The forests lands are protected from any further depletion. |
|(2) More than half of the total forests has been declared reserved |(2) Almost one third of the total forest area is declared protected |
|forests. |forests. |
|(3) These forests are majority found in Jammu & Kashmir, Andhra |(3) These forests are majority found in Bihar, Haryana, Punjab, |
|Pradesh, Uttranchal, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal & Maharashtra. |Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan & Orissa. |

Q5. Name any two North Eastern States of India having over 60 percent of Forests cover. Give two reasons.
Ans. States - (i) Arunachal Pradesh (ii) Manipur 1) There is an abundance of rainfall in N.E. States. 2) The hilly terrain of these states protects the forests from human exploitation.

Long Answer type questions
Q1. What are the negative factors that cause such fearful depletion of flora and fauna ?
Ans. (1) Expansion of railways. (2) Conversion of forest land into agricultural land (3) Mining activities. (4) Large Scale development projects like river valley project etc. (5) Grazing of Pastoral animals. (6) Hunting and poaching of wild animals. (Any four)
Q2. Distinguish between endangered and extinct species.
|Endangered Species |Extinct Species |
|(1) These are species which are in danger of extinction. |(1) These are species which are not found after searches of known or|
| |likely areas where they may occur. |
|(2) The survival of such species is difficult if the negative |(2) They are already missing and their survival is suspicious. |
|factors that have led to a decline in their population continue to | |
|operate. | |
|(3) Examples : Blackbuck, wild ass, Indian rhino, crocodile, |(3) Examples : Asiatic cheetah, pink headed duck, etc. |
|lion-tailed macaque etc. | |

Q3. How forests are useful to man ?
Ans. (1) The raw materials for paper industry, match making, gums and resins are also extracted from the forest products. (2) They help in controlling soil erosion. (3) They help in enhancing the quantity of rainfall. (4) They provide certain types of herbs which are in turn used to produce useful medicines.
Q4. Describe the methods of forest conservation.
Ans. (1) The cutting of trees in the forest must be stopped at all costs. Our government has taken various steps in this direction. (2) Mass Media like newspapers, radio, television and cinema can help a lot in this direction. (3) We should bring more and more areas under forests (at least up to 33%) for the balanced development of our country. (4) The people on their parts also cooperate to check the falling of trees. “Chipko Movement” to check the careless falling of trees in the forests.
Answers key of MCQ : (1) c (2) c (3) c (4) a (5) a (6) a (7) b (8) d (9) d (10) c

Lesson 3
Water Resources
Key Concepts of the lesson -
WATER SCARCITY AND THE NEED FOR WATER CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Roof top rainwater harvesting, objectives of Rainwater harvesting, Meaning of multipurpose river valley project, Causes of social movements for some dames, Bamboo drip Irrigation System, Khadins & Johads, Guls & Kuls, major sources of irrigation in India, Conserve of water resources.
Locating and Labeling ; Dams: (1) Salal; (2) Bhakra Nangal; (3) Tehri; (4) Rana Pratap Sagar; (5) Sardar Sarovar; (6) Hirakud; (7) Nagarjuna Sagar and (8) Tungabhadra.
Q.1 The total volume of the world’s water is estimated to exist as ocean:
(a) 75.5% (b) 85.5%
(c) 95.5% (d) 65.5%
Q.2 Roof top rainwater harvesting is the most common practice in-
(a) Shillong (b) Guwahati
(c) Imphal (d) Patna
Q.3 On which river has Nagarjun Sager Dam been constructed?
(a) River Coyana (b) River Krishna
(c) River Godavari (d) river Tapti
Q.4 How much %of the Earth’s Surface is covered with water?
(a) About 70% (b) About 90%
(c) About 60% (d) None of these
Q.5 What is the rank of India in the world countries in the terms of Water availability per person p.a.?
(a) 129th (b) 130th
(c) 131st (d) 133rd
Q.6 It is predicated that nearly 2 billion people will live in absolute water scarcity in the year of –
(a) 2015 (b) 2020
(c) 2025 (d) 2030
Q.7 The first & the only state in India which has made Roof Top Rain water Harvesting Structured compulsory to all the across the state is –
(a) Karnataka (b) Tamil Nadu
(c) Kerala (d) none of these
Q.1 State any three objectives of Rainwater harvesting?
Ans: (a) To reduce run off water (b) To raise the water table (c) To reduce ground water pollution
Q.2 What is multipurpose river valley project? State any two purposes which are fulfilled by a river valley project?
Ans: Multipurpose river valley project consists a dam or series of dames on a river or rivers for fulfill many purposes like: a) irrigation b) electricity c) control flood d) check soil erosion e) inland navigation f) fisheries etc.
Q.3 Mention three major sources of irrigation in India, which source of irrigation is more popular in southern state? and Why?
Ans : (I) The three major sources pf irrigation in India are – a) Canals b) Wells & tube wells c) Tanks (II) Tank irrigation (III) Because Southern States are mostly come under Deccan plateau which are not suitable for irrigation by canals
Q.4 What is “Water scarcity” what are its main causes?
Ans: “Water scarcity” means shortage of water. CAUSES: (may write any two) a) Unequal distribution of rainfall b) Large & growing population c) Over exploitation of water (d)Wastage of water by people (Explain all in brief)
Q.5 Name any two multipurpose river valley projects or dams which are causes of new social movements. Why did people oppose them? Ans : Two Multipurpose project which are caused social movements – a) Narmada –Bachao Andolan b) Tehri-Dam Andolan c) Sardar Sarover Dam -Large scale displacement of local communities -Environment issues -Demand for Rehabilitation facilities from Govt.
Q.6 Explain in brief – (a) Bamboo drip Irrigation System (b)Khadins & Johads (c) Guls & Kuls
1) In Meghalaya, 200 years old system of tapping stream and spring water by using Bamboo –pipes. 2) People built division channels from rivers for irrigation to their field in western Himalaya is called Guls or kuls . 3) People developed inundation channels to irrigate their fields were converted into rain storage structure in particularly western Rajasthan Jaisalmer called Khadins and Johads in other parts of its state.
Q.7.Why do we conserve water resources?
Ans: i)To safeguard ours from health hazards ii) To ensure food scarcity iii) To protect natural ecosystem (Explain all in brief)
Q.1 How can rainwater be harvested? Explain. (Four points)
Ans : Rainwater can be harvested in the following ways :(any four points) i) By digging ponds and tanks. ii) By building embankments and check dams. iii) By making arrangements for storage of rainwater on rooftops. iv) By constructing concrete underground reservoirs. v) By constructing reservoirs in park and public places and covering them with concrete slabs. vi) Building plans should invariably be made only when there is a provision for water harvesting.
Q.2 What is the different causes of water pollution? Explain by four reasons.
Ans: The different causes of water pollution are: a) Mix-up of domestic wastes b) Mix-up of Industrial wastes, (c)Use of Chemicals, pesticides and fertilizers used in agriculture (d) Oil slicking by ships in oceans (Explain all in brief)

Q.3 Match the following
|Column A |Column B |
|1. Social movement |a) highest rainfall in the world |
|2. A dam |b) temples of modern India |
|3. Jawaharalal Nehru declared the dams as the |c) a barrier across flowing water that obstructs the flow |
|4. Mawsynram |d) Narmada Bachao Andolan. |

Answer key of MCQ
Ans. 1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (b) 4. (a ) 5. ( d ) 6( c ) 7. ( b)

Lesson – 4
Key Concepts of the lesson -
Primitive Subsistence Farming, Intensive Subsistence Farming
Classification of crops /Types of crops
Cropping seasons: Rabi, Kharif and Zaid
Geographical condition & production area of wheat, rice, paddy, tea, sugarcane, jute, rubber, cotton etc. important fibre crops
Impacts of globalization on Indian agriculture
Contribution of agriculture to the national Economy, employment and output
Identification and also for locating and labeling in outline map of India
(a) Major areas of rice and wheat.
(b) Major producer states of sugarcane, tea, coffee, rubber, cotton jute, millets and maize.
Note : Items for locating and labeling may also be asked for identification. MCQ
Q.1 What part of Total population of India is engaged in agriculture activities:
(a) 2/3 (b) 1/3
(c) 2/5 (d) 1/4
Q.2 Which one of following is not Agro-based industry:
(a) Cement Industry (b) Jute Industry
(c) Cotton textile Industry (d) Sugar Industry
Q.3 It’s type of Agriculture where farmers clear a patch of and produce rereads and other food crops to sustain that family that is:
(a) Commercial farming (b) Extensive farming
(c) Modern farming (d) Slash and burn farming
Q4 Agriculture where a single crop is grown on large area:
(a) Shifting Agriculture (b) Plantation agriculture
(c) Horticulture (d) Extensive Agriculture
Q.5 Which one of the following is ‘Kharif’ crop:
(a) Wheat (b) Mustered
(c) Maize (d) None of these
Q.6 Maximum consumption of natural rubber is made of –
(a) Auto tyres & tubes (b) Footwear
(c) Beats and hoses (d) Dipped goods
Q.7 India is the larger producer as well as the consumer of the world?
(a) Wheat (b) Maize
(c) Pulses (d) Millets
Ans. 1. (a) 2. (a) 3. (d) 4. (b) 5. (c) 6(a) 7. (c)
Q.1 What are three cropping seasons of India? Explain any one in brief.
Ans: India has three cropping seasons:- 1) Rabi 2) Kharif and 3) Zaid
1) Rabi crops: - Shown in winter from October to December. - Harvest in summer from April to June. - Main crop-wheat, barley, peas, gram, mustard
(2) Kharif crop: - Grown with the onset of monsoon in different parts of the country. - Harnest in September-October. - Maize jawar , bajra ,cotton, Soya been
(3) Zaid crops: -sown between rabbi and kharif seasons. Crops: watermelon, Muskmelon, cucumber, fodder etc.

Q.2 Discuss three main impacts of globalization on Indian agriculture.
Ans: 1.Indian agriculture products are not able to compete with the developed countries. 2.Bad condition of marginal and small farmers 3.Caused land degradation due to overuse of chemicals.
Q1.Distinguish between rabi and kharif season? (At least two differences) Ans:- Difference between rabi and kharif season. (any two diff.)
|Rabi |Kharif |
|Rabi crops are sown in winter from October to December and |Kharif crops are grown with the onset of monsoon in the different parts of the|
|harvested in summer from April to June |country and these are harvested in September-October. |
|Some of the important rabi crops are wheat, barley, peas, |Important crops grown during this season are paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, |
|gram, and mustard. |tur(arhar)moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soyabean. |
|States from north and north-western parts such as Punjab, |Some of the most important rice-growing regions are Assam, West Bengal, |
|Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttaranchal and|coastal regions of Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Maharashtra,|
|Uttar Pradesh are important for the production of wheat and|particularly the(Kankan coast) along with Uttar Pradesh Bihar. Recently, paddy|
|other rabi crops. |has also become an important crop of Punjab and Haryana. |

Q.2. What is Horticulture? Name the fruits grown in India? Ans:- “Horticulture:-It is an art of cultivating fruits and vegetables. India is the largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world. India is the producer of tropical as well as temperate fruits.” India is known for - Mangoes - Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. - Oranges - Nagpur and Cherrapunjee (Meghalaya), - Bananas- Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, -Lichi and guava- Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, -Pineapples - Meghalaya, -Grapes - Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra -Apples, pears, apricots, and walnuts - Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh are in great demand all over the world. India produces about 13 per cent of the world vegetables. It is an important producer of pea, cauliflower, onion, cabbage, tomato, brinjal and potato.
Q3. Distinguish between Subsistence and Commercial agriculture.
|Subsistence agriculture |Commercial agriculture |
|Subsistence agriculture is practiced on small patches of land |The main characteristics of this type of farming is the use of higher|
|with the help of primitive tools like hoe, Dao and digging |doses of modern inputs, e.g. high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, |
|sticks, and family/ community labour. |chemicals fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides in order to obtain |
|Farmers and their family produce cereals for themselves and for |higher productivity. |
|the local market. |Crops are grown on a large scale with a view to export them to other |
|It is practiced in thickly populated areas. |countries. |
|Cereals like wheat, rice, millets are mainly raised. |It is practiced in sparsely populated areas. Wheat, cotton, sugarcane |
| |etc. are mainly raised. |

Q.4. What are the four important fiber crops of India? Describe any one of them. Ans: four important fiber crops of India are: Cotton, Jute, Hemp and Natural silk.
(a) India is known as the original home of the cotton plant.
(b) India is the third largest producer of cotton in the world. (c)Cotton grows well in the drier parts of the black cotton soil of the Deccan plateau.
(d) It requires high temperature, light rainfall or irrigation, 210-frost-free days and bright sun-shine for its growth.
(e) It is Kharif crop and requires 6 to 8 months to mature.
(f) Major Cotton producing states are Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. OR
(a) Jute is known as the golden of fiber.
(b) It grows well on well-drained fertile soil in the flood plains where soils are renewed every year.
(c) High temperature is required during the time of growth.
(d) Major jute producing states are West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Orissa and Meghalaya.
(e) It is used in making gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets and other artifacts. Lesson - 5
Key Concepts of the lesson -
Meaning, occurring in earth crust, types of mineral s, uses & production area
Energy sources, types
Major minerals – iron ore, manganese copper, silver, bauxite gold etc
Petroleum, coal, natural gas, hydel , atomic energy. Conventional & Non - Conventional sources of energy-Bio gas, gober gas thermal power, solar energy, geothermal power tidal energy, wind super power
Conservation of energy resources
Identification and also for locating and labeling in outline map of India:
Production area, Coal, petroleum, iron ore, gas pipe line, atomic power stations.
Q.1 How many percent minerals intake represents in our total intake of nutrients –
(a) 0.3 (b) 3.0
(c) 0.5 (d) 5.0
Q.2Magnetite is the finest iron or with a new higher content iron- up to –
(a) 60% (b) 70%
(c) 80% (d) 90%
Q.3 State which is the largest producer of Manganese is –
(a) Karnataka (b) Jharkhand
(c) Madhya Pradesh (d) Orissa
Q.4 Which is the oldest oil producing state in India:
(a) Gujarat (b) Maharashtra
(c)Assam (d) none of this
Q.5 India now ranks as a super power in the world, that is:
(a) Wind Super Power (b) Solar Super Power
(c) Hydel superpower (d) Tidal Super Power

Q1 “Discovery and use of iron brought a radical change in human life” prove it with three examples.
Ans: a) Revolution in agriculture-different type of tools invented like axe, hook, plough etc. b) Revolution in industry-different tools and machines like spinning. c) Revolution in transportation- bullock-cart, ships, boats etc.

