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Study on Vehicular Pollution and Environmental Administration

In: Business and Management

Submitted By royanjan2003
Words 6160
Pages 25
Study on Vehicular Pollution and Environmental Administration

Course Name: Legal Aspects of Business

Faculty: Prof.
Name:
Roll: 2014PGPMX
Submission Date: 15th July 2015

Table of Contents
1. Introduction 3
2. Conceptual Discussion & implementation of the existing system 4
2.1 Vehicular pollutants and their health/environmental effects 4
2.2 Vehicular pollutants and climate changes 4
2.3 Vehicular Pollution Control Measures in India 6
2.4 Vehicular Emission Standards 7
2.5 Emission standards for controlling pollution from new vehicles in India 8
2.6 Road map for Vehicular Emission norms for new vehicles 8
2.7 Inspection & Maintenance (I/M) Practice in India 9
2.8 Pollution Under Control (PUC) Certification system 10
2.9 Noise Standards for Vehicles 12
2.10 Improvement in Fuel Quality 13
2.11 Indian Initiative for Alternate Fuels 13
3. Data Analysis and Interpretation 15
3.1 Environment Protection Act, 1986 15
3.2 The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 16
3.3 The Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 17
3.4 Global Environmental Interaction 19
4. CONCLUSIONS 20

1. Introduction
“Nature is the source of all material things: the Maker, the means of making, and the things made. All actions take place in time by the intervening of the forces of Nature; but the man, lost in selfish delusion thinks that he himself is the actor.” (Isha Upanishad)
“Environmental conservation is about negotiating the transition from past to future in such a way as to secure the transfer of maximum significance.” Holland and Rawles (1930)
Environmental Administration is the concept of managing human affair in such a way that biological health, diversity and ecological balance will be preserved. It is also defined as process of carrying out activities which are concerned with protection and enhancement of the quality of the environment.
The environmental problems are categorised under Land & Water; Forestry & Wild Life; Pollution- Air, Water, Noise; Human Settlement.
In this document we will focus on the Air Pollution due to vehicular emission and review the different Legislative & Administrative measures for the Environmental protection.
Air pollution due to vehicular emission is one of the serious environmental concerns of the urban world including India where majority of the population is exposed to poor air quality. The health related problems such as respiratory diseases, risk of developing cancers and other serious ailments etc. due to poor air quality are known and well documented. Besides the health effects, air pollution also contributes to tremendous economic losses, especially in the sense of financial resources that are required for giving medical assistance to the affected people. Most of the Indian Cities are also experiencing rapid urbanization and the majority of the country’s population is expected to be living in cities within a span of next two decades.
Hence, legislation and standards are adopted for the control of vehicle emissions by various governments. Emission standards set quantitative limits on the permissible amount of specific air pollutants that may be released from specific sources over specific timeframes. They are generally designed to achieve air quality standards and to protect human health. 2. -------------------------------------------------
Conceptual Discussion & implementation of the existing system
2.1 Vehicular pollutants and their health/environmental effects
The vehicular emissions have damaging effects on both human health and ecology. The effects may be direct or in-direct covering right from reduced visibility to cancers and death in some cases of acute exposure of pollutants specially carbon monoxide. These pollutants are believed to directly affect the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. In particular, high levels of Sulphur dioxide and Suspended Particulate Matter are associated with increased mortality, morbidity and impaired pulmonary function. The overall effects of vehicular emissions and pollutant wise health effects are summarized in table below. Pollutant | Effect on Human Health | Carbon Mon-oxid | Affects the cardio vascular system, exacerbating cardiovascular disease symptoms, particularly angina; may also particularly affect foetuses, sick, anaemic and young children, affects nervous system impairing physical coordination, vision and judgments, creating nausea and headaches, reducing productivity and increasing personal discomfort. | Nitrogen Oxides | Increased susceptibility to infections, pulmonary diseases, impairment of lung function and eye, nose and throat irritations. | Sulphur Dioxide | Affect lung function adversely. | Particulate Matter and Respirable Particulate Matter (SPM and RPM) | Fine particulate matter may be toxic in itself or may carry toxic (including carcinogenic) trace substance, and can alter the immune system. Fine particulates penetrate deep into the respiratory system irritating lung tissue and causing long-term disorders. | Lead | Impairs liver and kidney, causes brain damage in children resulting in lower I.Q., hyperactivity and reduced ability to concentrate. | Benzene | Both toxic and carcinogenic. Excessive incidence of leukemia (blood cancer) in high exposure areas. | Hydrocarbons | Potential to cause cancer | 2.2 Vehicular pollutants and climate changes
The world average temperature has risen by about 1°F over the past century which is mainly contributed by the release of anthropogenic Green House Gases (GHGs). GHGs include, Carbon Di-oxide, Water vapour, Nitrous Oxide, Methane and Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) whose properties relate to the transmission or reflection of different types of solar radiations. The increase in such gases in the atmosphere is a result of the burning of fossil fuels, emission of pollutants into the atmosphere by power plants and vehicle engines, etc.
Of all human activities, driving motor vehicles produces one of the most intensive CO2 emissions and other toxic gases per capita. A single tank of gasoline releases 140 ~180 kilograms of CO2.

