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Pages 517
gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

1

cÖZz¨cKvi
Ck¦iP›`ª we`¨vmvMi
[†jLK cwiwPwZ : Ck¦iP›`ª we`¨vmvMi cwðge‡½i †gw`bxcyi †Rjvi exiwmsn MÖv‡g 26 †k †m‡Þ¤^i 1820 mv‡j Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| wZwb KjKvZv ms¯‹…Z K‡j‡Ri QvÎ| cÖ_‡g ms¯‹Z I c‡i Bs‡iwR fvlvq cvwÊZ¨ AR©b … K‡i wZwb eû m¤§vb I L¨vwZ jvf K‡ib| Dwbk eQi eq‡m we‡kl cix¶vq mvdj¨ AR©b K‡i wZwb Ôwe`¨vmvMiÕ Dcvwa jvf K‡ib| e`vb¨Zvi Rb¨ RbmvaviY Zuv‡K Ô`qvi mvMiÕ AvL¨v †`q| GKvav‡i gnvcwÊZ, wk¶vwe`, mgvR ms¯‹viK I L¨vZbvgv †jLKiƒ‡c cÖwZôv jvf mvaviYZ Kg e¨w³i †¶‡ÎB N‡U| 1841 mv‡j wZwb †dvU© DBwjqvg K‡j‡Ri cÖavb cwÊZ wbhy³ nb| wZwb 1851 mv‡j ms¯‹…Z K‡j‡Ri Aa¨¶ c‡` DbœxZ nb| wZwbB cÖ_g Ôevsjv M‡`¨i Af¨š—ixY k„•Ljv Avwe®‹vi K‡ib Ges M`¨ fvlvq hwZ wPývw` h_vh_fv‡e cÖ‡qvM K‡ib| d‡j Zuvi M`¨ n‡q I‡V ˆkjxm¤úbœ| GRb¨ Zvu‡K ejv nq evsjv M‡`¨i RbK|Õ evsjv eY©mg~n myk„•Ljfv‡e mvwR‡q wkï‡`i evsjv eY©gvjvi cÖ_g mv_©K MÖš’ 1855 mv‡j †jLv Zuvi ÔeY© cwiPqÕ| G MÖš’ AvRI evsjv fvlv wk¶vi †¶‡Î w`Kwb‡`©kK| Ô†eZvj cÂweskwZÕ, ÔkKzš—jvÕ, ÔmxZvi ebevmÕ Ôwe`¨vmvMi PwiZÕ, Ôåvwš—wejvmÕ cÖf…wZ MÖš’ Zvui cÖavb iPbv| Ck¦iP›`ª we`¨vmvMi 1891 mv‡j g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib|]

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gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

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gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

7

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8

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9

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10

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Abyf‡e w¯’i Kwijvg †h hyeviv VwKqv †Mj| VwKevi K_v, hyev `kÑev‡ivUv, wKš‘ hyeZxiv cÖvq Pwj−k Rb, †mB Pwj−k R‡b nvwm‡j nvBj‡Ûi cëb V‡K| nvm¨ÑDcnvm¨ †kl nB‡j, b„‡Z¨i D‡`¨vM Avi¤¢ nBj| hyeZx mK‡j nvZ aivawi Kwiqv Aa©P›`ªvK…wZ †iLvweb¨vm Kwiqv `uvovBj| †`wL‡Z eo PgrKvi nBj| mKj¸wjB mg-D”P, mKj¸wjB cv_y‡i Kv‡jv| mK‡ji gv_vq ebcy®ú, K‡Y© ebcy®ú, I‡ô nvwm| mK‡jB Avn¬v‡` cwic~Y©, Avn¬v‡` PÂj| e„‡×iv Bw½Z Kwi‡j hyev‡`i `‡j gv`j evwRj, Agwb hyeZx‡`i †`n †hb wknwiqv DwVj; c‡iB Zvnviv b„Z¨ Avi¤¢ Kwij| Zvnv‡`i b„Z¨ Avgv‡`i P‡¶ bZzb, Zvnviv Zv‡j Zv‡j cv †dwj‡Z‡Q, A_P †Kn P‡j bv; †`v‡j bv, U‡j bv| †h †hLv‡b `uvovBqvwQj, †m †mBLv‡bB `uvovBqv Zv‡j Zv‡j cv †dwj‡Z jvwMj| b„Z¨ Avi¤¢ nB‡j ci GK e„× g nB‡Z Kw¤úZ K‡É GKwU Mx‡Zi ÔgnovÕ Avi¤¢ Kwij, Agwb hyeviv †mB MxZ D”P¯^‡i Mvwnqv DwVj, m‡½ m‡½ hyeZxiv Zxeª Zv‡b ÔayjvÕ awij| hyeZx‡`i my‡ii †XD wbK‡Ui cvnv‡o wMqv jvwM‡Z jvwMj| hyeZxiv Zv‡j Zv‡j bvwP‡Z‡Q, Zvnv‡`i gv_vi ebdzj †mBm‡½ DwV‡Z‡Q bvwg‡Z‡Q, Avevi †mB dz‡ji `ywUÑGKwU Swiqv Zvnv‡`i ¯‹‡Ü cwo‡Z‡Q| kxZKvj wbK‡U, `yBÑwZb ¯’v‡b û û Kwiqv AwMœ R¡wj‡Z‡Q, AwMœi Av‡jv‡K bZ©Kx‡`i eY© Av‡iv Kv‡jv †`LvB‡Z‡Q; Zvnviv Zv‡j Zv‡j bvwP‡Z‡Q, bvwP‡Z bvwP‡Z dz‡ji cvcwoi b¨vq mK‡j GKevi ÔwPwZqvÕ cwo‡Z‡Q, AvKvk nB‡Z P›`ª Zvnv †`wLqv nvwm‡Z‡Q, Avi eUg~‡ji AÜKv‡i ewmqv Avwg nvwm‡ZwQ|

kãv_© I UxKv : Kzmwy gZ KvbbÑdzj‡kvwfZ evMvb, dz‡jj evMvb, cÖ¯igqÑ ce©‡Zi gvwU cv_‡ii g‡Zv — n‡q hvIqv; KÈKvKxY©Ñ KuvUvq cwic~Y, `yMg; K`vPvixÑ KzrwmZ AvPvi, RNb¨ AvPiY, †bvsiv e¨envi; © © WvKMvwoÑ WvKevnx `ª“ZMvgx Mvwo, wPwVcÎ enbKvix Mvwo; g„wËKvi mvgvb¨ ¯Z~cÑ †QvU wUjv, DuPz RvqMv; `ª“Zc`we‡¶‡cÑ `ª“Z ev ZvovZvwo cv Pvwj‡q hvIqv; mv`‡iÑ Av`‡ii m‡½; cÖmbœZve¨ÄKÑ Avbw›`Z, Drdzj− wP‡Ë; GK Kuvw` mycK¡ gZ©gvb i¤¢vÑ GK Qov my›`ifv‡e ev cwic~Yiƒ‡c cvKv Kjv; ciMbvÑ © A‡bK¸‡jv MÖv‡gi mgwó, †Rjvi Ask we‡kl; †hb g‡Z© †gN Kwiqv‡QÑ cvnvo Ges Pvicv‡ki cwi‡e‡ki NbZ¡ †evSv‡Z G DcgvwU cÖ‡qvM Kiv n‡q‡Q| †hb wePwjZ b`xi msL¨vZxZ Zi½ cvjv‡gŠ‡Z ch©vqµ‡g mgZjf~wg cvnvo †hb b`x-Zi‡½i g‡Zv Ae¯’vb Ki‡Q| †KvjevjKÑ †Kvj m¤cÖ`vqfy³ evjK; mvZbixÑ KÉnvi, Mjvi gvjv; ayKawy KÑ j‡KU; aovÑ aywZ, Pxie¯¿; cv_y‡i †Q‡j¸wjÑ cvnvwo †Q‡j¸‡jv & mvaviYZ Kv‡jvI cwikªgx nq; AkxwZcivqYvÑ Avwki AwaK eqm wewkó e„×v; †jvjPh©vÑ wkw_j ev wXjv Pvgov; kªg‡nZz wPi‡hŠebvÑ cvnvwo GB †g‡qiv cwikªgx nIqvq mnmv e„× nq bv; A`¨vwcÑ AvRI, GL‡bv, †cbvj †KvWÑ †dŠR`vwi gvgjvi `Êwewa; RvbyÑ nuvUz, ¯‹ÜÑ Kuva| cvV cwiwPwZ : mÄxeP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨v‡qi Ôcvjv‡gŠÕ bvqK åg‡Yvcb¨vm †_‡K AskwU msKwjZ I m¤úvw`Z n‡q‡Q| hyeK eq‡m †jLK GKevi cvjv‡gŠ wM‡qwQ‡jb| ZviB ¯§„wZPviYg~jK iPbv GwU| †mLvbKvi cvnvo-b`x-MvQcvjv m‡e©vcwi †mLvbKvi gvbyl †jLK‡K w`‡qwQj Acvi Avb›`| GK evOvwj cwiev‡i wZwb AvwZ_¨ MÖnY K‡ib| Zv‡`i cvwievwiK Rxe‡bi GK ˆkwíK eY©bv Av‡Q G iPbvq| †Kvj m¤cÖ`v‡qi gvby‡li mvs¯‹…wZK Abyôvb Dc‡fv‡Mi GK Dc‡fvM¨Ki eY©bvI i‡q‡Q| AZ¨š— mvejxj fvlvq I wm‡bg¨vwUK X‡O Dc¯’vwcZ KvwnbxwU wbtm‡›`‡n imvZ¥K Ges †KŠZ~n‡jvÏxcK|

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

11

Abykxjbx Kg©-Abykxjb 1. m¤cÖwZ Zzwg †hLv‡b wk¶v md‡i ev åg‡Y wM‡qwQ‡j Zvi weeiY `vI| 2. evsjv‡`‡ki wewfbœ `k©bxq ¯’v‡bi bvg I cwiP‡qi GKwU PvU© ˆZwi Ki| eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ 1| cvjv‡gŠ A‡j cÖavbZ †Kvb RvwZi †jv‡Ki evm ? K. M. K. M. gvivwV †Kvj e` Af¨vm evPvjZv L. N. L. N. ¸RivwU gyÊvwi eq‡mi evwZK cvwÊZ¨

2| ÔMí Kiv G eq‡mi †ivMÕ Ñ GLv‡b e„‡×i †Kvb ˆewkó¨‡K †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q ?

DÏxcKwU c‡o 3 I 4 bs cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI : Rvgvb evevi mv‡_ wm‡j‡Ui Rvdjs hvw”Qj| iv¯—v †_‡K cvnv‡oi †mŠ›`h© †`‡L Mvwo _vgv‡Z e‡j| Zvici †b‡g †mw`‡K †`Šov‡Z ïi“ K‡i| evev †evSv‡Z Pvq H cvnvo A‡bK `~i wKš‘ Rvgvb Zv wKQz‡ZB wek¦vm Ki‡Z Pvq bv| 3| DÏxc‡Ki Rvgvb Ôcvjv‡gŠÕ iPbvi hvi mv‡_ mv`„k¨c~Y© Ñ K. †jLK L. MvoIqvb M. e½evmx N. cÖwZ‡ekxi 4| Df‡qi g‡a¨ †h ˆewkó¨ cÖKvk †c‡q‡QÑ K. wbe©yw×Zv L. åg M. GK¸u‡qgx N. mvnm m„Rbkxj cÖkœ Rwni mv‡n‡ei GjvKvi gvbyl Zvi evmv †_‡K GKUz `~‡i GKRb _v‡K| Zvi mv‡_ Avš—wiKZv, ü`¨Zv I PjvPj K‡i ¯^v”Q‡›`¨| wKš‘ Ab¨ GjvKv †_‡K Avmv Zvi cv‡ki evmvq _v‡K iwdK mv‡ne| Zvi mv‡_ m¤úK© fv‡jv _v‡K bv| eis memgq kΓZvi m¤úK© weivR K‡i| K. †jLK nvRvwiev‡M KLb †cŠu‡QwQj ? L. †jL‡Ki ¶zav AwaKZi cÖ`xß nBj †Kb ? M. DÏxc‡Ki Rwni mv‡n‡ei ¯^v”Q‡›`¨ PjvP‡ji Kvh©µg¸‡jv Ôcvjv‡gŠÕ iPbvq Kv‡`i‡K Bw½Z K‡i Zv Zz‡j ai| N. ÔDÏxcKwU cvjv‡gŠ iPbvi LÊvsk gvÎ, c~Y©i~c bqÕÑ hyw³mn we‡k−lY Ki|

12

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

dz‡ji weevn ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq
[†jLK cwiwPwZ : ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq 26†k Ryb 1838 wLªóv‡ã cwðge‡½i PweŸk ciMbv †Rjvi Aš—M©Z KuvVvjcvov MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| wZwb 1858 mv‡j KjKvZv wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K we.G cix¶vq DËxY© nb Ges †m eQiB †WcywU g¨vwR‡÷ªU I †WcywU Kv‡j±i c‡` PvKwi‡Z wbhy³ nb| ew¼gP›`ª †ZwÎk eQi GKB c‡` PvKwi K‡i 1891 mv‡j Aemi MÖnY K‡ib| wZwb cvV¨ve¯’vqB mvwnZ¨PP©v ïi“ K‡ib| Zuvi Amvgvb¨ K…wZZ¡ cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q cvðvZ¨ fvev`‡k© evsjv Dcb¨vm iPbvi cw_K…r wn‡m‡e| 1865 mv‡j cÖKvwkZ Zuvi cÖ_g evsjv Dcb¨vm `y‡M©kbw›`bx evsjv K_vmvwn‡Z¨ GK bew`Mš— m„wó K‡i| Zuvi Ab¨vb¨ Dcb¨vm n‡jv : KcvjKzÊjv, g„Yvwjbx, wele„¶, Bw›`iv, hyMjv½yixq, ivavivbx, P›`ª‡kLi, iRbx, K…òKv‡š—i DBj, ivRwmsn, Avb›`gV, †`ex †PŠayivbx I mxZvivg| cÖeÜ mvwn‡Z¨I ew¼gP›`ª K…wZZ¡ †`wL‡q‡Qb| KgjvKv‡š—i `ßi, †jvKinm¨, K…ò PwiÎ BZ¨vw` Zuvi D‡j−L‡hvM¨ cÖeÜMÖš’| ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq 1894 mv‡ji 8B GwcÖj g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib|]

ˆekvL gvm weev‡ni gvm| Avwg 1jv ˆekv‡L bmx eveyi dzjevMv‡b ewmqv GKwU weevn †`wLjvg| fwel¨r eiKb¨vw`‡Mi wk¶v_© wjwLqv ivwL‡ZwQ| gwj−Kv dz‡ji weevn| ˆeKvjшkke AemvbcÖvq, KwjKv-Kb¨v weevn‡hvM¨v nBqv Avwmj| Kb¨vi wcZv eo‡jvK b‡n, ¶y`ª e„¶, Zvnv‡Z Avevi A‡bK¸wj Kb¨vfvivMÖ¯—| m¤^‡Üi A‡bK K_v nB‡ZwQj, wKš‘ †KvbUv w¯’i nq bvB| D`¨v‡bi ivRv ¯’jcÙ wb‡`©vl cvÎ e‡U, wKš‘ No eo DuPz, ¯’jcÙ AZ `~i bvwgj bv| Rev G weev‡n Am¤§Z wQj bv, wKš‘ Rev eo ivMx, Kb¨vKZ©v wcQvB‡jb| MÜivR cvÎ fv‡jv, wKš‘ eo †`gvM, cÖvq Zuvnvi evi cvIqv hvq bv| GBi~c Ae¨e¯’vi mg‡q ågiivR NUK nBqv gwj−Kve„¶m`‡b Dcw¯’Z nB‡jb| wZwb Avwmqv ewj‡jb, Ô¸Y&& ! ¸Y&& ! ¸Y&& †g‡q Av‡Q ?Õ gwj−Kve„¶ cvZv bvwoqv mvq w`‡jb, ÔAv‡Q !Õ ågi cÎvmb MÖnY Kwiqv ewj‡jb, Ô¸Y&& ¸Y&& ¸Y&& ! ¸Y&& ¸Yv¸Y&& ! †g‡q †`wLe|Õ e„¶, kvLv bZ Kwiqv gyw`Zbqbv Ae¸ÉbeZx Kb¨v †`LvB‡jb| ågi GKevi e„¶‡K cÖ`w¶Y Kwiqv Avwmqv ewj‡jb, Ô¸Y&& ! ¸Y&& ! ¸Y&& ! ¸Y †`wL‡Z PvB| †NvgUv †Lvj|Õ j¾vkxjv Kb¨v wKQz‡ZB †Nvg&&Uv Ly‡j bv| e„¶ ewj‡jb, ÔAvgvi †g‡q¸wj eo jvRyK| Zzwg GKUz A‡c¶v Ki, Avwg gyL †`LvB‡ZwQ|Õ ågi †fuv Kwiqv ¯’jc‡Ùi ˆeVKLvbvq wMqv ivRcy‡Îi m‡½ BqviwK Kwi‡Z ewm‡jb| Gw`‡K gwj−Kvi mܨvVvKzivYx-w`w` Avwmqv Zvnv‡K KZ eySvB‡Z jvwMj Ñ ewjj, Ôw`w`, GKevi †Nvg&&Uv †Lvj Ñ bB‡j, ei Avwm‡e bv Ñ j²x Avgvi, Puv` Avgvi, †mvbv Avgvi, BZ¨vw`|Õ KwjKv KZevi Nvo bvwoj, KZevi ivM Kwiqv gyL NyivBj, KZ evi ewjj, ÔVvb&&w`w`, ZzB hv !Õ wKš‘ †k‡l mܨvi wmœ» ¯^fv‡e gy» nBqv

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

13

gyL Lywjj| ZLb NUK gnvkq †fuv Kwiqv ivRevox nB‡Z bvwgqv Avwmqv NUKvjx‡Z gb w`‡jb| Kb¨vi cwig‡j gy» nBqv ewj‡jb, Ô¸Y&& ¸Y&& ¸Y&& ¸Y ¸Yv¸Y&& ! Kb¨v ¸YeZx e‡U| N‡i gay KZ ?Õ Kb¨vKZ©v e„¶ ewj‡jb, Ôd`© w`‡eb, Kovq MÊvq eySvBqv w`‡e|Õ ågi ewj‡jb, Ô¸Y&& ¸Y&&, Avcbvi A‡bK ¸Y Ñ NUKvjxUv ?Õ Kb¨vKZ©v kvLv bvwoqv mvq w`j, ÔZvI n‡e|Õ ågiÑÔewj NUKvjxi wKQz AvMvg w`‡j nq bv ?Õ bM` `vb eo ¸YѸY&& ¸Y&& ¸Y&|Õ ¶z`ª e„¶wU ZLb wei³ nBqv, mKj kvLv bvwoqv ewjj, ÔAv‡M e‡ii K_v ej Ñ ei †K ?Õ ågiÑÔei AwZ mycvÎ|Ñ Zuvi A‡bK ¸Y-bÑb&|Õ G mKj K‡_vcK_b gby‡l¨ ïwb‡Z cvq bv, Avwg †Kej w`e¨ KY© cvBqvB G mKj ïwb‡ZwQjvg| Avwg ïwb‡Z jvwMjvg, KzjvPvh© gnvkq, cvLv Svwoqv, Qq cv QovBqv †Mvjv‡ei gwngv KxZ©b Kwi‡ZwQ‡jb| ewj‡ZwQ‡jb †h, †Mvjve esk eo Kjxb; †Kb bv, Bnviv Ôdz‡jÕ †gj| hw` ej, mKj dzjB dz‡j, Z_vwc †Mvjv‡ei †MŠie AwaK; †Kb bv, Bnviv mv¶vr evÂvgvjxi mš—vb; Zvnvi ¯^n¯—‡ivwcZ| hw` ej, G dz‡j KuvUv Av‡Q, †Kvb&& Kz‡j ev †Kvb&& dz‡j bvB ? hvnv nDK, NUKivR †Kvbi~‡c m¤^Ü w¯’i Kwiqv, †euv Kwiqv Dwoqv wMqv, †Mvjve eveyi evwo‡Z Lei w`‡jb| †Mvjve, ZLb evZv‡mi m‡½ bvwPqv bvwPqv, nvwmqv nvwmqv, jvdvBqv jvdvBqv †Ljv Kwi‡ZwQj, weev‡ni bvg ïwbqv Avn¬vw`Z nBqv Kb¨vi eqm wRÁvmv Kwij| ågi ewjj, ÔAvwR Kvwj dzwU‡e|Õ †Mvaywj jMœ Dcw¯’Z, †Mvjve weev‡n hvÎvi D‡`¨vM Kwi‡Z jvwM‡jb| Dw”P½ov bner evRvB‡Z Avi¤¢ Kwij ; †gŠgvwQ mvbvB‡qi evqbv jBqvwQj, wKš‘ ivZKvbv ewjqv m‡½ hvB‡Z cvwij bv| L‡`¨v‡Ziv Svo awij ; AvKv‡k ZvivevwR nB‡Z jvwMj| †KvwKj Av‡M Av‡M dzKivB‡Z jvwMj| A‡bK eihvÎv Pwjj; ¯^qs ivRKzgvi ¯’jcÙ w`evemv‡b Amy¯’Ki ewjqv Avwm‡Z cvwi‡jb bv, wKš‘ Rev‡Mvôx Ñ †k¦Z Rev, i³ Rev, Ri` Rev cÖf…wZ mes‡k AvwmqvwQj| Kiex‡ii `j, †m‡K‡j ivRvw`‡Mi gZ eo D”P Wv‡j Pwoqv Avwmqv Dcw¯’Z nBj| †muDwZ bxZei nB‡e ewjqv, mvwRqv Avwmqv `ywj‡Z jvwMj| Mi‡`i †Rvo cwiqv Puvcv Avwmqv `uvovBj Ñ DMÖ MÜ QzwU‡Z jvwMj| MÜiv‡Riv eo evnvi w`qv, `‡j `‡j Avwmqv, MÜ wejvBqv †`k gvZvB‡Z jvwMj| A‡kvK †bkvq jvj nBqv Avwmqv Dcw¯’Z; m‡½ GK cvj wcc&&ov †gvmv‡qe nBqv Avwmqv‡Q; Zvnv‡`i ¸‡Yi m‡½ m¤^Ü bvB, wKš‘ `uv‡Zi R¡vjv eoцKvb&& weev‡n bv Gi~c eihvÎ †Rv‡U, Avi †Kvb&& weev‡n bv Zvnviv ûj dzUvBqv weev` evavq ? Kzi“eyK KzUR cÖf…wZ AviI A‡bK eihvÎ AvwmqvwQ‡jb, NUK gnvk‡qi Kv‡Q Zuvnv‡`i cwiPq ïwb‡eb| me©ÎB wZwb hvZvqvZ K‡ib Ges wKQz wKQz gay cvBqv _v‡Kb| AvgviI wbgš¿Y wQj, AvwgI †Mjvg| †`wL, eic‡¶i eo wec`| evZvm evn‡Ki evqbv jBqvwQ‡jb; ZLb ûuÑûg Kwiqv A‡bK gi&&`vwb KwiqvwQ‡jb, wKš‘ Kv‡Ri mgq †Kv_vq jyKvB‡jb, †Kn LyuwRqv cvq

14

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

bv| †`wLjvg, ei eihvÎ, mK‡j AevK nBqv w¯’ifv‡e `uvovBqv Av‡Qb| gwj−Kvw`‡Mi Kzj hvq †`wLqv, AvwgB evn‡Ki Kvh© ¯^xKvi Kwijvg| ei, eihvÎ mKj‡K Zzwjqv jBqv gwj−Kvcy‡i †Mjvg| †mLv‡b †`wLjvg, Kb¨vKzj, mKj fwMbx, Avn¬v‡` †NvgUv Lywjqv gyL dzUvBqv, cwigj QzUvBqv, my‡Li nvwm nvwm‡Z‡Q| †`wLjvg, cvZvq cvZvq RovRwo, M‡Üi fvÊv‡i QovQwo cwoqv wMqv‡QÑi~‡ci fv‡i mK‡j fvw½qv cwo‡Z‡Q| hyw_, gvjZx, eKzj, iRbxMÜv cÖf…wZ G‡qvMY ¯¿x-AvPvi Kwiqv eiY Kwij| †`wLjvg, cy‡ivwnZ Dcw¯’Z; bmx eveyi begelx©qv Kb¨v (Rxeš— KzmygcywcYx) KzmygjZv m~P myZv jBqv `uvovBqv Av‡Q; Kb¨vKZ©v Kb¨v m¤úª`vb Kwi‡jb; cy‡ivwnZ gnvkq `yBRb‡K GK m~Zvq Muvw_qv MuvUQov euvwaqv w`‡jb| ZLb ei‡K evmiÑN‡i jBqv †Mj| KZ †h imgqx gaygqx my›`ix †mLv‡b ei‡K †Nwiqv ewmj, Zvnv wK ewje| cÖvPxbv VvKzivYxw`w` UMi mv`v cÖv‡Y euvav iwmKZv Kwi‡Z Kwi‡Z ïKvBqv DwV‡jb| i½‡Yi iv½vgy‡L nvwm a‡i bv| hyB, K‡b¨i mB, K‡b¨i Kv‡Q wMqv ïBj; iRbxMÜv‡K ei ZvoKv iv¶mx ewjqv KZ Zvgvmv Kwij; eKzj G‡K evwjKv, Zv‡Z hZ MyY, ZZ i~c b‡n; GK‡Kv‡Y wMqv Pzc Kwiqv ewmqv iwnj; Avi Szg&Kv dzj eo gvby‡li M„wnYxi gZ †gvUv bxj kvox QovBqv RgKvBqv ewmj| ZLbÑ ÔKgjKvKvÑIV evwo hvBÑ ivZ n‡q‡Q, I wK, Xz‡j co‡e †h ?Õ KzmygjZv GB K_v ewjqv Avgvi Mv †Vwj‡ZwQj; Ñ PgK nB‡j, †`wLjvg wKQzB bvB| †mB cy®úevmi †Kv_vq wgwkj ? Ñ g‡b Kwijvg, msmvi AwbZ¨B e‡UÑGB Av‡Q GB bvB| †m ig¨ evmi †K_vq †Mj,Ñ †mB nvm¨gyLx ïåw¯§Zmyavgqx cy®úmy›`ixmKj †Kv_vq †Mj ? †hLv‡b me hvB‡e, †mBLv‡bÑ ¯§„wZi `c©YZ‡j, f~ZmvMiM‡f©| †hLv‡b ivRv cÖRv, ce©Z mgy`ª, MÖn b¶Îvw` wMqv‡Q ev hvB‡e, †mBLv‡b Ñ aŸsmcy‡i! GB weev‡ni b¨vq me k~‡b¨ wgkvB‡e, me evZv‡m Mwjqv hvB‡e Ñ †Kej _vwK‡e Ñ Kx ? †fvM ? bv, †fvM¨ bv _vwK‡j †fvM _vwK‡Z cv‡i bv| Z‡e Kx ? ¯§„wZ ? Kzmyg ewjj, ÔIV bvÑwK K‡”Pv ?Õ Avwg ewjjvg, Ô`~i cvMwj, Avwg we‡q w`w”Qjvg|Õ Kzmyg †Nu‡l G‡m, †n‡m †n‡m Kv‡Q `uvovBqv Av`i Kwiqv wRÁvmv Kwij, ÔKvi we‡q, KvKv ?Õ Avwg ewjjvg, Ôdz‡ji we‡q|Õ ÔIt †cvov Kcvj, dz‡ji ? Avwg ewj wK ! AvwgI †h GB dz‡ji we‡q w`‡qwQ|Õ ÔKB ?Õ ÔGB †h gvjv Muvw_qvwQ|Õ †`wLjvg, †mB gvjvq Avgvi ei Kb¨v iwnqv‡Q|

kãv_© I UxKv : Kb¨vfviMÖ¯— Ñ weevn‡hvM¨v Kb¨v A‡_©; m¤^‡Üi Ñ we‡qi; Kb¨vKZ©v Ñ Kb¨vi
AwffveK; cÎvmb Ñ cvZvi Dci Avmb; Ae¸ÉbeZ©xÑ †NvgUv †`Iqv; BqviwK Ñ eÜz‡`i m‡½B ejv P‡j Ggb Avjvc; mܨvVvKzivYx w`w` Ñ GLv‡b mܨvKvj‡K w`w` e‡j m‡¤^vab Kiv n‡”Q; cwigj Ñ myMÜ; M‡Üvcva¨vq Ñ M‡Üi ivRv †evSv‡Z; KzjvPvh© Ñ Kz‡ji AvPvh© ev es‡ki cÖavb cy‡ivwnZ; evÃvgvwj Ñ †h gvwj B‡”QgZ dzj †dvUv‡Z cv‡i; L‡`¨vZ Ñ †RvbvwK †cvKv; G‡qvMY Ñ maev bvix; KgjKvKv Ñ KgjvKvš—‡K KvKv e‡j m‡¤^vab Kiv n‡q‡Q|

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

15

cvV cwiwPwZ : ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨v‡qi jNyiPbv ÔKgjvKv‡š—i `ßiÕ MÖ‡š’i beg msL¨K †jLv Ôdz‡ji weevnÕ| GB iPbvq nvm¨i‡mi gva¨‡g wewfbœ dz‡ji bvg, †m dzj¸‡jvi M‡Üi ZviZg¨, e‡Y©i iKg‡di AZ¨š— ms‡e`bkxjZvi m‡½ Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb ew¼gP›`ª| KLb †Kvb dzj †dv‡U †m ch©‡e¶YI GB iPbvq cvIqv hvq| we‡q-Abyôvb evOvwji Rxe‡b, we‡kl K‡i evwoi wkï-wK‡kvi I cÖwZ‡ekx‡`i g‡a¨ AZxe Avb›` wb‡q Av‡m| GB Abyôv‡b ei-K‡b †K‡›`ª _vK‡jI ei-K‡bi gvZv-wcZv, K‡bi cowk bvixiv bvbv gv½wjK eª‡Z m¤ú„³ _v‡Kb, NUKI _v‡Kb we‡klfv‡e hy³| we‡q Abyôv‡bi m‡½ hy³ _v‡Kb Ggb bvbv e¨w³i cwie‡Z© wewfbœ dz‡ji D‡j−L K‡i AmvaviY `¶Zvq ew¼gP›`ª evOvwji Mvn©¯’¨ GKwU Abyôv‡b Av‡iv Avb›``vqK K‡i GLv‡b Dc¯’vcb K‡i‡Qb| Zuvi GB iPbvfw½ evsjv M`¨ weKv‡ki †¶‡Î ¸i“Z¡c~Y© f~wgKv iv‡L| Abykxjbx Kg©-Abykxjb 1. cvVwU‡Z †hme dz‡ji K_v ejv n‡q‡Q †m¸‡jvi bvg I M‡Üi cwiPq w`‡q GKwU PvU© ˆZwi Ki| 2. dz‡ji eûwea e¨envi wjwce× K‡i †kªwY wk¶K‡K †`LvI| eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ 1| Ôdz‡ji weevnÕ M‡íi cvÎ †K wQj ? K. M. K. M. gwj−Kv iRbxMÜv †fvgi MvQcvjv L. N. L. N. ¯’jcÙ gvjZx e„¶ dzj

2| G M‡í Kb¨vKzj ej‡Z Kv‡`i‡K †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q ?