Q2 Describe the various forms in which minerals occur.
Ans: a) In igneous and metamorphic rocks ( cracks, crevice, faults or joints) b) In beds or layers of sedimentary rocks due to deposition, accumulation and concentration. c) Decomposition of surface rocks d) Alluvial deposits in sands of valleys and the base of hills as “ Placer Deposits”
Q3 Why is mining activity often called a “Killer Industry”. Give three reasons.
Ans: a) High risk involved b) Due to poisonous fumes, mines are vulnerable to workers for pulmonary diseases. c) Risk of collapsing mines roofs, and fires in coal mines. d) Water sources get contaminated
Q4 Give three reasons in the favour of use of ‘Atomic energy’.
a) Coal and natural oil are exhaustible. b) Nuclear power plants are easy to handle c) Most developed countries are utilizing this energy successfully d) It can be useful in fields of medicines and agriculture e) Hydel energy is not satisfactory due to environmental issues
Q5 why does solar energy in Rajasthan have greater potential as non –conventional source of energy? Ans: a) Hot and dry region b) Clear sky almost whole year c) Cheaper installation d) Renewable and pollution free energy source. e) Government motivation
Q.1 What are the Petroleum producing areas in India. Explain.
Ans . Most of the petroleum producing areas in India are associated with anticlines and faults traps in the rock formations of the tertiary age. In the region folding, anticlines or domes, it occurs where oil is trapped in the crest of the uphold. Petroleum is also found in fault traps between porous rocks.
Major petroleum producing areas of India are … 1) ASSAM- Digboi, Naharkatia, Moran-Hugrijan, Namdang region 2) GUJRAT- Ankeleshwar, Lunez, Navgan 3) MUMBAI HIGH 4) Godavari – Mahanadi basin
Q2: Distinguish between Natural Gas and Bio Gas.
Ans: NATURAL GAS • It is a mixture of combustible gaseous hydrocarbons occurring in the rocks of earth crust.

• This is commercial energy.

• It is used as raw material in the petrochemicals.

• It is transported from one place to another through pipeline.

• Mostly used in urban areas.


• It is derived by decomposition of waste of animals and plants with the help of microorganism in presence of water.

• Non commercial energy

• It is produced in tanks

• It is found in rural areas

Q.3 What is Non - Conventional sources of energy? Discuss two sources of such types of energy.
Ans: Sources of energy which are renewable, eco-friendly and newer one are called non conventional sources of energy i.e. wind energy, geothermal energy, tidal energy etc. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY:
Geothermal energy refers to the heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the earth. Where the geothermal gradient is high , high temperature is found at shallow depth . There are several hot springs in India which could be used to generate electricity. Two projects, one is MANIKARAN in Himachal and second in PUGA VALLEY in Ladakh has been set up in India to harness Geothermal energy.
Oceanic tides can be used to generate electricity .During high tides water flows into the inlet and get trapped when it is closed. After the fall of tide the water flows back to the sea via pipe lines that carry it through power generating turbines. In India gulf of Kutch provides ideal conditions for tidal energy.
Q4 India now ranks as a “WIND SUPER POWER “in the world. Why?
• India gets advantage of trade winds, western lies and monsoon winds.

• Wind energy completely pollution free and non exhaustible that’s why it becomes popular.

• India has an ambitious program to install 250 wind driven turbines with total capacity of 45 mega watts spread over 12 suitable locations.

• India’s potential wind power generation is of 50000 megawatts of which ¼ can be easily harnessed.

• Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu have favorable conditions for wind energy. Wind power plant at LAMBA in Gujarat, is the largest in Asia. Q5. How can we conserve energy resources in India? Explain.

Ans : Following efforts can be made to conserve energy resource in India: i Using public transport instead of individual vehicles.

ii Switching of electricity when not in use.

iii Using power saving devices.

iv More and more use of non conventional source of energy as they are renewable and eco-friendly.

v In automobiles electrical motors should be introduced.

vi Intensified exploration and research of new sources of energy.

Answer Key of MCQ--Ans.1. (a) 2. (b) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. (a)

Lesson – 6

Manufacturing Industries


Q.1. In 1857 where the first cotton mill of India was founded A. Mysore B . Madras C . Surat D. Bombay
Q.2. Largest producer of Jute and Jute made goods A. Bangladesh B. India C. Sri Lanka D. Brazil
Q.3. Iron and steel is a A. an agro base industry B. a chemical industry C. basic industry D. tertiary industry
Q4. Durgapur is situated in A. Jharkhand B. Orissa C. Chhattisgarh D. West Bengal
Q.5 Chemical industries usually are located near A. Iron and steel industries B. Thermal power plant C. Oil refineries D. Automobile industry
Q6. STP is the Abbreviation of A. System tech park B. Software Technology Park C. State thermal plant D. Software Technology Picket
Q7. NTPC is the Abbreviation of A. National Textile Production Company B. National Technology Production Company C. National Thermal Power Corporation D. National Tuberculosis Prevention Corporation
Q8. Atomic power plant causes A. Water Pollution B. Noise Pollution C. Air Pollution D. Heat Pollution
Q9. Manufacturing industries includes A. Crop production B. Fish production C. Plantation D. Sugar Production
Q10. Manufacturing industries includes A. Converting raw material into ready good B. Transporting raw material C. Producing raw material D. Procuring raw material
Q: ‗Industrialisation and urbanization go hand in hand‘. Explain.
Ans: (i) Cities provide market and also provide services such as banking, insurances, transport, labour, consultants and financial advice etc. to the industries.(ii) Industrial workers need houses and other facilities. The provision of these facilities can convert a small town into big cities.
Q: What is agglomeration economies?
Ans: Cities provide market and other facilities like banking, insurance, transport, labour, consultants, and financial advice etc. to the industry. Many industries tend to come together to make, use of the advantages offered by the urban institutions. This is known as agglomeration economies.
Q: Name three physical factors and three human factors that affect the location of industries.
Ans: Physical factors and three human factors that affect the location of industries are: (i) Availability of raw materials (ii) Availability of power resources (iii) Suitable climate (iv) Availability of water Human factors that affect the location of industries are: (i) Availability of labour (ii) Availability of market (iii) Government policies
Q: What is the large scale and small scale industries? Give examples.
Ans: Those industries that employs large number of workers in each unit and having large production level are known as large scale industries. e.g. cotton textile industry. The industry that employs small number of workers in each unit and having small production level is known as small scale industry. e.g. readymade garment industries.
Q: Which factors are responsible for the decentralization of cotton textile mills in India?
Ans: (i) Cotton textile have a very high demand throughout the country. (ii) Major inputs like banking, electricity, transportation are available in almost every part of the country. (iii) Textile industry is labour intensive industry and labour is easily available in India. (iv) Textile industry requires less technological inputs and can be carried out using simple tools and machines.
Q: ‗Cotton textile industry has close links with agriculture. Explain.
Ans: (i) The industry has close links with agriculture and provides a living to farmers, cotton bull pluckers and workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing. (ii) Agriculture provides raw material to the industry i.e. raw cotton.
Q: What are the major problems of cotton textile industry?
Ans: (i) Lack of good quality long staple cotton (ii) Erratic power supply (iii) Out dated machinery and technology (iv) Low output of workers (v) Stiff international competition
Q: What were the major objectives of National Jute Policy 2005? Why is the internal demand for jute increasing?
Ans: (i) To increase the productivity (ii) To improve the quality (iii) Ensuring good prices to the jute farmers (iv) Enhancing the yield per hectare The internal demand for jute has been on the increase because - (i) Government policy of mandatory use of jute packaging (ii) The growing global concern for environment friendly biodegradable materials.
Q: India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world yet , we are not able to perform to our full potential. Give any four reasons.
Ans: (i) High Costs and Limited availability of coking coal. (ii) Lower productivity of labour (iii) Shortage of power (iv) Poor infrastructure. (v) Low Investment in Research and Development.
Q: Why is iron and steel industry called a basic industry?
Ans: Iron and steel industry is called the basic industry because: (i) It is the industry which lays the foundation of rapid development of other industries such as heavy Engineering, defence equipment, automobiles, aeroplanes etc. (ii) It is also helpful in providing employment. (iii) It also helps in the development of agriculture.

Q: What is importance of the manufacturing industries?
Ans: 1. Employment generation: Manufacturing industry is the main source of employment for large number of skilled as well as unskilled workers. 2. Foreign exchange: Export of manufactured goods bring foreign exchange to India. 3. Reduction of pressure on land: Manufacturing industry produces products of daily needs and helps the common people to fulfill their basic needs. It reduces pressure on agricultural sector for employment. 4. Removal of economic problems: Industrial development is a precondition for the removal of economic problems like poverty, unemployment and economic inequality. It also helps in bringing down regional disparities by establishing industries in tribal and backward areas.
Q: What is the importance of Jute Industry?
Ans: 1. Employment- The jute industry supports 2 61 Lakh workers directly another 40 lakh small and marginal farmers who are engaged in cultivation of jute and Mesta. 2. Products: Jute industry provides products of daily use like jute bags, ropes, mats etc. 3. Foreign Exchange: Exports of raw jute and manufactured goods bring foreign exchange 4. Promotion of Small Scale Industry: Many products of the jute industry are manufactured by cottage and small scale industry. So it promotes decentralization of industry.
Q: The sugar industry is now shifting from north to south. Mention main reasons.
Ans: North India is regarded as the main centre of the sugar industry and Uttar Pradesh is the leading producer. Over the time the sugar industry is shifting towards south India. The main reasons behind shifting of the sugar industry towards south India are: (i) The sugar contents in the cane is higher i.e. 10.5% in Maharashtra and other southern states. (ii) Climate is suitable for the cultivation of sugarcane. (iii) South has better export facilities as compared to North. (iv) Cooperative sugar mills are more successful in management in south India. (v) The Peninsular climate helps to extend the crushing season by two months in the south India than north India.
Answers key of MCQ : (1) d (2) b (3) c (4) d (5) c (6) b (7) c (8) d (9) d (10) a