Motor vehicles have been the largest contributor air pollution levels in urban centres of the world.

Besides substantial CO2 emissions, significant quantities of CO, HC, NOx, SPM and other air toxins are emitted from these motor vehicles. The problem in India has further been compounded by the concentration of large number of vehicles and comparatively high motor vehicles to population ratios in the cities. Reasons for increasing vehicular pollution problems in urban India are as below: * High vehicle density in Indian urban centres. * Older vehicles predominant in vehicle vintage * Predominance of private vehicles especially cars and two wheelers, owing to unsatisfactory public transport system, thereby causing higher idling emissions and traffic congestion. * Absence of adequate land use planning in development of urban areas, thereby causing more vehicle travel and fuel consumption * Inadequate inspection & maintenance facilities. * Adulteration of fuel & fuel products * Improper traffic management system & road conditions * High levels of pollution at traffic intersections * Absence of effective mass rapid transport system & intra-city railway networks * High population exodus to the urban centres. * Increasing number Skyrocketing buildings in the urban areas causes stagnation of the vehicular emissions to the ground level and unable its proper dispersion. 2.3 Vehicular Pollution Control Measures in India
For containing vehicular pollution, the Government has taken important initiatives in recent years. The Union Government has emphasised the need for planning and developing strategies to implement mitigation measures to maintain the urban air quality and make the cities cleaner and greener for achieving better air quality and good health for its citizens. Over the past decade or so, the government has bought in statutes aimed at regulating and monitoring industrial and vehicular pollution across the country
The first emission norms were introduced in India in 1991 for petrol and 1992 for diesel vehicles. These were followed by making the Catalytic converter mandatory for petrol vehicles and the introduction of unleaded petrol in the market
On 29 April 1999 the Supreme Court of India ruled that all vehicles in India have to meet Euro I or India-2000 norms by 1 June 1999 and Euro II will be mandatory in the NCR by April 2000. Car makers were not prepared for this transition and in a subsequent judgment the implementation date for Euro II was not enforced
In 2002, the Indian government accepted the report submitted by the Mashelkar committee. The committee proposed a road map for the roll out of Euro based emission norms for India. It also recommended a phased implementation of future norms with the regulations being implemented in major cities first and extended to the rest of the country after a few years.
Based on the recommendations of the committee, the National Auto Fuel policy was announced officially in 2003. India has since progressively lowered its permissible vehicular pollution emission limits for new four-wheeled vehicles following the path laid out by the European Union. The Auto Fuel Policy of 2003 laid down a road map for vehicular emission and fuel quality standards for the remainder of the new century’s first decade. This road map has been largely implemented. In 2010, Bharat IV fuel quality standards and vehicle emission standards for four-wheeled vehicles were implemented in 13 major cities, while Bharat III standards took effect in the rest of the country. As of January 2013, Bharat IV standards had been expanded to about ten more cities, most of which are along fuel supply routes. 2.4 Vehicular Emission Standards
Vehicle emission standards are the primary technical policy for controlling emissions from vehicles. The Motor Vehicles Act, 1988, and the Central Motor Vehicles rules (CMVR) 1989, are the principal instruments for regulation of motor vehicular traffic /emissions throughout the country. The implementation of various provisions of this Act rests with the state governments. The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways acts as a nodal agency for the formulation and implementation of various provisions of the Motor Vehicle Act and CMVR. The Ministry of Road Transport & Highways is advised by the CMVR–Technical Standing Committee on various technical aspects related to CMVR. This Committee has representatives from organizations such as the Ministry of Heavy Industries, Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRT&H), Bureau of Indian Standards, testing agencies such as the Automotive Research Association of India, Vehicle Research and Development Establishment, Central Institute of Road Transport, and industry representatives from the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers and Automotive Component Manufacturers Association