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU c‡o 3 I 4 bs cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI : Rwg`vi Rbva©b †Nvl †g‡qi we‡q w`‡Z wM‡q cvÎ Lyu‡R †eov‡”Qb| A‡bK †LuvRvLyuwRi ci Ae‡k‡l ivq evnv`yi †PŠayixi GKgvÎ cyÎ †`evkxl‡K cvIqv †Mj| i~‡c-My‡Y †m AZzjbxq| 3| DÏxc‡Ki †`evkx‡li mv‡_ Ôdz‡ji weevnÕ M‡íi mv`„k¨ i‡q‡Q Ñ
i. MÜiv‡Ri ii. †Mvjv‡ei iii. iRbxMÜvi

wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK ? K. M. i iii

L. N.

ii i, ii I iii

16

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

4| Gi~c mv`„‡k¨i KviY Kx ? K. M. m„Rbkxj cÖkœ †gŠix GKw`b evevi Kv‡Q evqbv a‡i †evUvwbKvj Mv‡W©‡b †eov‡Z hv‡e| evev GKw`b I‡K wb‡q †eov‡Z †M‡j †m fxlY Lywk nq| bvbv Rv‡Zi dzj-d‡ji Mv‡Qi mgv‡ivn †`‡L †m Awff~Z n‡q hvq| `xN©w`b †m †hme dzj-d‡ji bvg ï‡b‡Q †m¸‡jv AvR wbR †Pv‡L †`‡L LyeB Avbw›`Z nq| Ae‡k‡l wm×vš— †bq Ñ evwoi AvwObvq †QvÆ GKUv evMvb Ki‡e| K. L. M. N. Ôdz‡ji weevnÕ M‡í †K NU‡Ki `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡i ? ¶y`ª e„¶wU †Kb wei³ n‡qwQj ? DÏxc‡Ki †gŠixi fv‡jvjvMvi Ôdz‡ji weevnÕ M‡íi mv`„k¨c~Y© w`KwU e¨vL¨v Ki| †gŠixi gv‡S m„ó cÖwZwµqvB †hb Ôdz‡ji weevnÕ M‡íi g~j †PZbv Ñ hyw³mn eywS‡q †jL| †mŠ›`h© †KŠwjb¨ L. N. cÖwZcwË Ae¯’vb

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

17

myfv iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi
[†jLK cwiwPwZ : iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi 25†k ˆekvL 1268 mv‡j (7B †g 1861 wLªóvã) KjKvZvi †Rvovmuv‡Kvi VvKzi cwiev‡i Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi wcZv gnwl© †`‡e›`ªbv_ VvKzi Ges wcZvgn wcÖÝ ØviKvbv_ VvKzi| we`¨vj‡qi AvbyôvwbK wk¶v wZwb jvf K‡ibwb, wKš‘ mvwn‡Z¨i wewPÎ †¶‡Î Zuvi c`PviYv GK we¯§‡qi welq| wZwb wQ‡jb cÖK…Z A‡_©B Amvgvb¨ cÖwZfvai e¨w³| evj¨Kv‡jB Zuvi KwecÖwZfvi D‡b¥l N‡U| gvÎ c‡bi eQi eq‡m Zuvi ebdzj Kve¨ cÖKvwkZ nq| 1913 mv‡j iex›`ªbv_ ÔMxZvÄwjÕ Kv‡e¨i Rb¨ Gkxq‡`i g‡a¨ cÖ_g mvwn‡Z¨ †bv‡ej cyi¯‹vi jvf K‡ib| e¯‘Z Zuvi GKK mvabvq evsjv fvlv I mvwnZ¨ mKj kvLvq `ª“Z DbœwZ jvf K‡i Ges wek¦`iev‡i †MŠi‡ei Avm‡b cÖwZwôZ nq| wZwb GKvav‡i mvwnwZ¨K, `vk©wbK, wk¶vwe`, myiKvi, bvU¨ cÖ‡hvRK I Awf‡bZv| Kve¨, †QvUMí, Dcb¨vm, bvUK, cÖeÜ, Mvb BZ¨vw` mvwn‡Z¨i mKj kvLvB Zuvi Ae`v‡b mg„×| Zuvi ARmª iPbvi g‡a¨ ÔgvbmxÕ, Ô†mvbvi ZixÕ, ÔwPÎvÕ, ÔKíbvÕ, Ô¶wYKvÕ, ÔejvKvÕ, ÔcybðÕ, Ô†Pv‡Li evwjÕ, Ô†MvivÕ, ÔN‡i evB‡iÕ, Ô†hvMv‡hvMÕ, Ô†k‡li KweZvÕ, ÔwemR©bÕ, ÔWvKNiÕ, Ôi³KiexÕ, ÔMí¸”QÕ, ÔwewPÎ cÖeÜÕ BZ¨vw` we‡klfv‡e D‡j−L‡hvM¨| 22‡k kÖveY 1348 mv‡j (7B AvM÷ 1941 wLªóvã) KjKvZvi wek¦Kwe iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi †kl wbtk¦vm Z¨vM K‡ib| ]

†g‡qwUi bvg hLb myfvwlYx ivLv nBqvwQj ZLb †K RvwbZ †m †evev nB‡e| Zvnvi `ywU e‡ov †evb‡K my‡Kwkbx I mynvwmbx bvg †`Iqv nBqvwQj, ZvB wg‡ji Aby‡iv‡a Zvnvi evc †Qv‡Uv †g‡qwUi bvg myfvwlYx iv‡L| GLb mK‡j Zvnv‡K ms‡¶‡c myfv e‡j| `¯‘igZ AbymÜvb I A_©e¨‡q e‡ov `ywU †g‡qi weevn nBqv †M‡Q, GLb †Qv‡UvwU wcZvgvZvi bxie ü`qfv‡ii g‡Zv weivR Kwi‡Z‡Q| †h K_v Kq bv †m †h Abyfe K‡i Bnv mK‡ji g‡b nq bv, GBRb¨ Zvnvi mv¶v‡ZB mK‡j Zvnvi fwel¨r m¤^‡Ü `ywðš—v cÖKvk KwiZ| †m †h weavZvi Awfkvc¯^i~‡c Zvnvi wcZ…M„‡n Avwmqv Rb¥MÖnY Kwiqv‡Q G K_v †m wkïKvj nB‡Z eywSqv jBqvwQj| Zvnvi dj GB nBqvwQj, mvavi‡Yi `„wóc_ nB‡Z †m Avcbv‡K †Mvcb Kwiqv ivwL‡Z me©`vB †Póv KwiZ| g‡b KwiZ, Avgv‡K mevB fzwj‡j euvwP| wKš‘, †e`bv wK †Kn KL‡bv †fv‡j? wcZvgvZvi g‡b †m me©`vB RvMi~K wQj| we‡klZ, Zvnvi gv Zvnv‡K wb‡Ri GKUv ÎywU¯^i~c †`wL‡Zb; †Kbbv, gvZv cyÎ A‡c¶v Kb¨v‡K wb‡Ri Aski~‡c †`‡LbÑ Kb¨vi †Kv‡bv Am¤ú~Y© †`wL‡j †mUv †hb we‡kli~‡c wb‡Ri j¾vi KviY ewjqv g‡b K‡ib| eiÂ, Kb¨vi wcZv evYxKÉ myfv‡K Zuvnvi Ab¨ †g‡q‡`i A‡c¶v †hb GKUz †ewk fv‡jvevwm‡Zb; wKš‘ gvZv Zvnv‡K wb‡Ri M‡f©i Kj¼ Ávb Kwiqv Zvnvi cÖwZ e‡ov wei³ wQ‡jb| myfvi K_v wQj bv, wKš‘ Zvnvi my`xN©cj−ewewkó e‡ov e‡ov `ywU Kv‡jv †PvL wQjÑGes Zvnvi Iôvai fv‡ei AvfvmgvÎ KwP wKkj‡qi g‡Zv Kuvwcqv DwVZ| K_vq Avgiv †h fve cÖKvk Kwi †mUv Avgvw`M‡K A‡bKUv wb‡Ri †Póvq Mwoqv jB‡Z nq, KZKUv ZR©gv Kivi g‡Zv; mKj mg‡q wVK nq bv, ¶gZvi Afv‡e A‡bK mg‡q fzjI nq| wKš‘ Kv‡jv †PvL‡K wKQz ZR©gv Kwi‡Z nq bvÑgb Avcwb Zvnvi Dc‡i Qvqv †d‡j; fve Avcwb Zvnvi Dc‡i KL‡bv cÖmvwiZ KL‡bv gyw`Z nq; KL‡bv D¾¡jfv‡e R¡wjqv D‡V, KL‡bv ¤−vbfv‡e wbweqv Av‡m,

18

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

KL‡bv A¯—gvb P‡›`ªi g‡Zv Awb‡glfv‡e Pvwnqv _v‡K, KL‡bv `ªyZ PÂj we`y¨‡Zi g‡Zv w`M&wew`‡K wVKwiqv D‡V| gy‡Li fve ˆe AvRb¥Kvj hvnvi Ab¨ fvlv bvB Zvnvi †Pv‡Li fvlv Amxg D`vi Ges AZj¯úk© MfxiÑ A‡bKUv ¯^”Q AvKv‡ki g‡Zv, D`qv¯— Ges Qvqv‡jv‡Ki wb¯—ä i½f~wg| GB evK¨nxb gby‡l¨i g‡a¨ e„nr cÖK…wZi g‡Zv GKUv weRb gnË¡ Av‡Q| GBRb¨ mvaviY evjKevwjKviv Zvnv‡K GKcÖKvi fq KwiZ, Zvnvi mwnZ †Ljv KwiZ bv| †m wbR©b wØcÖn‡ii g‡Zv kãnxb Ges m½xnxb| MÖv‡gi bvg PÊxcyi| b`xwU evsjv‡`‡ki GKwU †Qv‡Uv b`x, M„n¯’N‡ii †g‡qwUi g‡Zv, eû`~i ch©š— Zvnvi cÖmvi b‡n; wbijmv Zš^x b`xwU Avcb K~j i¶v Kwiqv KvR Kwiqv hvq; `yB av‡ii MÖv‡gi mK‡jiB m‡½ Zvnvi †hb GKUv-bv-GKUv m¤úK© Av‡Q| `yB av‡i †jvKvjq Ges Ziy”QvqvNb D”P ZU; wbgœZj w`qv MÖvgj²x †mªvZw¯^bx AvZ¥we¯§„Z `ªyZ c`‡¶‡c cÖdzj− ü`‡q Avcbvi AmsL¨ Kj¨vYKv‡h© Pwjqv‡Q| evYxK‡Éi Ni b`xi G‡Kev‡i Dc‡iB Zvnvi euvLvwii †eov, AvUPvjv, †MvqvjNi, †XuwKkvjv, L‡oi ¯—~c, †ZuZzjZjv, Avg KuvVvj Ges Kjvi evMvb †bŠKvevwn-gv‡ÎiB `„wó AvKl©Y K‡i| GB Mvn©¯’¨ m”QjZvi g‡a¨ †evev †g‡qwU KvnviI bR‡i c‡o wK bv Rvwb bv, wKš‘ KvRK‡g© hLwb Aemi cvq ZLwb †m GB b`xZx‡i Avwmqv e‡m| cÖK…wZ †hb Zvnvi fvlvi Afve c~iY Kwiqv †`q| †hb Zvnvi nBqv K_v Kq| b`xi KjaŸwb, †jv‡Ki †Kvjvnj, gvwSi Mvb, cvwLi WvK, Ziyi gg©iÑmg¯— wgwk‡q Pvwiw`‡Ki Pjv‡div-Av‡›`vjb-K¤ú‡bi mwnZ GK nBqv mgy‡`ªi Zi½ivwki b¨vq evwjKvi wPiwb¯—ä ü`q-DcK~‡ji wbK‡U Avwmqv fvwOqv c‡o| cÖK…wZi GB wewea kã Ges wewPÎ MwZ, BnvI †evevi fvlv Ñ e‡ov e‡ov P¶zcj−ewewkó myfvi †h fvlv ZvnviB GKUv wek¦e¨vcx we¯—vi; wSwj−iec~Y© Z…Yf~wg nB‡Z kãvZxZ b¶Î‡jvK ch©š— †Kej Bw½Z, fw½, msMxZ, µ›`b Ges `xN©wbk¦vm| Ges ga¨v‡ý hLb gvwSiv †R‡jiv LvB‡Z hvBZ, M„n‡¯’iv NygvBZ, cvwLiv WvwKZ bv, †Lqv-†bŠKv eÜ _vwKZ, mRb RMr mg¯— KvRK‡g©i gvSLv‡b mnmv _vwgqv wMqv fqvbK weRbg~wZ© aviY KwiZ, ZLb iy`ª gnvKv‡ki Z‡j †Kej GKwU †evev cÖK…wZ Ges GKwU †evev †g‡q gyLvgywL Pzc Kwiqv ewmqv _vwKZÑ GKRb mywe¯—xY© †iŠ‡`ª, Avi-GKRb ¶z`ª Ziy”Qvqvq| mzfvi †h ¸wUKZK Aš—i½ eÜzi `j wQj bv Zvnv b‡n| †Mvqv‡ji `ywU Mvfx, Zvnv‡`i bvg me©kx I cv½ywj| †m bvg evwjKvi gy‡L Zvnviv KL‡bv ï‡b bvB, wKš‘ Zvnvi c`kã Zvnviv wPwbZÑ Zvnvi K_vnxb GKUv KiyY myi wQj, Zvnvi gg© Zvnviv fvlvi A‡c¶v mn‡R eywSZ| myfv KLb Zvnv‡`i Av`i Kwi‡Z‡Q, KLb fr©mbv Kwi‡Z‡Q, KLb wgbwZ Kwi‡Z‡Q, Zvnv Zvnviv gvby‡li A‡c¶v fv‡jv eywS‡Z cvwiZ| myfv †Mvqv‡j XzwKqv `yB evûi Øviv me©kxi MÖxev †eób Kwiqv Zvnvi Kv‡bi Kv‡Q Avcbvi Mʇ`k Nl©Y KwiZ Ges cv½ywj wmœ»`„wó‡Z Zvnvi cÖwZ wbix¶Y Kwiqv Zvnvi Mv PvwUZ| evwjKv w`‡bi g‡a¨ wbqwgZ wZbevi Kwiqv †MvqvjN‡i hvBZ, Zvnv Qvov AwbqwgZ AvMgbI wQj; M„‡n †h w`b †Kv‡bv KwVb K_v ïwbZ †m w`b †m Amg‡q Zvnvi GB g~K eÜz`ywUi Kv‡Q AvwmZÑ Zvnvi mwnòzZvcwic~Y© welv`kvš— `„wócvZ nB‡Z Zvnviv Kx-GKUv AÜ Abygvbkw³i Øviv evwjKvi gg©‡e`bv †hb eywS‡Z

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

19

cvwiZ, Ges myfvi Mv †Nuwlqv Avwmqv A‡í A‡í Zvnvi evû‡Z wks Nwlqv Nwlqv Zvnv‡K wbe©vK e¨vKzjZvi mwnZ mvš—¡bv w`‡Z †Póv KwiZ| Bnviv Qvov QvMj Ges weovjkveKI wQj; wKš‘ Zvnv‡`i mwnZ myfvi Gi~c mgK¶fv‡e ˆgÎx wQj bv, Z_vwc Zvnviv h‡_ó AvbyMZ¨ cÖKvk KwiZ| weovjwkïwU w`‡b Ges iv‡Î hLb-ZLb myfvi Mig †KvjwU wbtms‡Kv‡P AwaKvi Kwiqv myLwb`ªvi Av‡qvRb KwiZ Ges myfv Zvnvi MÖxev I c„‡ô †Kvgj Av½ywj eyjvBqv w`‡j †h Zvnvi wb`ªvKl©‡Yi we‡kl mnvqZv nq, Bw½‡Z Gi~c AwfcÖvqI cÖKvk KwiZ| DbœZ †kªwYi Rx‡ei g‡a¨ myfvi Av‡iv GKwU m½x RywUqvwQj| wKš‘ Zvnvi mwnZ evwjKvi wVK wKi~c m¤úK© wQj Zvnv wbY©q Kiv KwVb, KviY, †m fvlvwewkó Rxe; myZivs Df‡qi g‡a¨ mgfvlv wQj bv| †MuvmvB‡`i †Qv‡Uv †Q‡jwUÑZvnvi bvg cÖZvc| †jvKwU wbZvš— AKg©Y¨| †m †h KvRKg© Kwiqv msmv‡ii DbœwZ Kwi‡Z hZœ Kwi‡e eû †Póvi ci evc-gv †m Avkv Z¨vM Kwiqv‡Qb| AKg©Y¨ †jv‡Ki GKUv myweav GB †h, AvZ¥xq †jv‡Kiv Zvnv‡`i Dc‡i wei³ nq e‡U, wKš‘ cÖvq Zvnviv wbtm¤úK© †jvK‡`i wcÖqcvÎ nqÑ KviY, †Kv‡bv Kv‡h© AveÜ bv _vKv‡Z Zvnviv miKvwi m¤úwË nBqv `uvovq| kn‡ii †hgb GK-AvaUv M„nm¤úK©nxb miKvwi evMvb _vKv Avek¨K †Zgwb MÖv‡g `yB-PvwiUv AKg©Y¨ miKvwi †jvK _vKvi we‡kl cÖ‡qvRb| Kv‡R-K‡g© Av‡gv‡`-Aem‡i †hLv‡b GKUv †jvK Kg c‡o †mLv‡bB Zvnvw`M‡K nv‡Zi Kv‡Q cvIqv hvq| cÖZv‡ci cÖavb kLÑ wQc †dwjqv gvQ aiv| Bnv‡Z A‡bK mgq mn‡R KvUv‡bv hvq| Aciv‡nœ b`xZx‡i Bnv‡K cÖvq GB Kv‡R wbhy³ †`Lv hvBZ| Ges GB Dcj‡¶ myfvi mwnZ Zvnvi cÖvq mv¶vr nBZ| †h†Kv‡bv Kv‡RB wbhy³ _vK, GKUv m½x cvB‡j cÖZvc _v‡K fv‡jv| gvQ aivi mgq evK¨nxb m½xB me©v‡c¶v †kªôÑ GBRb¨ cÖZvc myfvi gh©v`v eywSZ| GBRb¨ mK‡jB myfv‡K myfv ewjZ, cÖZvc AviGKUz AwZwi³ Av`i ms‡hvM Kwiqv myfv‡K ÔmyÕ ewjqv WvwKZ| myfv †ZuZzjZjvq ewmqv _vwKZ Ges cÖZvc AbwZ`~‡i wQc †dwjqv R‡ji w`‡K Pvwnqv _vwKZ| cÖZv‡ci GKwU Kwiqv cvb eivÏ wQj, myfv Zvnv wb‡R mvwRqv AvwbZ| Ges †eva Kwi A‡bK¶Y ewmqv ewmqv Pvwnqv B”Qv KwiZ, cÖZv‡ci †Kv‡bv-GKUv we‡kl mvnvh¨ Kwi‡Z, GKUv-†Kv‡bv Kv‡R jvwM‡Z, †Kv‡bvg‡Z RvbvBqv w`‡Z †h GB c„w_ex‡Z †mI GKRb Kg cÖ‡qvRbxq †jvK b‡n| wKš‘ wKQzB Kwievi wQj bv| ZLb †m g‡b g‡b weavZvi Kv‡Q A‡jŠwKK ¶gZv cÖv_©bv KwiZÑ gš¿e‡j mnmv Ggb GKUv Avðh© KvÊ NUvB‡Z B”Qv KwiZ hvnv †`wLqv cÖZvc Avðh© nBqv hvBZ, ewjZ, ÔZvB †Zv, Avgv‡`i mywfi †h GZ ¶gZv Zvnv †Zv RvwbZvg bv|Õ g‡b K‡iv, mzfv hw` RjKzgvix nBZ, Av‡¯— Av‡¯— Rj nB‡Z DwVqv GKUv mv‡ci gv_vi gwY Nv‡U ivwLqv hvBZ; cÖZvc Zvnvi Zz”Q gvQ aiv ivwLqv †mB gvwbK jBqv R‡j Wze gvwiZ; Ges cvZv‡j wMqv †`wLZ, i~cvi AÆvwjKvq †mvbvi cvj‡¼Ñ†K ewmqv?Ñ Avgv‡`i evYxK‡Éi N‡ii †mB †evev †g‡q myÑ Avgv‡`i my †mB gwY`xß Mfxi wb¯—ä cvZvjcyixi GKgvÎ ivRKb¨v| Zvnv wK nB‡Z cvwiZ bv| Zvnv wK GZB Am¤¢e| Avm‡j wKQzB Am¤¢e bq, wKš‘ ZeyI my cÖRvk~b¨ cvZv‡ji ivRes‡k bv Rwb¥qv evYxK‡Éi N‡i Avwmqv Rwb¥qv‡Q Ges †MvmvB‡`i †Q‡j cÖZvc‡K wKQz‡ZB Avðh© Kwi‡Z cvwi‡Z‡Q bv|

20

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

myfvi eqm µ‡gB evwoqv DwV‡Z‡Q| µ‡g †m †hb Avcbv‡K Avcwb Abyfe Kwi‡Z cvwi‡Z‡Q| †hb †Kv‡bv GKUv c~wY©gvwZw_‡Z †Kv‡bv-GKUv mgy`ª nB‡Z GKUv †Rvqv‡ii †mªvZ Avwmqv Zvnvi Aš— ivZ¥v‡K GK b~Zb Awbe©Pbxq †PZbvkw³‡Z cwic~Y© Kwiqv Zzwj‡Z‡Q| †m Avcbv‡K Avcwb †`wL‡Z‡Q, fvwe‡Z‡Q, cÖkœ Kwi‡Z‡Q, Ges eywS‡Z cvwi‡Z‡Q bv| Mfxi c~wY©gviv‡Î †m GK-GKw`b ax‡i kqbM„‡ni Øvi Lywjqv f‡q f‡q gyL evovBqv evwn‡ii w`‡K Pvwnqv †`‡L c~wY©gvcÖK…wZI myfvi g‡Zv GKvwKbx myß RM‡Zi Dci RvwMqv ewmqv-†hŠe‡bi in‡m¨ cyj‡K welv‡` Amxg wbR©bZvi G‡Kev‡i †kl mxgv ch©š—, Ggb-wK, Zvnv AwZµg KwiqvI ag&&_g&& Kwi‡Z‡Q, GKwU K_v Kwn‡Z cvwi‡Z‡Q bv| GB wb¯—ä e¨vKzj cÖK…wZi cÖv‡š— GKwU wb¯—ä e¨vKzj evwjKv `uvovBqv| Gw`‡K Kb¨vfvivMÖ¯— wcZvgvZv wPwš—Z nBqv DwVqv‡Qb| †jv‡KI wb›`v Avi¤¢ Kwiqv‡Q| Ggb-wK, GKN‡i Kwi‡e Ggb RbieI ïbv hvq| evYxK‡Éi m”Qj Ae¯’v, `yB †ejvB gvQfvZ Lvq, GRb¨ Zvnvi kÎy wQj| ¯¿xcyiy‡l we¯—i civgk© nBj| wKQzw`‡bi g‡Zv evYx we‡`‡k †Mj| Ae‡k‡l wdwiqv Avwmqv Kwnj, ÒP‡jv, KwjKvZvq P‡jv|Ó we‡`khvÎvi D`&‡hvM nB‡Z jvwMj| Kzqvkv-XvKv cÖfv‡Zi g‡Zv myfvi mg¯— ü`q AkÖyev‡®ú G‡Kev‡i fwiqv †Mj| GKUv Awbw`©ó Avk¼v-e‡k †m wKQzw`b nB‡Z µgvMZ wbe©vK&& Rš‘i g‡Zv Zvnvi evcgv‡qi m‡½ m‡½ wdwiZÑ WvMi P¶z †gwjqv Zuvnv‡`i gy‡Li w`‡K Pvwnqv Kx-GKUv eywS‡Z †Póv KwiZ, wKš‘ Zuvnviv wKQz eySvBqv ewj‡Zb bv| BwZg‡a¨ GKw`b Aciv‡nœ wQc †dwjqv cÖZvc nvwmqv Kwnj, ÒKx †i my, †Zvi bvwK ei cvIqv †M‡Q, ZzB we‡q Ki‡Z hvw”Qm? †`wLm Avgv‡`i fzwjm †b|Ó ewjqv Avevi gv‡Qi w`‡K g‡bv‡hvM Kwij| gg©we× nwiYx e¨v‡ai w`‡K †hgb Kwiqv ZvKvq, bxi‡e ewj‡Z _v‡K ÔAvwg †Zvgvi Kv‡Q Kx †`vl KwiqvwQjvgÕ, myfv †Zgwb Kwiqv cÖZv‡ci w`‡K Pvwnj; †mw`b Mv‡Qi Zjvq Avi ewmj bv| evYxKÉ wb`ªv nB‡Z DwVqv kqbM„‡n ZvgvK LvB‡ZwQ‡jb, myfv Zuvnvi cv‡qi Kv‡Q ewmqv Zuvnvi gy‡Li w`‡K Pvwnqv Kuvw`‡Z jvwMj| Ae‡k‡l Zvnv‡K mvš—¡bv w`‡Z wMqv evYxK‡Éi ﮋ K‡cv‡j AkÖy MovBqv cwoj| Kvj KwjKvZvq hvBevi w`b w¯’i nBqv‡Q| myfv †MvqvjN‡i Zvnvi evj¨-mLx‡`i Kv‡Q we`vq jB‡Z †Mj, Zvnvw`M‡K ¯^n‡¯— LvIqvBqv, Mjv awiqv GKevi `yB †Pv‡L hZ cv‡i K_v fwiqv Zvnv‡`i gy‡Li w`‡K PvwnjÑ `yB †bÎcj−e nB‡Z Uc&&Uc&& Kwiqv AkÖyRj co‡Z jvwMj| †mw`b ïK¬vØv`kxi ivwÎ| myfv kqbM„n nB‡Z evwni nBqv Zvnvi †mB wPicwiwPZ b`xZ‡U k®úkh¨vq jyUvBqv cwojÑ †hb aiYx‡K, GB cÖKvÊ g~K gvbeZv‡K `yB evû‡Z awiqv ewj‡Z Pv‡n, ÔZzwg Avgv‡K hvB‡Z w`‡qv bv, gv| Avgvi g‡Zv `ywU evû evovBqv ZzwgI Avgv‡K awiqv iv‡Lv|Õ

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

21

kãv_© I UxKv : M‡f©i Kj¼ Ñ mš—vb wn‡m‡e Kj¼, Mf© n‡jv gv‡qi †cU †h e¨w³ ev e¯‘‡K cwiev‡i
†bwZevPK wn‡m‡e †`Lv nq Zv n‡jv Kj¼; my`xN© cj−ewewkó Ñ eo cvZvwewkó, `xN© n‡jv eo, ÔmyÕ hy³ n‡q ÔeoÕ‡K we‡klvwqZ Kiv n‡q‡Q; cj−e n‡jv cvZv; GLv‡b †Pv‡Li cvZv wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q| Iôvai Ñ Iô Ges Aai, Dc‡ii I wb‡Pi †VuvU [Iô+Aai = Iôvai] wK‡kvjq Ñ Mv‡Qi bZzb cvZv| ZR©gv Ñ Abyev`, GK fvlv †_‡K Ab¨ fvlvq ejv ev †jLv| A¯—gvb Ñ Wzeš—, Wz‡e hv‡”Q Ggb, P›`ª-m~‡h©i cwðg w`‡K A`„k¨ Ae¯’v| Awb‡glfv‡e Ñ cjKnxbfv‡e, Awb‡gk Ñ AcjK, cjKnxb D`qv¯— Ñ D`q + A¯— = D`qv¯—, Avwef©ve I wZ‡ivfve, DVv I Wzev| Qvqv‡jvK Ñ Qvqv + Av‡jvK = Qvqv‡jvK; †Kv‡bv e¯‘i Ici Av‡jv co‡j †h cÖwZwe¤^ nq Zv n‡jv Qvqv; weRb gnË¡ Ñ weRb Ñ Rbk~b¨, wbR©b; gnË¡ Ñ Ae`vb; weRb gnË¡ Ñ †Kvjvnjgy³ cÖKw… Zi Ae¯’vi †h AvKl©Yxq w`K| Zš^x Ñ ¶xY I myMwVZ A½wewkó| euvLvwi Ñ Kuv‡ai `yw`‡K `ycÖv‡š— Szwj‡q †evSv en‡bi euv‡ki dvwj| †XuwKkvjv Ñ †h N‡i †XuwK ivLv nq; †XuwK n‡jv avb †_‡K Pvj ˆZwii †jvKR hš¿; GL‡bv MÖvgxY Rxe‡b A‡bK evwo‡Z †XuwKi Ni Av‡Q| Mvn©¯¨ m”QjZv ’ Ñ cvwievwiK ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡bi m”QjZv| wPiwb¯—ä n„`q DcK~j Ñ kvš— n„`q; wb¯—ä n‡jv Av‡jvobnxb Ae¯’v; DcK~j n‡jv K~‡ji m`„k; GLv‡b n„`q DcK~j ej‡Z n„`‡qi wKbvivi K_vB ejv n‡q‡Q| wSwj−ie c~Y© Ñ wSu wSu †cvKvi AvIqvR/k‡ã gyLi| weRb g~wZ© Ñ wbR©b Ae¯’v; weRb n‡jv wbR©b ev Rbgvbek~b¨, g~wZ© n‡jv †Kv‡bvwKQz cÖwZK…wZ; weRbg~wZ© kãwU GLv‡b †Kvjvnjnxb Ae¯’v ev wbR©b/Rbgvbek~b¨ Ae¯’v †evSv‡Z e¨en„Z n‡q‡Q| Mʇ`k Ñ ewai, †evev| welv`kvš— Ñ `ytLgMœ, wec` = ùywZ©k~b¨Zv, welYœZv; welv`kvš— n‡jv Lye‡ewk welv`MÖ¯—Zv †_‡K †h kvš— Ae¯’v| c~wY©gvwZw_ Ñ Puv‡`i cwic~Y© i~c nIqvi mgq| Kb¨vfvivMÖ¯— wcZv-gvZv Ñ †h wcZv-gvZvi weevn‡hvM¨v Kb¨v mš—v‡bi we‡q nqwb| K‡cvj Ñ Mvj; †bÎcj−e Ñ †Pv‡Li cvZv; ïK¬vØv`kx Ñ Puv‡`i wØZxq w`b| cvV cwiwPwZ : iex›`ªbv_ VvKz‡ii myfv MíwU Zuvi weL¨vZ ÔMí¸”QÕ †_‡K msM„nxZ n‡q‡Q| GKRb evK&&cÖwZeÜx wK‡kvix myfvi cÖwZ †jL‡Ki n„`q wbsov‡bv fv‡jvevmv I ggZ¡‡eva MíwU Agi n‡q Av‡Q| myfv K_v ej‡Z cv‡i bv| gv g‡b K‡ib G-Zvi wbqwZi †`vl, wKš‘ evev Zuv‡K fv‡jvev‡mb| Avi †KD Zvi m‡½ wg‡k bvцL‡j bv| wKš‘ Zvi wekvj GKwU AvkÖ‡qi RMr Av‡Q| hviv K_v ej‡Z cv‡i bv †mB †cvlv cÖvYx‡`i Kv‡Q †m gyLi| Zv‡`i †m LyeB Kv‡Qi Rb| Avi wecyj wbe©vK cÖK…wZi Kv‡Q †m cvq gyw³i Avb›`| iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi g~jZ cÖwZeÜx gvby‡li AvkÖ‡qi Rb¨ GKwU RMr ˆZwi K‡i‡Qb Ges †mBm‡½ Zv‡`i cÖwZ Avgv‡`i ggZ¡‡ev‡ai D‡Øvab NUv‡Z †P‡q‡Qb| Abykxjbx Kg©-Abykxjb 1. wewfbœ ai‡bi cÖwZeÜx‡`i mvnvh¨ mn‡hvwMZvi Rb¨ Kx Kx D‡`¨vM MÖnY Kiv hvq| G wel‡q cÖwZ‡e`b ˆZwi K‡i †kÖwYwk¶‡Ki wbKU Rgv `vI| 2. †Zvgvi Pvicv‡ki mgv‡R myfvi g‡Zv Kv‡iv Rxeb-ev¯—eZv _vK‡j Zv wb‡Ri fvlvq wjL| eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ 1| wQc †d‡j gvQ aiv Kvi cÖavb kL wQj ? K. myfvwlYxi L. evYxK‡Éi M. my‡Kwkbxi N. cÖZv‡ci

22

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

2| evYxK‡Éi ﮋ K‡cv‡j AkÖ“ Mwo‡q c‡owQj †Kb ? myfv‡K we‡q w`‡eb e‡j i. ii. myfv K_v ej‡Z cv‡i bv e‡j iii. †g‡qwUi fwel¨r †f‡e wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK ? K. i I ii L. i I iii M. ii I iii N. i, ii I iii DÏxcKwU c‡o 3 I 4 bs cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI : †mB †QvƇejvq gwR©bv GKwU weovj I GKwU KzKzi Qvbv G‡bwQj| bvg w`‡q‡Q cywl Avi cyUz| AvR cywl Avi cyUz cy‡ivcywi eo n‡q‡Q| bvg a‡i WvK‡jB gyn~‡Z©B nvwRi nq| cywl †Kv‡j D‡V e‡m wKš‘ cyUz GKUz `~‡i `uvwo‡q †jR bvovq| 3| gwR©bvi g‡a¨ myfvi †h ˆewkó¨ j¶Yxq, Zv n‡jv Ñ K. BZi cÖvwYi cÖwZ AvbyMZ¨ cÖKvk M. GKvKx‡Z¡i mv_x BZi cÖvwY L. BZi cÖvwYi cÖwZ ggZ¡‡eva N. mevi †_‡K wb‡R‡K Avov‡j ivLv| 4| D³ ˆewkó¨ †h Pi‡Yi gva¨‡g dz‡U I‡V Zv n‡jv Ñ w`‡b wZbevi †Mvqvj N‡i hvIqv i. ii. `yB evû Øviv Mjv Rwo‡q aiv iii. gv‡S gv‡S Zv‡`i‡K fr©mbv Kiv| wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK ? K. i I ii L. ii I iii M. i I iii N. i, ii I iii m„Rbkxj cÖkœ `yB cyÎ mš—v‡bi ci Kb¨v mš—vb cjvk eveyi cwiev‡i Avb‡›`i eb¨v wb‡q G‡jv| bvg ivLv n‡jv ÔKj¨vYxÕ| mK‡ji †Pv‡Li gwY Kj¨vYx †e‡o IVvi mv‡_ mv‡_ cjvkevey eyS‡Z cvi‡jb eq‡mi Zzjbvq Kj¨vYxi gvbwmK weKvk N‡U wb| wKQz ej‡j d¨vj&&d¨vj&& K‡i †P‡q _v‡K| Kj¨vYxi we‡qi K_vevZ©v Pj‡Q| cjvkevey Kj¨vYxi meB eic¶‡K Ly‡j ej‡jb| me ï‡b e‡ii evev my‡eva evey ej‡jb, Ôcjvk evey Kj¨vYxi g‡Zv Avgvi †Q‡jI †Zv n‡Z cvi‡Zv, Kv‡RB Kj¨vYx gv‡K N‡i wb‡Z Avgv‡`i †Kv‡bv AvcwË †bB|Õ K. L. M. N. myfvi MÖv‡gi bvg Kx ? ÔwcZv-gvZvi bxie ü`qfveÕ Ñ K_vwU Øviv †jLK Kx †evSv‡Z †P‡q‡Qb ? DÏxc‡Ki cÖ_g As‡ki e³‡e¨ Kj¨vYx I myfvi †h we‡kl w`KwUi m½wZ †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q Ñ Zv e¨vL¨v Ki| Kj¨vYx I myfv GKB cwiw¯’wZi wkKvi n‡jI Df‡qi †cÖ¶vcU I cwiYwZ wfbœ Ñ we‡k−lY Ki|

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

23

jvB‡eªwi iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi gnvmgy‡`ªi kZ erm‡ii K‡j−vj †Kn hw` Ggb Kwiqv euvwaqv ivwL‡Z cvwiZ †h, †m NygvBqv cov wkïwUi g‡Zv Pzc Kwiqv _vwKZ, Z‡e †mB bxie gnvk‡ãi mwnZ GB jvB‡eªwii Zzjbv nBZ| GLv‡b fvlv Pzc Kwiqv Av‡Q, cÖevn w¯’i nBqv Av‡Q, gvbevZ¥vi Agi Av‡jvK Kv‡jv A¶‡ii k„•L‡j KvM‡Ri KvivMv‡i euvav cwoqv Av‡Q| Bnviv mnmv hw` we‡`ªvnx nBqv D‡V, wb¯—äZv fvwOqv †d‡j, A¶‡ii †eov `» Kwiqv GKev‡i evwni nBqv Av‡m! wngvj‡qi gv_vi Dc‡i KwVb ei‡di g‡a¨ †hgb KZ KZ eb¨v evuav Av‡Q, †Zgwb GB jvB‡eªwii g‡a¨ gvbeü`‡qi eb¨v †K euvwaqv ivwLqv‡Q! we`y¨r‡K gvbyl †jvnvi Zvi w`qv euvwaqv‡Q, wKš‘ †K RvwbZ gvbyl kã‡K wbtk‡ãi g‡a¨ euvwa‡Z cvwi‡e| †K RvwbZ msMxZ‡K, ü`‡qi Avkv‡K, RvMÖZ AvZ¥vi Avb›`aŸwb‡K, AvKv‡ki ˆ`eevYx‡K †m KvM‡R gywoqv ivwL‡e! †K RvwbZ gvbyl AZxZ‡K eZ©gv‡b e›`x Kwi‡e! AZj¯úk© Kvjmgy‡`ªi Dci †Kej GK-GKLvwb eB w`qv muv‡Kv euvwaqv w`‡e! jvB‡eªwii g‡a¨ Avgiv mnmª c‡_i †PŠgv_vi Dc‡i `vuovBqv AvwQ| †Kv‡bv c_ Abš— mgy‡`ª wMqv‡Q, †Kv‡bv c_ Abš— wkL‡i DwVqv‡Q, †Kv‡bv c_ gvbeü`‡qi AZj¯ú‡k© bvwgqv‡Q| †h †h- w`‡K avegvb nI, †Kv_vI evav cvB‡e bv| gvbyl Avcbvi cwiÎvY‡K GZUzKz RvMqvi g‡a¨ euvavBqv ivwLqv‡Q| k‡•Li g‡a¨ †hgb mgy‡`ªi kã ïbv hvq, †Zgwb GB jvB‡eªwii g‡a¨ wK ü`‡qi DÌvbcZ‡bi kã ïwb‡ZQ| GLv‡b RxweZ I g„Z e¨w³i ü`q cvkvcvwk GK cvovq evm Kwi‡Z‡Q| ev` I cÖwZev` GLv‡b `yB fvB‡qi g‡Zv GKm‡½ _v‡K; mskq I wek¦vm, mÜvb I Avwe®‹vi GLv‡b †`‡n †`‡n jq nBqv evm K‡i| GLv‡b `xN©cÖvY ¯^ícÖvY cig ˆah© I kvwš—i mwnZ RxebhvÎv wbe©vn Kwi‡Z‡Q, †Kn Kvnv‡KI D‡c¶v Kwi‡Z‡Q bv| KZ b`x mgy`ª ce©Z Dj−•Nb Kwiqv gvb‡ei KÉ GLv‡b Avwmqv †cuŠwQqv‡QÑ KZ kZ erm‡ii cÖvš— nB‡Z GB ¯^i Avwm‡Z‡Q| G‡mv, GLv‡b G‡mv, GLv‡b Av‡jv‡Ki Rb¥msMxZ Mvb nB‡Z‡Q| Ag„Z‡jvK cÖ_g Avwe®‹vi Kwiqv †h †h gnvcyi“l †h- †Kvbw`b Avcbvi Pvwiw`‡K gvbyl‡K WvK w`qv ewjqvwQ‡jb Ô†Zvgiv mK‡j Ag„‡Zi cyÎ, †Zvgiv w`e¨av‡g evm Kwi‡ZQÕ †mB gnvcyi“l‡`i KÉB mnmª fvlvq mnmª erm‡ii ga¨ w`qv GB jvB‡eªwii g‡a¨ cÖwZaŸwbZ nB‡Z‡Q| GB e‡½i cÖvš— nB‡Z Avgv‡`i wK wKQz ewjevi bvB| gvbe mgvR‡K Avgv‡`i wK †Kv‡bv msev` w`evi bvB| RM‡Zi GKZvb msMx‡Zi g‡a¨ e½‡`kB †Kej wb¯—ä nBqv _vwK‡e! Avgv‡`i c`cÖvš—w¯’Z mgy`ª wK Avgvw`M‡K wKQz ewj‡Z‡Q bv| Avgv‡`i M½v wK wngvj‡qi wkLi nB‡Z ˆKjv‡mi †Kv‡bv Mvb enb Kwiqv Avwb‡Z‡Q bv| Avgv‡`i gv_vi Dc‡i wK Z‡e Abš— bxjvKvk bvB| †mLvb nB‡Z Abš—Kv‡ji wPi‡R¨vwZg©qx b¶Îwjwc wK †Kn gywQqv †dwjqv‡Q| †`k-we‡`k nB‡Z AZxZ-eZ©gvb nB‡Z cÖwZw`b Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q gvbeRvwZi cÎ Avwm‡Z‡Q; Avgiv wK Zvnvi Dˇi `ywU-PviwU PwU PwU Bs‡iwR Le‡ii KvMR wjwLe| mKj †`k Amxg Kv‡ji c‡U wbR wbR bvg Lyw`‡Z‡Q| evOvwji bvg wK †Kej `iLv‡¯—i wØZxq cv‡ZB †jLv _vwK‡e| Ro A`„‡ói mwnZ