Lesson – 7
Life Lines of National Economy

1. Six Lane Highways are called
(i) National Highway (ii) International Highway (iii) State Highway (iv) Golden quadrilateral super highways
2. Golden quadrilateral super highways are maintained by
(i) Zila Parishad (ii) PWD (iii) CPWD iv) NHAI
3. Villages are connected to a major town through this scheme of roads
(i) MNREGA (ii) PMGSY (iii) SJGRY (iv) AAY
4. Border Roads are constructed by
(i) CRPF (ii) BSF iii Indian Army (iv) BRO
5. Provides door-to-door connectivity
(i) Airways (ii) Roadways (iii) Railways (iv) Waterways
6. Bulk carrier across nations
(i) Airways (ii) Roadways (iii) Railways (iv) Waterways
7. Bulk carrier within India
(i) Airways (ii) Roadways (iii) Railways (iv) Waterways
8. Principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India
(i) Airways (ii) Roadways
(iii) Railways (iv) Waterways
9. Width of two tracks of Broad Gauge is
(i) 1.676 m (ii) 1.000 m iii) 0.762 m(iv) 0.610 m
10. Natural harbour in India
(i) Hooghly (ii) Paradip (iii) Chennai (iv) Mumbai
11. Biggest natural port in India
(i) Chennai ii) Tuticorin (iii) Marmagao iv) Mumbai
12. Largest producer of feature film in the world
(i) Britain (ii) USA Iii France iv India
13. AIR stands for
(i) All India Radio (ii) Indian Airlines (iii) Indian Railways (iv) None of these
14. Terminal stations of East-West corridor
(i) Mumbai and Nagpur (ii) Nagpur and Siligudi
(iii) Mumbai and Kolkata iv) Silcher and Porbandar
15. Which mode of transportation reduces trans-shipment losses and delays?
(i) Railways (ii) Pipeline (iii) Roadways (iv) Waterways
Q.What is international trade?What do you mean by Balance of trade‘?What is the importance of trade?
Ans. Trade between two countries is called international trade. It includes exchange of commodities, services, information and knowledge.
Relation or difference between nation‘s exports and imports is called balance of trade. It is of two types: (i) Surplus trade: when the value of exported goods and services is more than the value of imported goods and services. It is called favorable trade balance.
(ii) Trade Deficit: when the value of exported goods and services is less than the value of imported goods and services. It is called unfavorable trade balance.
The importance of trade is:
1. No country can survive without international trade because resources are space bound.
2. Advancement of international trade of a country leads to its economic prosperity because such a trade provides so many jobs to workers as well as business to traders.
3. It is through international trade that we earn much of our foreign exchange which is required for importing many essential goods.
4. Foreign trade helps in transfer of technology.
Q. Mention the different means of transport in India.
Ans. Means of transport in India are:-
(i) Roadways, (ii) Waterways, (iii) Airways, (iv) Pipelines, (v) Railways.
Q. What are the means of mass communication? Explain features of any two media.
Ans. These are those means of communication through which one can communicate with several people at the same time. For example- Radio, newspaper and T.V.(Television):-

i) It is one of the largest and essential networks in the world. ii) It provides entertainment and keeps the viewers well informed about the world.
Radio:-(i) It is the cheapest and the most effective means of communication. (ii) Besides entertainment, it also provides information and promotes social education.
Q. What are the different types of roads in India?
Ans. There are six types of roads:-
1. Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways or Expressway National Highways
2. National Highways 3. State Highways 4. District Roads
5. Other Roads or Rural Roads or Village Roads 6. Border Roads
Q. What do you mean by pipeline transport?
Ans. Transportation of liquid, gases or slurries through pipes made of durable metal or a plastic tube is called pipeline transport. It is the most convenient mode of transport for crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas even solids like iron ore in slurry form to refineries, fertilizer factories, industries and big thermal power plants.
For example:. From oil field in From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab, via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi and Sonipat. It has branches to connect Koyali (near Vadodara, Gujarat) Chakshu and other places. Gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat connects Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh, via Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh. It has branches to Kota in Rajasthan, Shahajahanpur, Babrala and other places in Uttar Pradesh (HVJ).
Q. What do you mean by tourism?
Ans. Tourism comprises the activities of the people traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environments for more than one consecutive day for leisure, business and other purposes. Tourists visit other places for heritage tourism, religious activities, eco tourism, adventure tourism, cultural tourism, medical tourism and business tourism.
Q. What are the advantages of transport?
Ans. 1. Facilitates easy and free movement of people from one place to another. 2. Helps to carry goods and materials from one place to another 3. Helps in production and distribution of goods. 4. Connect markets with the production centers. 5. Promotes easy accessibility of goods and services. 6. Helps in development of trade and commerce. 7. Helps to increase the volume of the Trade.
Q. What are the chief import and export items in India?
Ans. Import Items:-
1. Agriculture and allied products (2.53 %),
2. Ores and minerals (9.12 %),
3. Gems and jewellery (26.75%)
4. Chemical and allied products (24.45%),
5. Engineering goods ( 35.63%) Petroleum products (86.12%) Export Items:-
1. Petroleum and petroleum products (41.87%)
2. Pearls and precious stones (29.26%)
3. Inorganic chemicals (29.39%),
4. Coal, coke and briquettes (94.17% )
5. Machinery (12.56%).
Q. What are the problems faced by Indian roadways?
Ans. 1. Road network is inadequate for increasing volume of traffic. 2. About half of the roads are unmetalled. 3. The National Highways are inadequate and are poorly maintained. 4. The roadways are highly congested in cities and are lacking safety measures. 5. Most of the bridges and culverts are old and narrow. 6.Lack of proper security measures.
Q. What are the features of railways in India?
Ans. 1. Very useful for carrying heavy and bulky goods and materials. 2. Comparatively cheaper than Roadways and Airways for long distances. 3. Gives employment to a large number of people. 4. The Indian Railways are the largest public undertaking run by the Central Government 5. The principal (Main) mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India. 6. Railways conduct multifarious activities like business, sightseeing and pilgrimage along with transportation of goods. 7. Acts as an Integrating force by bringing people close to each other. 8. Suitable for long distances and Provides comfort of a home. Q. What are the Problems Faced by Indian Railways?
Ans. 1. Requires huge investment at the time of installation. 2. Maintenance and upkeep is very costly. 3. Construction is difficult and costly in uneven and high hills and deserts. 4. Not suitable for transportation of perishable goods. 5. Ticket-less travelers. 6. Thefts and damaging of railway property. 7. Unnecessarily chain pulling to stop train. 8. conversions. 9. Sinking and slipping of tracks in rains. 10. Modernization and Electrification.
Answers key of MCQ : (1) d (2) d (3) b (4) d (5) b (6) d (7) c (8) c (9) a (10) d (11) d (12) d (13) a (14) d (15) b UNIT III
Lesson – 1
Power Sharing

Q.1 How many people speak French and Dutch in the capital city of Brussels?
a) 60 percent French 40 percent Dutch b) 50% Dutch 50% French
c) 80% French 20% Dutch d) 80% Dutch 20% French
Q.2 How many times leaders of Belgium amended their constitution?
A) Two times B) Three times
C) Four times d) Since time
Q.3 Which one of the following is correct regarding power sharing?
A) It leads to conflict between different groups. B) It ensures the stability of the country. C) It helps to reduce the conflict between different groups.
a) Only A is true b) Only B is true c) Both A and B are true
d) Both B and C are true
Q.4 Which was the only official language of Sri Lanka?
a) Tamil (b) Malyalam
c) Sinhala (d) none of the mention above
Q.5 Which community was rich and powerful in Belgium?
a) German (b) French
c) Dutch (d) none of the mention above
Short Answer questions
Q.1 What was a community government?
Ans- It was elected by the people belonging to language community – Dutch French and German speaking no metter where they live. It deals with cultural, educational and language related issues.
Q.2 What was the political problems faced by Belgium?
Ans- Problems of ethnic composition-
1. 50% Dutch speaking, 40% French speaking, 1% German speaking
2. But in its capital- 80% French speaking, 20% Dutch speaking
3. French community was rich and powerful
Q.3 Explain the ethnic problem of Srilanka.
1. In Silence there are two communities' sinhala and Tamil
2) Among Tamils the Tamil natives who are called, Srilankan Tamils and the Indian Tamils whose forefathers come from India as plantation workers during the colonial period.
3) Most of the Sinhalas are Buddhist and Tamils are Hindus or Muslims. So in Srilanka the problem was who is going to hold power and enjoy the economic benefits
Long Answers questions
Q.1 How Belgian government solved its ethnic Problem ?
Ans- The Path of accommodation adopted in Belgium.
1) Dutch and French speaking ministers shall be equal in the central govt.
2) Many Powers of the central government have been given to state govt. The state govt are not subordinate to the central govt.
3) Brussels has a separate govt in which both the communities have equal representation.
4) There is a third kind of govt called community govt elected by the people belonging to Dutch, French and German no matter where they live.
Q.2 What is majoritariamisum? How it has led to alienation of majority community in Sri Lanka?
Ans- The dominance of majority community to rule the country in whichever way it wants totally disregarding the wishes and needs of minority community is known as majoritarianism
1) In srilanka mainly there are two communities- Sinhala and Tamils the leaders of the sinhala community sought to secure dominance over the govt by virtue of their majority. Sinhala has been recognized as the official language of the country by disregarding
2) Government followed a preferential policy favouring sinhalased in university portions and govt jobs.
3) The govt encouraged and protected Budhism The distrust has turned into a civil war that has caused a set back to social cultural and economic life of Srilanka.
Extra Questions-
Q.1 why is power sharing good for democracies?
Q.2 why power sharing is Desirables.
Q.3 Explain different forms of power sharing in modern democracies
Q.4 Explain the drawbacks of majoritarianism.
Q.5 it is possible to change the power sharing arrangement? If so How?

Answers key of MCQ : (1) c (2) c (3) d (4) c (5) b

Q.1How many scheduled languages are recognized by the constitution?
a) Besides Hindus, there are 18 scheduled, languages.
b) Besides Hindi, there are 21 scheduled languages.
c) Besides Hindi there are 22 scheduled languages.
d) Besides Hindi there are 19 scheduled languages
Q.2 What is the government at Block level called?
a) Gram Sabha b) Gram Panchyat c) Panchayat Samiti d) Nayay Panchyat
Q.3 Which local govt works at district level?
a) Panchayat samiti b) Village panchayat c) Zila Parishad d) None of the mention above
Q.4 By what name local govt at urban area called?
A) Municipality B) Municipal corporation C) Panchayat samiti
a) Only A is true b) Only B is true c) Both B and C are true d) Both A and B are true
Q.5 Who is the chairperson of Municipal Corporation?
a) Block development officer b) Mayor c) Sarpanch d) Member of Lok Sabha
Short Answers Questions-
Q.1 What is the real reason for the successes of federalism in India?
Ans- 1. The constitutional provisions are laid out very clearly
2) The nature of democratic politics has ensure its success
3) There is respect for diversity
Q.2 what are the objectives of the federal system?
Ans- Federal system has dual objectives to safeguard and promote unity of the country and accommodate regional diversity. It is based on mutual trust and agreement to live together.
Q.3 What happened to the centre state relations when different parties ruled at the centre and state levels till 1990?
Ans- When different parties ruled at the centre and state levels the parties at the centre tried to undermine the power of states. The central government misused the constitution often to dismiss the state governments that were controlled by other parties. This is against the spirit of federalism
Long Answers Questions
Q.1 Give the key features of federalism
Ans- 1. There is two or more level of govt 2. Each tier has its own jurisdiction 3. Any change in the fundamental provisions of the constitution requires consent of both levels of the govt 4. Sources of revenue for each level are specified
Q.2 What major steps taken in 1992 towards decentralization?
Ans- A three tier democracies were introduced in 1992. A step was taken towards creating rural local self govt. 1) Regular elections to be held for panchayat 2) Seats reserved for SC’s and STs OBCs 3) One third seats reserved for women 4) State govt to share power and revenue with local bodies.
Extra questions-
Q.1 Why do some states enjoy special powers in India? Which are they?
Q.2 What type of federation does India have? How it is different from that of USA?
Q.3 How legislative powers being distributed among three tiers of the govt by the constitution?
Q.4 Distinguish between unitary and federal government.
Answers key of MCQ : (1) b (2) c (3) c (4) d (5) Lesson – 3 (Democracy and Diversity)
Q1. Which of the following is associated with the Civil Rights movement in the U.S.A. (1954-1968) ? a) Abolishing legal racial discrimination against African Americans. b) Abolishing unequal income distribution. c) Health d) Education
Q2. Which type of social diversity or division do we find in Belgium ? (a) Religious (b) Linguistic (c) Regional (d) Gender
Q3. Which one of the following refers to The Black Power Movement (1966-75)’ in USA ? a) A non violent reform movement. b) The American freedom movement. c) A more militant anti-racist movement. d) A religious movement.
Q4. What is not the basis of social divisions in India ? (a) Language (b) Health (c) Region (d) Caste
Q5. Which one of the following is the most important origin of social differences ? (a) Accident of birth (b) Physical abilities (c) Kinds of Complexion (d) Tall or Short
Q6. Which one of the following is the representative political parties of the Catholics in Northern Ireland ? (a) Nationalist Parties (b) Unionist (c) Democratic Party (d) Labour Party
Q7. Which University recently installed the statues of Smith, Carlos and Norman in its campus? (a) The Howard University (b) The Chicago State University (c) The Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (d) The San Jose State University
Q8. Which one of the following is the actual political expression of social divisions in a democracy ? a) It results in social inequality and injustice. b) It is a normal practice and can prove healthy. c) It leads to definite violence. d) It is a rare practice and always proves unhealthy.
Short Answer Type Questions :
Q1. Discuss the factors crucial in deciding the outcome of politics of social divisions.
Ans. (1) How people perceive their identities. 2) How Political leaders raise the demands of any community. 3) How the government reacts to demands of different groups.
Q2. Mention three similarities between Tommie Smith and John Carlos.
Ans. (1) Both were African – Americans. 2) Both won medals at the Mexico Olympic Games in 1968. 3) Racial discrimination practiced against Africans in America.
Q3. What are the different types of democracy ? Discuss its two features.
Ans. Two types of democracy - (1) Direct democracy (2) Indirect democracy (1) People may express their feelings and expectations as their demands. (2) There is adjustment between two social divisions with different interests. (3) Democracy is a system of governance of the people to rule on their own.
Q4. Who was Peter Norman? Why did he support Carlos and Smith? What punishment did he get for this?
Ans. Peter Norman was an Australian Athlete. Norman wore a human rights badge on his shirt during the ceremony to show his support to the dissent of two American Athletes. Norman was not included in the Australian team for the next Olympic.
Q5. Differentiate between direct and indirect democracies.
|Direct Democracy |Indirect Democracy |
|(1) People directly participate in the Government of a country. |(1) People do not participate in the Government. |
|(2) May be practical for the country with small population. |(2) May be practical for the country with its vast population. |
|(3) The country provides the opportunity to every member of the |(3) The view of social groups is important and the majority is |
|society to tell his/her view. |always influential in the formation of policies or rules. |