Although the Air Act, 1981, and the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 provide for the prescription of automobile emission standards by the CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) or Ministry of Environment and Forests, implementation and enforcement of these standards is the responsibility of the Union Ministry of Road Transport and Highways or the Transport Commissioner at the state level. For issues related to the implementation of emission regulations the MoRT&H is advised by a separate committee the Standing Committee on Implementation of Emission Legislation. The MoRT&H has formed this committee to discuss future emission norms, related test procedures and the implementation strategy 2.5 Emission standards for controlling pollution from new vehicles in India
The first initiative to regulate vehicle emissions in India started in the year 1989 when Ministry of Environment & Forests constituted an expert committee to notify the emission standards for both new and in-use vehicles under the Environment (Protection) Act. The first Indian emission regulations were idle emission limits which became effective in 1989. These idle emission regulations were soon replaced by mass emission limits for both gasoline (1991) and diesel (1992) vehicles. From 1995 all new gasoline passenger cars in the four metros were required to compulsorily fit catalytic converters, which were further, made applicable to all metros, state capitals and Union Territories from 1998. Sooner the need for tighter emission norms surfaced owing to the growing problems of vehicular emissions particularly in the metro cities and in 1996 more stringent norms came into force. In year 1998 the Government notified emission norms for vehicles fitted with catalytic converters, which were over 50% stricter than the 1996 norms. In 2000, following the European model, Euro-I equivalent emission norms called India Stage-I were notified throughout the country which were overtaken by Euro-II equivalent Bharat Stage-II norms in the four metro cities by 2001. Bharat Stage II norms, were introduced in the National Capital Region (NCR) for passenger vehicles up to GVW 3.5T from 1 April 2000 and for heavier vehicles from 24 October 2001 in the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi. In Mumbai, were extended from 1 January 2001 and 31 October 2001 respectively. For both Chennai and Kolkata, the corresponding dates are 1 July 2001 and 31 October 2001, respectively. Fitness norms for commercial vehicles were tightened with effect from 28 March 2001. The emission norms for CNG and LPG vehicles were notified in the year 2000 and 2001, respectively. The Central Motor Vehicles Rules have been frequently amended to take into account the changing requirements. The emission norms in India are behind European ones by four to five years for all categories of vehicles except for two- and three-wheelers. For them, Bharat 2000 norms are far stricter than the Euro II norms and are one of the most stringent in the world. 2.6 Road map for Vehicular Emission norms for new vehicles
Indian cities have different climatic conditions, human population, different vehicle population density and source of pollution. The Indian cities with a population of more than one million people with high vehicle population and the cities in which prescribed standards are violated in one or additional parameters in 72 non-attainment cities, which require actions for vehicle pollution control ahead of the rest of the country. Since the year 2000, India started adopting European emission and fuel regulations for four-wheeled light-duty and for heavy-duty vehicles. In respect of 2& 3 wheeler norms, India is already ahead of most of the advanced world as far as the emission norms are concerned. The road map for vehicular emission norms Bhart Stage II, III and IV is given in Table below. Emission Norms | Date of effective | Entire Country | Identified Cities | New Vehicles except 2 & 3 wheelers | Bharat Stage II | From 2000 to 2001 | | Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai | | From 2003 | | NCR, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmadabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur and Agra | | From 1st April 2005 | Yes | | Bharat Stage III | From 1st April 2005 | | For all private vehicles, city public service vehicles and city commercial vehicles in identified cities* | | From 1st April 2010 | Yes | | Bharat Stage IV | From 1st April 2010 | | For all private vehicles, city public service vehicles and city commercial vehicles in identified cities* | New 2 & 3Wheelers | Bharat Stage II | From 1st April 2005 | Yes | | Bharat Stage II | Preferably from April 01, 2008 but not later than April 01, 2010 in any case | Yes | |