24

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

gvbevZ¥vi msMÖvg Pwj‡Z‡Q, ˆmwbKw`M‡K AvnŸvb Kwiqv c„w_exi w`‡K w`‡K k•LaŸwb evwRqv DwVqv‡Q, Avgiv wK †Kej Avgv‡`i DVv‡bi gvPvi DciKvi jvD-Kzgov jBqv gKÏgv Ges Avwcj PvjvB‡Z _vwKe| eû ermi bxie _vwKqv e½‡`‡ki cÖvY fwiqv DwVqv‡Q| Zvnv‡K Avcbvi fvlvq GKevi Avcbvi K_vwU ewj‡Z `vI| evOvwj-K‡Éi mwnZ wgwjqv wek¦msMxZ gayiZi nBqv DwV‡e|

kãv_© I UxKv : K‡j−vj- †XD, k•L- kvgy‡Ki †Lvjm, Dj−•Nb- cvi nIqv, j•Nb Kiv, Ag„Z‡jvK¯^M©, †e‡nkZ, ˆKjvm- wn›`y a‡g©i †`eZv wk‡ei evm¯’vb wn‡m‡e ewY©Z wngvjq ce©‡Zi DuPz ¯’vb, wke‡jvK| cvV cwiwPwZ : jvB‡eªwi iex›`ªªbv_ VvKzi iwPZ GKwU weL¨vZ cÖeÜ| G cÖe‡Ü iex›`ªbv_ jvB‡eªwii ¸i“Z¡ Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| wZwb jvB‡eªwi‡K gnvmg~‡`ªi K‡j−vj aŸwbi mv‡_ Zzjbv K‡i‡Qb| †Kbbv, jvB‡eªwi‡Z gvbevZ¥vi aŸwbivwk eB‡qi cvZvq e›`x n‡q _v‡K| eB‡qi †fZi w`‡qB Avgiv AvKv‡ki ˆ`eevYx †_‡K gvnvZ¥v‡`i K_v †c‡q _vwK| huv‡`i mvwbœa¨ Avgv‡`i KLbB cvIqv m¤¢e bq,eB‡qi †fZi w`‡qB Avgiv Zv‡`i †c‡Z cvwi| eB Avgv‡`i AZx‡Zi mv‡_ †mZyeÜ M‡o †`q| G eB‡qi ¯’vb n‡jv jvB‡eªwi| G jvB‡eªwi‡ZB gvbe ü`‡qi DÌvbcZ‡bi kã †kvbv hvq| jvB‡eªwi‡Z mKj c‡_i mKj g‡Zi gvby‡li mw¤§jb N‡U| jvB‡eªwii gn‡Ë¡i K_v eY©bv K‡i †jLK e‡j‡Qb- RM‡Zi D‡Ï‡k¨ wK Avgv‡`iI wKQz ejvi bvB? Avgiv wK †Kej Zz”Q welq wb‡q Kjn K‡i †eov‡ev| †jLK †k‡l Avkv e¨³ K‡i e‡j‡Qb- evOvwjiv †R‡M D‡V‡Q| ZvivI Avcb fvlvq wj‡L we‡k¦i ÁvbfvÊvi mg„× K‡i Zzj‡e| Abykxjbx Kg©-Abykxjb 1. 2. 1| †Zvgvi GjvKvi ev †Zvgvi †`Lv ev Zzwg e¨envi Ki Ggb GKwU cvVvMvi ev jvB‡eªwii cwiPq `vI| †Zvgv‡`i ¯‹z‡ji cvVvMviwU Kxfv‡e Av‡iv Dbœqb Kiv hvq- †m wel‡q cÖ¯—ve `vI| ÔjvB‡eªwiÕ cÖe‡Ü gnvmgy‡`ªi kZ erm‡ii K‡j−v‡ji mv‡_ †KvbwU‡K Zzjbv K‡i‡Qb ? K. M. K. L. gvbevZ¥vi jvB‡eªwii eû Áv‡bi mw¤§jb eû iv¯—vi mw¤§jb L. N. Av‡jv‡Ki msMxZ‡K

eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ

2| ÔjvB‡eªwiÕ cÖe‡Ü Ômnmª c‡_i †PŠgv_vÕ Ñ ej‡Z Kx †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q ? M. eû ü`‡qi mw¤§jb N. eû Rxe‡bi mw¤§jb

DÏxcKwU c‡o 3 I 4 bs cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI : wn›`y gymjgvb evsjvi evOvwj Rb¥g„Zz¨i e܇b Awfbœ Avcb mËv|

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

25

3| DÏxc‡K †h welqe¯‘i Bw½Z i‡q‡Q Zv ÔjvB‡eªwiÕ cÖe‡Üi †h Pi‡Y e¨³ n‡q‡Q Ñ
i. RxweZ I g„Z e¨w³i ü`q cvkvcvwk GK cvovq evm Kwi‡Z‡Q ii. ev` I cÖwZev` GLv‡b `yB fvB‡qi gZ GKm‡½ _v‡K iii. mÜvb I Avwe®‹vi GLv‡b †`‡n †`‡n jq nBqv evm K‡i

wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK ? K. M. K. M. m„Rbkxj cÖkœ GKR‡bi c‡¶ me©we`¨v wekvi` nIqv Am¤¢e| †mRb¨ G‡KKRb G‡KK wel‡q cvi`wk©Zv jvf K‡i| Avevi †h e¨w³ †h we`¨vq cvi`wk©Zv jvf K‡i Zvi meUzKz Ávb gw¯—‡®‹ aviY KivI GKR‡bi c‡¶ m¤¢e nq bv| ZvB cÖ‡qvRb Ggb †Kvb Dcvq D™¢ve‡bi, hvi e‡`Šj‡Z `iKvi Abyhvqx mg¯— wel‡q GKUv †gvUvgywU Ávb jvf Kiv hvq| †mB †_‡K cÖ‡qvRb †`Lv †`q Ávb msi¶‡Yi| K. L. M. N. Kx‡mi g‡a¨ mgy‡`ªi kã ïbv hvq ? ÔRxweZ I g„Z e¨w³i ü`q cvkvcvwk GK cvovq evm Kwi‡Z‡QÕ Ñ K_vwU eywS‡q ej| DÏxc‡K ewY©Z Ávb msi¶‡Yi KviYwU ÔjvB‡eªwiÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K Zy‡j ai| Ôgvbe ü`‡qi eb¨v‡K †eu‡a ivLvi cÖ‡qvRbxq w`KwUB †hb DÏxcK I jvB‡eªwi cÖe‡Üi g~j e³e¨Õ Ñ we‡k−lY Ki| i i I ii

L. N. L. N.

iii i, ii I iii

4| Bw½Zgq welqe¯‘wU n‡jv Ñ wnsmv msnwZ we‡Øl N„Yv

26

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iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi

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gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

27

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28

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gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

29

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30

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

kvïwo ewj‡jb, Ô†Kej ev‡ci evwo hvBevi Qj|Õ †Kn ewj‡j wek¦vm Kwi‡e bvÑ †hw`b mܨvi mgq wbiyi k¦vm Dcw¯’Z nBj †mBw`b cÖ_g Wv³vi †`wLj Ges †mBw`b Wv³v‡ii †`Lv †kl nBj| evwoi e‡ov eD gwiqv‡Q, Lye ayg Kwiqv A‡š—¨wówµqv m¤úbœ nBj| cÖwZgv-wemR©‡bi mgv‡ivn m¤^‡Ü †Rjvi g‡a¨ ivq‡PŠayix‡`i †hgb †jvKweL¨vZ cÖwZcwË Av‡Q, e‡oveD‡qi mrKvi m¤^‡Ü ivqevnv`yi‡`i †Zgwb GKwU L¨vwZ iwUqv †MjÑ Ggb P›`bKv‡ôi wPZv G gyjy‡K †Kn KLbI †`‡L bvB| Ggb NUv Kwiqv kÖv×I †Kej ivqevnv`yi‡`i evwo‡ZB m¤¢e, Ges ïbv hvq, Bnv‡Z Zuvnv‡`i wKwÂZ FY nBqvwQj| ivgmy›`i‡K mvš—¦bv w`evi mgq, Zvnvi †g‡qi †h wKi~c gnvmgv‡iv‡n g„Zz¨ nBqv‡Q, mK‡jB Zvnvi eûj eY©bv Kwij| G w`‡K †WcywU g¨vwR‡÷ª‡Ui wPwV Avwmj, ÔAvwg GLv‡b mg¯— e‡›`ve¯— Kwiqv jBqvwQ, AZGe Awej‡¤^ Avgvi ¯¿x‡K GLv‡b cvVvB‡e|Õ ivqevnv`y‡ii gwnlx wjwL‡jb, Ôevev †Zvgvi R‡b¨ Avi-GKwU †g‡qi m¤^Ü KwiqvwQ, AZGe Awej‡¤^ QzwU jBqv-GLv‡b Avwm‡e|Õ Gev‡i wek nvRvi UvKv cY Ges nv‡Z nv‡Z Av`vq|

kãv_© I UxKv : ivqevnv`yi Ñ weªwUk Avg‡ji miKvwi †LZve, ivRvi g‡Zv m¤£vš— I cÖZvckvjx e¨w³;
Zzgyj Ñ cÖej, †NviZi, fqvbK; AbyivM Ñ Avmw³, cÖxwZ, †mvnvM, ggZv; n‡Zv`¨g Ñ wbi“`¨g, D`¨gnxb; cÖwZcwË Ñ m¤§vb, gh©v`v, cÖfve; †LuvUv Ñ MÄbv, wb›`v, †`v‡li cÖwZ Bw½Z; wbZ¨wµqv Ñ ˆ`bw›`b Kg©, cÖwZw`‡bi KvR; Av‡µvk Ñ we‡Øl, †µva; SsKvi Ñ ¸Äb, exYv BZ¨vw` ev`¨hš¿vw`i kã; `qvciZš¿ Ñ `qv`ª©, `qvi ekxf~Z; AvRMwe Ñ A™¢Z, Awek¦vm¨; cÄi Ñ cuvRi, ey‡Ki nv‡oi y LuvPv; m‡iv`‡b Ñ †Ku‡` †Ku‡`; ¯^fve‡KŠZ~njx ØvijMœKY© Ñ Avov‡j Ae¯’vb K‡i A‡b¨i K‡_vcK_b †kvbv; kikh¨v Ñ g„Zz¨kh¨v; e‡›`ve¯— Ñ e¨e¯’v, Av‡qvRb| cvV cwiwPwZ : iex›`ªbv_ VvKz‡ii ÔMí¸”QÕ †_‡K †`bvcvIbv MíwU msKwjZ n‡q‡Q| wb¤œga¨weË cwiev‡ii ivgmy›`i cuvP cyÎ Ges GK Kb¨vi RbK| Av`‡ii Kb¨v cÖZvckvjx ivqevnv`y‡ii GKgvÎ cy‡Îi m‡½ we‡q †`qv nq| we‡qi mgq cv‡Îi wcZv ivqevnv`yi `k nvRvi UvKv bM`mn Ab¨vb¨ mvgMÖx we‡qi †hŠZzK wn‡m‡e `vwe K‡ib| Kb¨vi evc ivwR nb| we‡qi mgq bM` A_© evwK c‡o hvq| ïi“ nq wcZv I Kb¨vi Ici gvbwmK wbh©vZb| wbi~cgvi AvZ¥wemR©‡bi ga¨ w`‡q †kl nq Avgv‡`i mgv‡Ri GB fqven e¨vwai Kvwnbx| iex›`ªbv_ VvKz‡ii `i`x nv‡Z G M‡íi Kvwnbx Avgv‡`i n„`q ¯úk© K‡i Ges hviv †hŠZzK MÖnY K‡i Zv‡`i cÖwZ GKai‡bi N„Yvi Rb¥ †`q| Abykxjbx Kg©-Abykxjb 1. 2. 3. †hŠZzK cÖ_vi Kzdj¸‡jv wj‡L GKwU PvU© ˆZwi Ki| †Zvgvi Rvbv †hŠZzK cÖ_vi wkKvi †Kv‡bv †g‡qi Kvwnbx wjL| Ô†hŠZzK MÖnY Kiv DwPr bqÕÑ mc‡¶ AviI hyw³ cÖ`k©b K‡i GKwU cÖeÜ †jL|

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

31

eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ 1| ivgmy›`i †Kvb gv‡m †g‡q‡K N‡i Avbvi cÖwZÁv K‡ib ? K. M. K. L. M. N. fv`ª KvwZ©K gy‡L gy‡L K_v ejvq agx©q wewawb‡la bv gvbvq c‡Yi UvKv D‡c¶v Kivq evevi Ag‡Z we‡q Kivq L. N. Avwk¦b AMÖnvqY

2| Ôkv¯¿wk¶v, bxwZwk¶v G‡Kev‡i bvBÕ GK_v ejvi KviY Kx ?

DÏxcKwU c‡o 3 I 4 bs cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI : Mwb wgqv GKRb K…lK| B‡Zvg‡a¨ Pvlvev` K‡i Avw_©K Ae¯’vi A‡bK DbœwZ K‡i‡Q| GKgvÎ †Q‡ji we‡q †`qvi wPš—v Kivi mv‡_ mv‡_ Pviw`K †_‡K A‡bK cÖ¯—ve Avm‡Z ïi“ Kij| MÖv‡gi †jvKRb aij aygav‡gi mv‡_ we‡qi Drme cvj‡bi Rb¨| Avi G‡Z Mwb wgqv‡K Pov my‡` avi Ki‡Z n‡jv †gvUv As‡Ki UvKv| GKmgq mewKQz nvwi‡q Avevi †m wbt¯^ n‡q hvq| 3| DÏxc‡Ki Mwb wgqvi mv‡_ Ô†`bv cvIbvÕ M‡íi ivgmy›`‡ii mv`„k¨c~Y© w`K n‡jv Ñ
i. A`~i`wk© cwiKíbv ii. FYMÖ¯— Ae¯’v iii. mš—vbevrmj¨

wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK ? K. M. K. M. m„Rbkxj cÖkœ ˆngyi evev †ckvq Aa¨vcK| Zuvi GKgvÎ †g‡q‡K †eŠ K‡i N‡i Zzj‡Z A‡b‡Ki AvMÖn| Zv‡`i wek¦vm ˆngyi evevi mg¯— m¤úwËi gvwjK n‡e ney ei| G jovB‡q weRqx n‡jv Ac~e©‡`i cwievi| k¦ïi evwo‡Z eD‡qi gh©v`v A‡kl| GKmgq Zviv Rvb‡Z †cj, AMva abm¤úwË `~‡i _vK, †g‡qi we‡q‡Z evev †gvUv As‡Ki FY K‡i‡Qb| G‡Z k¦ïi evwo‡Z ˆngyi cÖwZ fv‡jvevmv Ges Zvi evevi cÖwZ kÖ×vfw³i GZUzKz NvUwZ KL‡bvB †`Lv †`q wb| eis Zuv‡K FY †_‡K gyw³ †`qvi Rb¨ GwM‡q hvq ˆngyi k¦ïi| K. wbi~cgvi we‡q‡Z eic¶ KZ UvKv cY †P‡qwQj ? L. ÔeZ©gvb wk¶vi welgq djÕ ej‡Z †jLK Kx eywS‡q‡Qb ? M. DÏxc‡Ki ˆngyi evevi mv‡_ †`bv cvIbv M‡íi wbi~cgvi evevi mv`„k¨c~Y© w`KwU e¨vL¨v Ki| N. DÏxc‡Ki ˆngy I Ô†`bvcvIbvÕ M‡íi wbi~cgv‡K GKm~‡Î Muv_v hvq wK ? hyw³mn cÖgvY Ki| i I ii ii I iii

L. N. L. N.

i I iii i, ii I iii

4| ivgmy›`i †Kvb w`K w`‡q Mwb wgqv †_‡K ¯^Zš¿ ? f~m¤úwË †jvf AvwacZ¨ Avc¨vqb

32

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

eB cov cÖg_ †PŠayix
[†jLK cwiwPwZ : cÖg_ †PŠayix 7B AvM÷ 1868 wLªóv‡ã h‡kv‡i Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi ˆcZ…K wbevm wQj cvebv †Rjvq nwicyi MÖv‡g| Zuvi wk¶vRxeb wQj AmvaviY K…wZZ¡c~Y©| wZwb 1890 mv‡j KjKvZv wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K Bs‡iwR mvwn‡Z¨ cÖ_g †kÖwY‡Z Gg.G. wWwMÖ jvf K‡ib Ges c‡i e¨vwi÷vwi covi Rb¨ wejvZ hvb| wejvZ †_‡K wd‡i G‡m e¨vwi÷vwi †ckvq †hvM`vb bv K‡i wZwb wKQyKvj Bs‡iwR mvwn‡Z¨ Aa¨vcbv K‡ib Ges c‡i mvwnZ¨PP©vq g‡bvwb‡ek K‡ib| Zuvi mvwnwZ¨K QÙbvg wQj ÔexiejÕ| Zuvi m¤úvw`Z ÔmeyR cÎÕ evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ PjwZ fvlvixwZ cÖeZ©‡b AMÖYx f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| e¯‘Z ZuviB †bZ…‡Z¡ evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ bZzb M`¨aviv m~wPZ nq| Zuvi D‡j−L‡hvM¨ MÖš’ : exie‡ji nvjLvZv, ivq‡Zi K_v, Pvi-Bqvwi K_v, AvûwZ, cÖeÜ msMÖn, bxj‡jvwnZ, m‡bU cÂvkr, c`vPviY BZ¨vw`| cÖg_ †PŠayix 2iv †m‡Þ¤^i 1946 mv‡j KjKvZvq ci‡jvKMgb K‡ib| ]

eB cov kLUv gvby‡li me©‡kÖô kL n‡jI Avwg KvD‡K kL wn‡m‡e eB co‡Z civgk© w`‡Z PvB‡b| cÖ_g, †m civgk© †KD MÖvn¨ Ki‡eb bv; †Kbbv, Avgiv RvZ wn‡m‡e †kŠwLb bB| wØZxqZ, A‡b‡K Zv Kzcivgk© g‡b Ki‡eb; †Kbbv, Avgv‡`i GLb wVK kL Kievi mgq bq| Avgv‡`i GB †ivM-‡kvK, `ytL-`vwi‡`ª¨i †`‡k my›`i Rxeb aviY KivB hLb n‡q‡Q cÖavb mgm¨v, ZLb †mB Rxeb‡KB my›`i Kiv, gnr Kivi cÖ¯—ve A‡b‡Ki Kv‡Q wbi_©K Ges wbg©gI †VK‡e| Avgiv mvwn‡Z¨i im Dc‡fvM Ki‡Z cÖ¯‘Z bB; wKš‘ wk¶vi dj jv‡fi Rb¨ Avgiv mK‡j DØvû| Avgv‡`i wek¦vm wk¶v Avgv‡`i Mv‡qi R¡vjv I †Pv‡Li Rj `yB-B `~i Ki‡e| G Avkv m¤¢eZ `yivkv; wKš‘ Zv n‡jI Avgiv Zv Z¨vM Ki‡Z cvwi †b| †Kbbv, Avgv‡`i D×v‡ii Rb¨ †Kv‡bv m`ycvq Avgiv †Pv‡Li mygy‡L †`L‡Z cvB‡b| wk¶vi gvnv‡Z¥¨ AvwgI wek¦vm Kwi Ges whwbB hvB ejyb mvwnZ¨PP©v †h wk¶vi me©cÖavb A½ †m wel‡q †Kv‡bv m‡›`n †bB| †jv‡K †h Zv m‡›`n K‡i, Zvi KviY G wk¶vi dj nv‡Z nv‡Z cvIqv hvq bv, A_©vr Zvi †Kv‡bv bM` evRvi `i †bB| GB Kvi‡Y †W‡gv‡µwm mvwn‡Z¨i mv_©KZv †ev‡S bv, †ev‡S ïay A‡_©i mv_©KZv| †W‡gv‡µwmi ¸i“iv †P‡qwQ‡jb mKj‡K mgvb Ki‡Z wKš‘ Zv‡`i wkl¨iv Zv‡`i K_v D‡ëv ey‡S mK‡jB n‡Z Pvq eo gvbyl| GKwU wewkó AwfRvZ mf¨Zvi DËivwaKvix n‡qI Bs‡iwR mf¨Zvi ms¯ú‡k© G‡m Avgiv †W‡gv‡µwmi ¸Y¸‡jv AvqË Ki‡Z bv †c‡i Zvi †`vl¸‡jv AvZ¥mvr K‡iwQ| Gi KviYI ¯úó| e¨vwaB msµvgK ¯^v¯’¨ bq| Avgv‡`i wkw¶Z mgv‡Ri †jvjyc`„wó AvR A‡_©i IciB c‡o i‡q‡Q| myZivs mvwnZ¨PP©vi mydj m¤^‡Ü A‡b‡KB mw›`nvb| huviv nvRviLvbv j-wi‡cvU© †K‡bb, Zviv GKLvbv KveªMÖš’I wKb‡Z cÖ¯‘Z bb, †Kbbv, Zv‡Z e¨emvi †Kv‡bv mymvi †bB| bwRi bv AvD‡o KweZv Ave„wË Ki‡j gvgjv †h nvi‡Z n‡e †m †Zv Rvbv K_v, wKš‘ †h K_v R‡R †kv‡b bv, Zvi †h †Kv‡bv g~j¨ †bB, GB‡UB n‡”Q †ckv`vi‡`i gnvåvwš—| Áv‡bi fvÛvi †h a‡bi fvÛvi bq G mZ¨ †Zv cÖZ¨¶| wKš‘ mgvb cÖZ¨¶ bv n‡jI mgvb mZ¨ †h, G hy‡M †h RvwZi Áv‡bi fvÊvi k~b¨ †m RvwZi a‡bi fuv‡oI fevbx| Zvici †h RvwZ g‡b eo bq, †m RvwZ Áv‡bI eo bq; †Kbbv a‡bi m„wó †hgb Ávb mv‡c¶ †Zgwb Áv‡bi m„wó gb mv‡c¶ Ges gvby‡li gb‡K mij, mPj, mivM I mg„× Kivi fvi AvR‡Ki w`‡b mvwn‡Z¨i IciI b¨¯— n‡q‡Q| †Kbbv, gvby‡li `k©b, weÁvb, ag©bxwZ, AbyivM-weivM, Avkv-ˆbivk¨, Zvi Aš—‡ii mZ¨ I ¯^cœ GB mK‡ji mgev‡q mvwn‡Z¨i Rb¥| Acivci kv‡¯¿i wfZi hv Av‡Q †mme n‡”Q gvby‡li g‡bi fMœvsk; Zvi cy‡iv gbUvi mv¶vr cvIqv hvq ïay mvwn‡Z¨| `k©b weÁvb BZ¨vw` n‡”Q Zvi gbM½vi †Zvjv Rj, Zvi c~Y© †¯ªvZ AvengvbKvj mvwn‡Z¨i †fZiB †mvj−v‡m m‡e‡M e‡q P‡j‡Q Ges †mB M½v‡Z AeMvnb K‡iB Avgiv Avgv‡`i mKj cvcgy³ ne|

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

33

AZGe, `uvovj GB †h, Avgv‡`i eB co‡Z n‡e, †Kbbv eB cov Qvov mvwnZ¨PP©vi Dcvqvš—i †bB| a‡g©i PP©v PvB wK gw›`‡ii evB‡iI Kiv P‡j, `k©‡bi PP©v ¸nvq, bxwZi PP©v N‡i Ges weÁv‡bi PP©v Rv`yNi; wKš‘ mvwn‡Z¨i PP©vi Rb¨ PvB jvB‡eªwi; I-PP©v gvby‡l KviLvbv‡ZI Ki‡Z cv‡i bv; wPwoqvLvbv‡ZI bq| GBme K_v hw` mZ¨ nq, Zvn‡j Avgv‡`i gvb‡ZB n‡e †h, mvwn‡Z¨i g‡a¨ Avgv‡`i RvZ gvbyl n‡e| †mBRb¨ Avgiv hZ †ewk jvB‡eªwi cÖwZôv Kie, †`‡ki ZZ †ewk DcKvi n‡e| Avgv‡`i g‡b nq G †`‡k jvB‡eªwii mv_©KZv nvmcvZv‡ji PvB‡Z wKQz Kg bq Ges ¯‹zj- K‡j‡Ri PvB‡Z GKUz †ewk| GK_v ï‡b A‡b‡K Pg‡K DV‡eb| †KD †KD Avevi †n‡mI DV‡eb; wKš‘ Avwg Rvwb, Avwg iwmKZvI KiwQ‡b, A™¢zZ K_vI ejwQ‡b; hw`I G wel‡q †jvKgZ †h Avgvi g‡Zi mg‡iLvq P‡j bv, †m wel‡q Avwg m¤ú~Y© m‡PZb| AZGe Avgvi K_vi Avwg ˆKwdqZ w`‡Z eva¨| Avgvi e³e¨ Avwg Avcbv‡`i Kv‡Q wb‡e`b KiwQ Zvi mZ¨ wg_¨vi wePvi Avcbviv Ki‡eb| †m wePv‡i Avgvi K_v hw` bv †U‡K Zvn‡j iwmKZv wn‡m‡eB MÖvn¨ Ki‡eb| Avgvi wek¦vm wk¶v †KD KvD‡K w`‡Z cv‡i bv| mywkw¶Z †jvK gvÎB ¯^wkw¶Z| AvR‡Ki evRv‡i we`¨v`vZvi Afve †bB| Ggb wK, G †¶‡Î `vZvK‡Y©iI Afve †bB; Ges Avgiv Avgv‡`i †Q‡j‡`i Zv‡`i Øvi¯’ K‡iB wbwðZ _vwK GB wek¦v‡m †h, †mLv‡b †_‡K Zviv GZUv we`¨vi ab jvf K‡i wd‡i Avm‡e hvi my‡` Zvi evwK Rxeb Aviv‡g KvwU‡q w`‡Z cvi‡e| wKš‘ G wek¦vm wbZvš— Ag~jK| g‡bviv‡R¨i `vb MÖnYmv‡c¶, A_P Avgiv `vZvi gyL †P‡q MÖnxZvi K_vUv G‡Kev‡iB fz‡j hvB| G mZ¨ fz‡j bv †M‡j Avgiv eySZvg †h, wk¶‡Ki mv_©KZv wk¶v`vb Kivq bq, wKš‘ Qv·K Zv AR©b Ki‡Z m¶g Kivq| wk¶K Qv·K wk¶vi c_ †`wL‡q w`‡Z cv‡ib, Zvi †KŠZ~nj D‡`ªK Ki‡Z cv‡ib, Zvi eyw×e„wˇK RvMÖZ Ki‡Z cv‡ib, g‡bviv‡R¨i Hk¦‡h©i mÜvb w`‡Z cv‡ib, Zvi Ávb wccvmv‡K R¡jš— Ki‡Z cv‡ib, Gi †ewk Avi wKQz cv‡ib bv| whwb h_v_© ¸i“ wZwb wk‡l¨i AvZ¥v‡K D‡ØvwaZ K‡ib Ges Zvi Aš—wb©wnZ mKj cÖ”Qbœ kw³‡K e¨³ K‡i †Zv‡jb| †mB kw³i e‡j wkl¨ wb‡Ri gb wb‡R M‡o †Zv‡j, wb‡Ri AwfgZ we`¨v wb‡R AR©b K‡i we`¨vi mvabv wkl¨‡K wb‡R AR©b Ki‡Z nq| ¸i“ DËimvaK gvÎ| Avgv‡`i ¯‹zj K‡j‡Ri wk¶vi c×wZ wVK Dj‡Uv| †mLv‡b †Q‡j‡`i we‡`¨ †Mjv‡bv nq, Zviv Zv RxY© Ki‡Z cvi“K Avi bvB cvi“K| Gi d‡j †Q‡jiv kvixwiK I gvbwmK g›`vwMœ‡Z RxY©kxY© n‡q K‡jR †_‡K †ewi‡q Av‡m| GKUv Rvbv‡kvbv D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ e¨vcviUv cwi®‹vi Kiv hvK| Avgv‡`i mgv‡R Ggb A‡bK gv Av‡Qb huviv wkï mš—vb‡K µgvš^‡q Mi“i `ya †Mjv‡bvUvB wkïi ¯^v¯’¨i¶vi I eje„w×i me©cÖavb Dcvq g‡b K‡ib| `y» Aek¨ AwZkq Dcv‡`q c`v_©, wKš‘ Zvi DcKvwiZv †h †fv³vi RxY© Kievi kw³i Ici wbf©i K‡i G Ávb I †kÖwYi gvZ…Kz‡ji †bB| Zv‡`i wek¦vm IÑe¯‘ †c‡U †M‡jB DcKvi n‡e| Kv‡RB wkï hw` Zv wMj‡Z AvcwË K‡i Zvn‡j †m †h †eqvov †Q‡j, †m wel‡q Avi we›`ygvÎ m‡›`n _v‡K bv| AZGe ZLb Zv‡K a‡i †eu‡a †Rvi Rei`w¯— K‡i `ya LvIqv‡bvi e¨e¯’v Kiv nq| †klUvq †m hLb GB `y»cvb wµqv n‡Z Ae¨vnwZ jvf Kivi Rb¨ gv_v bvov‡Z, nvZcv Qzo‡Z ïi“ K‡i, ZLb †mœngqx gvZv e‡jb, Avgvi gv_v LvI, givgyL †`L, GB †XvK, Avi GK †XvK, Avi GK †XvK BZ¨vw`| gvZvi D‡Ïk¨ †h Lye mvay, †m wel‡q †Kv‡bv m‡›`n †bB, wKš‘ G wel‡qI †Kv‡bv m‡›`n †bB †h, D³ ejv KIqvi d‡j gv ïay †Q‡ji hK…‡Zi gv_v Lvb Ges †Xv‡Ki ci †Xv‡K Zvi givgyL †`Levi m¤¢vebv evwo‡q P‡jb| Avgv‡`i ¯‹zj K‡j‡Ri wk¶v c×wZUvI H GKB ai‡bi| Gi d‡j KZ †Q‡ji my¯’ mij gb †h Bbd¨v›UvBj wjfv‡i MZvmy n‡”Q Zv ejv KwVb| †Kbbv †`‡ni g„Zz¨i †iwR÷vwi ivLv nq, AvZ¥vi nq bv|

34

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44

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kãv_© I UxKv : gyL‡h¨ Ñ gy‡Lvcva¨vq c`we, †jvKgy‡L D”Pvi‡Yi cv_©K¨ N‡U‡Q GLv‡b; elx©qmx Ñ AwZ y e„×, mK‡ji g‡a¨ eq‡m eo, ¯¿xevPK kã wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ; m½wZcbœ Ñ A_©-m¤ú‡`i AwaKvix; A‡š—¨wówµqv Ñ g„Z e¨w³i mrKvi, g„‡Z¨i Rb¨ Awš—g ev †kl Abyôvb; mM¨ Ñ ¯^M©, †jvKgy‡Li D”Pvi‡Y cv_©K¨ N‡U‡Q; Aš—ix¶ Ñ AvKvk, MMb; fz³ve‡kl Ñ †fvRb ev LvIqvi c‡i cv‡Z hv c‡o _v‡K; cÖmbœ Ñ mš‘ó, Lywk; cÖmbœgyL Ñ Lywk fiv gyL; †µvo Ñ †Kvj; kke¨¯— Ñ Li‡Mvk ev kk‡Ki g‡Zv e¨¯—; †Zbvi Ñ Zvi, Zuvi; `y‡j Ñ cvjwK enbKvix wn›`y m¤úª`vqwe‡kl, wbPz Rv‡Zi gvbyl e‡j AwfwnZ; B›`ªRvj Ñ Rv`ywe`¨v, GLv‡b M‡íi gva¨‡g gy» ev †gvwnZ K‡i ivLvi ¶gZv‡K †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q; †ivgvÂ Ñ wkniY, Abyf~wZi Avwa‡K¨ Mv‡qi †jvg `uvwo‡q hvIqv; fMœKÉ Ñ weK…Z ¯^i, GLv‡b AwZ Av‡e‡M KvOvjxi fvOv ev weK…Z ¯^‡i K_v ejv †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q; cÖYvgx Ñ cy‡ivwnZ ev †`e-†`ex‡K †`Iqv mvjvwg, GLv‡b KweivR‡K †`Iqv wPwKrmv wd wn‡m‡e †`Iqv UvKv †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q; gywó‡hvM Ñ †UvUKv wPwKrmv; †Mu‡U Kwo Ñ KuvUvhy³ kvgyK RvZxq cÖvwY; wb¯—ä Ñ wbðj, wbtmvo; wbe©vK; nwiaŸwb Ñ nwi bv‡gi aŸwb, wn›`y ag©vej¤^xiv g„Z‡`n enb Kivi mgq mg‡eZK‡É †`eZv nwii bvg D”P¯^‡i e‡j _v‡K Zv‡K nwiaŸwb e‡j; ms¯‹vi Ñ wek¦vm, †SuvK, AvRb¥ aviYv; Akb Ñ Lv`¨`ªe¨, Avnv‡ii e¯‘; mܨvwýK Ñ mܨv‡ejvq wn›`y m¤úª`v‡qi wbZ¨KiYxq c~Rv| cvV cwiwPwZ : myKzgvi †mb m¤úvw`Z Ôkir mvwnZ¨mgMÖÕ MÖ‡š’i cÖ_g LÊ †_‡K ÔAfvMxi ¯^M©Õ bvgK MíwU msKjb Kiv n‡q‡Q| Mixe-`yLx bxPz †kÖwYi †Q‡j KvOvjx| Zvi gv AfvMx| cÖwZ‡ekx DuPz Rv‡Zi gyLy‡h¨ evwoi M„nKÎx©i g„Zz¨i ci mrKv‡ii `„k¨ †`‡L AfvMxi †fZiKvi fvevbyf~wZ cÖKv‡ki gva¨‡g ïi“ nq G Mí| g„‡Zi kehvÎvi Avo¤^iZv I mrKv‡ii e¨vcKZv †`‡L AfvMxI wb‡Ri g„Zz¨ gyn~‡Z©i ¯^cœ †`‡L| P›`b, wmu`yi, AvjZv, gvjv, N„Z, gay, a~c, aybv, AwMœi †auvqvq gyLy‡h¨ evwoi wMwbœ ¯^‡M© Mgb K‡i‡Qb| `ywLbx AfvMxI fv‡e Zvi g„Zz¨i mgq ¯^vgxi cv‡qi a~wj wb‡q g„Zz¨ †k‡l cyÎ gyLvwMœ Ki‡j †mI ¯^‡M© hv‡e| g„Zz¨i mgq KvOvjx Zvi evev‡K nvwRi Ki‡Z cvi‡jI cv‡iwb Kv‡Vi Afv‡e gv‡qi mrKvi Ki‡Z| G M‡í mvgš—ev‡`i wbg©g i~c Ges bxP †kÖwYi nZ`wi`ª gvby‡li `ytL-Kó I hš¿Yv kirP›`ª AZ¨š— `i`x fvlvq Dc¯’vb K‡i‡Qb|

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Kg©-Abykxjb 1. †Zvgvi †`Lv abx cwiev‡ii Kv‡iv g„Z¨ I Mixe cwiev‡ii Kv‡iv g„Zz¨ NUbvi Zzjbvg~jK weeiY `vI| z 2. KvOvjx Zvi gv‡qi cÖwZ †h gvZ…fw³ †`wL‡q‡Qb GiKg †Kv‡bv NUbv wjwce× Ki|

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eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ 1| †Kvb b`xi Zx‡i kk¥vb NvU Aew¯’Z ? K. ksL L. Mi“o M. MovB N. cÙv 2| iwmK †ej MvQwU Kx Kv‡R e¨envi Ki‡Z †P‡qwQj ? K. AfvMxi ke`vn L. Nievwo ˆZwi M. ivbœvi KvV msMÖn N. KvOvjxi Rb¨ DÏxcKwU c‡o 3 I 4 bs cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI : ZK©iZœ Kwn‡jb avi wbwe ïawe Kxfv‡e ? Mdzi ewjj, †hgb K‡i cvwi ïae evev VvKzi, †Zvgv‡K duvwK †`e bv| 3| ZK©iZœ AfvMxi ¯^M© M‡íi †Kvb&& Pwi‡Îi cÖwZwbwa ? K. VvKzi `vm gyLy‡R¨ L. iwmK `y‡j M. `v‡ivqvbRx N. Aai 4| GB cÖwZwbwa‡Z¡i KviY n‡jv Ñ i Df‡qB Rwg`v‡ii cÖwZwbwa ii Rwg`v‡ii †Mvg¯—v iii Rwg`vi I eªvþY wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK ? K. i L. ii N. ii I iii M. iii m„Rbkxj cÖkœ GB wbôzi Awf‡hv‡M Mdzi †hb evK&‡iva nBqv †Mj| ¶‡YK c‡i ax‡i ax‡i Kwnj, Kvnb Lv‡bK Lo Gevi fv‡M †c‡qwQjvg| wKš‘ †Mj m‡bi e‡Kqv e‡j KZ©vgkvq me a‡i ivL‡jb ? †Ku‡` †K‡U nv‡Z cv‡q c‡o ejjvg, evey gkvB, nvwKg Zzwg, †Zvgvi ivRZ¡ †Q‡o Avi cvjve †Kv_vq ? Avgv‡K cY`‡kK wePzwj bv nq `vI| Pv‡j Lo †bB| evc †ewU‡Z _vwK, ZvI bv nq ZvjcvLvi †MuvRvMuvRv w`‡q G el©vUv KvwU‡q †`e, wKš‘ bv †L‡Z †c‡q Avgvi g‡nk †h g‡i hv‡e| K. KvOvjxi evevi bvg Kx ? L. Ô†Zvi nv‡Zi Av¸b hw` cvB, AvwgI m‡M¨ hveÕ Dw³wU e¨vL¨v Ki| M. DÏxc‡K ÔAfvMxi ¯^M©Õ M‡íi †h mgvRwP‡Îi Bw½Z i‡q‡Q Zv e¨vL¨v Ki| N. KvOvjxi m‡½ DÏxc‡Ki Mdz‡ii mv`„k¨ _vK‡jI KvOvjx m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c Mdz‡ii cÖwZwbwaZ¡ K‡i bv Ñ gš—e¨wUi h_v_©Zv wbiƒcY Ki|