Long Answer Type Questions :
Q1. What do you mean by social differences? How do social differences create social division in society?
Ans. Social differences simply refer to born or biological and socially created inequalities in the society. This mainly based on race, caste, religion, language, culture etc. (1) When some social differences overlap with other differences. For example the difference between black and white becomes a social division in the US because the Blacks tend to be poor. (2) If social differences cross cut one another, it is difficult to pit one group of people against other. It means that group sharing a common interest on one issue are likely to be on different side on different issues. For example both Northern Island and the Netherlands are predominantly Christian but are divided into Catholics and Protestants. (3) The overlapping social differences create possibilities of deep social division and tensions while cross cutting differences are easier to accommodate.
Q3. Social division can take different forms in societies. Explain.
Ans. (1) The racial form of social division, that is social differences on the basis of colour is widely prevalent in societies. 2) The varna and caste based division of society is found in India. Here Brahmins are considered as the highest varna while the Shudras are the lowest. (3) Linguist division is another major form of social division found in all societies. There are more than 1000 languages spoken in the world. (4) The social division is also manifested by the cultural and sub cultural divisions of society.
Q4. Explain two advantages and two disadvantages of social divisions in democracy.
Ans. Advantages (1) Political expressions of social divisions is very normal and can be healthy. This allows various disadvantages and marginal social groups to express their grievances and get the government to attend to these. (2) Expression of various kinds of social divisions in politics often results in their canceling one another out and thus reducing their intensity. Disadvantages (1) In a democracy the different social groups organize themselves to bring equality, social justice and other vested interests. Sometimes their protest results into violence or conflicts. (2) For the society which has high social divisions, becomes very difficult to ensure integrity and unity.
Q5. Why is democracy considered the best form of government ? Give Four points.
Ans. (1) The government is formed by the elected representatives of the people. (2) People have the opportunity to express their thoughts and beliefs. People have the right to change the government. It prevents the government from working arbitrarily. (3) It provides all its citizens the opportunity to participate in the government and administration, without any discrimination.
Answer Key of MCQ: (1) a (2) b (3) c (4) b (5) a (6) a (7) d (8) b (9) b (10) d Lesson – 4
Gender, Religion and Caste
Q1. Which one of the following social reformers fought against caste inequalities.
(a) Periyar Ramaswami Naiker (b) Swami Dayanand Saraswati
(c) Raja Ram Mohan Roy (d) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
Q2. Which one of the following was the view of Mahatma Gandhi about religion ?
(a) He was in favour of Hinduism.
(b) He was an ardent supporter of Muslim Religion.
(c) By religion, Gandhi meant for moral values that inform all religions.
(d) He said that India should adopt Christianity.
Q3. Name any two political leaders who fought against caste inequalities.
(a) Dr. Manmohan Singh and Smt. Pratibha Devi Singh Patil.
(b) Mr. Nitesh Kumar and Mr. Narendra Modi.
(c) Dr.S. Radhakrishnan and Shri Morarji Desai
(d) Mahatma Gandhi and B.R. Ambedkar
Q4. What is the average child sex ratio in India ?
(a) 923 (b) 926 (c) 935 (d) 933
Q5. Which one of the following refers to gender division ?
(a) The hierarchical unequal roles assigned to man and woman by the society.
(b) Biological difference between man and woman.
(c) The ratio of male child and female child.
(d) The division between male labourers and female labourers.
Q6. Which one of the following is the basis of communal politics?
(a) People of different religions may have the same interests.
(b) People of different religions have different interests that involve conflicts.
(c) People of different religions live in mutual co-operation.
(d) People who follow different religions belong to the same social community.
Q7. Name any two countries where women’s participation in public life is very high.
(a) Sri Lanka and Nepal (b) Pakistan and Bhutan
(c) Sweden and Finland (d) South Africa and Maldives
Q8. What is the literacy rate among women and men respectively in India?
(a) 54% and 76% (b) 46% and 51%
(c) 76% and 85% (d) 37% and 54%

Q9. Which one of the following is a form of communalism?
(a) Communal Unity and integrity. (b) Communal fraternity.
(c) Communal violence, riots and massacre. (d) Communal harmony.
Q10. Which one of the following refers to a feminist?
(a) The female labourers
(b) The employer who employs female workers
(c) A woman who does not believe in equal rights for women.
(d) A woman or a man who believes in equal rights and opportunities for woman and man.
Short Answer Type Questions:
Q1. Explain the factors responsible for low female literacy rate.
Ans. (1)Indian society is basically a patriarchal society where boys are given preference over the girls. (2)The parents do not expense equally for both boys and girls. Boys are given more attention. (3)It is a prevailing stereotype for women that even after getting well education, they have to do household jobs.
Q2. What do you mean by secular state ? Give any two provisions that make India a secular state ?
Ans. A nation or state which keeps itself equidistant from different religious issues, and does not give protection to a particular religion. (1) India is a country of diverse religions. It was the religions on the basis of which India was divided. Unlike Pakistan Buddhism in Sri Lanka. Christianity in England. (2) The constitution provides to all individuals and communities freedom to profess practice and propagate any religion.
Q3. In which country was the “Civil Rights Movement” Started? Name any leaders related to this movement? Why did he start this movement?
Ans. America, Martin Luther King. The purpose of this movement was to give end to the racial discrimination being practiced against the Afro-Americans.
Q4. What do you mean by gender division? How is it linked with division of Labour in most of the societies?
Ans. Gender division simply refers to the division of work between the men and the women. Some work especially the households such as cooking, washing, cleaning, etc. are exclusively meant for the women while the man have some other defined areas of work. (1) The gender division between the men and women does not mean that men cannot do household works. They simply think that it is for women to attend the household works. (2) The gender division also doesn’t mean that women do not work outside their home.
Q5. Give three ill-effects of communalism in the society.
Ans. (1) A communal thought always tends to establish political dominance offer particular religious community. (2) The country weakens when political parties are formed and political activities are conducted on the communal lines. (3) One of the most ugly face of communalism emerges out in the form of riots, violence and homicides.

Long Answer Type Questions :
Q1. Which factors are responsible for miserable and poor conditions of women in India? Explain.
Ans. (1) Sexual division of Labour. (2) Illiteracy (3) Lack of Representation in politics. (4) Discrimination in Job.
Q2. Write two positive and two negative impacts each of caste-politics relation in India.
Ans. (1) Positive Impacts (i) Caste Politics relationship has helped people from Dalits and OBCs to gain better access to decision making. (ii) Now people are making voice for the end of discrimination against particular castes for more dignity and more access to land, other resources and opportunities. (2) Negative Impacts (i) It can divert attention from other pressing issues like poverty, development and corruption. Sometimes a few underprivileged castes get more benefit while other underprivileged classes remain deprived. (ii) Sometimes it also disrupts social harmony.
Q3. What is feminist movement? What are the results of political expressions of gender divisions?
Ans. The feminist movement refers to the agitation demanding enhancing the political and legal status of movement. (1) The gender issues or equality of men and women, as a result of feminist movement was raised in politics. (2) The political expressions and political mobilization helped improve women’s role in public life. (3) As a result of the expression of gender division in politics many legislations were passed by which women were empowered in the social, economic and political feels.
Q4. Discuss any four facilities are given by the government to the backward classes.
Ans. (1) The people from the backward classes have been given reservation in the government jobs as per the their proportion in the population. (2) To give them fair representation in the Vidhan Sabha and the Lok Sabha. (3) To help them move forward in the field of higher education. The seats have been reserved for them. (4) The constitution also prohibits any type of caste discrimination.
Q5. Discuss any four steps taken by the government towards women empowerment and gender inequality.
Ans. (1) Women have less than 10% representation in the Indian legislature. In the State legislature their representation is even less than 5%. 2) The provision of equal wages for women without any discrimination has been made under the Equal Wages Act. 3) There is a tendency of female infanticide in many parts of the country. Domestic violence against women, their exploitation etc. always have been the part of daily news. In this regards, the government has brought Domestic Violence Act which proves and effective steps.

Answer Key of MCQ : (1) a (2) c (3) d (4) d (5) a (6) b (7) c (8) a (9) c (10) d

Lesson – 5
Popular Struggles and Movements
Q.1: - What did Nepal become a constitutional monarchy? (a) In 1960 (b) In 1970 (c) In 1980 (d) In 1990
Q.2: - What was the aim of the extraordinary movement Nepal witnessed in 2006? (a) Restoring Democracy (b) Abolishing untouchability (c) Bringing down military rule (d) Division of Nepal
Q.3: - Who become the new Prime Minister of Nepal in 2006? (a) Beni Prasad (b) Girija Prasad Koirala (c) Gyanendra (d) Himmat Prasad Koirala
Q.4: - Which organization was setup by the Nepalese people to restore democracy in Nepal? (a) The Dual Alliance (b) The Tripple Alliance (c) The Nepal Congress (d) The Seven Party Alliance
Q.5: - On which day was the king of Nepal (King Gyanendra) forced to concede all the demands of SPA? (a) On June 1, 2001 (b) On April 24, 2006 (c) On July 24, 2006 (d) On June 1, 2007
Q.6: - What was the Bolivian protest called? (a) Bolivian war (b) Bolivia’s Water war (c) Water for Bolivia (d) Bolivian crisis
Q.7: - To which of the following countries does FEDECOR belong? (a) Nepal (b) Northern Ireland (c) Belgium (d) Bolivia
Q.8: - Which political party came to power in Bolivia in 2006? (a) Democratic Party (b) Socialist Party (c) Liberal Party (d) Conservative Party
Q.9: - Which of the following is an example of moments growing into political parties? (a) NAPM (b) FEDECOR (c) BAMCEF (d) Assam Gana Parishad
Q.10: - Which of the following can be classified as a type of public interest group? (a) Trade unions (b) FEDECOR (c) Doctors (d) Teachers
Q.11: - When was the king Birendra of Nepal Killed? (a) In 1999 (b) In 2000 (c) In 2001 (d) In 2002
Q.12: - How did people protest against the “Kittiko – Hochchiko” movements? (a) By planting more eucalyptus trees. (b) By plucking more trees (c) By plucking eucalyptus trees and planting other saplings (d) By plucking all eucalypts trees on the 30,000 hectare piece of land

Short Answers Type Questions

Q.1: - When did Nepal win democracy? State two features of the democratic Nepal after attaining democracy.
Ans.:- Nepal won the democracy in 1990. Two Features:- 1. The King formally remained the head of the state; the real power was exercised by popularly elected representatives. 2. King Birendra who had accepted this transition from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy was killed in a mysterious massacre of the royal family in 2001

Q.2: - What were the results of the popular struggle of Nepal?
Ans.:- 1. The King was forced to concede all the thru demands of the protesters. 2. The SPA chose Girija Prasad Koirala as the new P.M. of the interim government. 3. The restored parliament met and passed laws taking away most of the power of the king.