2.7 Inspection & Maintenance (I/M) Practice in India
In major cities there exists a mandatory system for inspection and maintenance but it is now increasingly felt to upgrade the present system to a more effective one in the near future. In the current system, every commercial vehicle in India has to go for a mandatory fitness test. The renewal period for fitness certification in general is 2 years for new commercial vehicle and every 1 year for old vehicles. For private vehicles no mandatory periodic fitness check is required in India but there exist a system of re-registration of private vehicles after 15 years of initial registration. But all in-use vehicles are required to obtain emission check certificate called Pollution Under Control (PUC). Frequency of this PUC certification varies from 2 to 4 times a year. This PUC is issued based on conformity to idle emission test for gasoline vehicles and free acceleration smoke test for diesel vehicles. 2.8 Pollution Under Control (PUC) Certification system
The Ministry of Environment & Forests constituted an expert committee to notify the emission standards for both new and in-use vehicles under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1989. The emission norms notified for compliance to PUC certification are stated below Type of Vehicle | Emission | Limit | Gasoline 4 wheeler | CO | 3% | Gasoline 2 / 3 wheeler | CO | 4.40% | Diesel vehicle | Smoke | 65 HSU |
The in-use vehicle emission norms have been tightened with effect from 1st October 2004 and computerization model for emission check has been developed by Society of Indian Automobile Manufactures (SIAM), which is already in place in the major metro cities, same is depicted in Figure below

The LAMBDA (dimensionless value representing burning efficiency of engine in terms of the air / fuel ratio in the exhaust gases) measurement and tighter emission norms for in-use vehicles with such priority as may be warranted, after ensuring that gas analyzers capable of measuring the values, duly approved by the testing agencies, are available in the city or area, is proposed to be introduced in the respective state or union territory for vehicles provided that in case of petrol vehicles fitted with three way closed loop catalytic Converters operating in a specific city or area like Delhi.
Pollution Under Control (PUC) Norms for in-use Petrol/CNG/LPG vehicles were notified by MoRT&H for implementation throughout the country from 1st October 2004, to comply with the idling emission standards for CO and HC in case of petro vehicle and smoke density for Diesel vehicles are given in following Tables. Implementation of the same has been delayed owing to initial problems pertaining to the new analysers. Type of Vehicle | CO % | HC (ppm) | 2&3 wheelers (2/4 stroke) (vehicles manufactured before 31/3/2000) | 4.5 | 9,000 | 2&3 wheelers (2/4 stroke) (vehicles manufactured after 31/3/2000) | 3.5 | 6,000/4,500 | Bharat Stage -II compliant 4 wheelers | 0.5 | 750 | Four wheelers other than Bharat Stage -II compliant | 3.0 | 1,5000 |