46

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†iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb
[†jLK cwiwPwZ : †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb 9B wW‡m¤^i 1880 wLªóv‡ã iscyi †Rjvi cvqive›` MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi wcZv RnxiywÏb †gvnv¤§` Avey Avjx nvq`vi mv‡ei m¤£vš— f~¯^vgx wQ‡jb| †QvU‡ejvq eo †evb Kwigy‡bœmv †eMg †iv‡Kqv‡K evsjv wk¶vq mvnvh¨ K‡ib| c‡i wZwb eo fvB Beªvwng mv‡e‡ii ZË¡veav‡b Bs‡iwR †k‡Lb| wenv‡ii Aš—M©Z fvMjcy‡ii ˆmq` mvLvIqvZ †nv‡m‡bi m‡½ weev‡ni ci wZwb †eMg †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb bv‡g cwiwPZ nb| ¯^vgxi †cÖiYvq wZwb mvwnZ¨PP©v ïiy K‡ib| mgKvjxb gymjgvb mgv‡R cÖPwjZ Kzms¯‹v‡ii weiy‡× wZwb †jLbx aviY K‡ib| gymwjg bvix RvMi‡Y wZwb AMÖYx f~wgKvq AeZxY© nb| mvLvIqvZ †g‡gvwiqvj Mvj©m ¯‹zj I AvÄygv‡b LvZqvwZ‡b Bmjvg cÖwZôv K‡i wZwb gymjgvb bvix‡`i wk¶v I ms¯‹…wZi c‡_ AMÖmi n‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡ib| cÙivM, Ae‡ivaevwmbx, gwZPzi, myjZvbvi ¯^cœ BZ¨vw` Zuvi D‡j−L‡hvM¨ MÖš’| 9B wW‡m¤^i 1932 mv‡j †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib| ]

Avgiv `ye©j wbixn evOvwj| GB evOvwj k‡ã †Kgb mygayi Zij †Kvgj fve cÖKvk nq| Avnv ! GB Awgqvwm³ evOvwj †Kvb& weavZv MwoqvwQ‡jb ? Kzmy‡gi †mŠKzgvh©, P‡›`ªi Pw›`ªKv, gayi gvayix, hyw_Kvi †mŠif, mywßi bxieZv, f~a‡ii APjZv, bebxi †KvgjZv, mwj‡ji ZijZvÑGK K_vq wek¦RM‡Zi mgy`q †mŠ›`h© Ges wmœ»Zv jBqv evOvjx MwVZ nBqv‡Q ! Avgv‡`i bvgwU †hgb kÖ“wZgayi Z`ª“c Avgv‡`i mgy`q wµqvKjvcI mnR I mij| Avgiv g~wZ©gZx KweZvÑhw` fviZel©‡K BsivwR ai‡Yi GKwU AÆvwjKv g‡b K‡ib, Z‡e e½‡`k Zvnvi ˆeVKLvbv (drawing room) Ges evOvwj Zvnv‡Z mvRm¾v (drawing room suit)! hw` fviZel©‡K GKUv m‡ivei g‡b K‡ib, Z‡e evOvwj Zvnv‡Z cwÙbx| hw` fviZel©‡K GKLvbv Dcb¨vm g‡b K‡ib, Z‡e evOvwj Zvnvi bvwqKv! fvi‡Zi cyi“l mgv‡R evOvwj cyi“wlKv! AZGe Avgiv g~wZ©gvb Kve¨| Avgv‡`i Lv`¨`ªe¨¸‡jv,ÑcyuBkv‡Ki WuvUv, mwRbv I cyuwU gr‡m¨i †SvjÑAwZkq mim| Avgv‡`i Lv`¨`ªe¨¸‡jvÑN„Z, `y», Qvbv, bebxZ, ¶xi, mi, m‡›`k I im‡Mvj−vÑAwZkq my¯^v`y| Avgv‡`i †`‡ki cÖavb dj, Avgª I KuvVvjÑimvj Ges gayi| AZGe Avgv‡`i Lv`¨mvgMÖx wθYvZ¥KÑmim, my¯^v`y, gayi| Lv‡`¨i ¸Y Abymv‡i kix‡ii cywó nq| ZvB mwRbv †hgb exReûj, Avgv‡`i †`‡k †ZgbB fyuwowU ¯’~j| bebx‡Z †KvgjZv AwaK, ZvB Avgv‡`i ¯^fv‡ei fxi“Zv AwaK| kvixwiK †mŠ›`h© m¤^‡Ü AwaK ejv wb®cÖ‡qvRb; GLb †cvlvK cwi”Q‡`i K_v ewj| Avgv‡`i ei A½ †hgb ˆZjwm³ bewbMwVZ my‡Kvgj, cwi‡aqI Z`ª“c AwZ m~² wkgjvi a~wZ I Pv`i| Bnv‡Z evqymÂvj‡bi (Ventilation Gi) †Kvb evav weNœ nq bv ! Avgiv mgq mgq mf¨Zvi Aby‡iv‡a †KvU kvU© e¨envi Kwi e‡U, KviY cyi“lgvby‡li meB mn¨ nq| wKš‘ Avgv‡`i Aa©v½xцngv½x, †Kòvw½MY Z`vbyKi‡Y BsivR jjbv‡`i wbj©¾ cwi”Q` (†kwgR R¨v‡KU) e¨envi K‡ib bv| Zuvnviv AwZkq myKzgvix jwjZv j¾veZx jwZKv, ZvB AwZ gm„Y I m~² ÔnvIqvi kvwoÕ c‡ib| evOvwji mKj e¯‘B my›`i, ¯^”Q I mnRjä|

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kãv_© I UxKv : e¨w³Z¡Ñ e¨w³we‡k‡li ˆewkó¨| wb®‹j¼Ñ wbg©j| †c−‡Uv (wLª:c~: 427-347)-wk¶veªZx I mZ¨vbymÜvbx †c−‡Uv 387 wLªó c~e©v‡ã GKv‡Wwg bv‡g G‡_‡Ý GKwU we`¨vjq ¯’vcb K‡ib Ges wk¶vg~jK M‡elYvq eªZx nb| wicvewjK Zuvi weL¨vZ MÖš| †c−‡Uvi g‡Z, e¨w³‡Z¡i gvb ev Rxe‡bi mv_©KZv Kx ? ’ Zuvi K_vq Only an examined life is worthliving A_©vr cixw¶Z RxebB mv_©K Rxeb-AvZ¥Áv‡bi Øviv cwikxwjZ Rxeb‡evaB e¨w³mËvi aviK I evnK| AmvayZvÑ cÖZviYv, AmrKvR| †L‡jvÑ g~j¨nxb, wbK…ó| W. Rbmb- (Dr. Samual Johnson : 1709-1784)-GKRb wewkó Bs‡iR †jLK I Bs‡iwR fvlvq cÖ_g Awfavb msKjK| wZwb eû cÖL¨vZ Awfavb cÖ‡YZv| †hgb : Dictionary, Vanity of Human Wishes, Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia, Lives of the Poets BZ¨vw`| Aviwfs- (Washington Irving : 1883-1959)-GKRb Av‡gwiKvb †jLK| Zuvi me©‡kÖô RbwcÖq MÖ‡š’i bvg Ôwicf¨vb DBsKj|Õ ¯‹U- (Sir Walter Scott : 1771-1832)- Bs‡iwR fvlvq cÖL¨vZ ¯‹wUk Jcb¨vwmK I Mv_v iPwqZv| Zuvi Ab¨Zg †kÖô Dcb¨vm ÔAvBfvb‡nvÕ| nv-ûZvk-Av‡¶caŸwb| D‡`ªK-D`q, mÂvi| †MŠie-Mwigv, gh©v`v, Me©| weow¤^Z-`ytLcÖvß| e¨_©-wbõj| cvV cwiwPwZ : ÔD`¨g I cwikÖgÕ wbeÜwU †gvnv¤§` jyrdi ingv‡bi ÔDbœZ RxebÕ MÖ‡š’i `kg cwi‡”Q` †_‡K msM„nxZ| MÖ‡š’i g~j wbe‡Ü Gi bvg ÔPvKwi, KvRKg© I e¨emv : D`¨g, †Póv, cwikÖg|Õ D`¨g I cwikÖg wbe‡Ü †gvnv¤§` jyrdi ingvb ¯úói~‡c D”PviY K‡i‡Qb †h, Rxeb avi‡bi Rb¨ PvKwi Ki‡Z n‡e| KvR Ki‡Z n‡e| Z‡e †Kv‡bv KvRB †hb g‡bi ¯^vaxbZv‡K Le© bv K‡i| PvKwi Rxe‡b ¯^v_©e„w× ev Ab¨v‡qi †Kv‡bv ¯úk© †hb bv _v‡K| KvR †QvU †nvK ¶wZ †bB, wKš‘ civbyMÖ‡ni P‡µ †hb e¨w³ Zvi mËvi Agh©v`v K‡i Avkvi cZb bv NUvq| c„w_ex‡Z GgbI `„óvš— Av‡Q, huviv GKKv‡j †QvULv‡Uv KvR K‡i‡Qb, AvZ¥m¤§vb eRvq †i‡L wbR j¶¨ w¯’i †i‡L Ae‡k‡l n‡q‡Q c„w_exL¨vZ †jvK| Av‡Z¥vbœwZi Rb¨ cwikÖg Ges D`¨g Acwinvh©, Gi m‡½ `„wó I g‡bv‡hvM _vK‡Z n‡e| mvayZv I m‡Z¨i †fZi w`‡q †hgb mËvi gwngv D™¢vwmZ nq Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g, †Zgwb mgv‡RI ¯^wbf©i hye‡Ki, wkw¶Z gvby‡li Adziš— kw³i cÖKvkI Avgiv †`L‡Z cvB| `ytL nq, hLb †`Lv hvq, D`xqgvb hye‡Ki g‡a¨ †h m¤¢vebvgq †mvbvi g‡Zv g~j¨evb kw³ mshy³ Av‡Q, ZLb ZvivB civbyMÖ‡ni †gv‡n `yqv‡i `yqv‡i PvKwii Rb¨ gv_v Kz‡U gi‡Q| A_P Zv‡`i Kv‡Q, Kg©kw³fiv `ywU mej nvZ Av‡Q, wk¶vjä Ávb, AwfÁZvgq gw¯—®‹ Av‡Q, DÏxcbvgq cÖvYù~wZ© Av‡Q, GB ¸Yvewji mdj cÖ‡qvM Zv‡`i †`‡e mv_©K Rxe‡bi mÜvb, AvZ¥wbf©iZv Z_v AvZ¥cÖwZôvq A‡gq kw³|

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2| Ômg‡qi hviv mبenvi K‡i Zviv wRZ‡eBÕÑGK_v Øviv Kx †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q ? K. cwikªgxiv weRqx n‡e L. Avjm¨ Z¨vM Kiv DwPZ M. KvR‡K N„Yv Kiv AbywPZ N. mrkª‡gi †Kvb weKí †bB wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU c‡o 3 I 4 bs cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI : cwikªg †mŠfv‡M¨i cÖm~wZ| 3| ÔD`¨g I cwikªgÕ cÖe‡Üi †h Pwi‡Îi gv‡S DÏxc‡Ki cÖwZdjb †`Lv hvq wZwb n‡jb Ñ i. Aviwfs ii. W. Rbkb iii. †c−‡Uv wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii M. i I iii 4| D³ cÖwZdj‡bi KviY Kx ? K. mZZv I cwikªg M. D`¨g I mvnm L. N. L. N. ii I iii i, ii I iii

D`¨g I cwikªg cwikªg I wbôv

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Gm. Iqv‡R` Avwj
[†jLK cwiwPwZ : Gm Iqv‡R` Avwj 1896 wLªóv‡ã (28‡k fv`ª 1303 mb) mvZ¶xiv †Rjvi euvk`n MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| KjKvZv e½evmx K‡j‡R we.Gm. K¬v‡mi QvÎ _vKvKvjxb wZwb Amn‡hvM Av‡›`vj‡b †hvM`vb K‡ib Ges GLv‡bB †jLvcovi mgvwß NUvb| Gici wZwb mvsevw`KZv‡K †ckv wn‡m‡e MÖnY K‡ib| wZwb ÔgvwmK †gvnv¤§`xÕ, Ôˆ`wbK †gvnv¤§`xÕ, Ôˆ`wbK †meKÕ, ÔmvßvwnK mIMvZÕ, ÔmvßvwnK Lv‡`gÕ, Bs‡iwR Ôw` gymjgvbÕ BZ¨vw` cwÎKvq Kg©iZ wQ‡jb| Zuvi D‡j−L‡hvM¨ MÖš’ : gnvgvbyl gynmxb, giyfv¯‹i, ˆmq` Avng`, ¯^Y©vbw›`bx, †QvU‡`i nhiZ gyn¤§` BZ¨vw`| wZwb Lye cwi”Qbœ wPš—v I hyw³ev`x gb wb‡q mewKQzi wePvi Ki‡Zb| mnR mij cÖKvkfw½ Zuvi iPbvi Ab¨Zg ˆewkó¨| Zuvi M`¨‰kjx FRy, iPbv mvejxj| ¯^v¯’¨MZ Kvi‡Y wZwb 1935 mv‡j KjKvZv †Q‡o euvk`‡n wd‡i Av‡mb Ges †mLv‡bB 1954 mv‡ji 8B b‡f¤^i g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib|]

Rxeb‡K my›`i Ki‡Z n‡j †mŠ›`‡h©i wb`k©b wkí‡K mvaviY Rxe‡b wewkó GKUz ¯’vb †`Iqv `iKvi| Avgv‡`i evwo my›`i nIqv PvB, evwoi cÖv½Y my›`i nIqv PvB, evwoi AvmevecÎ my›`i nIqv PvB, evwoi mvR-miÄvg my›`i nIqv PvB, evwoi †eówbI my›`i nIqv PvB| Zvici Avgiv hv cwi, Avgiv hv e¨envi Kwi, meB my›`i nIqv PvB| †Kej ZvB bqÑAvgv‡`i emevi fw½ my›`i nIqv PvB, Avgv‡`i DVevi fw½ my›`i nIqv PvB, Avgv‡`i K_v ejevi fw½ my›`i nIqv PvB, Avgv‡`i cÖ‡Z¨KwU A½fw½, Avgv‡`i cÖ‡Z¨KwU AvPvi, cÖ‡Z¨KwU e¨envi my›`i nIqv PvB| hv Amy›`i, hv K`h©, hv Kzrwmr, hv K`vKvi †m me‡K †Kvb-bv-†Kvb Dcv‡q Rxeb †_‡K Avgv‡`i Zvov‡Z n‡e| mZ¨ †hgb evÃbxq Rxe‡bi Acwinvh© GKwU A½, †kÖq †hgb evÃbxq Rxe‡bi Acwinvh© GKwU A½, my›`iI †Zgwb †mB evÃbxq Rxe‡biB Acwinvh© GKwU A½| cÖvPxb MÖx‡Kiv †h GKvš—fv‡e †mŠ›`h©wcÖq wQ‡jb cvVK †m K_v Rv‡bb| Zuviv hy×-Kzkj Ges hy×wcÖqI wQ‡jb| Zv‡`i welq Avwg c‡owQ, hy‡×i, hy‡×i mgq me©v½ jvj Kvc‡o Ave„Z K‡i Zuviv hy‡× †h‡Zb, i‡³i `vM †`n‡K Zv‡`i hv‡Z Kzrwmr, K`vKvi K‡i bv †Zv‡j †mB D‡Ï‡k¨| Avgv‡`iI Zuv‡`iB gZ Rxeb‡K me© cÖKvi K`h©Zv †_‡K `~‡i ivLevi †Póv Ki‡Z n‡e| evsjv‡`‡ki MÖv‡g Ges kn‡i wK `„k¨ Avgiv †`L‡Z cvB ? Avgvi wb‡Ri Ges Av‡kcv‡ki MÖvg¸wji K_vB GLb ewj| †gvUi‡hv‡M wKsev c`eª‡R District Board-Gi iv¯—v †e‡q MÖv‡gi w`‡K AMÖmi nB, ZLb ¯úóB g‡b nq, District Board-Gi KZ©viv Rxe‡b †mŠ›`‡h©i cÖ‡qvRbxqZv †gv‡U Dcjwä K‡ib bv ! mi“, Amgvb c_, `yav‡i Zvi AvMvQvi ivk| c‡_i cvk w`‡q P‡j †M‡Q b`©gv, Zv‡Z KZiKg AveR©bv †h c‡o Av‡Q Zv eY©bv Kiv hvq bv| A`~‡i euv‡ki eb, Zv‡Z gvbylI cÖ‡ek Ki‡Z cv‡i bv, Av‡jvKI cÖ‡ek Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| †Wvev, cy®‹wiYx, gRvb`x meB jZv¸‡j¥ fivÑ †Kvb †mŠ›`h© m„wói cÖqv‡mi wPý ch©š— cvIqv hvq bv| Avgiv †`k wb‡q Me© Ki‡Z fv‡jvevwm| e¶ ùxZ K‡i mg‡q Avgiv e‡j _vwK evsjv‡`‡ki gZ my›`i †`k †Kv_vI bvB| wKš‘ mZ¨B wK ZvB ! GB †mw`b Avwg wkgyjZjvq wM‡qwQjvg| †mLvbKvi cÖvK…wZK †mŠ›`h© Avgvq gy» K‡iwQj| Avgvi m‡½ GK ZiyY eÜz wQ‡jb| evsjv‡`k‡K wZwb eoB fv‡jvev‡mb| wkgyjZjvq hvevi c~‡e© Zuvi Kv‡Q evsjv †`‡ki †mŠ›`‡h©i cÖksmv Anin ïb‡Z †cZzg| †dievi mgq hLb Avgv‡`i †Uªb evsjvi gvwU‡Z cÖ‡ek

62

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Ki‡j ZLb †`Ljyg Avgvi Zi“Y eÜz gvZ…f~wgi †mŠ›`‡h©i welq Zuvi gZ m¤ú~Y©i~‡c e`‡j †d‡j‡Qb| mZ¨B, ea©gvb †_‡K KjKvZvq Avm‡Z †h K`h©Zv Avgv‡`i `„wó‡K e¨_vq RR©wiZ K‡i, Zv †`‡L g‡b nq bv †h Avgv‡`i †`‡ki †jv‡Kiv Rxe‡bi †mŠ›`‡h©i cÖ‡qvRbxqZv wKQzgvÎ Dcjwä Ki‡Qb| Avgvi MÖv‡gi K_vq †div hvK&&| District Board-Gi iv¯—v †_‡K †h c_ MÖv‡g wM‡q‡Q †m c_ GZ miy †h Zvi Dci w`‡q †Kvb iKg hvbevnb Pvjvb GKvš— KwVb e¨vcvi| †mB miy iv¯—v‡K MÖvgevmx‡`i †mŠ›`h© Abyf~wZnxb ¯^v_©ciZv wbZ¨B AviI miy K‡i Zzj‡Q| mK‡jB mvavi‡Yi iv¯—vi GK BwÂ, `yB Bw wKsev Z‡ZvwaK cwigvY Rwg wb‡Ri GjvKvfz³ Kievi Rb¨ e¨MÖ| iv¯—vi †mŠ›`‡h©i w`‡K KviI `„wó bvB, †mŠ›`h© bvgK wRwbmUvi w`‡KB KviI `„wó bvB| MÖv‡g A‡bK¸wj †KvVvevwo Av‡Q| †m me cÖ¯‘Z Ki‡Z h‡_ó A_© e¨q n‡q‡Q| wKš‘ †mŠ›`h©vbyf~wZi †Kvb wb`k©b evwo¸wji wfZ‡iI cvIqv hvq bv Avi evB‡iI cvIqv hvq bv| GK KvVv RwgI †KD my›`ifv‡e mvRv‡Z †Póv K‡iwb| †KD nq‡Zv wKQz dvwb©Pvi, `yÕGKLvbv Qwe GKUv N‡i †i‡L‡Q| wKš‘ †m N‡i cÖ‡ek Ki‡jB †evSv hvq, †h M„n¯^vgx Taste ev iywP wRwbmUvi m‡½ `~i m¤úK©I iv‡L bv| gvwUi evwoi Ae¯’v †KvVvevwoi †P‡qI †kvPbxq, Avi evMvb, cy®‹wiYx cÖf…wZi welq wKQz bv ejvB fv‡jv| cwj−MÖv‡gi welq hv ejv n‡jv, kn‡ii †ejv‡ZI ZvB ejv P‡j| kn‡ii Nievwo, AvmevecÎ, evwoi †eówb cªf…wZ †`L‡j ¯úóB †evSv hvq †h, Avgv‡`i †`kevmxiv Rxe‡b †mŠ›`‡h©i cÖ‡qvRb †gv‡UB Abyfe K‡ib bv, my›`i wK Avi Amy›`i wK †m wel‡q Zuv‡`i aviYv GKvš—B Kz‡nwjKve„Z| Avwg GK¯’v‡b e‡jwQ, cybivq ewj, me‡P‡q eo wkí n‡”Q Rxeb-wkí| Ab¨ me iK‡gi wkí n‡”Q †mB weivU Rxeb wk‡íiB GK GKwU wefvMgvÎ| cÖ‡Z¨KwU wefv‡Mi w`‡K Avgv‡`i `„wó ivLv `iKvi Rxeb-wkí‡K mv_©K Kivi R‡b¨| Avi hw` mZ¨B Ki‡Z n‡e, Avgv‡`i KvRKg©‡K wbqwš¿Z Ki‡Z n‡e, Avgv‡`i bvMwiK Rxeb‡K wbqwš¿Z Ki‡Z n‡e, Avgv‡`i ivóªxq Rxeb‡K wbqwš¿Z Ki‡Z n‡e, GK K_vq Avgv‡`i Rxe‡bi cÖ‡Z¨KwU wefvM‡K wbqwš¿Z Ki‡Z n‡e| Avi Zvi R‡b¨ `iKvi e¨vcK Ges HKvwš—K mgevwqK cÖ‡Póvi| cvVK ej‡eb, GZ eo cÖ‡Póvi K_v ejv mnR, Kiv mnR bq| ¶z`ª Avwg G‡Z wK Ki‡Z cvwi ? Z‡e ewj ïbyb| Avcwb G‡Z A‡bK wKQz Ki‡Z cv‡ib| Avcbvi evwo‡K my›`i K‡i mvRvb| Avcbvi evwoi DVvb‡K, Avk-cv‡ki Rwg‡K c‡Î-cy‡®ú †kvwfZ K‡i Zzjyb| Avcbvi †cvlvK-cwi”Q` Av‡U©i GK GKwU wb`k©b †nvK| my›`i GK †eóbx Avcbvi Rxe‡b wN‡i _vKzK| my›`‡ii cÖksmvq Avcbvi KÉ gyLwiZ †nvK| †`L‡eb wb‡R‡K hZUv ¶z`ª g‡b K‡iwQ‡jb ZZUv ¶z`ª Avcwb bb| Avi †`L‡eb, Avcbvi ¯—e-¯‘wZ‡Z, Avcbvi mvabvq Zzó n‡q †mŠ›`h©‡`ex Avcbvi MÖv‡g, Avcbvi cvovq mkix‡i Avwef©~Z n‡q‡Qb|

kãv_© I UxKv : c`eªR Ñ cv‡q †nu‡U; b`©gv Ñ cqtcÖYvwj, †Wªb; gRvb`x Ñ Rjnxb b`x, ïwK‡q hvIqv b`x; ùxZ Ñ dz‡j ev †du‡c D‡V‡Q Ggb, Mwe©Z; †KvVvevwo Ñ cvKvevwo, AÆvwjKv, `vjvb; dvwb©Pvi Ñ AvmevecÎ; Ky‡nwjKve„Z Ñ Kzqvkv Ave„Z, cÖ”Qbœ; mgevwqK Ñ mw¤§wjZ D‡`¨v‡M †Kv‡bv wKQz M‡o †Zvjvi cÖqvm, `je× cÖ‡Póv|

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

63

cvV cwiwPwZ : evsjv GKv‡Wgx †_‡K cÖKvwkZ Gm. Iqv‡R` Avwj iPbvewj †_‡K Rxe‡b wk‡íi ¯’vb kxl©K cÖeÜwU msKwjZ n‡q‡Q| m„wói †miv Rxe gvbyl| Z‡e gb bv _vK‡j gvbyl nq bv| Avi G gb‡K me©`v gvbm †mŠ›`‡h©i PP©vq wb‡ew`Z n‡Z nq| K_vevZ©v, AvPiY, Lv`¨ MÖnY, †cvlvK wbe©vPb, M„nm¾v, M„‡ni Pvicv‡ki cwi”QbœZv cÖf…wZ gvby‡li Rxeb‡K my›`i I Avb›`gq K‡i †Zv‡j| Gi d‡j cwievi, mgvR, RvwZ, †`k wbwe©‡k‡l GKwU my`„p e¨e¯’vcbvi wb`k©biƒ‡c M‡o I‡V|

Abykxjbx
Kg©-Abykxjb †Zvgvi evwoi †mŠ›`h© evov‡Z Zzwg Kx Kx c`‡¶c wb‡qQ Zvi GKwU ZvwjKv ˆZwi Ki| eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ 1| me‡P‡q eo wkí †Kvb&&wU ? K. M. K. L. M. N. Pvi“wkí Kvi“wkí L. N. Rxebwkí ¯’vcZ¨wkí

2| Rxeb wkí ej‡Z Kx †evSvq ? M„‡ni Pvicvk my›`i ivLv gvbm †mŠ›`‡h©i PP©v Kiv my›`i‡K AviI Mfxifv‡e Rvbv Pvicv‡k wkíKjvi cÖ‡qvM NUv‡bv

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU c‡o 3 I 4 bs cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI : c„w_exi me dzj GKB wbqg †g‡b dzj bvg †c‡q‡Q| Avgiv †`‡L ewj my›`i| G wbqgwU n‡jv GKB we›`y †_‡K mKj cvcwo we›`yi Pviw`‡K Qwo‡q _vK‡e| GB GK wbqg †g‡bB KZ iKg dzj ¯^vaxbfv‡e dz‡U I‡V| 3| DÏxc‡K ÔRxe‡b wk‡íi ¯’vbÕ cÖe‡Üi cÖwZdwjZ w`KwU n‡jv Ñ
i. Rxeb †mŠ›`h© ii. wbqwš¿Z Rxeb iii. m„wói cÖqvm

wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK ? K. M. ii i I ii

L. N.

iii i, ii I iii

64

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

4| cÖwZdwjZ w`KwU wb‡Pi †Kvb ev‡K¨ cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q ? K. L. M. N. m„Rbkxj cÖkœ gvby‡li gb e‡j, cÖ‡qvRb wgU‡jB n‡e bv, Zv‡K my›`i n‡Z n‡e| †hgbÑ bKwkKuv_v, iv‡Î weQvbvq Mv‡q w`‡q †kvIqvi Rb¨ GKwU mvgMÖxÑ †mUv †Zv my›`i-Amy›`i nIqvi cÖ‡qvRb †bB| wKš‘ GB cÖ‡qvR‡bi wRwbm‡K muyB Avi iwOb myZv w`‡q Ac~e© bKkv K‡i mvwR‡q‡Q Muv‡qi ea~iv| bKwkKuv_v †`L‡jB my›`i jv‡M, wRwbmwUi cÖ‡qvR‡bi K_v g‡bB c‡o bv| G Kvi‡YB mKj Ávbx gvbyl e‡jb, Ôme my›`iB mivmwi cÖ‡qvR‡bi evB‡i| cÖ‡qvR‡bi KvR wgUj †Zv kixi‡K Z…ß Kij Avi Ñ cÖ‡qvR‡bi evB‡i †h my›`i Zv gb‡K Z…ß Kij|Õ K. L. M. N. Rxeb‡K Kx †_‡K `~‡i ivLvi †Póv Ki‡Z n‡e ? Avgv‡`i KvRKg©‡K wbqwš¿Z Ki‡Z n‡e †Kb ? DÏxc‡K ÔRxe‡b wk‡íi ¯’vbÕ cÖe‡Ü dz‡U IVv w`KwU e¨vL¨v Ki| Dwj−wLZ dz‡U IVv w`KwU ÔRxeb wk‡íi ¯’vbÕ cÖe‡Üi AvswkK cÖwZdjb gvÎ Ñ gš—e¨wUi h_v_©Zv wbiƒcY Ki| mie, Amgvb c_, `yÕav‡i Zvi AvMvQvi ivk M„n¯^vgx i“wP wRwbmUvi m‡½ `~i m¤úK©I iv‡L bv wkgyjZjvi cÖvK…wZK †mŠ›`h© Avgv‡K gy» K‡iwQj miy iv¯—v‡K MÖvgevmxi ¯^v_©ciZv AviI mi“ K‡i Zzj‡Q|

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

65

Avg AuvwUi †fucy wef~wZf~lY e‡›`¨vcva¨vq
[†jLK cwiwPwZ : wef~wZf~lY e‡›`¨vcva¨vq 1894 mv‡j 24 ciMbvi gyivwicyi MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi wcZvi bvg gnvb›`v e‡›`¨vcva¨vq Ges gvZv g„Yvwjbx †`ex| ¯’vbxq ebMÖvg ¯‹zj †_‡K 1914 mv‡j wZwb g¨vwUªvK cvk K‡ib Ges KjKvZv wicb K‡jR †_‡K Av.G. Ges we.G. wWwMÖ jvf K‡ib| Kg©Rxe‡b wZwb ûMjx, KjKvZv I e¨vivKcy‡ii wewfbœ ¯‹z‡j wk¶KZv K‡ib| kirP‡›`ªi c‡i wZwb evsjv K_vmvwn‡Z¨i me‡P‡q RbwcÖq wkíx| cÖvK…wZK †mŠ›`h© I MÖvg evsjvi mvaviY gvby‡li mnR-mij Rxeb-hvc‡bi AmvaviY GK Av‡jL¨ wbg©vY K‡i wZwb evsjv K_vmvwn‡Z¨ Agi n‡q Av‡Qb| cÖK…wZ Ges gvby‡li Rxe‡bi Awfbœ m¤ú‡K©i wPivqZ Zvrc‡h© Zuvi K_vmvwnZ¨ gwngvgwÊZ| wef~wZf~lY e‡›`¨vcva¨v‡qi D‡j−L‡hvM¨ Dcb¨vm n‡jv : c‡_i cuvPvjx, AcivwRZ, AviY¨K, BQvgwZ, `„wócÖ`xc| MíMš’ : †gNgj−vi, †gŠixdzj, hvÎve`j| BQvgwZ Dcb¨v‡mi Rb¨ wZwb iex›`ªcyi¯‹v‡i f~wlZ nb| 1950 mv‡ji 1jv †m‡Þ¤^i wZwb g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib|]

mKvj †ejv| AvUUv wK bqUv| nwin‡ii cyÎ Avcb g‡b †ivqv‡K ewmqv †Ljv Kwi‡Z‡Q, Zvnvi GKUv †QvU wU‡bi ev· Av‡Q, †mUvi Wvjv fvOv| ev‡·i mgy`q m¤úwË †m Dcyo Kwiqv †g‡S‡Z Xvwjqv‡Q| GKUv is-IVv Kv‡Vi †Nvov, Pvi cqmv `v‡gi GKUv †Uvj&-LvIqv wU‡bi †fucy-evuwk, †MvUvKZK Kwo| G¸wj †m gv‡qi AÁvZmv‡i j²xc~Rvi Kwoi Pzcwo nB‡Z Lywjqv jBqvwQj I cv‡Q †Kn †Ui cvq GB f‡q me©`v jyKvBqv iv‡L- GKUv `yÕcqmv `v‡gi wc¯—j, KZK¸‡jv ïK‡bv bvUv dj| †`wL‡Z fv‡jv ewjqv Zvnvi w`w` †Kv_v nB‡Z A‡bK¸wj KzovBqv AvwbqvwQj, wKQz Zvnv‡K w`qv‡Q, wKQz wb‡Ri cyZz‡ji ev‡· ivwLqv w`qv‡Q| LvbKZK Lvcivi KzwP| M½v-hgybv †Lwj‡Z GB Lvciv¸wji j¶¨ Ae¨_© ewjqv wek¦vm nIqvq †m G¸wj mh‡Zœ ev‡· ivwLqv w`qv‡Q, G¸wj Zvnvi gnvg~j¨evb m¤úwË GZ¸wj wRwb‡mi g‡a¨ m‡e †m wU‡bi euvwkUv K‡qKevi evRvBqv †mwUi m¤^‡Ü weMZ †KŠZ~nj nBqv Zvnv‡K GKcv‡k ivwLqv w`qv‡Q| Kv‡Vi †Nvov bvovPvov Kiv nBqv wMqv‡Q| †mwUI GKcv‡k wcRiv‡cv‡ji Avmvwgi b¨vq cwoqv Av‡Q| eZ©gv‡b †m M½v-hgybv †Lwjevi Lvciv¸wj‡K nv‡Z jBqv g‡b g‡b `vIqvi Dci M½v-hgybvi Ni AuvKv Kíbv Kwiqv †PvL eywRqv Lvciv QzuBqv †`wL‡Z‡Q ZvK wVK nB‡Z‡Q wK bv! Ggb mg‡q Zvnvi w`w` `yM©v DVv‡bi KuvVvjZjv nB‡Z WvwKjÑAcyÑ I AcyÑ| †m GZ¶Y evwo wQj bv, †Kv_v nB‡Z GBgvÎ Avwmj| Zvnvi ¯^i GKUz mZ©ZvwgwkÖZ| gvby‡li Mjvi AvIqvR cvBqv Acy K‡ji cyZz‡ji g‡Zv j¶¥xi Pzcwoi Kwo¸wj ZvovZvwo jyKvBqv †dwjj| c‡i ewjj- wK, †i w`w`? `yM©v nvZ bvwoqv WvwKjÑ Avq Gw`‡KÑ †kvb&Ñ `yM©vi eqm `k-GMv‡iv ermi nBj| Mob cvZjv cvZjv, is Acyi g‡Zv AZUv dm©v bq, GKUz Pvcv| nv‡Z Kv‡Pi Pzwo, ci‡b gqjv Kvco, gv_vi Pzj i“¶Ñ evZv‡m Dwo‡Z‡Q, gy‡Li Mob g›` bq, Acyi g‡Zv †PvL¸wj †ek WvMi WvMi| Acy †ivqvK nB‡Z bvwgqv Kv‡Q †Mj, ewjj,Ñ †K †i? `yM©vi nv‡Z GKUv bvwi‡K‡ji gvjv! †mUv †m wbPz Kwiqv †`LvBj, KZK¸wj KwP Avg KvUv| myi wbPz Kwiqv ewjjÑ gv NvU †_‡K Av‡m wb †Zv?