Q.3: - Mention any three similarities between the movements in Nepal and Bolivia.
Ans.:- 1. Both these are instances of political conflict that led to popular struggles. 2. In both cases, the struggle involves mass mobilizations public demonstration of mass support clinched the dispute. 3. Both instances involved the critical role of political organization.
Q.4: - Write the composition of the organization which protested against water privatization in Bolivia?
Ans.:- 1. The protest against water privatization in Bolivia was not led by any political party. It was led by FEDECOR. 2. This organization comprised of local professionals, including engineers and environmentalists. 3. They were supported by a federation of farmers who relied on irrigation, middle class students, confederation of factory workers, unions and the city’s growing population of the homeless street children.
Q.5: - What is the difference between a pressure group and a political party?
Ans.:-1. A pressure group is an organized or an unorganized body that seeks to promote its interests while a political party seeks to attain political power by contesting elections. 2. Pressure groups are formed by the people of common interests, occupations and opinions while political parties are forced on the basic of ideology and vision. 3. A pressure group represents their own single interests while political parties represents various interests.
Q.6: - What are public interest groups? Hoe do they look after the public interests?
Ans.:- A public interest group is a group that promotes the interests of the people of the society. There interests can be of a particular section of the society or of the entire society in general. Their activities benefit the entire society and not just a particular section of the society. II Part 1. They organize meetings and try to gain the public support for their cause. 2. They try to influence the media by drawing its attention to their issues. 3. They sometimes organized strikes and dharnas to voice their interests. E.g.: - Bolivia organization FEDECOR and government employees movement called BAMCEF are some examples of public interest group.
Q.7: - What are sectional interest groups? How do they watch their interests?
Ans.:- Sectional interest groups refer to the interest groups that seek to promote the interest of a particular section or a group of society. Trade unions, business associations and professional bodies (lawyers, doctors, teachers etc.) are some examples of sectional interest groups— Part- II 1. They aim to help groups other than their own members for example a group fighting against bonded labour fights not for itself but for those who are suffering under such bondage. 2. Some times these organization represents the common or general interest of the society. 3. They also exert pressure on the government to meet their demands.
Q.8: - Explain how the activities of pressure groups are useful in the functioning of a domestic govt.?
Ans.:- 1. Pressure groups performs a useful role in countering the under influence of rich and powerful people on the govt. 2. Pressure groups remind the govt. of the needs and concerns of ordinary citizens. 3. Different pressure groups put pressure on the govt. for making policies in their favor and against. This lets the govt. know about what different sections of population want.
Long Answers Type Questions
Q.1: - Write in brief about the Nepal’s second movement for democracy in Nepal
Ans.:- 1. The Nepal movement took place in April 2006 which was aimed at restoring democracy. 2. The Nepalese king Birendra had accepted massacre of the royal family in 2001. 3. The new king Gyanendra refused to accept the democratic rule. 4. In February 2005 the king dismissed the P.M. and devolved the popularity elected parliament. 5. In against of the dismissed of P.M. all the major parties in the parliament formed SPA and called for a fear days strike in Katmandu. 6. This strike turned into an indefinite strike after the involvement of Maoist with 3 to 5 lakh people. 7. On 24th April 2006, the king was forced to concede the demand of people. The SPA chore Girija Prasad Koirala as the new P.M. of the interim govt.
Q.2: - Is the influence of pressure groups and movements healthy in a democracy?
Ans.: -Yes, putting pressure on the rulers is not an unhealthy activity in a democracy as long as every one gets this opportunity because – 1. A democracy must look after the interest of all not just one section. 2. These groups help the people of a particular section to voice their interest a demands. 3. Two pressure groups of different ideology helps in maintaining a balance between the demands of various groups in the society. 4. Pressure groups and movements have deepened democracy in the world. Thus some people may criticized the role of these groups as these groups promote the interest of their sections and not accountable to the people in general.
Q.3: - Discuss the brief the popular struggle of Bolivia
Ans.:- 1. Bolivia is a poor country in Latin America the world bank pressurized the government to give up its control of municipal water supply. 2. The govt. sold these tights for the city of Cochabamba to a MNC. 3. The MNC immediately increased the price of water by four times. 4. Many people received water bills of Rs- 1000 where as their average monthly income was Rs. 5000/ month. 5. In January 2000 a new alliance of labour, human rights and community leaders organized a successful our days general strike in the city and the govt. agreed to negotiate. Yet nothing happened. 6. The agitation started again in February but the police restored to brutal repression. 7. Another strike followed in April and the govt. imposed martial law. 8. But the power of the people forced the officials of the MNC and the govt. to concede to all the demands of the protesters. 9. Finally the contract with the MNC was cancelled and water supply was restored to the municipality at old rates.
Q.4: - What are the characteristics of pressure groups.
Ans.:- 1. Universal Character 2. Organized body. 3. Having influence on the public policies. 4. Lack of responsibility. 5. Non partism 6. Extra constitutional organization.
Answer Key of Multiple Choice Questions 1. ( d ) 2. ( a ) 3. ( b ) 4. ( d ) 5. ( b ) 6. ( b ) 7. ( d ) 8. ( a ) 9. ( d ) 10. ( b ) 11. ( c ) 12. ( c )

Lesson – 6
Political parties
Q.1: - Which of the following is the most visible institutions in a democracy? (a) Leaders (b) Political parties (c) Govt. (d) People
Q.2: - How many political parties are registered with the election commission of India? (a) Less than 100 (b) Between 100 to 500 (c) Between 500 to 750 (d) More than 750
Q.3: - A Political party has to satisfy the following criteria to be recognized as a national party— a) 6% votes of total votes in Lok sabha or assembly elections of four status b) At least 6 Lok sabha seats c) 12% votes of total votes in Lok sabha d) At least 12 Lok sabha seats
Q.4: - How many political parties were recognized as National parties in India in 2006? (a) 06 (b) 16 (c) 750 (d) 21
Q.5: - How many Lok sabha constituencies are there in India at present? (a) 540 (b) 543 (c) 547 (d) 563
Q.6: - Area wise which is the largest Lok sabha constituency in India? (a) Karol Bag (b) Ghaziabad (c) Mumbai Cart (d) Ladakh
Q.7:- The Bhartiya Janta Party (BJP) came to power in 1998 as the leader of (a) United progressive Alliance (b) Left front (c) National Democratic (d) None of these
Q.8: - Which party system does India follow— (a) Single party system (b) Two party system (c) Multi party system (d) All of them
Q.9: - What is Bye –election? (a) Elections held to fill a vacancy caused by the death or any other house. (b) Election held after a specific period. (c) Election held to farm the new govt. (d) Election held in between the fixed term of the house.
Q.10: -Who is the founder of the Bahujan Samajwadi Party (BSP) (a) Jyotiba Phule (b) Kanshi Ram (c) B. R. Ambudkar (d) Maya Vati
Short Answers Type Questions
Q.1: -Why do we need political parties?
Ans.:-1. Political parties are easily one of the most visible institutions in a democracy. 2. Far most ordinary citizens, political parties are equal to democracy. 3. Political parties helped in making public opinion and farming the govt.
Q.2: - Describe the merits of a multi party system in thru points.
Ans.:-1. More than two parties have a reasonable chance of coming to power either on their own strength or in alliance with others 2. This system allows a variety of interests and opinions to enjoy political representation. 3. In India we have multi party system and the coalition govt. for last 15 years which benefits all sections of the population.
Q.3: - What are the characteristics of a political party?
Ans.:- 1. It is a group of people coming together to contest elections and share power. 2. It agrees on some policies and programmers for the society with a view to promote collective good. 3. It lends to implement there policies by viewing popular support through elections. 4. It is known by which part it stands for, which policies it supports and whose interest it upholds.
Q.4: -What is the role of opposition party in democracy
Ans.:- 1. Constructive criticism of govt. 2. Restriction of arbitrariness of ruling party 3. Safeguard, liberty and rights of the people 4. Well prepared to form govt. 5. Expression of public opinion
Q.5: - Give an account of the functions (any four) of political parties
Ans.:- 1. They educate the masses, through their meetings and propaganda about various problems facing the country 2. Helps in the formation of public opinion 3. They contest elections and try to get the maximum number of their candidates elected 4. They serve as a link between the govt. and the people 5. The party which gets as absolute majority, forms the govt. others form opposition
Q.6: - “The rise of political parties is linked to the emergence of representative democracies.” Comment on the statement.
Ans.:- 1. As a society become large and complex they also need some agenesis together with different views on various issues and to present these to the govt. 2. They need some ways to bring various representatives together so that a responsible govt. can by formed. 3. They need a mechanism to support and restrain the govt. make policies, justify or oppose them.
Long Answers Type Questions
Q.1: - What are the main functions of a political party?
Ans.:- 1. To contest election 2. Forming policies and programmes 3. Making laws 4. Parties form and fun govt. 5. To play an active role of opposition 6. Shaping public opinion 7. Access to govt. machinery and welfare schemes
Q.2: - What are the challenges between political parties in India?
Ans.:- Following points can be given with explanation as the challenges of political parties in India— 1. Lack of internal democracy 2. Lack of transparency 3. Use of money and muscle power 4. Not providing meaningful choice to the voter
Q.3: - Mention the features of Congress party in India?
Ans.:- 1. Congress party was founded in 1885 and has experiences many splits. 2. It was ruling party at the centre till 1977 and then in 1880-89, 2000 to till date 3. This party supports secularism and welfare of weaker sections and minorities. 4. It supports new economic reforms but with a human face. 5. It emerged as the largest party with 145 seats in the Lok Sabha elections in 2004. 6. It currently leads the ruling united progressive alliance (UPA) coalition govt. at the centre.
Answer Key of Multiple Choice Questions

1. (B) 4. (A) 7. (C) 10. (B)
2. (D) 5. (A) 8. (C)
3. (A) 6. (D) 9. (A)

Lesson – 7
Outcomes of Democracy
Q.1:- Which of the following forms of government has support in genial (a) Democracy (b) Monarchy rule (c) Military rule (d) Rule of religious leaders
Q.2:- The most important outcome of democracy is (a) Accountable government (b) Responsive government (b) Both of them (d) None of them
Q.3:- Democracy is based on the idea of (a) Majority (b) Minority ` (c) Deliberation and negotiation (d) None of these
Q.4:- In a democratic government, a citizen has the right and the means to examine the decisions taken by the govt. It is known as- (a) Transparency (b) Legitimacy (c) Democracy (d) Monarchy
Q.5:- “Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people.” is said by- (a) Abraham Lincoln (b) Gittel (c) Mahatma Gandhi (d) Jawahar Lal Nehru
Q.1:- How does democracy produce an accountable, responsive and legitimate government?
Ans.:- 1. Democracy is a form of govt. in which people rule themselves through the representatives who are elected by them 2. The elected members from the govt. and make policies and run the administration of the country. 3. The govt. elected by the people is also accountable to them.
Q.2:- List the various aspects and qualifications which help in giving a clear definition of democracy.
Ans.:- 1. The rulers elected by the people must take all the major decisions 2. Elections must offer a choice and fair opportunity to the people to change the existing rulers. 3. Choice and opportunity should be available to all the people on an equal basis 4. Besides political rights, some social and economical rights are offered to the citizens by the democracy. 5. Power sharing is the spirit of democracy and is necessary between government and social groups in a democracy.
Q.3:- “Democratic governments are better than its alternatives”. Explain the statement?
Ans.:- 1. Democratic government is a legitimate government 2. It may be slow, less efficient, not always very responsive or clean. But it is the people’s own govt. 3. There is overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world ; in countries with democratic regimes as well as countries without democratic regimes.
Q.4:- How democracy accommodates social diversity?
Ans.:- 1. It is necessary to understand that democracy is not simply rule by majority opinion. The majority always needs to work with the minority so that governments function to represent the general view. 2. It is also necessary that rule by majority does not become rule by majority community. In terms of religion, or race or linguistics groups. Rule by majority means that in case of every decision or in case of every election, different persons or groups may and can form a majority. 3. Democracy remains a democracy only as long as every citizen has a choice of living in majority, at some point of time.
Long Answers Type Questions
Q.1:- Explain the characteristics of Democracy?
Ans.:- 1. Elected representatives 2. Elections 3. Civil liberties 4. Rules of law 5. Independent judiciary 6. Organized opposition parties 7. Freedom of religion of culture
Q. 2:- Describe the features of dictatorship?
Ans.:- Following features can be explained- 1. Monopoly of powers. 2. One party 3. Faith in force 4. Emphasis on duty and discipline 5. Belief in racial superiority
Q.3:- “Democracy is better than any other form of government.” Give arguments in favors of this statement
Explain the merits of democracy.
Ans.:- Democracy is considered to be the best form of government and most of the countries in the world have adopted it. Following are the merits of democracy- 1. It safeguards the interest of the people 2. Based on the principle of equality 3. Possibility in administration 4. Political education to the people 5. Little chance of revolution 6. Based on public opinion 7. Helps people to become good citizens 8. Accommodate all diversities and differences. Answer Key of Multiple Choice Questions

1. (A) 2. (C) 3. (C) 4. (A) 5. (A)

Lesson – 8
Challenges to Democracy
Q.1: - The challenge of deepening of democracy involves – (a) Applying basic principal of democracy govt. across all the regions. (b) Strengthening of the institutions and practices of democracy. (c) Inclusion of women and minority groups indecision making. (d) Challenge of expansion.