2.9 Noise Standards for Vehicles
The noise level in cities is rapidly increasing due to heavier traffic and more powerful engines. The noise limits for vehicles at manufacturing stage were notified by Ministry of Environment Forest under the Environmental (Protection) Rules, 1986. The noise limits for vehicles applicable at manufacturing stage from year 2005 are given below. The test method to be followed shall be IS: 3028-1998. Sl No | Type of vehicle | Noise Limits dB(A) | 1 | Two wheeler | | Displacement upto 80cc | 75 | | Displacement more than 80cc but upto 175cc | 77 | | Displacement more than 175cc | 80 | 2 | Three wheeler | | Displacement upto 175 cc | 77 | | Displacement more than 175cc | 80 | 3 | Passengers Vehicles having not more than nine seats, including the driver’s seat | 74 | 4 | Passengers Vehicles having more than nine seats and Vehicles used for transport of goods | | | With an engine power less than150 KW | 78 | | With an engine power of 150 KW or above | 80 |

2.10 Improvement in Fuel Quality
Much of the pollution control depends on the quality of the fuel. There are various constituents/parameters in the fuels (Gasoline & Diesel) together contributes towards emissions from the vehicles. There exist code of standards or specifications for the gasoline and diesel to be sold in the market in every country. National or other legally enforceable specifications represent the minimum quality that must be supplied and it is implicit that engine designers should ensure that their vehicles would run satisfactorily on such a quality of fuel. In India the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) notifies the requisite specifications for gasoline and diesel.
Phasing out of lead: The specification of lead in India was 0.56 gm/l max up to 1994. It has been totally phased out and there is no leaded gasoline production. India has been totally stopped from February 1, 2000.
Increasing the Octane Number: increase in the octane number (RON – 88 and AKI - 84) has been done with effect from April 1, 2000. This has been achieved through installation of new facilities and change in refinery operations. Premium grade of gasoline with octane number 93 is now supplied in all major cities.
Introduction of benzene content limit: A limit of 3% (vol) max has been introduced in the four mega cities w.e.f April 1, 2000. The content of benzene in the gasoline has been further reduced to 1% w.e.f April 1, 2005 in 11 mega cities states ahead. However, gasoline with 3% benzene content is made available throughout the country from April 01, 2005.
Reduction of sulphur content: the sulphur content in gasoline has been reduced from 0.2 % max to 0.05 % from April 1, 2005 all over the country. Further w.e.f 01.04.2010, the content of sulphur in gasoline is proposed to be reduced to 0.005% (50 mg/kg) from existing 0.015% (150 mg/kg, in 11 mega cities namely Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad including Secunderabad, Ahemdabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur & Agra). However, all over the country, content of sulphur in gasoline is proposed to be 0.015% (150 mg/kg) from 01.04.2010. 2.11 Indian Initiative for Alternate Fuels
The selection of alternate fuels depends on the load of emission to be allowed, the technology available and the cost of system to be developed. A system that fulfils the legislative requirements and can be sold at the lowest price is to be generally accepted. The Alternate fuels have to meet the following criteria: * Technical Acceptability * Economically Competitiveness * Environmentally acceptability * Safety and Availability
The important fuel that are considered as meeting the above criteria include Natural Gas (CNG/LNG), Propane (LPG), Ethanol, Methanol, Diesel, Electric fuel, Hydrogen, Di-methyl Ether(DME), P-series, Fuel Cell and Solar fuels. Indian Government has taken various initiatives time to time for the development and promotion of cleaner alternative to conventional automotive fuels i.e. diesel and gasoline.
Natural Gas is a mixture of hydrocarbons mainly methane (CH4) and is produced either from gas wells or in conjunction with crude oil production. Natural Gas offers a significant potential for reducing harmful emissions from vehicles, especially those of fine particulates, compared to conventional fuel. It stands substantially better than conventional fuels both in life cycle emissions and vehicle exhaust emissions. Due to its low energy density for use as a vehicular fuel, it is compressed to a pressure of 200 - 250 bars to facilitate storage in cylinders mounted in vehicle and so it is called compressed natural gas (CNG). India's recoverable resources of more than 690 billion cubic meters make it a long-term substituted fuel for use in petrol and diesel engines.
LPG is a by-product of natural gas processing or a product that comes from crude oil refining and is composed primarily of propane and butane with smaller amounts of propylene and butylenes. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consists mainly of propane, propylene, butane, and butylene in various mixtures. Lower carbon-to-hydrogen ratio, higher octane rating and its ability to form a homogeneous mixture inside the combustion chamber enable it to produce lesser emissions compared to conventional fuels.
Ethanol has high octane and relatively clean combustion characteristics. The presence of oxygen in ethanol facilitates combustion reducing CO and HC emissions. Ethanol is a safe replacement for toxic octane enhancers in gasoline such as benzene, toluene and xylene. While the calorific value of ethanol is lower than that of gasoline by 40% it makes up a part by increased efficiency. So far its use as 100% fuel is concerned it has no problem in designing an engine to run on only ethanol. However, for the reason of compatibility as well as availability its use for blending is only being practiced. It can be blended both in diesel as well as gasoline.
Electric Fuel: Electricity is unique among the alternative fuels in that mechanical power is derived directly from it, whereas the other alternative fuels release stored chemical energy through combustion to provide mechanical power. Electric vehicles do not undergo any combustion process. Mechanical power is directly derived from electricity. There are no tailpipe emissions. Water is the only emission when hydrogen is used as the fuel in fuel cells. But the process of commercial hydrogen production to feed the fuel cell is associated with some CO2 emissions. But still they are very far from grabbing the moderate share of the commercial vehicles market.
Bio-Diesel: India has great potential for production of bio-fuels like bio-ethanol and biodiesel from non-edible oil seeds. The National Mission biodiesel program consists of two phases. The first phase consists of demonstration projects covering both forest and non-forest lands in various states across the country. The phase II of the mission will focus on uncovered areas with a target to achieve 20% blending of bio-diesel with diesel.The phase II of national mission is proposed to be people driven with the government playing the role of facilitator. It aims to expand the program to cover up to 11 million hectare in phase II. The implementation will be done in phased manner. The first step is to achieve a 5% biodiesel blend in diesel in 9 states; then aim at a 5% biodiesel blend all over the country. Later the biodiesel blend percentage will be increased to 10% across the country and lastly work towards more than 10% biodiesel blend in the entire country. In order to achieve the set targets, the National Mission will look into nurseries development, plantation on forest and non-forest lands, seed collection and oil extraction centres, transesterification units, blending and marketing arrangements and research and development (R&D) studies to fill gaps in knowledge.