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[†jLK cwiwPwZ : gvwbK e‡›`¨vcva¨vq 1908 mv‡j wenv‡ii muvIZvj ciMbvq Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi Avmj bvg cÖ‡eva Kzgvi e‡›`¨vcva¨vq| Zuvi wcZvi bvg nwini e‡›`¨vcva¨vq Ges gvZv bxi`vmy›`ix †`ex| Zuvi ˆcwÎK evwo gyÝxM‡Äi weµgcyi A‡ji gvjew`qv MÖvg Ges gv‡qi evwo GKB A‡ji MuvIw`qv MÖvg| 1926 mv‡j wZwb †gw`bxcyi †Rjv¯‹zj †_‡K g¨vwUªK I 1928 mv‡j euvKzov I‡qmwjq wgkb K‡jR †_‡K AvBGmwm cvk K‡ib| Zvici MwY‡Z Abvm© wb‡q KjKvZv †cÖwm‡WwÝ K‡j‡R weGmwm K¬v‡m fwZ© nb| wKš‘ eÜz‡`i m‡½ evwR a‡i ÕAZmxgvgxÕ bvgK Mí wewPÎv cwÎKvq cÖKvwkZ n‡j †jLK wn‡m‡e Zuvi wbqwZ wba©vwiZ n‡q hvq| G mgq wZwb †jLv wb‡q GZB gMœ _v‡Kb †h AmvaviY GB K…Zx Qv‡Îi Avi Abvm© cvk Kiv nqwb| gvÎ GKzk eQi eq‡m wZwb Zuvi weL¨vZ Õw`evivwÎi Kve¨Õ iPbv K‡ib| Gici wZwb †jLv‡jwL‡KB RxweKvi GKgvÎ Aej¤^b wn‡m‡e MÖnY K‡ib| cÙv b`xi gvwS I cyZj bv‡Pi BwZK_v wj‡L wZwb evsjv K_vmvwn‡Z¨i z wmsnvm‡b Av‡ivnY K‡ib| cÂvkwUiI AwaK Dcb¨vm wZwb iPbv K‡ib| Gi g‡a¨ Rbbx, wPý, mniZjx, Awnsm, PZz‡®‹vY Zuvi D‡j−L‡hvM¨ Dcb¨vm| 1956 wLªóv‡ãi 3iv wW‡m¤^i GB gnvb †jLK g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib|]

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100

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ÔDn&& gv‡MvÕ e‡j jvd w`‡q m‡i hvB K‡qK nvZ| wd‡i †`wL GKRb RUvavix dwKi nvm‡Q Avgvi Ae¯’v †`‡L| GwM‡q G‡m †m e‡j, Ôfq †cwj bvwK ? `yw`b †L‡Z cvBwb| `y‡Uv cqmv †`|Õ ixwZg‡Zv Nvg w`‡q‡Q Avgv‡K| gyL w`‡q K_v †e‡ivq bv| Zey nv‡Z PvKz bv-_vKvi R‡b¨ dwKiUv‡K ab¨ev` w`B g‡b-g‡b Avi c‡KU †_‡K `y‡Uv cqmv †ei K‡i Zvi w`‡K Qz‡o gvwi| †PŠi½x G‡m c‡owQ| GKUv †jvK nVvr Avgvi c_ AvM‡j `uvovq| e‡j, Ôd‡Uv Zzj‡eb ? Avmyb| GK UvKvq wZb Kwc|Õ †jvKUvi K_vi Reve bv w`‡q cvk KvwU‡q P‡j hvB| wKš‘ fzj n‡q †Mj| gvby‡li f‡q fxZ gvby‡li d‡UvUv Zz‡j ivLv DwPZ wQj Avgvi| GK cqmvi GKUv Ôcvwms †kvÕ wmMv‡iU wK‡b iwki Av¸‡b aiv‡Z hve, nVvr Kvi ¯ú‡k© wkD‡i DwV| †P‡q †`wL, Avgv‡`i myfvl gyPwK nvm‡Q| mncvVx eÜzi Avwj½‡b ey‡Ki †fZiUv †hb wf‡R I‡V| wKš‘ Ii eyKUv k³ jvMj bv ! Rvgvi Ici nvZ ivwL| ZvB †Zv ! myfvl †n‡m e‡j, ÔnvZ w`‡q †`LwQb Kx ?Õ Ô†`LwQ, gv‡bчZvi eyKUv k³ jvM‡Q †Kb †i ?Õ Ôk³ jvM‡Q ûun& ûu ! G wRwbK †`wLmwb KL‡bv| †jvnvi Zv‡ii †MwÄ| G‡Kev‡i bqv Avwe®‹vi| Ôbqv Avwe®‹vi|Õ Ônu¨v G eg© †f` Ki‡e PvKz ? DuûÑ! myfv‡li Rvgvi Ici nvZ w`‡q w`‡q AvuP Ki‡Z cvwi, †jvnvi Zvi w`‡q ˆZwi nvZvKvUv †MwÄ| g›` wRwbm bq| mnmv ANvZ K‡i wKQz Ki‡Z cvi‡e bv| Avwg †n‡m ewj, ÔwK‡i PvKz-UvKz jyKv‡bv †bB †Zv ?Õ Ô†bB †Zv Kx ! wbÊqB Av‡Q| G¶zwb †Zvi ey‡K ewm‡q †`e| ‡Zvi i³ w`‡q †duvUv-wZjK †K‡U Kvjxc~‡Rv Kie|Õ ÔGLv‡b Kx Kwim ?Õ Ôcwo AvU© ¯‹z‡j|Õ ÔAvU© ¯‹z‡j ! wVK Av‡Q| †kvb&&, †Zv‡K †Zv‡K GKUv Qwe AvuK‡Z n‡e| gvby‡li f‡q gvby‡li ‡Pnviv †Kgb nq, dzwU‡q Zzj‡Z n‡e †m Qwe‡Z| cviwe †Zv ?Õ ÔZv †`Le †Póv K‡i|Õ Av‡iv `y-GK K_v e‡j we‡`q nB ZvovZvwo| †nu‡U †nu‡U †PŠi½x ch©š— Avwm| wKš‘ cv Avi P‡j bv| Pjevi †Kv‡bv †nZz †bB †h ! †fv‡i hv †L‡qwQ, Avi Gch©š— GK †cqvjv Pv-I bv| KvR©b cv‡K© e‡m cwo| †nu‡U hvIqv Am¤¢e| wfo Kg‡j ev‡mB hve| mv‡o QÕUvi mgq ev‡m GKUz RvqMv cvIqv hvq| cu-cu Ki‡Z Ki‡Z evm QzU‡Q| GZ wfo, evB‡ii wKQzB †`Lv hvq bv| eyS‡Z cviwQ bv, †Kvb&& iv¯— a‡i Pj‡Q Mvwo| eyg&-g&&Ñ Avevi eyg&Ñg&&Ñ fxlY kã| Kv‡b Zvjv †j‡M †M‡Q| ïb‡Z cvB bv wKQz| †kqv‡ji f‡h LuvPvi †gvi‡Mi g‡Zv KiwQ Avgiv| Zvici †Kvb&& w`K w`‡q †Kgb K‡i evmLvbv P‡j Gj, AZ †Lqvj †bB| K‡qKR‡bi gy‡L ïbjvg, ev‡micv`vwbi Ici †_‡K `yRb‡K `y‡c‡q †kqv‡j †U‡b wb‡q †M‡Q| Avi A‡b‡Ki nvZ-gyL bvKKvb wQu‡o †M‡Q †evgvi AvNv‡Z|

112

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

N‡ii Kv‡Q G‡mI Avi-GKevi wkD‡i DwV| A¶Z †`‡n ˆcZ…K cÖvYUv wb‡q wd‡i G‡mwQ Avwg| mܨv n‡q †M‡Q| wkw_j kixiUv‡K †U‡b G‡b weQvbvq †X‡j w`B| gvby‡li gv‡S GKw`b P‡jB gyl‡o c‡owQ Avwg| Avgvi mg¯— ivM N„Yv AvR gvby‡li Ici| †PvL ey‡R fvewQ Ñ c`Z¨vMcÎUv cÖZ¨vnvi Kivi GL‡bv nq‡Zv mgq Av‡Q| Avgvi R‡b¨ eb-wefv‡Mi PvKwiUv fv‡jv| gvbyl Zvi gbyl¨Z¡ wb‡q kn‡i _vK| Avwg e‡b wM‡q Avevi ebgvbyl ne| kãv_© I UxKv : wns¯ªvjq- wns¯ª cÖvwYi evm¯’vb; MjMÖwš’- Mjvi eÜwb| UvB (Tie); QvZjv- k¨vIjv, †`qv‡j Rgv cyiv‡bv gqjv; A¨vwÏb- G‡Zvw`b k‡ãi K_¨iƒc; V¨vq‡iv- `uvovI; VvIiv‡jv- g‡b Kij; †PŠi½x- Pvi iv¯—vi wgjb¯’j| KwjKvZvi GKwU ¯’v‡bi bvg| cvV cwiwPwZ : fviZ wefv‡Mi Av‡M 1946 mv‡j G A‡j fqven wn›`y gymjgvb `v½v n‡qwQj| G mv¤úª`vwqK `v½vi cUf~wg‡Z ebgvbyl MíwU wjwLZ| G M‡íi †jLK ebwefv‡M mvgvb¨ †eZ‡b PvKwi Ki‡Zb| wZwb wظY †eZ‡b KwjKvZvq PvKzwi Ki‡Z Av‡mb| KwjKvZvq G‡m cÖ_‡g Zuvi wb‡R‡K mf¨ gvbyl g‡b n‡Z _v‡K| wKš‘ wZwb ZLb mv¤úª`vwqK nvbvnvwbi gy‡LvgywL n‡Z _v‡Kb| wZwb †`‡Lb G kn‡ii gvby‡liv a‡g©i bv‡g ci¯úi‡K wbg©gfv‡e nZ¨v Ki‡Q| e‡bi cï-cvwLivI G iKg ci¯úi‡K nZ¨v K‡i bv| ZLb †jLK Avevi eb wefv‡Mi PvKwi‡Z wd‡i hvIqvi wm×vš— †bb| †jL‡Ki Kv‡Q G Z_vKw_Z kn‡ii mf¨ gvbyl‡`i PvB‡Z e‡b emevmKvix‡`i AwaK MÖnY‡hvM¨ g‡b nq| G M‡íi †fZi w`‡q mv¤úª`vwqK ‡f`eyw×i wei“‡× †jL‡Ki Zxeª N„Yv cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q|

Abykxjbx eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ
1| †jLK †KvbwU‡K †MŠbKg© g‡b K‡ib ? K. M. K. M. †KvU civ ‡eZb kn‡i Rxeb e‡bi Rxeb L. N. L. N. LvIqv Awd‡m hvIqv AÜKvi Ae¯’v Av‡jvwKZ Ae¯’v

2| ÔAuvavi †Q‡o Av‡jv‡KÕ GLv‡b †KvbwU‡K Auvavi ejv n‡q‡Q ?

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU c‡o 3 I 4 bs cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI : eb¨ †k‡l Zxeª Lv`¨msKU †`Lv †`q| G mgq wegvb G‡m iv¯—vfwZ© Lvevi †d‡j w`‡j gvbyl, cï, cvwL mevB ¶zav c~iY K‡ib| wKQzw`b ci AveviI wegvb Av‡m| Po~B `¤úwZ Zv †`‡L fxlY Lywk| GK mgq wegvb †_‡K †djv †evgvi AvNv‡Z gviv hvq gvbyl, cï, cvwL| aŸsm nq MvQcvjv| GLb H Po~B‡qi K‡É †kvbv hvq wQ ! wQ !! wQ !!! 3| DÏxc‡K dz‡U IVv †h w`KwU ÔebgvbylÕ M‡íi we‡kl w`K‡K Bw½Z K‡i, Zv n‡jv Ñ AvaywbKZv i. ii. †bwZevPK g‡bvfve iii. mf¨Zvi gy‡Lvk

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113

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L. N.

i I iii i, ii I iii

4| Po~B‡qi Abyf~wZi mv‡_ †jL‡Ki GKvZ¥Zv cÖKv‡k †Kvb e³e¨wU h_v_© ? K. L. M. N. AbyKiY I Abymi‡Yi cÖwZ‡hvwMZv †ek Dc‡fv‡Mi| mvR-†cvkvKB Avgv‡`i mf¨Zvi gvcKvwV| ARvbv-A‡Pbvq G iKg †KvjvKzwj eo `yj©f| Avwg e‡b wM‡q Avevi ebgvbyl ne|

m„Rbkxj cÖkœ : MÖx‡®§i QzwU‡Z gwbi Zvi gvgvi evwo KjKvZvq †eov‡Z †Mj| wKš‘ K‡qKw`b †h‡Z bv †h‡ZB gvgvevwo Zvi Kv‡Q Amn¨ n‡q DVj| gvgv, gvgx, gvgv‡Zv fvB-‡evbiv Zvi mv‡_ fvjfv‡e K_v ejZ bv| gvgx Zvi Øviv A‡bK KvR Kwi‡q †bqv ïi“ Kij| gvgvevwoi e× †`qvj Zvi Kv‡Q †RjLvbv g‡b nj| Zvi evievi g‡b co‡Z jvMj †d‡j Avmv MÖv‡gi weivU meyR gvV, b`x, eÜz-evÜe, AvcbR‡bi †Pnviv| K. L. M. N. ag©N‡Ui Rb¨ Kx eÜ n‡qwQj ? K_K e‡b wM‡q Avevi ebgvbyl n‡Z Pvq †Kb ? DÏxc‡Ki †h fvewU ÔebgvbylÕ M‡í cvIqv hvq Zv e¨vL¨v Ki| DÏxc‡Ki gwb †hb ÔebgvbylÕ M‡íi K_‡KiB cÖwZwbwaZ¡ Ki‡Q Ñ Dw³wU hyw³mn eywS‡q †jL|

114

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

GKvˇii w`b¸wj
Rvnvbviv Bgvg
[†jLK cwiwPwZ : Rvnvbviv Bgvg 1923 mv‡ji 3iv †g gywk©`vev‡`i my›`icyi MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi wcZvi bvg ˆmq`v Avãyj Avjx| wZwb wWcywU g¨vwR‡÷ªU wQ‡jb| Rvnvbviv Bgvg 1947 mv‡j KjKvZvi †jwW †eª‡evY© K‡jR †_‡K we.G. cvk K‡ib| cieZ©x‡Z wZwb XvKvi wm‡×k¦ix Mvjm© ¯‹z‡j cÖavb wk¶‡Ki `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡ib| G mgq wZwb XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K we.GW I evsjvq Gg.G wWwMÖ jvf K‡ib Ges XvKv wUPvm© †Uªwbs K‡j‡R Aa¨vcbv Ki‡b| 1971 mv‡ji gyw³hy‡× Zuvi cÖ_g mš—vb iygx †hvM`vb K‡ib| iygx I Zuvi mn‡hv×v‡`i wewfbœ Acv‡ik‡b Rvnvbviv Bgvg mn‡hvwMZv K‡ib| GQvov gyw³‡hv×v‡`i AvkÖq, Lv‡`¨i †hvMvb, Mvwo‡Z A¯¿ Avbv-‡bIqv Ges Zv hyׇ¶‡Î †cuŠ‡Q †`Iqv, Lei Av`vb-cÖ`vb- BZ¨Kvi Kg©Kv‡Ê wZwb me©vš—Ki‡Y AskMÖnY K‡ib| hy‡×i †klw`‡K i~gx kwn` nb| Rvnvbviv Bgvg nb Avgv‡`i kwn` Rbbx| gyw³hy‡×i Dci ¯§„wZPviYg~jK Zuvi AmvaviY GB ÔGKvˇii w`b¸wjÕ me©Î mgv`„Z| Zuvi Ab¨vb¨ MÖš’¸‡jv n‡jv : MRK”Qc, mvZwU Zvivi wSwKwgwK, K¨vÝv‡ii m‡½ emevm, cÖev‡mi w`b¸wj BZ¨vw`| mvwnZ¨K‡g© Ae`v‡bi Rb¨ wZwb evsjv GKv‡Wgx cyi¯‹vi jvf K‡ib| GKvˇii NvZK, `vjvj, ivRvKvi, Avje`i, Avjmg&&k‡`i kvw¯—i `vwe‡Z wZwb Avg„Zz¨ msMÖvg K‡i‡Qb| 1994 mv‡ji 26 †k Ryb GB gnxqmx bvix ci‡jvKMgb K‡ib|]

13B GwcÖj : g½jevi 1971
Pviw`b a‡i e„wó| kwbevi iv‡Z wK gyljav‡iB †h n‡jv, †iveevi †Zv mviv w`bfi GKUvbv| MZKvj mKv‡ji ci e„wó _vg‡jI mviv w`b AvKvk †gNjv wQj| gv‡S gv‡S †iv` †`Lv †M‡Q| gv‡S gv‡S GK ckjv e„wó| Rvgx Qov KvUwQj, Ô†iv` nq e„wó nq, Lu¨vK-wkqvwji we‡q nq|Õ wKš‘ Avgvi g‡b cvlvYfvi| GLb mܨvi ci e„wó †bB, NbNb †gN WvK‡Q Avi we`y¨r PgKv‡”Q| emvi N‡i e‡m Rvbvjv w`‡q ZvwK‡q fvewQjvg, Avgvi Rxe‡bI GZw`‡b mwZ¨ mwZ¨ `y‡h©v‡Mi †gN Nb n‡q Avm‡Q| GB iKg mg‡q Kwig G‡m XyKj N‡i, mvg‡b †mvdvq e‡m ejj, dzdyRvb G cvovi A‡b‡KB P‡j hv‡”Q evwo †Q‡o| Avcbviv †Kv_vI hv‡eb bv ?Õ Ô†Kv_vq hve ? AÜ, ey‡ov k¦ïi‡K wb‡q †Kgb K‡i hve ? wKš‘ G cvov †Q‡o †jv‡K hv‡”Q †Kb ? GLv‡b †Zv †Kv‡bv fq †bB !Õ Ô†bB, gv‡b ? †cQ‡b GZ Kv‡Q wek¦we`¨vj‡qi nj¸‡jvÑÕ Ônj †Zv me Lvwj, weivb, hv nevi Zv‡Zv cÖ_g `yw`‡bB n‡q †M‡Q| Rv‡bv evey‡`i evwo‡Z Zvi gvgvi evwoi mevB G‡m D‡V‡Q kvwš—bMi †_‡K ?Õ ÔZvB bvwK ? Avgiv †Zv fvewQjvg kvwš—bM‡i Avgvi `yjvfvB‡qi evmvq hve|Õ ÔZvn‡jB †`LÑfqUv Avm‡j g‡b| kvwš—bM‡ii gvbyl Gwjd¨v›U †iv‡W Avm‡Q wgwjUvwii nvZ †_‡K cvjv‡Z, Avevi Zzwg Gwjd¨v›U †ivW †_‡K kvwš—bM‡iB †h‡Z Pv”Q wbivcËvi Kvi‡Y|Õ hyw³Uv ey‡S Kwig gv_v bvoj, ÔLye `vwg K_v e‡j‡Qb dzdzRvb| Avm‡j hv Kcv‡j Av‡Q Zv n‡eB| bB‡j `¨v‡Lb bv, XvKvi gvbyl Lv‡gvKv wRwÄivq †Mj ¸wj †L‡q gi‡Z| Av‡iv GKUv K_v ï‡b‡Qb dzdzRvb ? b`x‡Z bvwK cÖPzi jvk †f‡m hv‡”Q| †cQ‡b nvZ euvav, ¸wj‡Z giv jvk|Õ

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

115

wkD‡i D‡V ejjvg, Ô†ivRB ïbwQ Kwig| †hLv‡bB hvB GQvov Avi K_v †bB| K‡qKw`b Av‡M ïbjvg UªvKfwZ© K‡i Zz‡j wb‡q hv‡”Q nvZ Avi †PvL †eu‡a, K‡Zv †jv‡K †`‡L‡Q| GLb ïbwQ m`iNvU, †mvqvixNv‡U bvwK `uvov‡bv hvq bv cPv jv‡ki `yM©‡Ü| gvQ LvIqvB ev` w`‡qwQ GR‡b¨|Õ

10†k †g : †mvgevi 1971
†ek wKQzw`b evMv‡bi w`‡K bRi †`Iqv nq wb| AvR mKv‡j bvkZv Lvevi ci ZvB evMv‡b †Mjvg| evMv‡b †ek KUv nvB-weªW wU-†iv‡Ri MvQ Av‡Q| GB ai‡bi †Mvjvc Mv‡Qi Lye †ewk hZœ Ki‡Z nqÑhv MZ `ygv‡m nqwb| Lyiwc nv‡Z Kv‡R jvMvi Av‡M MvQ¸‡jvi w`‡K ZvwK‡q †`Ljvg| gvL‡bi g‡Zv i‡Oi ÔwcmÕ A_©vr Ôkvwš—Õ| Kvj‡P-†gi“i Ôewb wcÖÝÕ Avi ÔGbv nvK©‡bm| wd‡K I Mvp †e¸wb i‡Oi Ôwm‡gvbÕ Avi Ôj¨v‡fÛvi|Õ njy` ÔeyKvwbqviÕ, mv`v Ôcvm&KvwjÕ| ewb wcÖÝ-Gi Ava‡dvUv KwjwU GL‡bv Avgvi †eW-mvBW †Uwe‡j Kvwj`vwb‡Z i‡q‡Q| Kwj Aek¨ Avi †bB, dz‡U †M‡Q Ges cÖvq S‡i covi Ae¯’v| ÔwcmÕ-Gi MvQUvq GKUv Kwj †Kej G‡m‡QÑhw`I mviv‡`k †_‡K ÔwcmÕ DavI| evMvb Kiv GKUv †bkv| G †bkvq `ytL-Kó LvwbK¶Y fy‡j _vKv hvq| MZ K‡qK gvm a‡i †bkvUvi K_v fveeviB AeKvk cvB wb| GLb fqvbK wew¶ß gb‡K e¨¯— ivLvi Mi‡RB †eva Kwi †bkvUvi K_v Avgvi g‡b c‡o‡Q|

12B †g : eyaevi 1971
Rvgxi ¯‹zj Ly‡j‡Q w`b `yB n‡jv| miKvi GLb ¯‹zj-K‡jR †Rvi K‡i †Lvjvi e¨e¯’v Ki‡Q| GK Zvwi‡L cÖvBgvwi ¯‹zj †Lvjvi ûKzg n‡q‡Q, bq Zvwi‡L gva¨wgK ¯‹zj| Rvgx ¯‹z‡j hv‡”Q bv| hv‡e bv| kixd, Avwg, i“gx, Rvgx-PviR‡b e‡m Avjvc-Av‡jvPbv K‡i Av‡MB wVK K‡i †i‡LwQjvg ¯‹zj Lyj‡jI ¯‹z‡j hvIqv n‡e bv| †`k wKQzB ¯^vfvweKfv‡e Pj‡Q bv, †`‡k GLb hy×ve¯’v| †`kevmxi Ici nvbv`vi cvwK¯—vwb Rv‡bvqvi‡`i Pj‡Q wbg©g wb‡®úl‡Yi w÷g‡ivjvi| GB Ae¯’vq †Kv‡bv Qv‡Îi DwPZ bq eB-LvZv eM‡j ¯‹z‡j hvIqv| Rvgx Aek¨ evwo‡Z cov‡kvbv Ki‡Q| Gevi I `kg †kªwYi QvÎ| i“gx hZw`b Av‡Q, I‡K mvnvh¨ Ki‡e| Zvici kixd Avi Avwg-†h hZUv cvwi| Rvgx Zvi `ywZbRb eÜzi mv‡_ wVK K‡i‡Q Ñ Iiv GKm‡½ e‡m Av‡jvPbv K‡i cov‡kvbv Ki‡e| GUv †ek fv‡jv e¨e¯’v, covI n‡e, mgqUvI fv‡jv KvU‡e| Aei“× wbw®ŒqZvq Iiv nuvwc‡q DV‡e bv|

17B †g : †mvgevi 1971
†iwWI-wUwf‡Z weL¨vZ I c`¯’ e¨w³‡`i a‡i wb‡q †cÖvMÖvg Kwi‡qI ÔKZ©v‡`iÕ †Zgb myweav n‡”Q bv †eva nq ! ZvB GLb eyw×Rxex I wkíx‡`i a‡i a‡i Zv‡`i w`‡q Le‡ii KvM‡R wee„wZ †`Iqv‡bvi K~U‡KŠkj ïi“ n‡q‡Q| AvR‡Ki KvM‡R 55 Rb eyw×Rxex I wkíxi bvg w`‡q GK wee„wZ †ewi‡q‡Q| XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi †Kv‡bv wUPvi, †iwWI-wUwfi †Kv‡bv Kg©KZ©v I wkíxi bvg ev` †M‡Q e‡j g‡b n‡”Q bv| Gu‡`i g‡a¨ †KD †KD mvb‡›` Ges mvMÖ‡n mB w`‡jI †ewkifvM eyw×Rxex I wkíx †h †eq‡b‡Ui gy‡L mB w`‡Z eva¨ n‡q‡Qb, Zv‡Z Avgvi †Kvb m‡›`n †bB| Avi †h wee„wZ Zv‡`i bv‡g †ewi‡q‡Q, †mUv †h Zuviv A‡b‡K bv †`‡LB mB Ki‡Z eva¨ n‡q‡Q, Zv‡ZI Avgvi m‡›`n †bB| AvR mKv‡ji KvM‡R wee„wZwU cÖ_gev‡ii g‡Zv c‡o Zuviv wbÊq ¯—w¤¢Z n‡q e‡m iB‡eb LvwbK¶Y ! Ges

116

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

ej‡eb, aiYx wØav nI ! GiKg wbj©¾ wg_¨vfvl‡Y fiv wee„wZ ¯^qs †Mv‡qejmI wjL‡Z cvi‡Zb wKbv m‡›`n| GB c~e© evsjvi †Kvb cÖwZfvai wee„wZwU ˆZwi K‡i‡Qb, Rvb‡Z eo B‡”Q n‡”Q|

25B †g : g½jevi 1971
AvR we‡`ªvnx Kwe KvRx bRi“j Bmjv‡gi Rb¥Rqš—x| †ek kvb-kIK‡Zi m‡½ cvwjZ n‡”Q XvKvq| GgbwK BmjvwgK dvD‡Ûkb ch©š— GKUv Abyôvb Ki‡Q| mܨvi ci wUwfi mvg‡b e‡mwQjvg, Rvgx wmuwoi gv_v †_‡K gyL evwo‡q WvKj, Ôgv wkMwMi Gm| bZzb †cÖvMÖvg|Õ †`Š‡o Ic‡i †Mjvg, ¯^vaxb evsjv †eZv‡i evsjv msev` cvV Ki‡Q bZzb GK Kɯ^i| LvwbK †kvbvi ci †Pbv †Pbv †VKj wKš‘ wVK wP‡b DV‡Z cvijvg bv| mv‡jn Avng` bvgUv Av‡M KL‡bv ïwb wb| i“gx ejj, ÔwbÊq QÙbvg|Õ ejjvg, Ôn‡Z cv‡i| Z‡e XvKviB †jvK G| GB XvKv‡ZB GB Mjv ï‡bwQ| nq bvUK, bq Ave„wË|Õ GBme M‡elYv Ki‡Z Ki‡Z evsjv msev` cvV †kl| AvR‡Ki †cÖvMÖv‡gI †ek bZzbZ¡| Kɯ^iI meB bZzb ïbwQ| GKRb GKUv Kw_Kv co‡jbÑPigcÎ| †ek gRv jvMj ïb‡Z, ï× fvlvq ej‡Z ej‡Z nVvr †k‡li w`‡K G‡°ev‡i LuvwU XvKvBqv fvlv‡Z `y‡Uv jvBb e‡j †kl Ki‡jb| A™¢yZ †Zv| wKš‘ GLv‡b AvjwU‡gUv‡gi g‡Zv wKQz †Zv †evSv †Mj bv| kixd ejj, ÔH †h ejj bv GKevi hLb G †`‡ki Kv`vq cv Wywe‡qQ, Avi i‡¶ †bB| MvRywiqv gvB‡ii †Pv‡U g‡i Kv`vi g‡a¨ ï‡q _vK‡Z n‡e, GUv AvjwU‡gUvg|Õ ÔwK Rvwb|Õ Rvgx Rvb‡Z PvBj, ÔMvRywiqv gvBi wK wRwbm ?Õ i“gx ejj, ÔRvwb bv| Avgvi XvKvBqv eÜz KvD‡K wR‡M¨m K‡i †be|Õ H †h gyw³‡dŠ‡Ri †Mwijv ZrciZvi K_v ejj Ñ XvKvi QÕRvqMvq †MÖ‡bW †d‡U‡Q, Avgiv †Zv mvZ AvUw`b Av‡M G iKg †evgv dvUvi K_v ï‡bwQjvg, wKš‘ wVK wek¦vm Kwi wb| e¨vcviUv Zvn‡j mwZ¨ ? Avgvi mviv kix‡i KuvUv w`‡q DVj| e¨vcviUv Zvn‡j mwZ¨ ! mwZ¨ mwZ¨ Zvn‡j XvKvi Avbv‡P-Kvbv‡P gyw³‡dŠ‡Ri †Mwijviv cÖwZNv‡Zi †QvU †QvU ùzwj½ R¡vjv‡Z ïi“ K‡i‡Q ? GZw`b RvbwQjvg eW©vi‡Nulv AÂj¸‡jv‡ZB †Mwijv ZrciZv| GLb Zvn‡j †Lv` XvKv‡ZI ? gyw³‡dŠR ! K_vUv GZ fvwi †h GB iKg AZ¨vPvix ˆmb¨ w`‡q †Niv Aei“× XvKv kn‡i e‡m gyw³‡dŠR kãUv ïb‡jI †Kgb †hb Awek¦vm¨ g‡b nq| Avevi H Awek¦v‡mi †fZi †_‡K GKUv Avkv, GKUv fimvi fve ax‡i ax‡i g‡bi †Kv‡Y †R‡M DV‡Z _v‡K|

5B †m‡Þ¤^i : iweevi 1971
GKUv KwVb wel‡q wm×vš— †bevi e¨vcv‡i MZ `yw`b †_‡K kixd Avi Avwg Lye wØav؇›Ø fyMwQ| i“gx‡K wK K‡i †ei K‡i Avbv hvq, Zv wb‡q kix‡di eÜzevÜe bvbviKg wPš—vfvebv Ki‡Q| Gi g‡a¨ euvKv Avi dwK‡ii gZ n‡jv : †h †Kvb cÖKv‡i i“gx‡K D×v‡ii †Póv Ki‡Z n‡e| euvKv Avi dwKi g‡b Ki‡Q Ñ kixd‡K w`‡q i“gxi cÖvYwf¶v †P‡q GKUv gvwm© wcwUkb Kwi‡q Z`wei Ki‡j i“gx nq‡Zv Qvov †c‡q †h‡ZI cv‡i|

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

117

i“gxi †kv‡K Avwg cÖ_g †Pv‡U ÔZvB Kiv †nvKÕ e‡jwQjvg| wKš‘ kixd ivwR n‡Z cvi‡Q bv| †h mvgwiK Rvš—vi wei“‡× i“gx gyw³hy‡× †hvM w`‡q‡Q, †mB miKv‡ii Kv‡Q gvwm© wcwUkb Ki‡j i“gx †mUv †gv‡UI cQ›` Ki‡e bv Ges i“gx Zvn‡j Avgv‡`i †Kv‡bvw`bI ¶gv Ki‡Z cvi‡e bv| euvKv I dwKi A‡bKfv‡e kixd‡K eywS‡q‡Q Ñ †Q‡ji cÖvYUv Av‡M| i“gxi g‡Zv Ggb AmvaviY †gavex †Q‡ji cÖvY euvP‡j †`‡kiI g½j| wKš‘ kixd Zey gZ w`‡Z cvi‡Q bv| Lybx miKv‡ii Kv‡Q i“gxi cÖvYwf¶v †P‡q `qvwf¶v Kiv gv‡bB i“gxi Av`k©‡K Acgvb Kiv, i“gxi DuPz gv_v †nuU Kiv| MZ `yivZ kixd Ny‡gvq wb, Avwg GKevi e‡jwQ, Ô†Zvgvi K_vB wVK| H Lybx miKv‡ii Kv‡Q gvwm© wcwUkb Kiv hvq bv|Õ Avevi LvwbK c‡i †Ku‡` AvKzj n‡q e‡jwQ, Ôbv, gvwm© wcwUkb Ki|Õ GBfv‡e wØav؇›Ø †K‡U‡Q `yw`b `yivZ| †kl ch©š— kixd wm×vš— wb‡q‡Q Ñ bv, gvwm© wcwUkb †m Ki‡e bv| †Pv‡Li R‡j fvm‡Z fvm‡Z AvwgI kix‡di gZ‡K mg_©b K‡iwQ| i“gx‡K Ab¨fv‡e †ei K‡i Avbvi hZiKg †Póv Av‡Q, me Kiv n‡e; wKš‘ gvwm© wcwUkb K‡i bq|

11B A‡±vei : †mvgevi 1971 kixd ejj, Ô†mB †h gvm Lv‡bK Av‡M KvM‡R c‡owQjvg d¬vBU †jd‡Ub¨v›U gwZqyi ingv‡bi K_v, Zvi m¤^‡Ü AvR ï‡b Gjvg|Õ ÔKx ï‡b G‡j ? †Kv_vq ïb‡j ?Õ ÔWvt ivweŸi Kv‡Q| ivweŸ Ñ Rv‡bv‡Zv, Avgv‡`i myRvi fv‡¯—|Õ kix‡di GK BwÄwbqvi eÜz myRv mv‡ne, Zuvi fv‡¯— Wvt dR‡j ivweŸ| kixd ejj, ÔAvR dwK‡ii Awd‡m †MwQjvg, ILv‡b ivweŸi m‡½ †`Lv| Ii gy‡LB ïbjvg gwZqyi ingv‡bi d¨vwgwj 29 †m‡Þ¤^i KivwP †_‡K XvKv G‡m‡Q| gwZqyi ingv‡bi k¦ïi ¸jkv‡bi GK evwo‡Z _v‡Kb| †mBLv‡b 30 Zvwi‡L gwZqy‡ii Pwj−kv n‡q‡Q| ivweŸ wM‡qwQj Pwj−kvq| wg‡mm gwZqyi bvwK evsjv wefv‡Mi gwbi“¾vgv‡bi kvjx|Õ ÔAvgv‡`i m¨vi gwbi“¾vgv‡bi ? Zvi gv‡b Wwji †evb ? `uvovI, `uvovI Ñ GB †evb‡K †Zv †`‡LwQ Wwj‡`i evmvq Ñ wgwj Gi bvg|Õ Wwji K_v g‡b c‡o gbUv Lvic n‡q †Mj| Wwj, gwbi“¾vgvb m¨vi, I‡`i †Kv‡bv †LuvRB Rvwb bv| `y‡Uv ev”Pv wb‡q †Kv_vq †h †f‡m †f‡m †eov‡”Q Ñ †K Rv‡b| Icv‡iI hvq wb, †M‡j †eZv‡i wbÊq Mjv ïb‡Z †cZvg| ¯^vaxb evsjv †eZv‡i eû cwiwPZR‡bi Mjv ïwb, Zviv QÙbvg e¨envi K‡i, wKš‘ Mjv ï‡b wPb‡Z cvwi| cÖ_g †hw`b ¯^vaxb evsjv †eZv‡i mv‡jn Avng‡`i K‡É Lei ïwb, Lye †Pbv†Pbv †j‡MwQj, `y GKw`b c‡iB wP‡bwQjvg Ñ †m KÉ nvmvb Bgv‡gi| Bs‡iwR Lei I fvl¨ cÖPvi K‡i hviv, †mB Avey †gvnv¤§` Avjx I Avn‡g` †PŠayix n‡jv Avjx hv‡Ki Avi AvjgMxi Kwei| MvqK‡`i Mjv †Zv mn‡RB †Pbv hvq-i_x›`ªbv_ ivq, Ave`yj ReŸvi, AwRZ ivq, B›`ª‡gvnb ivReskx, nijvj ivq| Kw_Kvq ˆmq` Avjx Avnmvb, Kvgi“j nvmvb, d‡qR Avng` cÖvq mK‡jiB Mjv ï‡b eyS‡Z cvwi| bvU‡K ivRy Avn‡g`, gvayix P‡Ævcva¨vq Ñ G‡`i mevi MjvB GK jngvq ey‡S hvB|

16 wW‡m¤^i : e„n¯úwZevi 1971
AvR mKvj bUv ch©š— †h AvKvkhy× weiwZi K_v wQj, †mUv we‡K‡j wZb‡U ch©š— evov‡bv n‡q‡Q| `ycyi †_‡K mviv kn‡i fxlY PvÂj¨ I D‡ËRbv| cvwK¯—vwb Avwg© bvwK mv‡iÛvi Ki‡e we‡K‡j| mKvj †_‡K Kwjg, û`v, jyjy hvivB G‡jv mevi gy‡LB GK K_v| `‡j `‡j †jvK Rq evsjv aŸwb Zz‡j iv¯—vq †ewi‡q c‡o‡Q KviwdD D‡c¶v K‡i| cvwK¯—vwb †mbviv, wenvwiiv mevB bvwK cvjv‡”Q| cvjv‡Z