Q.2: - The challenge of expansion of a democracy required – (a) Keeping military a way from the govt. (b) Less decisions should remain outside the democratic control. (c) Bringing clown the influence of the rich. (d) Establishing a functional state.
Q3: - Name of law which empowers people to carry out democratic reforms— (a) Right to information Act. (b) Companies Act. (c) MRTP Act (d) None of these.
Q.4: - which kind of lows are considered the best for democratic reforms? (a) Laws that seek to bar something. (b) Lows that seek to promote the benefit of a particular section of society. (c) Lows that empower people to carry out democratic reforms. (d) None of these.
Q.5: - Which of the following countries disregards the UN and lakes unilateral decisions in the world affairs? (a) France (b) India (c) U.K. (d) U.S.
Short Answers Type Questions
Q.1: - What are the basic rights of citizens for exercising voting rights?
Ans.:- 1. The rulers elected by the people must take all the major decisions. 2. Elections must offer a choice and fair opportunity to the people to change the current rulers. 3. The choice and opportunity should be available to all the people on an equal basis. 4. The exercise of this choice must lead to a govt. limited by basic rules of the constitution and citizens right.
Q.2: - How is the challenge of deepening of democracy faced by every democracy?
Ans.:- 1. This involves string tuning of the institutions and practices of democracy. 2. This should happen in such a way that people can realize their expectations of democracy. 3. In general terms, it usually means string tuning those institutions that help people’s participation and control. 4. This requires an attempt to bring down the control and influence of the rich and powerful people in making governmental decisions.
Q.3: - Enumerate there challenges which democracies in the world face today.
Ans.:- 1. Fundamental challenge — Those countries which do not have democratic form of govt. face the fundamental challenge of establishing democracy in the country. 2. Challenge of Expansion.—Countries having democratic setup face the challenge of expansion. 3. Deepening of Democracy – This challenge is faced by almost all the democracies. This involves strengthening of the institutions and practices of democracies.
Q.4: - What does fundamental challenge to democracy mean? Which two aspects are included in this challenge?
Ans.: - Those countries which do not have democratic form of govt. face the foundational challenge of establishing democracy in the country. This involves bringing down the existing non-democratic govt. to keep the military away from capturing power and establishing a sovereign democratic state.
Long Answers Type Questions

Q.1: - Describe the major challenges to democracy in India.
Ans.: -Following can be described as the major challenge s to democracy in India.— 1. Social and economic inequality. 2. Poverty 3. Illiteracy 4. Casteism 5. Communalism 6. Regional imbalances. 7. Problem of language 8. Violence
Q.2: - How is communalism become big challenge to Indian democracy?
Ans.: -India is a land of many religious which sum of differ from each other but all have a fundamental unity. All religious proclaim the fatherhood of god and Brotherhood of man. All of them lay great stress on truth, honesty and advice their followers to serve god by serving men. At the other hand the mixture of politics and religion has hampered the growth of progress and national unity. This creates religious intolerance which is the major hindrance in political stability and culture unity. In this way communalism become a challenge to Indian democracy.
Answer Key of Multiple Choice Questions
1. (B) 2. (B) 3. (A) 4. (C) 5. (D)

Q.1 The total income of the country divided by its total population is Called:
(a) National income (b) Per capital income
(c) Total income (d) None of these
Q.2 Which organization publishes the Human Development Report:
(a) WHO (b) UNDP
(c) WTO (d) IMF
Q.3 Development of a country generally be determined by:
(a) its per capita income (b) its literacy level
(b) health status of its people (d) all above
Q.4 As per Human Development Report 2006 which neighboring country has the highest income following –
(a) Sri Lanka (b) India
(c) Pakistan (d) Nepal
Q.1 Why do different people have different goals for development?
Ans: Different people have different goals for development because:
Different people have different aspiration and desire. Some may like to have `more income and better quality of education for their children, while others may require no social discrimination and high support price for their crops. So according to the living conditions and the environment in which the person stays, he or she pursue for the goals. People seek things that are most important for them i.e., that which can fulfill their aspiration or desires.
Q.2 Why average income is taken into consideration instead of total income while making comparison between countries?
Ans: The total income of the country is the income of all the residents of the country. For comparison between countries, total income is not such a useful measure. Since countries have different population, comparing total income will not tell us what an average people is likely to earn. Hence we compare the average income which is the total income of the country divided by its total population. So, Average income = Total income Total population
The average income is also called per capita income.
Q.3 Write a paragraph on your nation that what should India do, to become a developed country? Ans.(i) Control the rate of increasing population. (ii) Use of latest technology, irrigation facility, chemical fertilizers, and all information should be provided to farmers. (iii) New economic policy, international trade, liberalization and globalization should be adopted sincerely and effectively. (iv) Adequate facilities related with infrastructure, education, health, electricity, water, transport etc should be provided to all people of all regions and areas. Q.4 What is the main criteria used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?
Ans :Per capita income is the main criteria used by World Bank.
Limitations of per capita income: o It enables to show how income is distributed among the people of the country. o Cost of pollution is not considered in this average. o Some other important aspects like infant mortality rate, literacy rate, net attendance ratio etc are not considered while calculating per capita income.


Q.1 What is meant by sustainable economic development? Give its main features. Ans: Sustainable development may be defined as development that meets the need of the present generation without compromising the need of ability of the future generations to meet their own needs. Environment and economy are inter-dependent and complementary to each other. Hence the process of development should not ignore environmental issues. The main features of sustainable development are as follow: i) It stresses meeting the needs of the present generation and future generation. ii) There should be restraints on wasteful luxurious consumption pattern. iii) Efforts should be made to invent environment friendly technology. iv) Fast growing population should be effectively checked.
Q.2. What is human development index? Who has prepared it? Write about basic components of human development measurement. Ans : Human development index is the cumulative measurement of the overall development of the people of a country. It was prepared by United Nation Development Organization and it is published by UNDP.

The basic components of human development index are as follow: a. Life expectancy at birth- It denotes average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth. It is measured in terms of life expectancy in years. b. Literacy- It is measured by gross enrolment ratio for three levels means enrolment ratio for primary school, secondary school and higher education beyond secondary school.

Per capita income- It is calculated in dollars for all countries so that it can be compared. It is also done in a way so that every dollar would buy the same amount of goods and services in any country.

Answer key of MCQ: 1. (b) 2. (b) 3. (d) 4. (a)

Lesson – 2
Sectors of the Indian Economy

Q.1During the period between 1973 to2003, the production has increased most in the (a) primary sector (b) secondary sector (c) tertiary sector (d) all the three sectors
Q.2 GDP is the value of……….. produced during a particular year :
(a) All goods & services (b) All final goods & services
(c) All intermediate goods &services (d) All intermediate & final goods and services
Q.3 The sectors are classified in to public and private sectors on the basis of
(a) Employment conditions (b) The nature of economic activity
(c) Ownership of enterprises (d) Number of workers employed in the enterprises
Q.4 NREGA 2005 guarantees work for how many days in a year
(a) 100 (b) 120
(c)150 (d) 90
Q.5 Which one of the following is a public sector enterprise? (a) TISCO (b) RIL (c) Indian Railway (d) WIPRO

Q.6 Which was the largest producing sector in 1973?
(a) Primary sector (b) Secondary sector
(c) Tertiary sector (d) Public sector


Q.1 What is the differences between public and private sectors? Ans.
|Public Sector |Private Sector |
|The government owns most of the assets and provides all the |Ownership of assets and delivery of services is in the hands of|
|services. |private individuals or companies. |
| | |
|The purpose of the public sector is not just to earn profit, |Activities in the private sector are guided by the motive to |
|but also to raise the welfare of the economy. |earn profit. |
| | |
|Railways or post office is an example of the public sector. |Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited or Reliance Industries |
| |Limited are privately owned. |

Q.2Though maximum share of GDP is coming from tertiary sector, but still the share of employment in the primary sector is maximum. Discuss. Ans : (a) This situation is because not enough jobs are created in the secondary and tertiary sectors. (b) Though the industrial production of goods went up by eight times, but employment in the industry went up by only 2.5 times. (c) Similarly in the tertiary sector, production rose by 11 times but employment rose less than three times. As a result, more than half of the population is dependent on the primary sector which contributes only a quarter of GDP. Q.3 Why does only final goods and services are included while calculating National Income? Ans: Only final goods and services are included while calculating National Income because: a) Final goods are those goods which have crossed the boundary line of production and are ready for final consumption and investment. b) The value of final goods already includes the value of all the intermediate goods that are used in making the final goods. This would lead to the problem of double counting if all the goods of the economy will be included while calculating national income. c) This should be avoided because if the value of any commodity is counted more than once it will result in overestimation of national income. Q.4 What is the meaning of under employment? In which economic sector is under employment conditions more prevalent? &Why? Ans : A condition in which each individual appears working but no one is fully employed. This is the situation of under employment. People under such type of employment cannot utilize their potential and capacity in full. It is in primary sector because- i) This sector comprises the poorest section of society in majority ii) People engaged in this sector are illiterate or semi-literate.
Q.1 Why is the tertiary sector becoming more important in India? Explain. Ans : The tertiary sector becoming more important in India because : i) In any country several basic services like transport, bank, insurance, educational institutions etc are required and the government has to take responsibility for the provision of these services. ii) The development of agriculture and industry lead to the development of services such as transport, trade, storage etc. iii) As income level rises, certain section of people started demanding many services like eating out, tourism, private hospital etc. iv) Certain new services such as those based on information and communication technology have become important and essential

Q.2 What is the differences in the employment conditions between organized and un-organized sectors of the economy?
|Ans : Organized sector |Un-organized sector |
| | |
|1. Registration with the government. |1. No such registration with the |
|2. The labourers are expected to work for a fixed number of hours. |government. |
|3. The wages are fixed and extra payment for extra work. |2. There is no fixed working hour. |
|4. In addition to wages, people get some extra benefits like paid leaves, | |
|provident fund, gratuity etc. |3. The labours get daily wages. |
|5. There is a job security. | |
|6. The labours are given an appointment letter stating all the terms and |4. There is not any such benefit. |
|condition of work. | |
| |5. There is no job security. |
| |6. There is no such provision of |
| |appointment letter. |