3. Data Analysis and Interpretation
Article 48A- The state shall endeavour to protect and improve the environmental and to safeguard the forest and wildlife of the country.
Article 51A- It shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the national resources
The Department of Environment was established in India in 1980. This later became Ministry of Environment & Forests in 1985 which is responsible for the implementation of all Environmental regulations. 3.1 Environment Protection Act, 1986
The Environment Protection Act, 1986 came into force soon after Bhopal Gas Tragedy and is considered an umbrella legislation as it fills many gaps in the existing laws. This act is enacted under article 253 of Indian constitution to protect and improve environmental quality, control and reduce pollution from all sources. It sets the standards for emission or discharge of environmental pollutants. The Noise Pollution (Regulation & Control) amendment was done on 2002 which lays down such terms and conditions as are necessary to reduce noise pollution.
Thereafter a large number of laws came into existence as the problems began arising; for e.g. Handling and Management of Hazardous Waste Rule in 1989.
Penalties under the EPA are as follows:

# | Offences | EPA | Penalty | 1 | Violation of any of the rule under the act | 37 | Imprisonment for term not less than1-year or 6-months & may extend to 6 years or with fine. | 2 | In case failure continues less than 1-yaer | 37 | Additional fine of Rs 500 per day | 3 | In case failure continues more than 1-yaer | 37 | Imprisonment for term not be less than 2 years & may extend 7 years & with fine. | 3.2 The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
This act was based on the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm in June 1972, and would take appropriate steps for the preservation of the natural resources of the earth which, among other things, include the preservation of the quality of air and control of air pollution. The central government used Article 253 to enact this law and made it applicable throughout India.
This Act defines air pollutant as ‘any solid, liquid or gaseous substance (including noise) present in the atmosphere in such concentration as may be or tend to be injurious to human beings or other living creatures or plants or property or environment’.
Penalties under the Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act are as follows:

# | Offences | PCPA | Penalty | 1 | discharging emission of air pollutants in excess of the standards | 253 | Imprisonment for a term between 18 months and 6 years and with fine; | 2 | In case failure continues less than 1-yaer | 253 | Additional fine which may extend to Rs.5000 per day | 3 | In case failure continues more than 1-yaer | 253 | Imprisonment for a term between 2 years and 7 years and with fine. | 4 | Obstruction of any person acting under the orders of SPCBs;
Failure to intimate the occurrence of the emissions in excess of the standards;
Giving false information for obtaining consent to operate | 253 | Imprisonment for a term which may extend to 3 months with fine which may extend to Rs.10000 or both. |

3.3 The Motor Vehicles Act, 1988
This is an Act of the Parliament of India which regulates all aspects of road transport vehicles. The Act came into force from 1 July 1989. It replaced Motor Vehicles Act, 1939 which earlier replaced the first such enactment Motor Vehicles Act, 1914. The Act provides in detail the legislative provisions regarding licensing of drivers/conductors, registration of motor vehicles, control of motor vehicles through permits, special provisions relating to state transport undertakings, traffic regulation, insurance, liability, offences and penalties, etc. For exercising the legislative provisions of the Act, the Government of India made the Central Motor Vehicles Rules 1989.
Penalties under the MVA are as follows: # | Offences | MVA | Penalty | 1 | Not carrying valid licence while driving | 177 | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 100; Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 300 | 2 | Not carrying documents as required | 177 | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 100; Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 300 | 3 | Dangerous Lane cutting | 177 | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 100; Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 300 | 4 | Moving against One-Way | 177 | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 100; Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 300 | 5 | Overtaking dangerously | 177 | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 100; Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 300 | 6 | Jumping Signal (driving at red light) | 177 | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 100; Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 300 | 7 | Driving on Footpath | 177 | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 100; Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 300 | 8 | Stopping at Pedestrian Crossing or Crossing Stop Line | 177 | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 100; Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 300 | 9 | Parking Violations | 177 | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 100; Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 300 | 10 | Horn offences | 177 | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 100; Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 300 | 11 | Number Plate Offences | 177 | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 100; Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 300 | 12 | Improper use of Headlights | 177 | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 100; Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 300 | 13 | Charging Excess Fare | 177 | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 100; Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 300 | 14 | Misbehavior with Passenger | 177 | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 100; Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 300 | 15 | Refusal to ply for Hire | 177 | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 100; Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 300 | 16 | Breach of rules regarding carriage of hazardous goods | 177 | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 100; Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 300 | 17 | Using Mobile Phones while driving | 177 | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 100; Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 300 | 18 | Driving without Helmet | 177 | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 100; Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 300 | 19 | Breach of order, refusal to give information | 179 | Fine up to Rs 500 or Imprisonment up to 1 month or both. | 20 | Allowing the vehicle to be driven by a person who does not | 180 | Fine up to Rs 1000 or Imprisonment up to 3 months or both. | | possess a valid licence | | | 21 | Driving without valid licence | 181 | Fine up to Rs 500 or Imprisonment up to 3 months or both. | 22 | Offences related to driving license | 182 | Fine up to Rs 500 or Imprisonment up to 3 months or both. | 23 | Lack of proper maintenance and structure of vehicle | 182(A) | First Offence: Rs. 1000; Subsequent Offence: Rs. 5000 | 24 | Driving at a speed exceeding as mentioned in MVA:112 | 183 | First Offence: Rs. 400; Subsequent Offence: Rs. 1000. | 25 | Dangerous or Reckless Driving | 184 | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 1000 or Imprisonment up to 6 months or both. Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 2000 or Imprisonment up to 2 yrs or both. | 26 | Driving under influence of Drugs or Alcohols | 185 | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 2000 or Imprisonment up to 6 months or both. Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 3000 or Imprisonment up to 2 yrs or both. | 27 | Accidental Offences | 187 | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 500 or Imprisonment up to 3 months or both. Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 1000 or Imprisonment up to 6 months or both | 28 | Illegal racing on road | 189 | Fine up to Rs 500 or Imprisonment up to 1 month or both. | 29 | Using vehicle in Unsafe conditions | 190 | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 250. Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 1000 or Imprisonment up to 2 yrs or both. | 30 | Using Loudspeaker beyond specified limit | 190(2) | First Offence: Rs. 1000; Subsequent Offence: Rs. 2000. | 31 | Carriage of goods which are of dangerous & hazardous nature to human life | 190(3) | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 3000 or Imprisonment up to 1 year or both. Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 5000 or Imprisonment up to 1 years or both. | 32 | Driving without Registration and valid Permit | 192 | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 5000 (not less than Rs. 2000) or Imprisonment up to 3 months or both. Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 10000 (not less than Rs. 5000) or Imprisonment up to 1 yr or both. | 33 | Driving without valid Fitness Certificate | 192 | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 5000 (not less than Rs. 2000) or Imprisonment up to 3 months or both. Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 10000 (not less than Rs. 5000) or Imprisonment up to 1 yr or both. | 34 | Using Private vehicle for Commercial purposes | 192 | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 5000 (not less than Rs. 2000) or Imprisonment up to 3 months or both. Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 10000 (not less than Rs. 5000) or Imprisonment up to 1 yr or both. | 35 | Breach of Permit conditions | 192 | First Offence: Fine up to Rs. 5000 (not less than Rs. 2000) or Imprisonment up to 3 months or both. Subsequent Offence: Fine up to Rs. 10000 (not less than Rs. 5000) or Imprisonment up to 1 yr or both. | 36 | Overloading a vehicle beyond extent limit | 194 | Fine up to Rs 2000 and Rs. 1000 per tonne of extra load. | 37 | Driving without Insurance | 196 | Fine up to Rs 1000 or Imprisonment up to 3 months or both. | 38 | Driving of vehicle without legal authority | 197 | Fine up to Rs 500 or Imprisonment up to 3 months or both. | 39 | Disturbance in free flow of traffic | 201 | Fine up to Rs 50 per hour. | 3.4 Global Environmental Interaction
UN Convention on Environment at Stockholm, 1972 is a basic foundation for global environmental interaction. The united nation Environment Program (UNEP) coordinates United Nations environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies. The other agencies of UNEP are the World Meteorological Organization and the UNEP established the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
The U.N. Conference on Environment and Development held at Rio in 1992 specifies the following objectives of environment policy: (i) to incorporate environmental costs in the decisions of producers and consumers and to pass these costs on to the other parts of society, other countries or to future generations; (ii) to move more fully towards the integration of social and environmental costs into economic activities, so that prices will appropriately reflect the relative scarcity and total value of resources and contribute towards the prevention of environmental degradation; and (iii) to include, wherever appropriate, the use of market principles in the framing of economic instruments and policies to pursue sustainable development. 4. -------------------------------------------------
CONCLUSIONS
India has taken numerous measures over the past decade to reduce emissions from its vehicle fleet. Continuing this progress with further action to tighten vehicular emission and fuel quality standards, to close the gap with international best practices, and to enhance compliance and enforcement activities to remove gross emitters from India’s roads will profoundly improve air quality, public health, and the quality of life. While there will inevitably be costs associated with new standards, technologies, and compliance programs, just the benefits associated with cutting down on premature mortality as a result of reduced PM2.5 emissions will by themselves far outweigh costs in the long term.
Other benefits, which cannot be quantitatively assessed, will also have strong repercussions for India’s economy. These include lower incidence of mortality and morbidity from reductions in all vehicular air pollutants (not only particulate matter), increased agricultural yields, and climate change mitigation.

Bibliography: http://www.cpcb.nic.in/upload/NewItems/NewItem_157_VPC_REPORT.pdf https://en.wikipedia.org

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