118

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

cvjv‡Z c‡_Nv‡U G‡jvcv_vwo ¸wj K‡i eû evOvwj‡K Lyb-RLg K‡i hv‡”Q| gÄyi G‡jb Zuvi `yB †g‡q‡K wb‡q, Mvwoi †fZ‡i evsjv‡`‡ki cZvKv wewQ‡q| wZwbI H GK K_vB ej‡jb| ev`kv G‡m ejj, Gwjd¨v›U †iv‡Wi AvwRR †gvUi‡mi gwjK Lvb Rx‡c K‡i cvjvevi mgq †ec‡ivqv ¸wj Pvwj‡q iv¯—vi eû †jvK RLg K‡i‡Q| gÄyi hvevi mgq cvZvKvUv Avgv‡K w`‡q †M‡jb| ej‡jb, ÔAvR hw` mv‡iÛvi nq, Kvj mKv‡j G‡m cvZvKvUv Zzje|Õ AvR kix‡di KzjLvwb| Avgvi evmvq huviv Av‡Qb, ZuvivB mKvj †_‡K †`vqv `i“` Kzj co‡Qb| cvovi mevB‡K ejv n‡q‡Q ev` gvM‡ie wgjv‡` Avm‡Z| G.†K.Lvb, mvby, gÄy, LyKz mevB we‡Kj †_‡KB G‡m Kzj co‡Q| †Rbv‡ij wbqvRx beŸB nvRvi cvwK¯—vwb ˆmb¨ wb‡q AvZ¥mgc©Y K‡i‡Q AvR we‡Kj wZb‡Ui mgq| hy× Zvn‡j †kl ? Zvn‡j Avi Kv‡`i Rb¨ me im` Rwg‡q ivLe ? Avwg †M÷i“‡gi Zvjv Ly‡j Pvj, wPwb, wN, Mig gmjv †ei Kijvg KzjLvwbi R`©v euvaevi Rb¨| gv, jvjy, Ab¨vb¨ evwoi M„wnYxiv mevB wg‡j R`©v iuva‡Z em‡jb| iv‡Zi ivbœvi Rb¨I Pvj, Wvj, Avjy, †cuqvR BZ¨vw` GLvb †_‡KB w`jvg| AvMvgxKvj mKv‡ji bvkZvi Rb¨I gq`v, wN, mywR, wPwb, Mig gmjv GLvb †_‡KB †ei K‡i ivLjvg| kãv_© I UxKv : Rvgx Ñ †jwLKvi †QvU †Q‡j; weivb Ñ Rbgvbenxb, cwiZ¨³, duvKv; Lyiwc Ñ gvwU †Luvovi Rb¨ e¨en„Z GKcÖKvi †QvU Lš—; kixd Ñ †jwLKvi ¯^vgx, iygx Ñ Rvgxi evev; Aeiy× wbw®ŒqZv Ñ iy× ev AvUK Ae¯’vq Kg©nxb; K~U‡KŠkj Ñ PZziZv, `ye©yw×; †eq‡bU Ñ e›`y‡Ki mw½b, GLv‡b e›`y‡Ki AMÖfv‡M jvMv‡bv GKcÖKvi welv³ I avivj †Qviv †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q; ¯—w¤¢Z Ñ nZevK, wew¯§Z; †Mv‡qejm (1897-1945) Ñ Rvg©vwb esk™¢~Z wnUjv‡ii mn‡hvMx, ivRbxwZ‡Z cÖwZwnsmv I wg_¨v iUbvi cÖeZ©b; Kw_Kv Ñ wbw`©ó I ¶z`ª cwim‡i eY©bvZ¥K iPbv; PigcÎ Ñ g„Zz¨i c~e©mg‡q wjwLZ Dc‡`k, †klev‡ii g‡Zv mZK© K‡i †`Iqvi Rb¨ †cÖwiZ cÎ, 1971 mv‡ji gyw&KZhy‡× gyw³‡hv×v I †`kevmx‡K Aby‡cÖiYv †`Iqvi Rb¨ ¯^vaxbevsjv †eZvi‡K›`ª †_‡K nvbv`vi evwnbxi AcK…wZ I gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mvdj¨ wb‡q nvm¨imvZ¥K Kw_Kv cÖPvwiZ n‡Zv| GB Kw_Kv¸‡jv PigcÎ bv‡g L¨vZ; AvjwU‡gUvg Ñ mgq wba©viY; MvRywiqv gvBi Ñ MRvwi Kv‡Vi g‡Zv k³ I fvix Kv‡Vi jvwV w`‡q gvi †`Iqv; gvwm© wcwUkb Ñ kvw¯— †_‡K Ae¨vnwZ †P‡q Av‡e`b; jngvq Ñ gyn~‡Z©| cvV cwiwPwZ : Rvnvbviv Bgvg iwPZ GKvˇii w`b¸wj kxl©K w`bcwÄi AvvK‡i iwPZ gyw³hy× wb‡q ¯§„wZPviYg~jK iPbv †_‡K cvV¨fz³ AskUzKz M„nxZ n‡q‡Q| kwn` Rbbx Rvnvbviv Bgvg gyw³hy‡× Zuvi mš—vb i“gx‡K nvwi‡q‡Qb| GB iPbvq Mfxi †e`bvi m‡½ Avfv‡m-Bw½‡Z wZwb Zuvi ü`‡qi i³¶i‡Yi hš¿Yv e¨³ K‡i‡Qb| cwÊg cvwK¯—vwb nvbv`vi evwnbxi AZwK©Z nvgjvq cÖ_‡gB XvKvi bMi-Rxeb wek„•Ljv n‡q c‡owQj| wkï-wK‡kviiv ¯‹z‡j hv‡e bv| wKš‘ nvbv`vi evwnbx †Rvi K‡i ¯‹zj-K‡jR †Lvjv ivL‡e; weL¨vZ e¨w³‡`i wb‡q †Rvi K‡i †iwWI-wUwf‡Z wee„wZ cÖ`vb Kiv‡e; Avi nZ¨v-jyÉbAwMœ ms‡hvM †Zv Av‡QbÑGB wQj †mB `ytmg‡q XvKvi Ae¯’v| †mB `ywe©mn Ae¯’vi gg©`š— weeiY cvIqvi GB ¯§„wZPvi‡Y| we‡kl K‡i Mf©RvZ mš—vb i“gx‡K euvPv‡bvi Rb¨ nvbv`vi evwnbxi Kv‡Q †Kv‡bv ¶gv cÖv_©bv bv K‡i †h AvZ¥gh©v`v I ¯^vaxKvi †PZbvi cwiPq †`Iqv n‡q‡Q Zv ZzjbviwnZ|

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

119

Abykxjbx eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ 1| gyw³hy‡×i mgq †g gv‡mi †Kvb Zvwi‡L gva¨wgK ¯‹zj †Lvjvi K_v ejv n‡qwQj ? K. AvU ZvwiL L. bq ZvwiL M. `k ZvwiL N. GMv‡iv ZvwiL 2| Ôwbj©¾ wg_¨vfvl‡Y fiv wee„wZÕ ej‡Z Kx eyS ? K. wee„wZ †`Iqv‡bvi KzU‡KŠkj L. †eqb‡Ui gy‡L †`Iqv wee„wZ M. †Mv‡qejm Gi gZ wee„wZ N. eyw×Rxex I wkíxi †`Iqv wee„wZ DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jv DËi `vI : ûgvqyb Avn‡g‡`i ÔAv¸‡bi cikgwbÕ Dcb¨v‡m ew` gyw³‡hv×v KgvÛvi| ew` XvKv‡K gy³ Kivi Rb¨ †Mwijv evwnbx‡K msMwVZ K‡i| †`k wech©¯— e‡j mvaviY cwiev‡ii m`m¨iv cwievi‡K Rvwb‡q wKsev bv Rvwb‡q gyw³hy‡× hvq| gyw³‡hv×v‡`i cÖZ¨vkv Ges Zv‡`i cwiev‡ii cÖZ¨vkv wQj †`k †hb ZvovZvwo kΓgy³ nq| 3| DÏxc‡Ki Abyfe ÔGKvˇii w`b¸wjÕi †Kvb w`KwU‡K D‡b¥vwPZ K‡i‡Q ? i i“wgi hy‡× hvIqv ii i“wgi evevi DrKÉv iii i“wgi gv‡qi DrKÉv wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK ? K. i I ii L. ii I iii M. i I iii N. iii 4| DÏxc‡Ki AbyfewU ÔGKvˇii w`b¸wjÕi †Kvb D×…wZi m‡½ mv`„k¨c~Y©| K. i“wg‡K Ab¨fv‡e †ei K‡i Avbvi †Póv Kiv n‡e; wKš‘ gvwm© wcwUkb K‡i bq| L. †h †Kv‡bv cÖKv‡i i“wg‡K D×v‡ii †Póv Ki‡Z n‡e| M. Lybx miKv‡ii Kv‡Q i“wgi cÖvY wf¶v †P‡q `qv wf¶v Kiv gv‡bB i“wgi Av`k©‡K Acgvb Kiv| N. i“wgi g‡Zv Ggb AmvaviY †gavex †Q‡ji cÖvY euvP‡j †`‡kiI g½j| m„Rbkxj cÖkœ ¯^vaxb evsjv †eZvi †K›`ª gyw³‡hv×v‡`i D¾xweZ Ki‡Z †bc_¨ f~wgKv †i‡LwQj| Zv‡iK gvmy` Ôgyw³i MvbÕ cÖgvY¨wP‡Î †`wL‡q‡Qb wkíxiv wewfbœ gyw³hy‡×i K¨v‡¤ú wM‡q gyw³‡hv×v‡`i D¾xweZ Ki‡Qb| hy× †Kej gyw³‡hv×viv K‡iwb| G hy‡× wkíx, KjvKzkjx I kã ˆmwb‡Ki f~wgKvI wQj| K. hy‡×i mgq Rvgx †Kvb †kÖwYi QvÎ wQj ? L. ÔwbqvRxi AvZ¥mgc©Y Avb‡›`i wKš‘ kix‡di KzjLvwb †e`bviÕ †Kb ? eywS‡q †jL| M. DÏxc‡Ki fvebv ÔGKvˇii w`b¸wjÕi †Kvb w`K‡K D‡b¥vwPZ K‡i‡Q ? e¨vL¨v Ki| N. DÏxc‡Ki Abyfe ÔGKvˇii w`b¸wjÕi mgMÖ Abyfe‡K aviY K‡i wK ? g~j¨vqb Ki|

120

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

¯^vaxbZv Avgvi ¯^vaxbZv ggZvRD`&&`xb Avng`
[†jLK cwiwPwZ : ggZvR D``xb Avng` 18B Rvbyqvwi 1935 mv‡j cwÊge‡½i gvj`‡n Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi wcZv Kwjg D``xb Avng` Ges gvZv mwLbv LvZzb| wZwb 1951 mv‡j †fvjvnvU iv‡gk¦ix Bb&B÷wUDkb †_‡K cÖ‡ewkKv cix¶vq DËxY© nb| c‡i ivRkvnx K‡jR †_‡K D”P gva¨wgK Ges ivRkvnx wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K evsjvq we.G (Abvm©) I Gg.G wWwMÖ jvf K‡ib| Kg©Rxe‡b wZwb wewfbœ miKvwi K‡j‡R Aa¨vcbvi `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡ib| wKQz mgq wZwb XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi bvU¨Kjv I m½xZ wefv‡M LÊKvjxb Aa¨vcK wQ‡jb| wZwb g~jZ bvU¨Kvi I Awf‡bZv wn‡m‡e L¨vwZgvb| evsjv‡`‡ki bvU¨wkí Av‡›`vj‡bi wZwb cy‡ivav cyiyl| Zuvi iwPZ D‡j−L‡hvM¨ bvUK : ¯^vaxbZv Avgvi ¯^vaxbZv, ivRv Aby¤^v‡ii cvjv, eKzjcy‡ii ¯^vaxbZv, Zvm Nv‡Ui KvbvKwo; M‡elYv I cÖeÜ : evsjv‡`‡ki bvU‡Ki BwZe„Ë, evsjv‡`‡ki w_‡qUv‡ii BwZe„Ë, cÖm½ evsjv‡`k, cÖm½ e½eÜz BZ¨vw`| evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ Ae`v‡bi Rb¨ evsjv GKv‡Wgx cyiy¯‹vi, wkï GKv‡Wgx mvwnZ¨ cyiy¯‹vi, GKz‡k c`Kmn AmsL¨ cyiy¯‹vi I m¤§vbbvq f~wlZ nb|] PwiÎ cwiwPwZ b~i †gvnv¤§` Ñ `v‡ivMv (eqm 45) `wjjyi ingvb Ñ cywj‡ki wmcvnx (eqm 25) Avãyj ev‡iK gÊj Ñ -H†jvK Ñ (eqm 35) [`„k¨ cwiKíbv : evsjv‡`‡ki GKwU †QvU M‡Äi b`xi †dwiNvU| ivZ bqUv| K…òc‡¶i AÜKvi| wUc wUc e„wó n‡”Q] `wjj : GKUv †cv÷v‡ii KvMR GBUvi ey‡K muvUe ? ev‡iK : †QvUevey‡K ewj| m¨vi GKUv †cv÷vi GB wcu‡cUv‡Z jvwM‡q w`B| `wjj : gvwSgvj−v Avi Nv‡Ui ivnx‡`i bR‡i co‡e| b~i : wKQz †`LQ, fv‡jv K‡i `¨vL| e`gv‡qkUvi cv‡qi `vM| KuvPv gvwU‡Z `M`M Ki‡Q| `wjj : †dwiNvU †Zv m¨vi| w`‡biv‡Z k‡q k‡q ivnx cvivcvi Ki‡Q| Avmvwgi cv‡qi Qvc bvI n‡Z cv‡i| b~i : Zzwg GKUv †eKze| Av‡iv `kiKg cv‡qi `vM _vK‡Z Avwg GB GKUv‡KB c‡q›U Kijvg †Kb ? GUv mvaviYfv‡e cv †d‡j nuvUv bq, mveav‡bi m‡½ nuvUv| `¨v‡Lv, GB jvBb a‡i bRi `vI| wK †`LQ ? †KvbUv‡Z mvg‡bi Av½yj †W‡e Av‡Q, Avi †KvbUv‡Z †Mvovwj| Avmvwg †mvRv c‡_ NvU w`‡q bv‡gwb| nvivwgUv Avevi GB c_ w`‡qB Nv‡U Avm‡e| ev‡iK : bvI †Zv wdi‡Z cv‡i m¨vi ! b~i : nu¨v, bvI †Zv wdi‡Z cv‡i, Avevi wdi‡ZI cv‡i| Avgv‡`i KvR n‡jv m‡›`n n‡jB _g‡K `uvovI, KzKz‡ii bvK w`‡q ïu‡K `¨vL hw` †Kvb m~Î cvI| Avgvi m‡›`n nq, KzËvi ev”Pv GBLvb w`‡qB b`xi Icv‡i hv‡e| †h‡Z n‡e| Nv‡U bvgvi gZ Avi wKbvi bvB| Avmvwgi

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

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: : : : : : :

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122

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b~i : †jvK : b~i †jvK b~i †jvK : : : :

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†jvK : b~i †jvK b~i †jvK b~i : : : : :

†jvK : b~i : †jvK : b~i : †jvK : b~i †jvK b~i †jvK b~i : : : : :

(Mvb) Avgvi fvBGi i‡³ ivOv‡bv GKz‡k †deªyqvwi ....... GB Mixeyj−vn, †Zvgvi Mvb eÜ Ki| (Mvb) †Q‡j nviv kZ gv‡qi AkÖy ....... kvjv dwK‡ii ev”Pv, Mvb eÜ Ki| †Zvgvi Mjv wU‡c Mv‡bi †PŠÏ cyiyl‡K RevB Kie Mixeyj−vn| [ b`xi eyK †_‡K GB Mv‡bi my‡i wkm Avm‡Q, b~i †gvnv¤§` Mixeyj−vni Mjv †Q‡o w`‡q‡Q ] †K wkm w`j ? [ Mixeyj−vn b`xi Nv‡U bvg‡Q ] GB kvjv Nv‡U bvwgm bv| Ny‡i `uvov, ¸wj Kie| [ Mixeyj−vn Ny‡i `uvovj ] †K Zzwg ? wVKgZ cwiPq `vI| †K Zzwg ? dwKi Mixeyj−vn gvwjK| kv`yj−v Mv‡q‡bi e¨vUv| SzU| wg_¨v K_v e‡jv bv| Zzwg Ab¨‡jvK| Ab¨ †Kvb&& †jvK ? †K n‡Z cvwi ejyb †Zv| Zzwg ! Avcwb wK †mB †jvKUv, Avmvwg wec−ex| [ †jvKwU ciPzjv, `vwo Avi Uzwc Lyjj ] wgj‡Q| Pvcv gyL, Kv‡jv †PvL, gv_vi Pzj †QvU, j¤^v mv‡o cuvP dzU| `y nvRvi UvKvi cyi¯‹vi| wWwO‡Z Avgvi eÜziv wkl w`‡q‡Q wVK mg‡q| H †h K…òc‡¶i Puv` DV‡Q| GLb Avwg hve `v‡ivMv mv‡ne, †h‡ZB n‡e, Avgv‡`i Riywi ˆeVK Av‡Q| Avcwb hv‡eb ? nu¨v| Avgvi ZKw`i| Avcbvi †Zv hvIqv n‡e bv| Avcwb Avgvi eÜz| †h‡Z w`b| bv, b~i †gvnv¤§` `v‡ivMv †Zvgv‡K Qvo‡e bv| [ †jvKwU wc¯—j †ei K‡i‡Q| b~i †gvnv¤§‡`i nv‡ZI wc¯—j| gy‡LvgywL `uvwo‡q‡Q ] ¯^vaxbZvi Av¸b KL‡bv wb‡f bv| Kv‡Q G‡mv bv Mixeyj−vn| hwÏb euvPe †`‡ki Rb¨ Kuv`e| hviv ¯^vaxbZv Avgvi ¯^vaxbZvi Rb¨ KvR Ki‡Q Zv‡`i‡K AvwgI fv‡jvevwm| Mixeyj−vn, bv| Avi GwM‡q Gm bv| [ GwM‡q Avm‡Q| b~i †gvnv¤§` wc‡Qv‡”Q : Mvb a‡i‡Q ] b`xi GKzj fv‡O IKzj M‡o GB †Zv b`xi †Ljv †Zvgv‡K Avwg Qvoe bv Mixeyj−vn, wWDwU BR wWDwU| [ cywjk `yÕRb Avm‡Q, Zv‡`i K_v †kvbv hv‡”Q ] Avwg HUvi wcQ‡b e‡m _vKe| †Kb ? cvjve bv| Avn&& ! [ †jvKwU wcu‡cUvi wcQ‡b jyKvj| cywjk `yÕRb G‡m‡Q ]

126

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`wjjyi ingvb, Avãyj ev‡iK gÊj| me KvR †kl K‡iQ ? ev‡iK : fv‡jv K‡i †mu‡U w`‡qwQ m¨vi| b~i : mvevm| wec−ex Avi cvjv‡Z cvi‡e bv| `wjj, n¨vwi‡KbUv wbwf‡q `vI| `wjj : R¡jyK m¨vi| H wcu‡c‡Z †i‡L w`B| b~i : Avn| `iKvi n‡e bv| AvKv‡k Puv` DV‡Q| `wjj : G Puv‡` Av‡jv bvB m¨vi| b~i : GLb bvB, gvSiv‡Z n‡e| _vbvq wd‡i hvI †Zvgiv| ev‡iK : wd‡i hve ? wKš‘ Avmvwg ? b~i : Avwg GKjvB †gvKvwejv Kie| ev‡iK : m¨vi, Avmvwg Lye RuvnvevR| b~i : †nvK| G¨v‡Ubkb, G¨vevDU Uvb©| [ cywjk `yÕRb hvwš¿K wbq‡g P‡j †Mj, n¨vwi‡KbUv R¡j‡Q| †jvKwU D‡V Gj ] †jvK : `v‡ivMv mv‡ne b~i : [n¨vwi‡KbUv Zz‡j wb‡q‡Q] Agb K‡i Kx †`L‡Qb ? †jvK : Avgvi ciPzjv Avi UzwcUv| A‡bK `~i †h‡Z n‡e| b~i : wVKgZ c‡i wbb| [ †jvKwU ciPzjv Avi `vwo jvMv‡”Q ] Lye mveavb| Avcbvi Pviw`‡K `ykgb| c‡` c‡` wec`| †jvK : N‡i N‡i Avgv‡`i eÜz| b~i : Avevi KLb †`Lv n‡e| †jvK : GKw`b mKv‡j, hLb AvKvk Ry‡o cÖKvÊ jvj m~h© DV‡e, A_ev GK ivw·Z, hLb AvKvk f‡i c~Y© Puv` nvm‡e| [ `yÕR‡b Avš—wiK DòZvq Kig`©b Kij ] b~i : Avmyb| †jvK : nvgvi bvg dwKi Mixeyj−vn| b~i : Zzwg wec−ex †gvqv‡¾g †nv‡mb, ¯^vaxbZvi ˆmwbK| [†jvKwU b`xi Nv‡U bvg‡Q] [ b`xi eyK †_‡K mw¤§wjZ K‡É Mvb D”PvwiZ n‡”Q Avgvi †mvbvi evsjv Avwg †Zvgvq fvjevwm b~i †gvnv¤§`, Avãyj ev‡iK bxi‡e `uvwo‡q Av‡Q] kãv_© I UxKv : MÄ Ñ e¨emv evwY‡R¨i ¯’vb, nvU; K…òc¶ Ñ Pv›`ªgv‡mi †h c‡¶ P‡›`ªi ¶q nq; ivnx Ñ c_vPvix, cw_K; bR‡i Ñ `„wó‡Z; †Keye Ñ †eqvKze, †evKv; wfb wKwm‡gi gvj Ñ wfbœ ev Ab¨ iK‡gi gvbyl; †Z‡ji wcu‡c Ñ †Z‡ji Wªvg; Rvjyqv Ñ †R‡j, axei; û°v Ñ Kuvmv wcZj `¯—v ev gvwU A_ev bvi‡Kj †Lv‡j cÖ¯‘Z bwjKvhy³ GK cÖKvi hš¿ hv ZvgvK †L‡Z ev a~gcvb Ki‡Z e¨en„Z nq; aywoevR Ñ dw›`evR, cÖZviK; Unj`vi Ñ †h Unj †`q, cÖnix; byjv Ñ week, weKj; †eû`v Ñ Ab_©K, ev‡R; †ivRwKqvgZ Ñ g„Zz¨i ci cybiyÌv‡bi w`b, †kl wePv‡ii w`b; Lv¯—v Ñ bó, cxwoZ, weK…Z; †ew`kv Ñ w`Kåóv, w`‡knviv; iyû Ñ AvZ¥v, Aš—i; ZKw`i Ñ fvM¨, A`„ó, Kcvj; bvnK Ñ Ah_v,

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

127

LvgLv, Ab_©K; Zvgvg Ñ mgMÖ, mg¯—, mgy`q; Rv‡jg Ñ RyjygKvix, AZ¨vPvix; MRiv‡Z Ñ Av‡µv‡k ev f‡q Pvcv MR„b Kiv; û¾Z Ñ †Mvjgvj, nv½vgv; Rvgvbv Ñ mgq, Kvj, hyM; RuvnvevR Ñ `y`©vš—, `¾vj; G¨v‡Ubkb Ñ mveavb nI; G¨vevDU Uvb© Ñ Ny‡i `vuovI| cvV cwiwPwZ : evsjv GKv‡Wgx †_‡K cÖKvwkZ ÔkZe‡l©i bvUKÕ bvgK MÖš’ †_‡K Ô¯^vaxbZv Avgvi ¯^vaxbZvÕ bvwUKvwU msKwjZ I m¤úvw`Z n‡q‡Q| bvU¨Kvi GLv‡b Avgv‡`i †`‡ki cywjk m`m¨‡`i gvbweKZv‡eva Ges †`kvZ¡‡eva AZ¨š— cÖvÄj fvlvq cÖKvk K‡i‡Qb| `v‡ivMv b~i †gvnv¤§` cyi¯‹vi †NvwlZ ¯^‡`kx Av‡›`vj‡bi Avmvwg‡K nv‡Zi bvMv‡ji g‡a¨ †c‡qI Zv‡K †Q‡o w`‡q‡Qb| A_©cyi¯‹v‡ii †gvn‡K AwZµg K‡i wZwb †`‡ki ¯^vaxbZvi Rb¨ KvR K‡i hvIqv wec−ex †PZbvi m‡½ GKvZ¥ n‡q †M‡Qb| GKRb `v‡ivMv, `yBRb cywjk m`m¨ Ges GKRb wec−ex‡K wb‡q iwPZ G bvU‡Ki cÖwZwU PwiÎB Avcb gwngvq D¾¡j n‡q D‡V‡Q|

Abykxjbx eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ 1| b~i †gvnv¤§` Kv‡K †eKze e‡jwQ‡jb ? K. M. ev‡iK‡K Mixeyj−vn‡K L. N. `wjj‡K †gvqv‡¾g †nv‡mb‡K

2| Ô¸wj Kivi ûKzg _vK‡j †`L‡Z KZ jvk evwb‡q w`ZvgÕ cywjk Awdmv‡ii G e³‡e¨ Kx cÖKvk cvq ? K. M. miKv‡ii cÖwZ AvbyMZ¨ K‡Vvi kvm‡Ki g‡bvfve L. N. Mfxi †`k‡cÖg `vwqZ¡kxj AvPiY

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU c‡o 3 I 4 bs cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI : ¯^vaxbZv hy× ïi“ n‡j ¯‹zj gv÷vi Mwb wgqv MÖv‡gi gvbyl‡`i DØy× K‡ib gyw³hy‡× hvIqvi Rb¨| evqv‡bœvi ivóªfvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi K_v ¯§iY Kwi‡q w`‡q mvaviY RbZv‡K HK¨e× Kivi †Póv K‡ib| QÙ‡e‡k †_‡K wb‡R mgMÖ welq ch©‡e¶Y K‡ib| 3| DÏxc‡Ki Mwb wgqv Ô¯^vaxbZv, Avgvi ¯^vaxbZvÕ bvwUKvi †h Pwi‡Îi cÖwZwbwaZ¡ K‡i Zv n‡jv Ñ i ii iii

b~i ev‡iK †jvKwUi

wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK ? K. M. i iii

L. N.

ii i, ii I iii

128

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4| Mwb wgqvi mv‡_ Zvi mv`„‡k¨i KviY Kx ? K. M. m„Rbkxj cÖkœ gv÷vi `v m~h©‡mb e„wUk kvm‡bi wei“‡× i“‡L `uvovb| G †`‡ki MYgvbyl‡K RvwM‡q Zzj‡Z bvbvfv‡e †Póv K‡ib| ZuviB wb‡`©‡k PÆMÖv‡gi cvnvoZwji BD‡ivwcqvb K¬v‡e mdj nvgjvi ci e„wUk kvmK‡`i UbK b‡o| Zv‡K awi‡q †`qvi Rb¨ 10,000/- UvKv cyi¯‹vi †NvlYv K‡i| A‡_©i †jv‡f R‰bK e¨w³ Zvi Ae¯’Ab Rvwb‡q w`‡j wZwb aiv c‡ob| AZci Zuv‡K wbg©kfv‡e nZ¨v Kiv nq| K. L. M. N. b~i †gvnv¤§` Kv‡K MvRvi“ e‡jwQ‡jb ? ÔAvgv‡`i mew`‡KB wec`Õ ev‡iK †Kb GK_v e‡jwQj ? DÏxc‡Ki m~h©‡m‡bi gv‡S Ô¯^vaxbZv Avgvi ¯^vaxbZvÕ bvwUKvi mv`„k¨c~Y© PwiÎwU e¨vL¨v Ki| ÔcwiYwZ GK bv n‡jI m~h©‡mb I Ô¯^vaxbZv Avgvi ¯^vaxbZvÕ bvwUKvi wec−ex e¨w³ †hb GKm~‡Î Muv_vÕ Ñ hyw³mn cÖgvY Ki| mZZv mvnm L. N. †`k‡cÖg †bZ…Z¡

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Rwni ivqnvb
[†jLK cwiwPwZ : Rwni ivqnvb 1935 mv‡ji 19†k AvM÷ †dbx †Rjvi gRyci Mªv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi y Avmj bvg †gvnv¤§` Rwniyj−vn| 1958 mv‡j wZwb XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K evsjvq ¯œvZK (m¤§vb) wWwMÖ jvf K‡ib| GKRb †QvUMíKvi I Jcb¨vwmK wn‡m‡e Rwni ivqnvb L¨vwZ AR©b K‡ib| wZwb g~jZ ga¨weË Rxe‡bi iycKvi| Pvicv‡ki gvby‡li myL-`ytL I Avb›`-†e`bvi wPÎ Zuvi iPbv‡K mg„× K‡i‡Q| mgv‡Ri bvbv ˆelg¨ I Am½wZi weiy‡×I Zuvi KÉ wQj ewjô| nvRvi eQi a‡i, eid Mjv b`x, †kl we‡K‡ji †g‡q, Av‡iK dvêyb BZ¨vw` Zuvi D‡j−L‡hvM¨ Dcb¨vm| evsjv‡`‡ki GKRb L¨vwZgvb Pjw”PÎKvi wn‡m‡eI Rwni ivqnv‡bi cwiwPwZ i‡q‡Q| ¯^vaxbZvhy‡× evsjv‡`‡ki weRq jv‡fi AíKvj c‡iB 1972 mv‡ji 30†k Rvbyqvwi wZwb wb‡LuvR I kwn` nb|]

Avi wKQz bq, MdiMuv _vBKv cxi mv‡n‡e‡i wbqv Avm †Zvgiv| A‡bK †f‡e wP‡š— ej‡jb iwng m`©vi| ZvB K‡ib ûRyi, ZvB K‡ib! GKev‡K¨ mvq w`j Pvlxiv| MdiMuv †_‡K Rei`¯— cxi g‡bvqvi nvRx‡KB wb‡q Avm‡e Iiv| †`k‡Rvov bvg g‡bvqvi nvRxi| A‡jŠwKK ¶gZv m¤úbœ e¨w³ wZwb| gygl© ~ †ivMx‡KI GK duy‡q fv‡jv K‡i‡Qb Ggb `„óvš—I Av‡Q| ‡mevi KwigM‡Ä hLb Ijvwewe G‡m Ni‡K Ni DRvi K‡i w`w”Qj ZLb GB g‡bvqvi nvRxB i¶v K‡iwQ‡jb MuvUv‡K| mva¨ wK Ijvwewei g‡bvqvi nvRxi duy‡qi mvg‡b `uvovq| w`b `y‡q‡Ki g‡a¨ Zwj−Zj−v ¸wU‡q cvwj‡q †Mj Ijvwewe, `yÕ`k Muv †Q‡o| Ggb ¶gZv iv‡Lb g‡bvqvi nvRx| Muv‡qi †jvK Lywk n‡q ARmª UvKv cqmv Avi ARmª wRwbmcÎ †fU w`‡qwQj Zuv‡K| ‡KD w`‡qwQj evMv‡bi kvK-mâx| †KD w`‡qwQj cyKz‡ii gvQ| †KD †gviM nuvm| Avevi †KD w`‡qwQj bM` UvKv| `y‡ai Mi“I bvwK K‡qKUv †c‡qwQ‡jb wZwb| GZ †fU †c‡qwQ‡jb †h, †m¸‡jv evox wb‡Z bvwK wZb wZbwU Mi“i Mvox †j‡MwQj Zuvi| ‡mB †mŠfvM¨evb cxi g‡bvqvi nvRx! Zuv‡KB Avb‡e e‡j wVK Kij Muv‡qi gvZeŸ‡iiv, Pvlx Avi †¶Z gRyiiv| ej‡j, Puv`v w`gy? wK‡mi jvBMv w`gy? IB †jvKWvi wc‡Q e¨q Kievi jvBMv? gwZ gvóv‡ii K_v `uv‡Z wRf KvU‡jv Rwgi gywÝ| ZIev, ZIev, K‡nb wK gvóvi mve| †Lv`vf³ cxi, Avj−vi Ijx gvbyl| `k Muv‡q hv‡i gv‡b, Zvi bv‡g GZ eo Kzrmv! fvjv KvR Kijv bv gvóvi, fvjv KvR Kijv bv| Nb Nb gv_v bvo‡jb Rwgi e¨vcvix| cx‡ii e` †`vqvq QvB ABqv hvBev! K_v ï‡b mk‡ã †n‡m DVj gwZ gvóvi| wK †h KI PvPv, †Zvgv‡Mv K_v ïb‡j nvwm cvq| nvwm cvB‡ev bv, †jLvcov wkLv †Zv Gnb eo gvbyl ABqv †MQ| gyL †fswP‡q ej‡jb Rwgi e¨vcvix| Puv`v w`‡j w`ev bv w`‡j bvB, GZ evnvËix K_v K¨vb? wKš‘, evnvËix K_v Av‡iv GKR‡bi KvQ †_‡K ïb‡Z nj Zv‡`i| †kvbv‡jv †`ŠjZ KvRxi †gR †Q‡j iwk`| kn‡i †_‡K K‡j‡R c‡o| QzwU‡Z evox‡Z G‡m‡Q †eov‡Z| Puv`v †Zvjvi BwZe„Ë ï‡b †m ejj, cvMj Avi wK, cxi AvBbv eb¨v i“L‡ev! G GKUv K_v AB‡jv? K_v bq nvivgRv`v! Rwgi gywÝ †Kvb Reve †`evi Av‡MB MwR© DV‡jb †`ŠjZ KvRx wb‡R| Avj−vni Iwj, cxi `i‡ek; B”Qv Ki‡j me wKQz Ki‡Z cv‡i| me wKQz Ki‡Z cv‡i Zuviv| GB e‡j b~n bex Avi gnvc−ve‡bi BwZK_vUv †Q‡j‡K ïwb‡q w`‡jb wZwb|