Answer key of MCQ: 1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (C) 4. (a) 5. ( c) 6( a) Lesson – 3
Money and Credit
1. The exchange of goods for goods is: (i) banker of option (ii) bills of exchange (iii) barter (iv) currency
2. Currency is issued by:
(i) RBI on behalf of central government (ii) By president of India.
(iii) By finance minister (iv) None of them
3. National Sample Survey Organization is a :
(i) Commercial bank organization (ii) An organization of World Bank
(iii) An organization associated with Indian Standard. Institute
(iv) An institution responsible to collect data on formal sector credit.
4. Gold mohar, a coin so named was brought in circulation by:
(i) Akbar (ii) Sher Shah Suri (iii) Ashok (iv) Shivaji
5. Which agency is not included in informal loan sector or agency:
(i) Bank (ii) Village money lender (iii) Trader (iv) Relative of borrower
6. In SHG most of the decisions regarding savings and loan activities are taken by:
(i) Bank (ii) Members (iii) Non-government organizations (iv) LIC
7. Formal sources of credit does not include:
(i) Banks (ii) Co-operatives (iii) Employers (iv) LIC
8. Security (pledge, mortgage) against loan:
(i) Collateral (ii) Token Coins (iii) Promissory Note (iv)Currency
1. Give the meaning and functions of money.
Ans. Meaning of money: Money may be anything chosen by common consent as a medium of exchange and measure of value.
Functions of money:
(A) Primary functions: (a) Medium of exchange (b) Medium of value
(B) Secondary functions: (a) Store of value (b) Standard of deferred payments (c) Transfer of value
(C) Contingent functions: (a) Basis of credit (b) Liquidity (c) Maximum utilization of resources (d) Guarantor of solvency (e) Distribution of National Income
2. What monetary system does India follow?
Ans. (a) India has adopted a representative paper currency or the managed currency standard. (b) The monetary standard is synonymous with the standard money adopted. Paper currency in India is the unlimited legal tender i.e. it is used to settle debts and make payments against all transactions. (c) RBI (The Reserve Bank of India) issues all currency notes and coins except one rupee notes and coins which are issued by the ministry of finance. (d) The system governing note issues the minimum reserve system viz. certain quantity of gold is kept in reserve.
3. What is banking? Give the main features of commercial banking.
Ans. Banking is defined as the accepting of deposits for the purpose of lending or investment of deposited money by the public, repayable on demand or otherwise and withdrawal by cheque, draft order or otherwise. Main features of commercial banks are as follows: (i) It deals with money, it accepts deposits and advances loans. (ii) It also deals with credit, it has the power to create credit. (iii) It is a commercial institution, whose aim is to earn profit. (iv) It is a unique financial institution that creates demand. (v) It deals with the general public.
1. Discuss the historical origin of money.
Ans. Historical origin of money:
(a) Animal money: First of all, human beings used animals as a medium of exchange. For example, the Vedic literature tells us that cows or horses were used as money in India.
(b) Commodity money: Before the invention of money several commodities were used as money. Even today in small villages food-grains like, wheat, horse gram, rice etc. are used as commodity money.
(c) Metallic money: Man used metal, like copper, silver, gold, etc. as a medium of exchange. Coins were minted by goldsmith and used as money until paper money was invented.
(d) Paper money: China was the first country that started using representative paper currency standard. Certain quantity of gold is kept as reserve in proportion to currency notes issued at the particular point of time. Coins are also used besides paper currency in our country.
(e) Credit money: Credit money is also known as bank money. It refers to bank deposits kept by people with banks which are payable on demand and can be transferred from one party to another through cheque/ demand drafts/pay orders etc.
7. Highlight the formal and informal credit sources in India.
Ans. (A) Formal credit sources
(i) Commercial Banks (ii) Central Bank (iii) Government Agency (iv) LIC
(v) Registered Chit Fund Companies (vi) UTI (vii) Mutual Fund Institution
Above mentioned all formal financial institutions accept savings and sanction loans to the people, companies and other agencies. (B) Informal credit sources (i) Local moneylenders: village mahajan and sarafs or gold smiths in the rural areas or in the cities. (ii) Land lords: this class include the big, middle and small category land-lords. They accept as collateral, title documents of agricultural land, dwelling unit, factories and issue loans to needy persons and companies.
(iii) Self help groups: thrift and credit societies, union of government servants, cooperative societies and farmers, labourers, domestic helpers and housewives organizations. They also accept savings from different people and help their needy members.
(iv) Chit fund companies and private finance companies are very powerful informal financial institutions. Some of them are working very effectively in villages and cities and all pay more interest to depositors than the formal agencies and institutions.
8. What are main functions of Reserve Bank of India?
Ans. The main function of the central bank is to act governor of the machinery of credit in order to secure stability of prices. It regulates the volume of credit and currency, pumping in more money when market is dry of cash, and pumping out money when there is credit. Broadly a central bank has two departments namely, issue department and banking department. The main functions are:
(i) Issue of currency: the central bank is given the sole monopoly of issuing currency in order to secure control over volume of currency and credit. These notes circulate throughout the country as legal tender money.
(ii) Banker to the government: central bank functions as a banker to the government – both central and state governments. It carries out all banking business of the government.
(iii) Banker‘s bank and supervisor: Central Bank acts as banker‘s bank in three capacities: (i) it is custodian of their cash reserves. (ii) Central Bank is lender of last resort. (iii) It acts as a bank of central clearance, settlements and transfers. (iv) Controller of credit and money supply: it is an important function of a central bank to control credit and money supply through its monetary policy. There are two parts of monetary policy, viz, currency and credit. Central bank has a monopoly of issuing notes and thereby can control the volumes of currency. It controls credit and money supply by adopting quantitative and qualitative measures
Answer Key of MCQ:1(iii) 2(i) 3(iv) 4(i) 5(i) 6(ii) Lesson – 4
Globalization and the Indian Economy.
1. MNC stands for
(i) Multinational Corporation (ii) Multination Corporation
(iii) Multinational Cities (iv) Multinational Council
2. Investment made by MNCs is called
(i) Investment (ii) Foreign Trade
(iii) Foreign Investment (iv) Disinvestment
3. Process of integration of different countries is called
(i) Liberalisation (ii) Privatisation
(iii) Globalisation (iv) None of the above
4. MNCs do not increase
(i) Competition (ii) Price war (iii) Quality (iv) None of the above
5. This helps to create an opportunity for the producers to reach beyond the domestic market
(i) Foreign trade (ii) Domestic trade (iii) Internal trade (iv)Trade barrier
6. Foreign Trade
(i) Increases choice of goods (ii) Decreases prices of goods
(iii) Increases competition in the market (iv) Decreases earnings
7. Globalisation was stimulated by
(i) Money (ii) Transportation (iii) Population (iv) Computers
8. Production of services across countries has been facilitated by
(i) Money (ii) Machine (iii) Labour (iv) Information and communication technology
9. Tax on imports is an example of
(i) Investment (ii) Disinvestment (iii) Trade barrier (iv) Privatisation
10. Liberalisation does not include
(i) Removing trade barriers (ii) Liberal policies
(iii) Introducing quota system (iv) Disinvestment
Q.1 Write four functions of WTO.
Ans. Four functions of WTO are:
(i) Administering trade agreements between nations. (ii) Forum for trade negotiations.
(iii) Handling trade disputes. (iv) Maintaining national trade policy.
Q.2 What is the impact of WTO on Indian economy?
Ans. The impact of WTO on Indian economy is: (i) An opportunity to India for trading with other member countries.
(ii) Availability of foreign technology to India at a reduced cost.
(iii) Many laws of WTO are unfavorable to the developing countries like India.
(iv) Certain clauses of WTO agreement on agriculture put restrictions on the provision of subsidized food grains in India.
Q.3 What is trade barrier? How governments can use trade barriers?
Ans. Any kind of restrictions imposed on trade is called a trade barrier.
Governments can use trade barriers to increase or decrease (regulate) foreign trade and to decide what kinds of goods and how much of each, should come into the country.
Q. 4What is privatization and liberalization?
Ans. Privatization means allowing the private sector to set up industries which were earlier reserved for the public sector. Removing barriers or restrictions set by the government on trade is called liberalization. Thus, privatization and liberalization results in freedom from closed and regulated economy.
Q. 5How MNCs can spread their production?
Ans. MNCs can spread their production by:-
1. Setting up joint production units with local companies.
2. To Buy up local companies and expanding its production base.
3. Placing orders with small producers
Q.6 Mention three factors responsible for globalization.
Ans. (i) Growth of MNCs.
(ii) Growth of technology.
(iii) Development in transport and communication technology.
Q.1What do you mean by Globalization? What are the effects of globalization in India?
Ans. Globalization is the integration or interconnection between the countries through trade and foreign investments by multinational corporations (MNCs).

Positive impacts:-
1) Greater choice and improved quality of goods at competitive price and hence raises standard of living.
2) MNCs have increased investments in India.
3) Top Indian companies emerged as multinationals.
4) Created new opportunities for companies providing services like IT sector.
5) Collaborations with foreign companies help a lot to domestic entrepreneurs. Negative impacts:-
1) Indian Economy faced the problem of brain drain.
2) Globalization has failed to mark its impact on unemployment and poverty.
3) Cut in farm subsidies.
4) Closure of small industries. Q.2 What is WTO? What are the aims of WTO? What are the drawbacks of WTO?
Ans. WTO is World trade organization. It is an organization which is in favour of increasing the world trade through globalization.
The aims of WTO are:
(i) To liberalise international trade by allowing free trade for all.
(ii) To promote international trade among the countries of the world in an open uniform and nondiscriminatory manner.
(iii) Removal of both the import and export restrictions.
The drawbacks of WTO are:
1) WTO is dominated by the developed country
2) WTO is used by developed countries to support globalization in areas that are not directly related to trade.
3) Though WTO is supposed to allow free trade for all, in practice, it is seen that the developed countries have unfairly retained trade barriers.
Q.3 What are MNCs? How the MNCs functions? What are the main guiding factors of MNCs?
Ans. MNCs are Multinational corporations. It is a company that owns or controls production in more than one Nation. MNCs set up offices and factories for production in region where they can get cheap labour and other resources, closer to the markets. This is done to reduce the cost of production and the MNCs can earn greater profits. MNCs not only sell its finished products globally but also the goods and services are produced globally. The production process is divided into small parts and spread across the globe.
The main guiding factors of MNCs are: (i) Cheap production (ii) Closeness of production unit to the markets. (iii) Favourable government policies.
Q.4 What are the ways through which MNCs spread their production and interact with local producers?
Ans. There are a variety of ways in which MNCs spread their production and interact with local producers in various countries across the globe. (i) Setting up partnerships with local companies, (ii) Using the local companies for supplies (iii) Closely competing with the local companies or buying them up, (iv) MNCs are exerting a strong influence on production at these distant locations so that they could produce at cheapest price and earn profit. i)
Answer Key of MCQ:1(i) 2(iii) 3(iii) 4(iv) 5(i) 6(iv) 7(ii) 8(iv) 9(iii) 10(iii) Lesson – 5
Consumer Rights
1. A consumer
(i) Sells goods and services (ii) Buy goods and services
(iii) Produces goods and services (iv) Delivers goods and services
2. Adulteration is
(i) Selling defective items (ii) Overpricing
(iii) Underweight measurement (iv) Mixing cheap materials
3. Causes of consumer exploitation
(i) Right to Information (ii) Proper Supply (iii) Low literacy (iv) High literacy
4. Which is not a function of PDS
(i) Control Hoarding (ii) Control Prices
(iii) Control over charging (iv) Consumer Redressal
5. COPRA stands for
(i) Consumer Protection Act (ii) Consumer Prevention Act
(iii) Consumer Police Act (iv) Consumer Power Act
6. Pick odd one out
(i) Right to information (ii) Right to choice
(iii) Right to adulteration (iv) Right to redressal
7. Pick odd one out (i) Right to safety (ii) Right to life
(iii) Right to consumer education (iv) Right to representation
8. National Consumer Day is celebrated in India
(i) 24 December (ii) 25 December (iii) 26 December (iv) 27 December
9. COPRA does not propose formation of
(i) National Consumer Court (ii) State Consumer Court
(iii) District Consumer Court (iv) High Court
10. ISO stands for
(i) International Standard Organization
(ii) International Organization for Standardization
(iii) International School Organization
(iv) International Standardization
Q.1 Why COPRA is enacted in India?
Ans. Consumer Protection Act 1986 (COPRA) is enacted in India with following motives:
(i) To pressurize business firms.
(ii) To correct unfair business conduct.
(iii) To protect the interests of the consumers.
Q. 2 What do you understand by consumer protection?
Ans. By consumer protection we mean the protection of the consumers against the unfair and malpractices adopted by the businessmen. These may be grouped mainly into two categories.
(i) Government measures
(ii) Voluntary measures
Q. 3 How do the logos ISI, Agmark or Hallmark help consumers?
Ans. These logos and certification help consumers get assured of quality while purchasing goods and services. The organizations that monitor and issue the certificates allow the producers to use these logos provided they follow certain quality standards.
Q. 4 What is adulteration?
Ans. When some foreign matter, injurious to health, is mixed with any good or natural production, it is called adulteration. This is the most heinous crime against humanity.
Q. 5 Mention a few Organizations that provide certification of standardization in India. What do you mean by ISO?
Ans. (i) BIS and ISI (ii) AGMARK (iii) HALLMARK It means International Organization for Standardization which has its headquarter at Geneva. It does the Standardization work at the international level.
Q. 6 What is the need for consumer awareness?
Ans. The need for consumer awareness was felt because both the manufacturers and traders can go to any extent out of their selfishness. They can charge high prices, and resort to underweight and under measurement methods. Their lust for money may lead to loss of money and health of consumers.
Q.1 What are the different forms of consumer exploitation?
Ans. The different forms of consumer exploitation are:
(i) Less weigh. (ii) Defective goods. (iii) Provide poor services.
(iv) Impure quality of products/goods. (iv) High prices: sellers usually charge a price higher than the prescribed retail price. (v) Duplicate Articles.
(vi) False or incomplete information, misleading consumers.
(vii) Lack of safety devices which cause harm to the consumers.
(vi) Adulteration: Mixing or substituting undesirable materials in food items etc.
(vii)Unsatisfactory after sale service: supplies do not provide satisfactory behavior.
(viii) Large companies with huge wealth, power and reach can manipulate in the market.
Q.2 What are the factors responsible for the consumer exploitation?
Ans. The following factors are responsible for the consumer exploitation: (i) Limited information - For a correct decision and choice about a product, a consumer needs full information about the price, quality, durability, composition, etc of the Product. In the absence of full and correct information, a consumer may get exploited.
(ii) Limited supplies- when the supply of goods is less than their demand, the prices may go high and may also encourage the tendency of hoarding. As a consequence, consumers will get exploited.
(iii) Limited competition-when there is limited competition with regard to production i.e., when producers are few and can control and restrict the supply of a product there is a possibility of manipulation in prices.
(iv) Low literacy-Illiteracy causes ignorance, which leads to exploitation of consumers. The level of awareness in our country is generally low.
Q.3 What are consumer protection councils?
Q. What are consumer forums?
Ans. These are voluntary organizations locally known as consumer forums or consumer protection councils. The main activities of the consumer forums or consumer protection councils are: (i) They guide consumers on how to file cases in the consumer court. (ii) They may represent individual consumers in the consumer courts. (iii) They create awareness among the people.
These voluntary organizations receive financial support from the government for the above purposes.
Answer Key of MCQ:

1(ii) 2(iv) 3(iii) 4(iv) 5(i) 6(iii) 7(ii) 8(i) 9(iv) 10(ii)

Social Science
Sample question paper
Summative Assessment I
Class X
Time: 3hours M.M.: 80
Instructions :
1. The question paper has 36 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.
2. Marks are indicated against each question.
3. Questions from serial number 1 to 16 are multiple choice questions (MCQ). Each question carries one mark.
4. Questions from serial number 17 to 31 are 3 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
5. Questions from serial number 32 to 35 are 4 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
6. Question number 36 is a map question of 4 marks from Geography only. After completion, attach the map inside your answer book.