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¯^vaxbfv‡e IKvjwZ e¨emv ïi“ K‡ib| msMxZ iPbvi Rb¨ evOvwji ms¯‹…wZRM‡Z wPi¯§iYxq n‡q Av‡Qb| Zuvi fw³MxwZ I †`kvZ¥‡evaK Mvb A`¨vewa RbwcÖq; Ai~ciZb Ñ iex›`ªbv‡_i mvs‡KwZK bvUK; GBP.wR.I‡qj&&m& (1866-1946) : Bs‡iwR Jcb¨vwmK, mvsevw`K I HwZnvwmK, ˆeÁvwbK KíKvwnbxi ¯ªóv Bs‡iwR fvlvq; GKvw¼Kv Ñ GK A‡¼i bvUK‡K ejv nq; GW&&Mvi&& A¨vjvb †cv (1809-49) : Av‡gwiKvi Kwe, MíKvi I mgv‡jvPK; Gwi‡÷vU&j& (wLªóc~e© 384-322 Aã) : wMÖK `vk©wbK, weÁvbx I mvwnZ¨ mgv‡jvPK, `vk©wbK †c−‡Uvi wkl¨ wQ‡jb; KcvjKzÊjv Ñ Ebwesk kZvwãi Ab¨Zg †kÖô Jcb¨vwmK ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨v‡qi GKwU Dcb¨vm, Dcb¨v‡mi bvgKiY n‡q‡Q bvwqKvi bv‡g; Kvjvcvnvo Ñ GKwU HwZnvwmK PwiÎ| wn›`yag©we‡Ølx GK †mbvcwZ, `ya©l© I wbôzi cÖK…wZi wQ‡jb; wMwikP›`ª †Nvl (1844-1912) : evsjv bvU‡Ki hyMÜi cyi“l| bvU¨iPbvi cvkvcvwk AwfbqI Ki‡Zb| Awf‡bZv wn‡m‡eI Af~Zc~e© mybvg AR©b K‡iwQ‡jb; P›`ª¸ß Ñ cÖvPxb fviZe‡l©i GK weL¨vZ b„cwZ, ivRZ¡Kvj 320 †_‡K 330 wLªóvã, Kwe I bvU¨Kvi w؇R›`ªjvj iv‡qi (1863-1913) weL¨vZ bvUK ÔP›`ª¸ßÕ 1911 mv‡j cÖKvwkZ nq; P›`ª‡kLi Ñ ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨v‡qi GKwU bvUK; Rbv Ñ †cŠivwYK bvUK; WvKNi Ñ iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi iwPZ bvUK; Zvivk¼i e‡›`¨vcva¨vq (18981971) : AvaywbK evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i weL¨vZ Jcb¨vwmK I MívKvi; w؇R›`ªjvj ivq (1863-1913) : Kwe, bvU¨Kvi I msMxZ iPwqZv, Zuvi ÔkvRvnvbÕ I ÔP›`ª¸ßÕ AZ¨š— RbwcÖq bvUK; `xbeÜz wgÎ (1830-73): evsjv bvU¨mvwn‡Z¨i hyM¯ªóv †jLK, Ôbxj`c©YÕ Zuvi me©vwaK L¨vZ bvUK, 1860 mv‡j cÖKvwkZ nq, Ômaevi GKv`kxÕ Zuvi weL¨vZ cÖnmb; iRbxKvš— †mb (1865-1910) Ñ wmivRM‡Äi fvOvevwo MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| ¯^iwPZ Mv‡bi myKÉ MvqK wQ‡jb| Zuvi †`kvZ¥‡evaK Mvb wecyj RbwcÖqZv AR©b K‡i; i‡gkP›`ª `Ë (1848-1909) Ñ KjKvZvh Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| cÖ_g evOvwj Kwgkbv| L¨vZbvgv Jcb¨vwmK| e½we‡RZv, gvaexK¼b, Rxeb-cÖfvZ, Rxeb-mܨv, msmvi, mgvR Zuvi D‡j−L‡hvM¨ Dcb¨vm, ÔivRcyZ RxebmܨvÕ i‡gkP›`ª `Ë iwPZ HwZnvwmK Dcb¨vm; ivRv ivg‡gvnb ivq (1772-18334) Ñ cwÊge‡½i ûMjx‡Z wZwb Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| mgvR-ms¯‹v‡ii, ag©ms¯‹viK I eû fvlvwe` cwÊZ| evsjv M‡`¨i cÖ¯‘wZc‡e©i wkíx| †e`bvMÖš’, †e`vš—mvi, †MŠoxq e¨vKiY Zuvi D‡j−L‡hvM¨ MÖš’; mg‡ik emy (1924-1988) Ñ AvaywbK evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i ¯^bvgab¨ Jcb¨vwmK; `„k¨Kve¨ Ñ cÖvPxb AjsKvikv‡¯¿ bvU‡K `„k¨Kve¨ ejv n‡q _v‡K; bKkxKuv_vi gvV Ñ cwj−Kwe Rmxg D`&&`xb iwPZ AvL¨vb Kve¨; bxj`c©Y Ñ `xbeÜz wg‡Îi bvUK, †`‡ki ZrKvjxb kvmbKZ©v weªwUk‡`i ûKz‡g eva¨Zvg~jK bxjPvl Kiv‡bvi mgv‡jvPbv K‡i GB bvUK iwPZ n‡qwQj; †cŠivwYK bvUK Ñ fvielx©q cyiv‡Yi †Kv‡bv Kvwnbx Aej¤^‡b iwPZ bvUK; cªdzj− Ñ bvU¨Kvi I Awf‡bZv wMwikP›`ª †Nv‡li †jLv bvUK; cÖnmb Ñ Dcb¨vm bv bvU‡Ki iPbv‰kjx Aej¤^‡b nvm¨imvZ¥K iPbv; c−U Ñ Mí &Dcb¨vm bvU‡Ki Kvwnbx Ask‡K c−U ejv nq; ebdzj Ñ MíKvi I Jcb¨vwmK ejvBPuv` gy‡Lvcva¨v‡qi QÙbvg ev †jLK bvg; e‡›` gvZig Ñ GB `y k‡ãi A_© Rbbx‡K A_©vr gv‡K e›`bv Kwi, ew¼gP›`ª Zuvi ÔAvb›`gVÕ Dcb¨v‡m ¯^iwPZ GB MvbwU hy³ K‡i‡Qb; wewPÎ cÖeÜ Ñ iex›`ªbv_ iwPZ GKwU cÖeÜ msKjbMÖš’; wele„¶ Ñ ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq iwPZ Dcb¨vm; eyׇ`e Ñ †cŠivwYK bvUK; ˆeòe KweZv Ñ cÖvPxb evsjv‡`‡k cÖPwjZ MxwZKweZv I Mvb; g½jKve¨ Ñ evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i ga¨hy‡M iwPZ GK ai‡bi Kvwnbx-Kve¨; gnvfviZ Ñ cÖvPxb fviZe‡l© `ywU gnvKv‡e¨i GKwU, Ab¨wU ivgvqY, g~j iPbv ms¯‹…Z fvlvq wjwLZ n‡qwQj, K‡qKkZ ermi c‡i evsjvq Ab~w`Z nq; gnvivóª RxebcÖf…wZ Ñ Dbk kZ‡Ki Jcb¨vwmK i‡gkP›`ª `Ë iwPZ HwZnvwmK Dcb¨vm; gvaex K¼Y Ñ i‡gkP›`ª `Ë iwPZ Dcb¨vm; †gNbv`ea Kve¨ Ñ Kwe I bvU¨Kvi gvB‡Kj gaym~`b `Ë (1824-73) iwPZ AvaywbK evsjv gnvKve¨; i³Kiex Ñ iex›`ªbv_ iwPZ mvs‡KwZK bvUK; ivRcyZ

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

145

Rxebmܨv Ñ i‡gkP›`ª `Ë iwPZ HwZnvwmK Dcb¨vm; ivgcÖmv` †mb (Avby: 1723-81) Kwc I msMxZ iPwqZv, fw³MxwZ iPbvi Rb¨ weL¨vZ, Gui Mvb‡K ÔivgcÖmv`xÕ AvL¨v †`Iqv nq; knx`yj−v Kvqmvi (1927-71) Ñ 1971 mv‡j gyw³hy‡×i mg‡q kwn` nb; kvRvnvb Ñ bvU¨Kvi I Kwe w؇R›`ªjvj ivq iwPZ bvUK; k~c©bLv Ñ ivgvqY gnvKv‡e¨i Kvwnbx‡Z j¼vi ivRv ive‡bi †evb; †k·cxqi Ñ Bs‡iwR Kwe I bvU¨Kvi; kÖve¨Kve¨ Ñ †h Kve¨ cov I †kvbvi Rb¨ iwPZ, Gi wecix‡Z i‡q‡Q `„k¨Kve¨; kÖxkP›`ª `vm Ñ ÔmvwnZ¨ m›`k©bÕ MÖ‡š’i iPwqZv, eBwU mvwn‡Z¨ wewfbœ kvLv (‡hgb Mí KweZv Dcb¨vm BZ¨vw`) m¤ú‡K© we¯—vwiZ Av‡jvPbv MÖš’; ms¯‹…Z Aj¼vwiKe„›` Ñ cÖvPxb ms¯‹…Z mvwnZ¨ wel‡q cyi‡bv Avg‡j huviv Av‡jvPbv K‡i‡Qb, eBcÎ wj‡L‡Qb; mxZv Ñ †cŠivwYK PwiÎ, ivgP‡›`ªi ¯¿x, j¼vi ivRv iveY AcniY K‡i wb‡q hvq| Zvi d‡j ive‡Yi wei“‡× ivg hy×hvÎv K‡iwQ‡jb| w؇R›`ªjvj iv‡qi bvUK ÔmxZvÕ 1908 mv‡j cÖKvwkZ nq; †mvRbevw`qv NvU Ñ cwj−Kwe Rmxg D`&&`xb iwPZ KvwnbxKve¨; nvmvb AvwRRyj nK Ñ Rb¥ 1939 mv‡j, evsjv‡`‡ki weL¨vZ K_vwkíx| cvV cwiwPwZ : mvwnZ¨ bvbv ai‡bi| A‡bK iKg Dw™¢` wb‡q †hgb evMvb †Zgwb wewfbœ iKg m„wóKg© wb‡q mvwnZ¨| Ômvwn‡Z¨i i~c I ixwZÕ cÖe‡Ü AwZ ms‡¶‡c wewPÎ mvwnZ¨ixwZi cwiPq Av‡Q| KweZv, bvUK, Mí, Dcb¨vm, cÖeÜ BZ¨vw` wb‡q mvwn‡Z¨i RMr| Avevi cÖ‡Z¨KwUi wKQz kvLv-cÖkvLv Av‡Q| Ômvwn‡Z¨i i~c I ixwZÕ cÖe‡Ü mvwn‡Z¨i GB me ixwZi cwiPq cvIqv hvq| KweZv, bvUK, †QvUMí, Dcb¨vm, cÖeÜ BZ¨vw` Dc-wk‡ivbv‡g †jLK cÖ‡Z¨KwU ixwZi ¯^iƒc PvwiΨ Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb|

Abykxjbx eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ 1| Ôhv †bB fvi‡Z Zv †bB fvi‡ZÕ Ñ gš—e¨wU †KvbwU m¤ú‡K© ? K. M. i ii iii

MxwZKweZv gnvKve¨

L. N.

†QvUMí KvwnbxKve¨

2| ÔcvVK mgv‡R Dcb¨vm mvwnZ¨ eûj cwVZ I RbwcÖq|Õ KviY Dcb¨vm Ñ mnR-mij-cÖvÄj cvVK wb‡R‡K Lyu‡R cvq GLv‡b mgvR-‡`k I RvwZi cÖwZdjb N‡U| i I ii ii I iii

wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK ? K. M. i ii iii

L. N.

i I iii i, ii I iii

3| ÔMícvV †kl K‡iI cvVK Kvwnbxi mgvwß Lyu‡RÕ e³e¨wU aviY K‡i †h cOw³ Ñ NUbvi NbNUv †kl n‡q nBj bv †kl Aš—‡i AZ…wß i‡e

146

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK ? K. M. i I ii ii I iii

L. N.

i I iii i, ii I iii

4| Rxe‡bi c~Y©veqe bq, LÊvsk‡K †jLK im-wbweo K‡i dzwU‡q †Zv‡jb| Rxe‡bi †Kvb GKwU we‡kl gyn~Z© †Kvb we‡kl cwi‡e‡ki g‡a¨Ñ¯^ímsL¨K Pwi‡Îi gva¨‡g Gi cwiYwZ N‡U| DÏxc‡K mvwn‡Z¨i †Kvb kvLvi cwiPq dz‡U D‡V‡Q ? K. M. KweZv Dcb¨vm L. N. †QvUMí bvUK

m„Rbkxj cÖkœ : Kvwnbxi Drm †cŠivwYK ev HwZnvwmK †Kvb NUbv, AvqZ‡b wekvj| Kvwnbx wewfbœ m‡M© ev c‡e© wef³ _v‡K, mvaviYZ c‡`¨ iwPZ nq Z‡e M‡`¨I n‡Z cv‡i| Gi bvqK n‡e exi, cÖfvekvjx, Av‡cvlnxb `„p‡PZv| Kvwnbxi DÌvb-cZb _vK‡e| K. L. M. N. mvwn‡Z¨i cÖavb j¶Y †KvbwU ? bvUK‡K `„k¨ Kve¨ I kÖe¨Kve¨ ejv nq †Kb ? DÏxc‡Ki e³‡e¨ Ômvwn‡Z¨ iƒc I ixwZÕ iPbvi mvwn‡Z¨i †Kvb kvLvi ˆewkó¨ we`¨gvb Ñ e¨vL¨v Ki| ÔDÏxc‡K ewY©Z w`KwUB mvwn‡Z¨i GKgvÎ w`K bq eis Gi kvLv-cÖkvLv we¯—…Z|Õ gš—e¨wU we‡k−lY Ki|

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

147

evOjv kã ûgvqyb AvRv`
[†jLK cwiwPwZ : evsjv‡`‡ki wewkó M`¨wkíx, fvlvweÁvbx, Jcb¨vwmK I Kwe ûgvqyb AvR` 1947 wLªóv‡ãi 28 †k GwcÖj gyÝxMÄ †Rjvi weµgcy‡ii Aš—M©Z ivwoLvj MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| AZ¨š— †gavex ûgvqyb AvRv` `xN©w`b XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi evsjv wefv‡M Aa¨vcbv K‡i‡Qb| Zuvi D‡j−L‡hvM¨ MÖš’ n‡jv : Kve¨ ÔA‡jŠwKK Bw÷gviÕ, ÔR¡‡jv wPZvevNÕ, Ôme wKQz bó‡`i AwaKv‡i hv‡eÕ, ÔKvd‡b †gvov AkÖ“we›`y; Dcb¨vm Ñ ÔQvcvbœ nvRvi eM©gvBjÕ, Ôme wKQz †f‡O c‡oÕ, Mí Ñ Ôhv`yK‡ii g„Z¨Õ, z cÖeÜ Ñ Ôwbweo bxwjgvÕ, ÔevOjv fvlvi kΓwgÎÕ, ÔevK¨ZË¡Õ, Ôjvj bxj `xcvewjÕ, ÔK‡Zv b`x m‡iveiÕ BZ¨vw`| wZwb evsjv GK‡Wgx cyi¯‹vimn Ab¨vb¨ A‡bK cyi¯‹vi jvf K‡i‡Qb| ûgvqyb AvRv` 2004 wLªóv‡ãi 12B AvM÷ g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib|] evOjv fvlvi GK iKg kã‡K ejv nq ÔZ™¢e kãÕ| Av‡iK iKg kã‡K ejv ÔZrmg kãÕ| Ges Av‡iK iKg kã‡K ejv nq ÔAa©Zrmg kãÕ| G-wZb iKg kã wg‡j MÕ‡o D‡V‡Q evOjv fvlvi kixi| ÔZrmgÕ, ÔZ™¢eÕ cvwifvwlK k㸇jv Pvjy K‡iwQ‡jb cÖvK…Z fvlvi e¨vKiY iPwqZviv| Zuviv ÔZrÕ A_©vr ÔZvÕ ej‡Z †evSv‡Zb Ôms¯‹…ZÕ (GLb ewj cÖvPxb fviZxq Avh©) fvlv‡K| Avi ÔfeÕ k‡ãi A_© ÔRvZ, DrcbœÕ| ZvB ÔZ™¢eÕ k‡ãi A_© n‡jv Ôms¯‹…Z †_‡K Rb¥ †bqvÕ, Avi ÔZrmgÕ k‡ãi A_© n‡”Q Ôms¯‹…‡Zi mgvbÕ A_©vr ms¯‹…Z| evOjv fvlvi k‡ãi kZKiv evqvbœwU kã ÔZrfeÕ I Aa©ZrmgÕ| kZKiv Pzqvwj−kwU ÔZrmgÕ| ZvB evOjv fvlvi kZKiv wQqvbeŸBwUB †gŠwjK ev evOjv kã| cÖvPxb fviZxq Avh©fvlvi wecyj cwigvY kã †ek wbqgKvbyb †g‡b i~c e`jvq ga¨fviZxq Avh©fvlvq A_©vr cÖvK…‡Z| cwiYZ nq cÖvK…Z k‡ã| k㸇jv Mv fvwm‡q w`‡qwQ‡jv cwieZ©‡bi †¯ªv‡Z| cÖvK…‡Z Avmvi ci Avevi †ek wbqgKvbyb †g‡b Zviv e`‡j hvq| cwiYZ nq evOjv k‡ã| G¸‡jvB Z™¢e kã| G-cwieZ©‡bi †mªv‡Z fvmv k‡ãB D¾¡j evOjv fvlv| Z‡e Z™¢e k㸇jv ms¯‹…Z ev cÖvPxb fviZxq Avh©fvlv †_‡KB ïay Av‡m wb| G‡m‡Q Av‡iv wKQz fvlv †_‡K| Z‡e cÖvPxb fviZxq Avh©fvlv †_‡KB G‡m‡Q †ewk msL¨K kã| ÔPuv`Õ, ÔgvQÕ, ÔG‡qvÕ, Ô`yaÕ ÔeuvwkÕ| G¸‡jv cÖvPxb fviZxq Avh©fvlv †_‡K wbqg †g‡b cÖvK…‡Zi †fZi w`‡q G‡m‡Q evOjvq| ÔPuv`Õ wQ‡jv ms¯‹…‡Z ÔP›`ªÕ, cÖvK…‡Z wQ‡jv ÔP›`Õ| evOjvq ÔPuv`| ÔgvQÕ wQ‡jv ÔgrmÕ ms¯‹…‡Z, cÖvK…‡Z nq Ôg”QÕ| evOjvq ÔgvQÕ| ÔG‡qvÕ wQ‡jv ms¯‹…‡Z ÔAweaevÕ| cÖvK…‡Z nq ÔAwenevÕ| evOjvq ÔG‡qvÕ| Ô`yaÕ wQ‡jv ms¯‹…‡Z Ô`y»Ó; cÖvK…‡Z nq Ô`y×Õ| evOjvq nq Ô`yaÕ| Ôeuvwk wQ‡jv ÔeskxÕ ms¯‹…‡Z| cÖvK…‡Z nq ÔesmxÕ| evOjvq ÔeuvwkÕ| †ek wbqg †g‡b, A‡bK kZK c_ †nu‡U G‡m‡Q G-Zx_©hvÎxiv| Avgv‡`i me‡P‡q wcÖqiv| Av‡iv Av‡Q wKQz Zx_©hvÎx, hviv c_ †nu‡U‡Q Av‡iv †ewk| Zviv Ab¨ fvlvi| Zviv cÖ_‡g Xz‡K‡Q ms¯‹…‡Z, Zvici cÖvK…‡Z| Zvici G‡m‡Q evOjvq| GivI Z™¢e kã| wg‡k Av‡Q evOjv fvlvq| ÔLvjÕ Avi ÔNovÕ| Lye wbKU kã Avgv‡`i| ÔLvjÕ kãwU Zvwgj fvlvi ÔKvjÕ †_‡K G‡m‡Q| ÔKvjÕ ms¯‹…‡Z nq ÔLíÕ| cÖvK…‡Z nq ÔLj−Õ| evOjvq ÔLvjÕ| Zvwgj-gjqvwj fvlvq GKwU kã wQ‡jv ÔKzUgÕ| ms¯‹…‡Z †mwU nq NU| cÖvK…‡Z nq ÔNoÕ| evOjvq ÔNovÕ|

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(GPS) Global Positioning System w`‡q c„w_exi †h †Kv‡bv RvqMvi Ae¯’vb mywbw`©óev‡e †ei Kiv hvq| gnvKv‡k A‡bK¸‡jv K…wÎg DcMÖn i‡q‡Q| GB DcMÖn †_‡K cvVv‡bv ms‡KZ e¨envi K‡i wRwcG‡mi gva¨‡g †Kv‡bv wKQzi Ae¯’vb mywbw`©ófv‡e †ei Kiv nq|

cvV cwiwPwZ : eZ©gvb c„w_ex n‡”Q Z_¨ cÖhyw³i hyM- A_©vr Z_¨ msMÖn, Z_¨ msi¶Y Avi Z_¨ wewbg‡qi †¶‡Î mviv c„w_ex‡Z GKUv hyMvš—Kvix cwieZ©b G‡m‡Q| Z_¨ cÖhyw³i GB wec−‡ei wcQ‡b me‡P‡q eo f~wgKv ivL‡Q ÔKw¤úDUviÕ bv‡gi hš¿wU| GwU gvby‡li wb‡`©‡k KvR K‡i, ZvB GKRb gvbyl hZUzKz m„Rbkxj Zvi Kw¤úDUv‡ii KvR Kivi ¶gZvI wVK ZZUzKz PgKcÖ`| `yB k eQi Av‡M c„w_ex‡Z GKUv wkíwec−e n‡qwQj, †mB wec−‡e hviv Ask wb‡qwQj cieZx© mg‡q ZvivB c„w_ex‡K kvmb K‡iwQj| wVK GB gyû‡Z© wkíwec−‡ei g‡ZvB ¸i“Z¡c~Y© Z_¨ cÖhyw³i wec−e NU‡Q- hviv GB wec−‡e Ask †b‡e ZvivB bZzb c„w_exi †bZ…Z¡ †`‡e| evsjv‡`k‡K c„w_exi mvg‡b gv_v DuPz K‡i `uvo Kiv‡bvi R‡b¨ bZzb cÖRb¥ Z_¨ cÖhyw³‡Z wb‡R‡`i `¶ K‡i Zzj‡e †mwU meviB cÖZ¨vkv|

Abykxjbx eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ 1| dvBevi AcwU‡K Kx‡mi †fZi w`‡q Z_¨ cvVvb nq ? K. M. Zvgvi Zv‡ii Kuv‡Pi Zš‘i L. N. we`y¨r †PŠ¤^Kxq Zi‡½ Kve©‡bi Zš‘i

2| Z_¨ cÖhyw³i wec−‡e †bZ…Z¡ wb‡Z n‡j Kx‡m `¶ I cwiwPZ nIqv cÖ‡qvRb ?
i. MwYZ ii. Bs‡iwR iii. Kw¤úDUvi

wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK ? K. i M. i I iii

L. N.

ii i, ii I iii

DÏxcK co Ges cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI : wWwRUvj evsjv‡`‡ki ¯^cœ wb‡q GwM‡q Pj‡Q GKwU j¨vcUc, GKwU g‡Wg I GKwU cÖ‡R±i wb‡q cvIqvi c‡q›U †cÖvMÖv‡gi gva¨‡g wWwRUvj K¬vm †bqvi Kvh©µg| wkï‡`i Bs‡iwR eY©gvjv †kLv‡bvi Rb¨ Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³ msµvš— k㸇jv ¯’vb cv‡”Q| wk¶v_x©iv B-‡gBj, B›Uvi‡bU m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡Z cvi‡Q| gvby‡li m„Rbkxj KvR‡K mnvqZv cÖ`vb, msi¶Y Kiv, Z_¨ Av`vb-cÖ`v‡bi †¶‡Î cÖavbZg f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Q Kw¤úDUvi| iv‡k` Abyfe Ki‡jv Z‡_¨i gnvmo‡K †hvM¨Zg m½x nIqvB RvZxq KZ©e¨|

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3| ÔZ_¨ cÖhyw³Õ cÖe‡Üi †h w`KwU DÏxc‡K D™¢vwmZ n‡q‡Q Zv n‡jv Ñ K. M. Kw¤úDUvi †bUIqvK© ¯’vcb Z_¨cÖhyw³ wec−‡e †hvM`vb L. N. cÖhyw³i DrKl© mvab Kw¤úDUv‡i `¶ nIqv

4| DÏxc‡Ki Abyfe ÔZ_¨ cÖhyw³Õ cÖe‡Üi †Kvb D×…wZi m‡½ mv`„k¨c~Y© ? K. L. M. N. eZ©gvb c„w_exUv n‡”Q Z_¨ cÖhyw³i c„w_ex Av‡M Kw¤úDUv‡ii KvR wQj KíweÁv‡bi g‡Zv Z_¨cÖhyw³i wec−‡ei wcQ‡b i‡q‡Q wWwRUvj Kw¤úDUvi B›Uvi‡b‡Ui gva¨‡g Z_¨ wewbgq e¨e¯’v M‡o D‡V‡Q|

m„Rbkxj cÖkœ : DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI : †mvwbqv Av‡gwiKvi Gg. AvB. Gm. wU-‡Z fwZ© nevi Rb¨ cÖ¯‘wZ wb‡”Q| wek¦we`¨vj‡q fwZ© nevi hveZxq Z_¨ †m B›Uvi‡b‡Ui gva¨‡g †hvMvo Ki‡jv| †mLv‡b Aa¨qbiZ wk¶v_x©‡i` B-‡gBj wVKvbv †R‡b †mvwbqv Zv‡`i mv‡_I †hvMv‡hvM ¯’vb Ki‡jv| B›Uvi‡b‡Ui gva¨‡g fwZ© nevi me Z_¨ †R‡b †mvwbqvi g‡b n‡jv Z_¨ cÖhyw³‡Z mg„× n‡jB G‡`k mg„× n‡Z cvi‡e| K. L. M. N. wR.wc.Gm. Kx ? Ô†gvevBj †Uwj‡dvb eyw×gvb hš¿Õ †Kb ? DÏxcKwU‡Z ÔZ_¨ cÖhyw³Õ cÖe‡Üi †Kvb w`KwU cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q Zv e¨vL¨v Ki| DÏxc‡K ÔZ_¨ cÖhyw³Õ cÖe‡Üi g~j fvebv D‡b¥vwPZ nqwb Ñ g~j¨vqb Ki|

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

165

my‡Li jvwMqv
Ávb`vm
Kwe cwiwPwZ : Ávb`vm 16k kZvãxi cÖ_gv‡a©i Kwe| m½xZÁ I bZzb KxZ©b c×wZi D™¢veK wn‡m‡e wZwb mybv‡gi AwaKvix wQ‡jb| ea©gv‡bi Kuv`ov MÖv‡g Zuvi Rb¥| m¤¢eZ †Mvwe›``vm KweivR, ejivg `vm cÖg‡Li m‡½ wZwb †LZzivi y Drm‡e Dcw¯’Z wQ‡jb| evOjv I eªReywj wKsev G `y‡qi wgkÖ fvlvq wZwb c`vejx iPbv K‡ib| PÊx`vm-Abymvix Ávb`vm fvlvq I fv‡e mnR I Avš—wiK| ga¨hy‡Mi evsjv MxwZ KweZvq Av‡¶cvbyivM I i~cvbyiv‡Mi c`¸‡jv‡Z Zuvi f³-ü`q h_v_© cÖvY †c‡q‡Q| GLv‡b m¼wjZ Av‡¶cvbyiv‡Mi c`wU‡Z Zvi cÖgvY wgj‡e| Ávb`vm iwPZ MÖš’ : gv_yi I gyijx wk¶v|]

my‡Li jvwMqv G Ni euvwaby Avb‡j cywoqv †Mj| Awgqv-mvM‡i wmbvb Kwi‡Z mKwj Mij †fj \ mwL Kx †gvi Ki‡g †jwL| kxZj ewjqv I Puv` †mweby fvbyi wKiY †`wL \ DPj ewjqv AP‡j Pwo‡Z cwoby AMva R‡j| jwQgx Pvwn‡Z `vwi`ª¨ †epj gvwYK nvivby †n‡j \ bMi emvjvg mvMi euvwajvg gvwYK cvevi Av‡k| mvMi ïKvj gvwYK jyKvj AfvMxi Kig-†`v‡l \ wcqvm jvwMqv Rj` †mweby eRi cwoqv †Mj| Ávb`vm K‡n Kvbyi wcixwZ giY AwaK †kj \ kãv_© : AwgqvÑ Ag„Z; wmbvbÑ mœvb; Ki‡g †jwLÑ K‡g©i †jLv, c~e©-R‡b¥i K‡g©i dj, A`„‡ói †jLv; DPjÑ D”P; APjÑ ce©Z; jwQgxÑ j²x, †epjÑ wN‡i aij; wcqvmÑ wccvmv, Z…òv|

cvV cwiwPwZ : Avng` kixd m¤úvw`Z Ôga¨hy‡Mi evsjv MxwZKweZvÕ MÖš’ †_‡K Ômy‡Li jvwMqvÕ kxl©K KweZvwU msKwjZ n‡q‡Q| gvbyl my‡Li Rb¨ eû Av‡qvRb K‡i wKš‘ †m Av‡qvRb A‡bK mgqB mv_©K nq bv| Kwe GB KweZvq A‡bK Zzjbv w`‡q‡Qb : †hgb, Ag„‡Zi mvM‡i mœvb Ki‡jI me Mi‡ji g‡Zv g‡b nq; wmœ» Puv‡`i Av‡jv‡Z cÖwZdwjZ nq Li‡iŠ‡`ªi ZxeªZv; gvwY‡K¨i Avkvq mvM‡i bvg‡jI †m gvwbK n¯—MZ nq bv| Kwe e‡j‡Qb, G meB Kg©‡`vl| Kvby A_©vr K…‡ò fw³ `„pZi bv n‡j G ai‡bi Av‡qvRb wbõj nIqv ¯^vfvweK| cigvZ¥vi m‡½ wgwjZ nevi AvKv•¶v gvby‡li wPiš—b| Kwe Ávb`vm e‡j‡Qb, GB AvKv•¶v ev¯—evwqZ bv n‡j Zv gi‡Yi †P‡qI AwaK g‡b nq| Abykxjbx

Kg©-Abykxjb

1| Ômy‡Li jvwMqvÕ KweZvq e¨eüZ AcwiwPZ k㸇jvi A_©mn GKwU ZvwjKv ˆZwi Ki Ges Zv w`‡q evK¨ ˆZwi Ki|

166

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eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ

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m„Rbkxj

1g Ask :

2q Ask :

bMi emvjvg mvMi evuwajvg gvwYK cvevi Av‡k mvMi ïKvj gvwYK jyKvj AfvMxi Kig-†`v‡l \ `ywU nvZ w`‡q ¶zavZ© bq‡b LyuwR‡ZwQ †Kv_v Zzwg †Kv_v Zzwg|

K. L. M. N.

Kwe †Kv_vq mœvb Ki‡Z Pvb? ÔKvbyi wcixwZ giY AwaK †kjÕ- G K_v Øviv Kwe Kx eywS‡q‡Qb? DÏxc‡K Ges Ômy‡Li jvwMqvÕ KweZvq Kwei PvIqvi mv`„k¨ wbY©q Ki| Ô†cÖ¶vcU wfbœ n‡jI DÏxcK I Ômy‡Li jvwMqvÕ KweZvi g~jfve †hb GKm~‡Î Muv_v|Õhyw³mn cÖgvY Ki|

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167

Avgvi mš—vb fviZP›`ª ivq¸YvKi
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Abœc~Y©v DËwijv Mvw½bxi Zx‡i| cvi Ki ewjqv WvwKjv cvUzbx‡i \ †mB Nv‡U †Lqv †`q Ck¦ix cvUzbx| Z¡ivq Avwbj †bŠKv evgv¯^i ïwb \ Ck¦ix‡i wRÁvwmj Ck¦ix cvUybx| GKv †`wL Kzjea~ †K eU Avcwb \ cwiPq bv w`‡j Kwi‡Z bvwi cvi| fq Kwi wK Rvwb †K w`‡e †didvi \ Ck¦ix‡i cwiPq K‡nb Ck¦ix| eySn Ck¦ix Avwg cwiPq Kwi \ we‡kl‡Y mwe‡kl Kwnev‡i cvwi| Rvbn ¯^vgxi bvg bvwn a‡i bvix \ cvUzbx ewj‡Q gv‡Mv ïb wb‡e`b| †muDZx Dc‡i ivL I iv½v PiY \ cvUzbxi ev‡K¨ gvZv nvwmqv Aš—‡i| ivwLjv `yLvwb c` †muDZx Dc‡i \ †muDZx‡Z c` †`ex ivwL‡Z ivwL‡Z| †muDZx nBj †mvbv †`wL‡Z †`wL‡Z \ †mvbvi †muDZx †`wL cvUzbxi fq| G Z †g‡q †g‡q bq †`eZv wbðq \ Zx‡i DËwij Zwi Zviv DËwijv| c~e©gy‡L my‡L MRMg‡b Pwjjv \ †muDZx jBqv e‡¶ Pwjjv cvUzbx| wc‡Q †`wL Zv‡i †`ex wdwiqv Avcwb \ mf‡q cvUzbx K‡n P‡¶ e‡n Rj| w`qvQ †h cwiPq †m eywSby Qj \ †ni †`L †muDZx‡Z _y‡qwQjv c`| Kv‡Vi †muDZx †gvi ˆnjv Aóvc` \

168

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169

Abykxjbx Kg©-Abykxjb
1| KweZvi g‡a¨ †Kvb `y‡Uv jvBb †Zvgvi me‡P‡q †ewk fv‡jv jv‡M? GB fv‡jvjvMvi KviY Kx?

eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ
1| Kvi ev‡K¨ gvZv nvwmqv Aš—‡i| ivwLj `yLvwb c` †muDZx Dc‡i ? K. M. K. M. cvUzbxi mnhvÎxi Afxó c~Y© K‡i Ggb †`eZvi AbyM„nxZ e¨w³ L. N. Abœc~Y©vi cÖwZ‡ekxi L. N. cÖv_©bxq wRwbm jvf †`eZvi Awfkß e¨w³

2| Ôei`vbÕ ej‡Z Kx †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q ?

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU c‡o 3 I 4 bs cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI : C‡`i QzwU‡Z iZb gv‡qi mv‡_ j‡Â P‡o ewikvj hvw”Q‡jb| nVvr j‡Â hvwš¿K ÎywU †`Lv w`j| j‡Âi cvk w`‡q hvIqv †bŠKvq GKRb‡K †`qv m¤¢e †R‡b iZb‡K Zvi gv euvPv‡jb wKš‘ wb‡Ri Rxeb i¶v Ki‡Z cvi‡jb bv| 3| DÏxc‡Ki iZ‡bi gv‡qi mv‡_ ÔAvgvi mš—vbÕ KweZvq hvi mv`„k¨ i‡q‡Q Ñ K. Abœc~Y©v L. nwi‡nvo M. fevb›` N. cvUzbx 4| Giƒc mv`„‡k¨i KviY n‡jv Ñ i. mš—vb evrmj¨ ii. Ck¦iZzwó iii. AvZ¥Z¨vM wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK ? K. i L. ii M. i I iii N. i, ii I iii

m„Rbkxj
†mKv‡j Bûw` es‡k GKRb aej †ivMx wQ‡jb| cix¶vi Rb¨ aej †ivMxi wbKU †d‡i¯—v Avm‡jb| wZwb †ivMx‡K ej‡jb, ÔZzwg Kx me‡P‡q fv‡jvevm ? wZwb ej‡jb, ÔAvgvi Mv‡qi is hw` fv‡jv nZ Zvn‡j mK‡j Avi Avgv‡K N„Yv KiZ bv|Õ †d‡i¯—v †ivMxi Mv‡q nvZ eywj‡q w`‡j wZwb my¯’ n‡q †M‡jb| K. L. M. N. Ô†muDZxÕ k‡ãi A_© Kx ? ÔG Z †g‡q †g‡q bqÕ Ñ G K_vwU †Kb ejv n‡q‡Q ? mªóvi Kv‡Q PvIqvi †¶‡Î aej †ivMxi I ÔAvgvi mš—vbÕ KweZvi cvUbxi cv_©K¨UzKz wbY©q Ki| DÏxcKwU ÔAvgvi mš—vbÕ KweZvi g~jfve‡K cÖKvk K‡i bv Ñ gš—e¨wU wePvi Ki|

170

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e‡jv bv KvZi ¯^‡i e„_v Rb¥ G msmv‡i G Rxeb wbkvi ¯^cb, `viv cyÎ cwievi, Zzwg Kvi †K †Zvgvi e‡j Rxe K‡iv bv µ›`b; gvbe-Rbg mvi, Ggb cv‡e bv Avi evn¨`„‡k¨ fz‡jv bv †i gb; Ki hZœ n‡e Rq, RxevZ¥v AwbZ¨ bq, I‡n Rxe Ki AvwKÂb| K‡iv bv my‡Li Avk, c‡iv bv `y‡Li duvm, Rxe‡bi D‡Ïk¨ Zv bq, msmv‡i msmvix mvR, K‡iv wbZ¨ wbR KvR, f‡ei DbœwZ hv‡Z nq| w`b hvq ¶Y hvq, mgq Kvnv‡iv bq, †e‡M avq bvwn i‡n w¯’i, mnvq m¤ú` ej, mKwj NyPvq Kvj, Avqy †hb ˆkev‡ji bxi| msmv‡i-mgiv½‡b hy× Ki `„pc‡Y, f‡q fxZ nBI bv gvbe; Ki hy× exh©evb, hvq hv‡e hvK cÖvY gwngvB RM‡Z `yj©f| g‡bvni g~wZ© †n‡i, I‡n Rxe AÜKv‡i, fwel¨‡Z K‡iv bv wbf©i; AZxZ my‡Li w`b, cybt Avi †W‡K G‡b, wPš—v K‡i nBI bv KvZi| gnvÁvbx gnvRb, †h c‡_ K‡i Mgb, n‡q‡Qb cÖvZt¯§iYxq, †mB c_ j¶¨ K‡i ¯^xq KxwZ© aŸRv a‡i

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2| Kwe Ômsmv‡i mgiv½‡bÕ ej‡Z Kx eywS‡q‡Qb ? K. M. hyׇ¶Î‡K cÖwZ‡iva hyׇK L. N. RxebhyׇK Aw¯—Z¡‡K

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU c‡o 3 I 4 bs cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI : ïKzi wgqv GKRb ¶z‡` e¨emvqx| mvgvb¨ cyuwR wb‡q e¨emv ïi“ K‡ib| cÖ_g cÖ_g jvf cvb| GK mgq Zvi e¨emv‡q g›`v †`Lv †`q| G‡Z wZwb wKQzUv wePwjZ n‡q c‡ob| ZLb eÜz nv‡Zg Zv‡K `„pZvi mv‡_ GwM‡q Pjvi civgk© †`b| ïKzi wgqv Zvi civgk©‡K mv`‡i MÖnY K‡ib| 3| DÏxc‡Ki ïKzi wgqvi j¶¨ Kx ? K. L. M. N. h‡kv×vi AgiZ¡ jvf msmvi mgiv½‡b wU‡K _vKv eiYxq nIqv

4| Afxó j‡¶¨ †cŠuQv‡Z ïKz‡ii †h ¸‡Yi Avek¨K Zv n‡jv Ñ K. M. mvnm AvZ¥wek¦vm L. N. msMÖvg m¼í

m„Rbkxj ievU© eª“m ci ci Qqevi hy‡× civwRZ n‡q GK mg‡q nZvk n‡q e‡b P‡j hvb| †mLv‡b †`‡Lb GKUv gvKomv Rvj eyb‡Z wM‡q evievi e¨_© n‡”Q| Ae‡k‡l †m mßgev‡i mdj nq| G NUbv ievU© eª“‡mi g‡b Drmvn RvMvq| wZwb eyS‡Z cv‡ib Rxe‡b mvdj¨ I e¨_©Zv A½v½xfv‡e RwoZ| ZvB wZwb Avevi c~Y© D`¨‡g hy‡× AskMÖnY K‡i weRqx nb| K. Kwe †Kvb `„k¨ fyj‡Z wb‡la K‡i‡Qb? L. Kxfv‡e Ôf‡eiÕ DbœwZ Kiv hvq? M. civR‡qi M−vwb ievU© eª“‡mi gv‡S †h cÖfve we¯—vi K‡i †mwU ÔRxeb m½xZÕ KweZvi mv‡_ †hfv‡e mv`„k¨c~Y© Zv Zz‡j ai| N. ÔnZvkv bq eis mwnòzZv I ˆah©B gvby‡li Rxe‡b Pig mvdj¨ e‡q Av‡b|Õ- DÏxcK I ÔRxeb m½xZÕ KweZv Aej¤^‡b Dw³wU we‡k−lY Ki|