1. In which one of the following years Great Depression occurred in the world?
(a) 1929-30 (b) 1935-36
(c) 1939-40 (d) 1941-42
Who among the following, improved the steam engine? 1
(a) Mathew Boulton (b) James Watt
(c) Henry Ford (d) Graham Bell
Which one of the following is correct about the Annual London Season? 1
(a) It was meant for wealthy Britishers only.
(b) Organized for the working class.
(c) Organized for the exchange of news.
(d) Organized for political action. 1
2. Which one of the following groups of the countries was known as the 'Central powers' in Europe?
(a) Germany, Russia and France
(b) Russia, Germany and Britain
(c) Germany, Austria-Hungary and Ottoman-Turkey
(d) Britain, Germany and Russia 1
Which of the following group of industries was the dynamic industries of England during its earliest phase of industrialization?
(a) Cotton and metals
(b) Cotton and silk
(c) Silk and foot wears
(d) Foot wears and glass 1
After reclamation how many islands were joined together to develop the city of Bombay
(a) Seven (b) Five
(c) Three (d) Ten
3. Who among the following developed the first known printing press in the 1430s? 1
(a) Johann Gutenburg (b) James Watt
(c) New Commen (d) Marconi
Who among the following is the author of the novel 'Hard Times'? 1
(a) Leo Tolstoy (b) Thomas Hardy
(c) Charles Dickens (d) Samuel Richardson 1
4. The first printing press came to India with which one of the following?
(a) Portuguese Missionaries (b) Catholic Priests
(c) Dutch protestants (d) East India Company 1
Who among the following is the author of the novel 'Pariksha Guru'?
(a) Prem Chand
(b) Srinivas Das
(c) Devki Nandan Khatri
(d) Chandu Menon 1
5. Which one of the following soil types is the most widely spread and important soil in India?
(a) Laterite soils (b) Black soils
(c) Alluvial soils (d) Red and yellow soils 1
6. In which one of the following states, Corbett National Park is located?
(a) Assam (b) Madhya Pradesh
(c) Rajasthan (d) Uttarakhand (Uttaranchal) 1
7. On which one of the following rivers Sardar Sarovar Dam is built?
(a) River Kaveri (b) River Krishna
(c) River Narmada (d) River Setluj 1
8. In which one of the following crops, India is the leading producer and exporter in the world?
(a) Jute (b) Tea
(c) Coffee (d) Rubber 1
9. Which of the following minority communities is relatively rich and powerful in Belgium?
(a) French (b) Dutch
(c) German (d) English 1
10. Which one of the following languages is spoken by the majority of the people of Sri Lanka?
(a) Tamil (b) English
(c) Sinhalese (d) French 1
11. Which one of the following countries fall in the category of 'coming together federation'?
(a) India (b) US
(c) Spain (d) Belgium 1
12. Which one of the following does not come under the purview of 'family laws'?
(a) Matters related to marriage
(b) Matters related to divorce
(c) Matters related to adoption
(d) Matters related to robbery 1

13. Among the following criteria which one is the basis to measure the development of a country according to the World Bank
(a) Per Capita Income
(b) Literacy Rate
(c) Gross Enrolment Ratio
(d) Life Expectancy 1
14. Which one among the following is a development goal common to all?
(a) Freedom
(b) Equal opportunities
(c) Security and respect
(d) High levels of income and better quality of life 1
15. Which one of the following occupations is associated with primary sector?
(a) Doctor
(b) Gardener
(c) Teacher
(d) Priest 1
16. Which one among the following is the most appropriate meaning of underemployment?
(a) Workers are not paid for their work
(b) Workers are working less than what they are capable of doing
(c) Workers are working in a lazy manner
(d) Workers do not want to work 1
17. Explain the impact of Great Depression of 1929 on the Indian economy giving three points. 3x1=3
Explain any three problems faced by the cotton weavers in India during mid 19th century. 3x1=3
Explain any three reasons for the expansion of Bombay's (Mumbai's) population in mid 18th century. 3x1=3
18. "Access to books created a new culture of reading". Support the statement giving three examples. 3x1=3
Explain the contribution of women writers on the writing of novels in India. 3x1=3
19. Explain how Martin Luther spoke in praise of print. 3x1=3
Explain the contribution of Prem Chand in the field of novel writing. 3x1=3
20. Explain giving three points how did the print culture develop in India? 3x1=3
Explain the contribution of Rokeya Hossein in the field of education and literature. 3x1=3
21. What is resource planning? Why is the planning of resource essential? Explain any two reasons. 1+2=3
22. Why do we need to conserve our forest and wildlife resources? Explain any three reasons. 3x1=3
23. Why is the scarcity of water increasing day by day in India? Explain any three reasons. 3x1=3
24. Mention any three provisions of the Act which was passed in Sri Lanka in 1956 to establish Sinhala supremacy. 3x1=3
25. Explain overlapping and cross cutting social differences with three examples. 3x1=3
26. Explain any three factors that determine the outcome of politics of social division. 3x1=3
27. State any three facts to show that the women face disadvantage and discrimination in our patriarch society. 3x1=3

28. Explain any three different bases of comparison of economic development of different nations / states. 3x1=3
29. Describe any three public facilities needed for development. 3x1=3
30. Explain any three types of unemployment found in India. 3x1=3
31. "Workers are exploited in unorganized sectors in India". Support the statement with suitable examples. 3x1=3
32. Explain the effects of coming of ‘Rinderpest’ to Africa during the close of 19th century. 4x1=4
Explain giving four reasons why did the industrialists of Europe prefer hand labour over machines during the 19th century. 4x1=4
Why did well off Londoners support the need for building houses for the poor in 19th century?
Explain in four points. 4x1=4
33. What is the main contribution of agriculture to the national economy? Explain any three steps taken by the Government of India to modernize agriculture. 1+3=4
34. Explain any four features of federalism. 4x1=4
35. How can more employment be created in rural areas? Explain with the help of four suitable examples. 4x1=4
36. Three features with serial number 1 to 3 are marked on the given political outline map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct Names on the lines marked in the Map. 3x1=3
(1) Soil type
(2) Tiger Reserve
(3) The leading coffee producing state

Locate and label the following items with appropriate symbols on the same Map. 3x1=3
(a) Hirakud Dam
(b) Sunderbans national park
(c) The largest producing state of Bajra
Note : The following question is for the Visually Impaired Candidates only, in lieu of Q.No. 36
(36.1) What is the colour of the arid soils
(36.2) Name the Tiger Reserve of Kerala.
(36.3) In which state 'Bhairodev Dakav Sonchuri' is developed for protecting the wildlife? 3x1=3


Social Science
Sample question paper
Summative Assessment II
Time : 3.00 Hrs. Max. Marks: 80


1. The question paper has 36 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.
2. Marks are indicated against each question.
3. Questions from Serial Number 1-16 are multiple choice Questions (MCQs) of 1 mark each. Every MCQ is provided with four alternatives. Write the correct alternative in your answer book.
4. Questions from Serial Number 17 to 29 are 3 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
5. Questions from Serial Number 30 to 34 are 4 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
6. Questions Number 35 is a map question of 2 marks from History and Questions Number 36 is a map question of 3 marks from Geography. Attach both filed maps in your answer book.
Q1. Which one of the following statement is true about the Trung sisters of Vietnam ? 1 a) The Trung sisters fought against French domination. b) They fought against Chinese domination. c) Phan Boi Chau wrote a play on the lives of the Trung sisters. d) They chose death over surrender to enemies.
Q1. Female allegory of France was: 1
a) Britamia b) Marianne
c) germania d) None of these
Q2. Which one of the following is not true about the female allegory of France? 1 a) She was named Marianne. b) She took part in the French Revolution. c) She was a symbol of national unity. d) Her characteristic were drawn from those of liberty and the Republic. OR
Q2. Which one of the following three countries are included in Indo-China ? a) India, China and Burma. b) Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. c) Bharat, China, and Vietnam. d) China, Vietnam and Combodia.
Q3. On which date of the following happened the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
a) 11 April 1919 b) 12 April 1919 1
c) 13 April 1919 d) 14 April 1919
Q4. By whom was the Swaraj Party formed ? 1 a) Moti Lal Nehru and C.R.Das b) Subhash Chandra Bose and Sardar Patel c) Jawahar Lal Nehru and Rajendra Prasad d) Moti Lal Nehru and Rajendra Prasad
Q5. Which one of the following minerals is used to reduce dental cavity? 1
a) Silica b) Lime Stone
c) Fluoride d) Aluminum Oxide
Q6. Which one of the following states in the largest producer of Manganese ? 1
a) Karnataka b) Orissa
c) Madhya Pradesh d) Jharkhand
Q7. Which one of the following is the Electronic Capital of India. 1
a) Hyderabad b) Bengaluru
c) Chennai d) Pune
Q8. Which one of the following is the longest National Highway of India. 1
a) National Highway -1 b) National Highway – 2
c) National Highway – 7 d) National Highway – 15
Q9. National Alliance for People’s Movements (NAPM) is : 1 a) an Organization of Organizations b) an environmental movement. c) a political party. d) a public interest group.
Q10. Which one of the following is commonality between the movement for democracy in Nepal and Bolivia’s water war ? 1
a) Regional Participation b) Violent Struggle
c) Mass Mobilization d) Religious base
Q11. Which one of the following is the example of two party system? 1
a) India b) China
c) United States of America d) Pakistan
Q12. The word LTTE is associated with which of the following countries: 1
a) India b) Pakistan
c) Bangladesh d) Sri Lanka
Q13. Give any two examples used of borrowing : 1
a) Land and buildings
b) Cash and Furniture
c) Family members and servants
d) Social status and academic qualifications
Q14. What are the investments made by MNCs called ? 1 a) The investment made by the government. b) Private sector government c) Large government d) Foreign government
Q15. When is “National Consumers Day” Celebrated in India ? 1
a) 20th November b) 24th October
c) 24th December d) 28th February

Q16. The political party which believes in Marxism Leninism is : 1 a) Nationalist Congress Party. b) Communist Party of India. c) Dravida Munnetra Kadagam (DMK) d) Bahujan Samaj Party.
Q17. Who was Giuseppe Mazzini ? What were his views ? Give any two. 3
Explain the role of women as warriors in Vietnam during the 1960s.
Q18. In what three ways did the first World War help in the growth of National movement in India ? 3
Q19. “Iron is the basis of modern civilization.” On the basis of this statement, give three uses of iron. 3
Q20. “Agriculture and Industry are complementary to each other.” Explain it with the help of an example. 3
Q21. Study the given table carefully and answer the following questions: 3

|Sector |Share of Production |Loom age |
|Mills |6.00 Percent |1.33 Lakhs |
|Power Loom |54.17 Percent |14 Lakhs |
|Hand Loom |23.00 Percent |N.A. |

a) Which sector has the highest share in the production of fabrics in India?
b) Why is it important for our country to keep the mill-sector loom age lower than power loom and hand loom? Give two reasons.
Q22. What is the difference between a pressure group and a political party? 3
Q23. How is democracy a better form of government than dictatorship or any other alternative? 3
Q24. What are the three major challenges to democracy? Explain the challenge of deepening of democracy. 3
Q25. Explain any three functions of political parties. 3
Q26. Should more Indian companies emerge as MNCs ? How would it benefit the people in the country ? 3
Q27. Explain any three reasons for introducing New Economic Policy in 1991?
Q28. What are the various ways by which people may be exploited in the market? Write any three. 3
Q29. Explain the term COPRA and state is main features. 3
Q30. Explain any four steps taken by the French to solve the problem of Plague in Vietnam. 4
Examine any four measures and practices introduced by the French Revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French People. 4
Q31. Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlett Act 1919 ? Explain any four reasons. 4
Q32. Mention any two inland waterways of India. Write three characteristics of each. 4
Q33. What do you mean by Khilafat and Non - Cooperation Movement? Write the name of important leaders of this movement. 4
Q34. What is “Double coincidence of wants "? Explain the barter system. 4
Q35. Two features (A) and (B) are marked in the given outline map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked on the map. 2 a) A main center of International Trade. b) The place where the cotton mill workers Satyagraha was organized.
Locate and label the following items with appropriate symbols on the same map. a) Name the place where Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. b) Chauri-Choura Incident.
Q36 Three features (A), (B) and (C) are marked in the given outline political map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked in the map. 3 A) The Southern Terminal Station of North - South Corridor. B) Type of a soil. C) A coal mine of Tamil Nadu. Or Locate and label the following items with appropriate symbols on the same map. i) Bhilai Iron and Steel Plant. ii) Para deep Sea Port iii) Hyderabad International Airport.


Note :- According to the CBSE, the Question papers of SA-I & II have been changed. Now the Q.P. will be 90 marks in place of 80 marks.

Class X
Social Science


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