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cÖvY iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi
[Kwe cwiwPwZ : iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi 25†k ˆekvL 1268 m‡b (7B †g 1861 wLªóvã) KjKvZvi †Rvovmuv‡Kvi VvKzi cwiev‡i Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi wcZv gnwl© †`‡e›`ªbv_ VvKzi Ges wcZvgn wcÖÝ ØviKvbv_ VvKzi| evj¨Kv‡j iex›`ªbv_‡K Iwi‡q›Uvj †mwgbvwi, bg©vj ¯‹zj, †e½j GKv‡Wgx cªf…wZ wk¶v cÖwZôv‡bi †jLvcovi Rb¨ cvVv‡bv n‡jI wZwb †ewkw`b ¯‹z‡ji kvm‡b _vK‡Z cv‡ibwb| GgbwK m‡Zi eQi eq‡m iex›`ªbv_‡K e¨vwi÷vwi covi Rb¨ Bsj¨v‡Û cvVv‡bv n‡jI †`o eQi c‡i cov‡kvbv Amgvß †i‡L wZwb †`‡k wd‡i Av‡mb| we`¨vj‡qi AvbyôvwbK wk¶v wZwb jvf K‡ibwb, wKš‘ mvwn‡Z¨i wewPÎ †¶‡Î Zuvi c`PviYv GK we¯§‡qi e¯‘| wZwb wQ‡jb cÖK…Z A‡_©B Amvgvb¨ cÖwZfvai| ev‡j¨B Zuvi KwecÖwZfvi D‡b¥l N‡U| gvÎ c‡bi eQi eq‡m Zuvi ebdzj Kve¨MÖš’ cÖKvwkZ nq| 1913 mv‡j iex›`ªbv_ ÔMxZvÄwjÕ Kv‡e¨i Rb¨ Gkxq‡`i g‡a¨ cÖ_g mvwn‡Z¨ †bv‡ej cyi¯‹vi jvf K‡ib| e¯‘Z Zuvi GKK mvabvq evsjv fvlv I mvwnZ¨ mKj kvLvq `ª“Z DbœwZ jvf K‡i Ges wek¦`iev‡i †MŠi‡ei Avm‡b cÖwZwôZ nq| wZwb GKvav‡i mvwnwZ¨K, `vk©wbK, wk¶vwe`, myiKvi, bvU¨ cÖ‡hvRK I Awf‡bZv| Kve¨, †QvUMí, Dcb¨vm, bvUK, cÖeÜ, Mvb BZ¨vw` mvwn‡Z¨i mKj kvLvB Zuvi Ae`v‡b mg„×| Zuvi ARmª iPbvi g‡a¨ gvbmx, †mvbvi Zix, wPÎv, Kíbv, ¶wYKv, ejvKv, cybð, †Pv‡Li evwj, †Mviv, N‡i evB‡i, †hvMv‡hvM, †k‡li KweZv, wemR©b, WvKNi, i³Kiex, Mí¸”Q, wewPÎ cÖeÜ BZ¨vw` we‡klfv‡e D‡j−L‡hvM¨| 22‡k kÖveY 1348 m‡b (7B AvM÷ 1941 wLªóvã) KjKvZvq wek¦Kwe iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi †kl wbtk¦vm Z¨vM K‡ib|]

gwi‡Z Pvwn bv Avwg my›`i fze‡b, gvb‡ei gv‡S Avwg euvwPev‡i PvB| GB m~h©K‡i GB cyw®úZ Kvb‡b Rxeš— ü`q-gv‡S hw` ¯’vb cvB ! aivq cÖv‡Yi †Ljv wPiZiw½Z, wein wgjb KZ nvwm-AkÖ“gq Ñ gvb‡ei my‡L `yt‡L Muvw_qv msMxZ hw` †Mv iwP‡Z cvwi Agi-Avjq ! Zv hw` bv cvwi, Z‡e euvwP hZ Kvj †Zvgv‡`wi gvSLv‡b jwf †hb VuvB, †Zvgiv Zzwj‡e e‡j mKvj weKvj be be msMx‡Zi Kzmyg dzUvB| nvwm gy‡L wb‡qv dzj, Zvi c‡i nvq †d‡j w`‡qv dzj, hw` †m dzj ïKvq \

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kãv_© I UxKv : m~h© K‡i Ñ m~‡h©i Av‡jv‡Z; wPiZiw½Z Ñ me©`v K‡j−vwjZ, engvb: jwf Ñ jvf Kwi; Rxeš— n„`q gv‡S Ñ iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi Zuvi mg¯— m„wó‡Z gvby‡li gv‡S †eu‡P _vKvi AvKv•¶v cÖKvk K‡i‡Qb| Av‡jvP¨ As‡k Zuvi GB AvKv•¶vi Bw½Z cvIqv hvq; weinwgjb ... AkÖ“gqÑ gvby‡li Rxeb Kzmygv¯—xY© bq| nvwm-Kvbœv, Avb›`-†e`bv wb‡q Zvi Rxeb| iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi gvbe Rxe‡bi GB ˆewP‡Î¨i g‡a¨ ¯’vb K‡i wb‡Z †P‡q‡Qb| Avi Zuvi m„wói g‡a¨ dwj‡q Zzj‡Z †P‡q‡Qb hvwcZ Rxe‡bi myL-`ytL, nvwm-Kvbœvi wecyj GK AvL¨vb; Agi Avjq Ñ Agi m„wó A‡_©; be be m½x‡Zi Kzmyg dzUvB Ñ iex›`ªbv‡_i m„wói RMr wecyj; gvby‡li Rxe‡bi wewPÎ Abyfe-Abyf~wZ, fve-fvebv I K‡g©i RMr‡K wZwb Zuvi m„wói g‡a¨ cÖvYgq K‡i Zzj‡Z †P‡q‡Qb| Zuvi †mB m„wói ga¨ †_‡K i~c-im-MÜ †hb gvbyl Abyfe Ki‡Z cv‡i Zvi Rb¨ wZwb cÖwZwbqZ dzwU‡q Zzj‡Qb m„wói Kzmyg| cvV cwiwPwZ : KweZvwU iex›`ªbv_ VvKz‡ii ÔKwo I †KvgjÕ Kve¨MÖš’ †_‡K msKwjZ n‡q‡Q| GB RMr my›`i Ges AvKl©Yxq| gvby‡li nvwm-Kvbœv, gvb-Awfgvb, Av‡eM-fv‡jvevmvq c„w_ex cwic~Y©| RM‡Zi gvqv Z¨vM K‡i Ab¨ wKQyi AvnŸv‡b cÖjyä n‡q Kwe ZvB g„Z¨eiY Ki‡Z Pvb bv| wZwb Awfjvl e¨³ z K‡i‡Qb, gvby‡li gbRqx iPbv m„R‡bi gva¨‡g mevi Kv‡Q Av`„Z nIqvi| c„w_exi bibvixi myL`ytLwein hw` wVKfv‡e Zuvi m„wó‡Z VuvB cvq, Z‡eB wZwb Agi n‡eb| Zv-bv n‡j Zuvi iPbv ïK‡bv dz‡ji g‡ZvB mevi Kv‡Q Abv`„Z n‡q co‡e| mr I ïfKg© K‡i RM‡Z gvby‡li g‡a¨ `xN© w`b †eu‡P _vKvi Rb¨ `„p msKí cÖ‡qvRb|

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1| ÔcÖwZwU Rxe †kl gyn~Z© ch©š— †eu‡P _vK‡Z PvqÕÑD`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ K_vwU we‡k−lY Ki|

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2| Kwe gvbe ü`‡q Kxfv‡e VuvB †c‡Z †P‡q‡Qb ?

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU c‡o 3 I 4 bs cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI : Avevi Avwme wd‡i avbwmuwowUi Zx‡i Ñ GB evsjvq nq‡Zv gvbyl bq Ñ nq‡Zv ev k•LwPj kvwj‡Ki †e‡k nq‡Zv †fv‡ii KvK n‡q GB KvwZ©‡Ki bev‡bœi †`‡k Kzqvkvi ey‡K †f‡m GKw`b Avwme G KuvVvj Qvqvq;

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3| DÏxc‡Ki e³‡e¨i mv‡_ ÔcÖvYÕ KweZvi fveMZ mv`„k¨ i‡q‡Q †h ev‡K¨, Zv n‡jv Ñ gwi‡Z Pvwn bv Avwg my›`i fze‡b, gvb‡ei gv‡S Avwg euvwPev‡i PvB ii. gvb‡ei my‡L-`yt‡L Muvw_qv msMxZ hw` †Mv iwP‡Z cvwi Agi Avjq ! iii. nvwm gy‡L wb‡q dzj, Zvi c‡i nvq †d‡j w`‡qv dzj, hw` †m dzj ïKvq\ i. wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K. M. i ii I iii L. N. iii i I iii

4| Giƒc mv`„‡k¨i KviY Kx? K. M. Rxe‡bi cÖwZ Avmw³ RvMwZK myL †fvM L. N. AK…wÎg gvbe‡cÖg m„wói Avb›` Dc‡fvM

m„Rbkxj evsjvi gyL Avwg †`wLqvwQ, ZvB Avwg c„w_exi iƒc LyuwR‡Z hvB bv Avi, AÜKv‡i †R‡M D‡V Wzgy‡ii Mv‡Q †P‡q †`wL QvZvi gZb e‡ov cvZvwUi wb‡P e‡m Av‡Q †fv‡ii †`v‡qj cvwLÑ Pviw`‡K †P‡q †`wL cj−‡ei ¯—~c Rvg-eU-KuvVv‡ji-wnR‡ji-Ak¦‡Ìi K‡i Av‡Q Pzc| K. L. M. N. Kwe Kv‡`i gv‡S euvP‡Z Pvb ? G c„w_ex‡Z Kwe Agi Avjq iPbv Ki‡Z Pvb †Kb ? DÏxc‡K cÖZ¨vwkZ welqwU ÔcÖvYÕ KweZvi fv‡ei mv‡_ Kxfv‡e wg‡k Av‡Q Zv e¨vL¨v Ki| DÏxcKwU ÔcÖvYÕ KweZvi AvswkKfve gvÎ, c~Y©iƒc bq| hyw³mnKv‡i eywS‡q †jL|

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202

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3| DÏxc‡Ki mvgv` wgqvi mv‡_ ÔgvbylÕ KweZvi †h ev †hme Pwi‡Îi mv`„k¨ i‡q‡Q Zv n‡jvÑ i. c~Rvixi ii. †gvj−v mv‡n‡ei iii. fyLvwii wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K. M. i I ii ii I iii L. N. i I iii i, ii I iii

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204

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205

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212

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†gŠmygx dz‡j AÄwj f‡i f‡i Avcb †`‡ki gvwU‡Z `uvov‡q nv‡m m~h©-Sj‡K ! Rxe‡bi WvK Av‡m †mB Wv‡K †`q mvov b`x-cÖvš—i cvi n‡q Av‡m j¶ cÖv‡Yi aviv wgwj‡Z mevi m‡b Avgvi †`‡ki gvby‡liv m‡e gy³-D`vi g‡b AvZ©-e¨w_Z myax ¸YxRb cv‡k †mev Ñ mvg¨ Ñ cÖxwZ wewbgq Av‡k m~h©-Av‡jv‡K Avevi G‡`‡k nv‡m wbwZ bei~‡c f‡i I‡V gb Rxe‡bi Avk¦v‡m| kãv_© UxKv : m~h©ÑSj‡KÑm~‡h©i D¾¡j Av‡jvq Av‡jvwKZ, D™¢vwmZ; †gŠmygx dzjÑwe‡kl FZz‡Z (mg‡q) Drcbœ dzj; wmœ» kirÑkirKv‡ji D¾¡jZv; avb¨ kxl©Ñav‡bi Ici fvM; b~‡ni wKk&wZцmwgwUK cyivY Abymv‡i c„w_ex‡Z gnvc−ve‡bi mg‡q, GKRb bwei †h eo †bŠKv mevB‡K i¶v K‡iwQj; kvwš— ÑK‡cvZÑkvwš—i KeyZi, KeyZi‡K kvwš—i cÖZxK ejv nq; eviZvÑmsev`, evZ©v| cvV cwiwPwZ : mywdqv Kvgv‡ji ÔD`vË c„w_exÕ Kve¨MÖ‡š’i ÔAvgvi †`kÕ KweZvwU Ômywdqv Kvgvj iPbvmsMÖnÕ †_‡K msKjb Kiv n‡q‡Q| evOvwji †mvbvi evsjv Am¤¢e‡K m¤¢e K‡i, gvwU †_‡K Rb¥ †`q †mvbvwj dmj| PgrKvi Gi RjevqyÑ mnbxq †iŠ`ªZvc, bgbxq Rj-e„wó| ZvB Gi gvV f‡i I‡V †mvbvwj av‡b, meyR cv‡U, bvbv e‡Y©i djg~‡j| G‡`‡ki gvbyl cvkvcvwk Ni †eu‡a ZvB kvwš—‡Z evm K‡i | `y‡h©vMI †h Av‡m bv Zv bq| wKš‘ `y‡h©v‡Mi mgq I Zv AwZµvš— nIqvgvÎ Zviv Avevi Ni euv‡a cvkvcvwk, _v‡K kvwš—‡Z| evsjvi gvby‡li gayi fvlv, Acvi Rxebvb›` Zv‡`i wb‡q hvq m¤cÖxwZi gnvmvM‡i| AvKv‡k †hgb m~h© I‡V †Zgwb WvK Av‡m wgj‡bi| G‡`‡ki gvbyl ci¯ú‡i gnvwgj‡bi g‡a¨B cÖZ¨n bZzb n‡q I‡V|

Abykxjbx Kg©-Abykxjb
1| mKj †kªwY †ckvi gvby‡li m¤cÖxwZ wb‡q GKwU cÖeÜ iPbv Ki|

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2| ÔAvgvi †`kÕ †Kvb RvZxq KweZv ?

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4| DÏxc‡K wb‡Pi †Kvb welqwU dz‡U D‡V‡Q?

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214

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Avkv wmKvb`vi Avey Rvdi [Kwe cwiwPwZ : Lyjbv †Rjvi †ZZzwjqv MÖv‡g 1919 mv‡ji 19†k gvP© wmKvb`vi Avey Rvdi Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi wcZv ˆmq` gCbyÏxb nv‡kgx †ckvq wQ‡jb K…wlRxex I e¨emvqx| wmKvb`vi Avey Rvdi 1936 mv‡j Zvjv we.‡`. BÝwUwUDkb †_‡K g¨vwUªK cvm K‡ib Ges KjKvZvi wicb K‡jR †_‡K AvBG cvk K‡ib| Kg©Rxe‡b wZwb wQ‡jb mvsevw`K| †`k wefv‡Mi c‡i wZwb ¯’vqxfv‡e XvKvq emevm K‡ib| G mgq wZwb †iwWI cvwK¯—v‡b PvKwi †_‡K ïi“ K‡i ˆ`wbK B‡ËdvK, ˆ`wbK wgj−vZ, gvwmK mgKvj cÖf…wZ cwÎKvq mvsevw`KZv K‡ib| wZwb e½eÜz †kL gywReyi ingv‡bi 6 `dv Av‡›`vjb †eMevb K‡i †Zvjvi Rb¨ Zvrch©c~Y© f~wgKv iv‡Lb| ¯^vaxbZv Av‡›`vj‡b wZwb wQ‡jb GKRb GKwbô mvs¯‹…wZK Kgx©| gyw³hy‡×i mgq Zuvi †jLv ÔAvgv‡`i msMÖvg Pj‡eB Pj‡eÕ MvbwU ¯^vaxbZvKvgx evOvwj RvwZ‡K we‡klfv‡e AbycÖvwYZ K‡i| Zuvi MYm½xZ I KweZv †gnbZx gvby‡li gyw³i †cÖiYvq mg„×| wmKvb`vi Avey Rvd‡ii D‡j−L‡hvM¨ Kve¨MÖš’ : cÖmbœ kni, ˆeix e„wó‡Z, wZwgivwš—K, e„wðK jMœ, gvje †KŠwkK BZ¨vw`| mvwnZ¨K‡g© Ae`v‡bi Rb¨ wZwb evsjv GKv‡Wgx cyi¯‹vi I GKz‡k c`‡K (gi‡YvËi) f~wlZ nb| 5B AvM÷ 1975 mv‡j wmKvb`vi Avey Rvdi g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib|] Avwg †mB RM‡Z nvwi‡q †h‡Z PvB, †h_vq Mfxi-wbïZ iv‡Z RxY© †eovi N‡i wbf©vebvq gvby‡liv Nywg‡q _v‡K fvB \ †h_vq †jv‡K †mvbv-i~cvq cvnvo Rgvq bv, weË-my‡Li `yf©vebvq Avqy Kgvq bv; †h_vq †jv‡K Zz”Q wb‡q Zzó _v‡K fvB \ mvivw`‡bi cwikÖ‡gI cvq bv hviv Lyu‡R GKwU w`‡bi Avnvh©-mÂq, Zey hv‡`i g‡bi †Kv‡Y †bB `yivkv M−vwb, †bB `xbZv, †bB †Kv‡bv mskq| †h_vq gvbyl gvby‡l‡i evm‡Z cv‡i fv‡jv cÖwZ‡ekxi Auvavi N‡i R¡vj‡Z cv‡i Av‡jv, †mB RM‡Zi Kvbœv-nvwmi Aš—iv‡j fvB Avwg nvwi‡q †h‡Z PvB \

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kãv_© I UxKv : Avwg †mB RM‡Z ... Nywg‡q _v‡K fvB Ñ †K Kxfv‡e myLx n‡e Zv wba©vwiZ bq| gvbyl MZvbyMwZK †hfv‡e myLx nq Kwe †mfv‡e myLx nIqvi K_v GLv‡b e‡jb wb| my‡Li wPš—vq gvby‡li iv‡Z Nyg nq bv| wKš‘ myLx gvby‡li Ny‡gi mgm¨v nq bv| mvivw`b Kv‡Ri ci weQvbvq †M‡jB kvwš—i Nyg Zv‡K Z…wß †`q| KweI †Zgwb †m iKg GK Rxeb-hvc‡bi gv‡S †h‡Z Pvb †hLv‡b fvOv †eovi N‡iI gvbyl wbf©vebvq Nywg‡q _v‡K; Nywg‡q †h‡Z cv‡i| weË-my‡Li ... Kgvq bv Ñ mgv‡Ri †ewki fvM gvbyl UvKv-cqmv I m¤ú‡`i †jv‡f w`bvwZcvZ K‡i; G‡Z myL nvivg n‡q hvq; Rxeb nq hš¿Yvgq| G‡Z Zv‡`i `xN© Rxeb bv n‡q wewfbœ †ivM-evjvB‡q Avµvš— nq Ges g„Zz¨eiY K‡i| weË-my‡Li `yf©vebv gvbyl‡K myL †Zv †`qB bv eis Zv‡`i Avqy AviI K‡g hvq| †h_vq gvbyl ... R¡vj‡Z cv‡i Av‡jv Ñ Rxe‡bi mv_©KZv †Kv_vq GUv ¸i“Z¡c~Y© cÖkœ| wKQz gvbyl Av‡Q hviv A‡b¨i DcKvi I g½‡ji Rb¨ wb‡R‡`i Rxeb DrmM© K‡i gvbe‡cÖg ev gvbyl‡K fv‡jvevm‡Z cvivi gv‡S Rxe‡bi gnË¡ _v‡K| cÖwZ‡ekxi `yt‡L GwM‡q Avmv, Zv‡`i `ytL-Kó `~i Kivi gv‡SI GK ai‡bi Z…wß Av‡Q| Kwe ZvB e‡j‡Qb †h, †hLv‡b gvbyl‡K fv‡jvevmv hvq, cÖwZ‡ekxi `ytL-Kó `~i K‡i Av‡jv R¡vjv‡bv hvqцmLv‡bB wZwb _vK‡Z Pvb|

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2| ÔcÖwZ‡ekxi Auvavi N‡i/R¡vj‡Z cv‡i Av‡jvÕ Ñ GLv‡b Av‡jv ej‡Z Kx †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q ? cvi¯úwiK m¤úªxwZ G‡K A‡b¨i †LuvR †bIqv

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4| Kwei `„wó‡Z GB gvbyl¸‡jvi ˆewkó¨ †Kgb ?

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217

e„wó diiyL Avng` [Kwe cwiwPwZ : diiyL Avng` 1918 wLªóv‡ãi 10B Ryb gv¸iv †Rjvi gvSAvBj MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi wcZv Lvb mv‡ei ˆmq` nv‡Zg Avjx| dii“L Avng` KjKvZv wicb K‡jR †_‡K AvBG cvm K‡ib Ges KjKvZvi ¯‹wUk PvP© K‡j‡R `k©‡b Abvm© I Bs‡iwR‡Z Abv‡m©i QvÎ wQ‡jb| wKš‘ cix¶v bv w`‡qB Kg©Rxe‡b cÖ‡ek K‡ib| Kg©Rxe‡b wZwb bvbv c‡` wb‡qvwRZ nb Ges 1947 †_‡K 1972 mvj ch©š— wZwb XvKv †eZv‡i ÷vd ivBUvi c‡` wb‡qvwRZ wQ‡jb| Bmjvwg Av`k© I HwZn¨ Zuv‡K Kve¨m„wó‡Z †cÖiYv hywM‡q‡Q| Zuvi D‡j−L‡hvM¨ MÖš’ : mvZ mvM‡ii gvwS, wmivRvg&& gybxiv, †bŠ‡dj I nv‡Zg, gyn~‡Z©i KweZv, cvwLi evmv, nv‡ZgZvqx, bZzb †jLv, ni‡di Qov, Qovi Avmi BZ¨vw`| mvwn‡Z¨ Ae`v‡bi Rb¨ wZwb evsjv GKv‡Wgx cyi¯‹vi, Av`gRx cyi¯‹vi, GKz‡k c`Kmn (gi‡YvËi) A‡bK cyi¯‹v‡i f~wlZ nb| 1974 mv‡ji 19†k A‡±vei wZwb ci‡jvKMgb K‡ib|]

e„wó G‡jv ... eû cÖZxw¶Z e„wó ! Ñ cÙv †gNbvi `ycv‡k Avevw` MÖv‡g, e„wó G‡jv cy‡ei nvIqvq, we`» AvKvk, gvV †X‡K †Mj KvRj Qvqvq; we`y¨r-i~cmx cwi †g‡N †g‡N n‡q‡Q mIqvi| w`Kw`M‡š—i c‡_ Aci~c Avfv †`‡L Zvi el©YgyLi w`‡b Ai‡Y¨i †Kqv wknivq, †iŠ`ª-`» avb‡¶Z AvR Zvi ¯úk© †c‡Z Pvq, b`xi dvU‡j eb¨v Av‡b c~Y© cÖv‡Yi †Rvqvi| iyM&Y e„× wfLvixi iM-IVv nv‡Zi gZb iy¶ gvV Amgvb †kv‡b †mB el©‡Yi myi, Z…wlZ e‡bi mv‡_ †R‡M I‡V Z…lvZß gb, cvwo w`‡q †h‡Z Pvq eû c_, cÖvš—i eÜzi, †hLv‡b we¯§„Z w`b c‡o Av‡Q wbtm½ wbR©b †mLv‡b el©vi †gN Rv‡M AvR welYœ †g`yi \ kãv_© I UxKv : we`y¨r i~cmx cwi Ñ we`y¨r PgKv‡bv‡K †jvKR aviYv Abyhvqx my›`ix cwii m‡½ Zzjbv Kiv n‡q‡Q †h †g‡N †g‡N Ny‡i †eovq; mIqvi Ñ Av‡ivnx; i“M&&Y e„× wfLvixi ... Z…òvZß gb Ñ `xN© el©Ynxb w`‡b gvVNvU ïwK‡q †h i“¶ g~wZ© aviY K‡i‡Q Kwe Zv‡K i“M&&Y e„× wfLvixi iM-IVv nv‡Zi m‡½ Zzjbv K‡i‡Qb| GLb el©‡Yi ïi“‡Z Z…òvKvZi gvV-NvU I e‡b †`Lv w`‡q‡Q cÖv‡Yi †Rvqvi; Z…òvZß Ñ wccvmvq KvZi; welYœ †g`yi Ñ e„wówenxb cÖK…wZi i“¶Zv e„wói AvMg‡b `~ixf~Z n‡q‡Q| cÖK…wZ GLb wmœ»‡Kvgj n‡q Pvwiw`‡K K‡i Zz‡j‡Q cÖv‡Yv”Q¡j| cvV cwiwPwZ : cÖK…wZ‡Z el©v Av‡m cÖvY¯ú›`b wb‡q| Avi e„wóB el©vi cÖvY| G mgq b`xi `y-av‡i c−veb †`Lv †`q, d‡j cwjgvwUi †MŠi‡e dmj fv‡jv nq| e„wói mgq AvKv‡ki me©Î †g‡Ni †Ljv †`Lv hvq, el©vi dzj dz‡U me©Î †gvwnZ nq, i“¶ gvwU e„wó‡Z cÖvY Ryovq| e„wói w`‡b ms‡e`bkxj gvbylI imwm³ n‡q I‡V| Zvi g‡b c‡o myLgq AZxZ, cyi‡bv ¯§„wZ, Avi †m fv‡jvjvMvi Avjcbv Auv‡K g‡b g‡b| G e„wó KL‡bv welYœI K‡i gb, GKvKx Rxe‡b evovq wein|

218

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Abykxjbx Kg©-Abykxjb
1| el©vi FZz‡Z cÖK…wZ †h be mv‡R mw¾Z nqÑ Zvi weeiY `vI| 1|

eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ

Kwe we`y¨r‡K Kvi m‡½ Zzjbv K‡i‡Qb ? K. Kb¨vi L. cwi M. Av‡jvi N. e„wói

2| i“M&b e„× wfLvixi iM-IVv nv‡Zi gZb i“¶ gvV AvmgvbÕ Ñ G wPÎK‡í Kx dz‡U D‡V‡Q ? K. eyfz¶ gv‡Vi wPÎ L. el©vq evsjvi cÖK…wZ M. e„wónxb gv‡Vi i~c N. cÖK…wZi ˆewiZv 3| ÔAvwRKvi †iv` Nygv‡q cwo‡Q †Nvjv‡U †g‡Ni Av‡oÕ Ñ G e³‡e¨i wecixZ fve i‡q‡Q †h ev‡K¨Ñ i. el©YgyLi w`‡b Ai‡Y¨i †Kqv wknivq ii. †iŠ`ª-`» avb‡¶Z AvR Zvi ¯úk© †c‡Z Pvq iii. `y-cv‡k Avevw` MÖv‡g, e„wó G‡jv cy‡ei nvIqvq| wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK ? K. i M. i I ii 4| Gi~c ˆecix‡Z¨i KviY Kx ? K. M. el©YnxbZv †g‡Ni ZxeªZv L. N. el©‡Yi AvKv•¶v R‡ji cÖZ¨vkv L. N. ii ii I iii

m„Rbkxj
†KDev iwOb Kuv_vq †gwjqv ey‡Ki ¯^cbLvwb, Zv‡i fvlv †`q `xNj m~Zvq gvqvex Av¯—i Uvwb| AvwR‡K evwn‡i ïay µ›`b QjQj Rjav‡i †eYy-e‡b evqy bx‡o G‡jv‡Kk, gb †hb Pvq Kv‡i| K. L. M. N. Ôe„wóÕ KweZvq †Kvb †Kvb b`xi K_v D‡j−L i‡q‡Q ? †iŠ`ª-`» avb‡¶Z AvR e„wói ¯úk© †c‡Z Pvq †Kb ? Ô†eYy-e‡b evqy bx‡o G‡jv‡Kk, gb †hb Pvq Kv‡i|Õ Ñ DÏxc‡Ki G e³‡e¨i mv‡_ Ôe„wóÕ KweZvi mv`„‡k¨i w`KwU Zz‡j ai| DÏxcKwU Ôe„wóÕ KweZvi GKUv we‡kl fve cªKvk K‡i gvÎ, mgMÖ fve bq Ñ †Zvgvi Dˇii mc‡¶ hyw³ `vI|

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

219

Avwg †Kv‡bv AvMš—yK bB

Avnmvb nvexe

[Kwe cwiwPwZ : Avnmvb nvexe 1917 wLªóv‡ãi 2iv Rvbyqvwi wc‡ivRcyi †Rjvi k¼icvkv MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| wZwb ewikv‡ji eªR‡gvnb K‡j‡R AvBG ch©š— Aa¨qb K‡ib| Kg©Rxe‡b wZwb mvsevw`KZv‡K †ckv wn‡m‡e MÖnY K‡ib| Mfxi Rxeb‡eva I Avkvev` Zuvi KweZv‡K wewkó e¨Äbv `vb K‡i‡Q| Zuvi KweZvi wmœ»Zv cvVKwP‡Ë GK gayi Av‡ek m„wó K‡i| wZwb mvgvwRK ˆel‡g¨i weiy‡× Ges AvZ© gvbeZvi mc‡¶ e³e¨ †i‡L‡Qb| Zuvi cÖ_g Kve¨MÖš’ ivw·kl| G Qvov QvqvnwiY, mviv `ycyi, Avkvq emwZ, †gN e‡j ˆP‡Î hv‡ev Zuvi D‡j−L‡hvM¨ Kve¨MÖš’| †QvU‡`i Rb¨ Zuvi KweZvi eB †RvQbv iv‡Zi Mí I QzwUi w`b `ycy‡i| ivbx Lv‡ji muv‡Kv Zuvi wK‡kvicvV¨ Dcb¨vm| Avnmvb nvexe Zuvi mvwnZ¨K‡g©i Rb¨ evsjv GKv‡Wgx I GKz‡k c`K cyi¯‹vi jvf K‡ib| Ôˆ`wbK evsjvÕ cwÎKvi mvwnZ¨ m¤úv`K _vKvKv‡j 1985 mv‡ji 10B RyjvB Zuvi Rxebvemvb N‡U|]

Avmgv‡bi Zviv mv¶x mv¶x GB Rwg‡bi dzj, GB wbwkivBZ euvkevMvb we¯—i †RvbvwK mv¶x mv¶x GB Rvi“j Rvgi“j, mv¶x cy‡ei cyKzi, Zvi SvKov Wzgy‡ii Wv‡j w¯’i `„wó gvQivOv Avgv‡K †P‡b Avwg †Kv‡bv Af¨vMZ bB †Lv`vi Kmg Avwg wfb‡`wk cw_K bB Avwg †Kv‡bv AvMš—yK bB| Avwg †Kv‡bv AvMš—yK bB, Avwg wQjvg GLv‡b, Avwg ¯^vwcœK wbq‡g GLv‡bB _vwK Avi GLv‡b _vKvi bvg me©ÎB _vKv Ñ mviv †`‡k| Avwg †Kv‡bv AvMš—yK bB| GB Li †iŠ`ª RjR evZvm †gN K¬vš— we‡K‡ji cvwLiv Avgv‡K †P‡b Zviv Rv‡b Avwg †Kv‡bv AvZ¥xq bB| KvwZ©‡Ki av‡bi gÄix mv¶x mv¶x Zvi wP‡ivj cvZvi Ujgj wkwki Ñ mv¶x †R¨vrmœvi Pv`‡i XvKv wbwk›`vi Qvqv AKvj eva©‡K¨ bZ K`g Avjx Zvi K¬vš— †Pv‡Li Auvavi Ñ Avwg wPwb, Avwg Zvi wPi‡Pbv ¯^Rb GKRb| Avwg

220

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

Rwgjvi gvÕi k~b¨ Lv Lv ivbœvNi ïK‡bv _vjv me wPwb †m Avgv‡K †P‡b| nvZ iv‡Lv ˆeVvq jvO‡j, †`‡Lv Avgvi nv‡Zi ¯úk© †j‡M Av‡Q †Kgb Mfxi| †`‡Lv gvwU‡Z Avgvi MÜ, Avgvi kix‡i †j‡M Av‡Q GB wmœ» gvwUi myevm| Avgv‡K wek¦vm K‡iv, Avwg †Kv‡bv AvMš—yK bB| `yÕcv‡k av‡bi †¶Z miy c_ mvg‡b ay ay b`xi wKbvi Avgvi Aw¯—‡Z¡ Mvu_v| Avwg GB DavI b`xi gy» GK A‡eva evjK| kãv_© I UxKv : Avmgvb Ñ AvKvk; mv¶x Ñ †Kv‡bv wKQz wbR‡Pv‡L †`‡L‡Qb Ggb †KD; Rwgb Ñ f~wg; wbwkivBZ Ñ Ôwbkx_ ivwÎÕi MÖvgxY K_¨iƒc (Mfxi ivZ †evSv‡Z); Af¨vMZ Ñ M„‡n G‡m‡Q Ggb e¨w³, AvMš‘K, wbgwš¿Z AwZw_; av‡bi gÄyix Ñ gÄyix n‡jv gyKzj ev wkl, av‡bi gÄyix n‡jv av‡bi wkl ev gyKzj; wbwk›`v Ñ MÖvgxY GK ai‡bi MvQ; Rwgjvi gvÕi ... me wPwb Ñ Mixe, Afvex †kÖwYi cÖwZwbwa Rwgjvi gv| Zv‡`i ivbœvNi k~b¨B _v‡K mvaviYZ| KviY ivbœv Kivi Lv`¨ Dcv`vb Zv‡`i †bB| †h‡nZz ivbœv Kiv nq bv, LveviI LvIqv n‡q I‡V bv| ZvB _vjv-evmbI ïK‡bv _v‡K| KweI †mB Ae¯’vi K_v Rv‡bb; wmœ» gvwUi myevm Ñ gvwUi we‡klY wmœ» myev‡mi bq| A_©vr gvqvex I AvKl©Yxq MÖvgevsjv; `yÕ cv‡k av‡bi †¶Z ... Avgvi Aw¯—‡Z¡ Muv_v Ñ Kwe MÖvgxY Rxe‡bB †e‡o D‡V‡Qb| MÖv‡gi gvV-NvU c_-cÖvš—‡ii g‡Zv †¶‡Îi mi“ c_, Zvi cv‡k av‡bi mgv‡ivn Ges GKUz GwM‡q †M‡j wekvj b`xi wKbvi Kwei g‡bi †fZi, Aw¯’-g¾vq MÖw_Z n‡q Av‡Q| Giv mevB Kwei LyeB †Pbv-Rvbv|

cvV cwiwPwZ : Rb¥f~wgi m‡½ gvby‡li AvRxe‡bi m¤úK©| Gi mewKQzB Zvi g‡b nq KZ †Pbv, KZ
Rvbv| Rb¥f~wgi g‡a¨ wkKo †M‡o †_‡KB gvbyl ZvB mgMÖ †`k‡K Avcb K‡i cvq| GB Abyf~wZ Zzjbvnxb| †`k gv‡b †Zv ïay Pvicv‡ki cÖK…wZ bq, G‡K Avcb mËvq Abyfe Kiv| Avi †`k‡K Abyfe Ki‡jB †`‡ki gvbyl‡KI Avcb g‡b n‡e Avgv‡`i| GB KweZvq †mB AbyfeB Avš—wiK ggZvq my›`ifv‡e Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb Kwe| wZwb D”PviY Ki‡Qb, wZwb G †Kv‡bv AvMš‘K bb| wZwb †hgb IB Avmgvb, Rwg‡bi dzj, †RvbvwK, cyKzi, gvQivOv‡K †P‡bb, †Zgwb ZvivI Zv‡K †P‡b| cvwL, KvwZ©‡Ki avb wKsev ïay wkwki bq, wZwb GB Rbc‡`i gvbyl‡KI fv‡jvfv‡e †P‡bb| wZwb K`g Avjx, Rwgjvi gvÕi g‡Zv gvby‡li wPi‡Pbv ¯^Rb| Kwe Abyfe K‡ib, †h-jvOj Rwg‡Z dmj djvq, †mB jvOj Avi gvwUi MÜ †j‡M Av‡Q Zvi nv‡Z, kix‡i| avb‡¶Z Avi ay ay b`xi wKbvi, A_©vr GB MÖvgxY Rbc‡`i m‡½B Zvi Rxeb euvav| GB n‡”Q Zuvi Aw¯—Z¡| GB n‡”Q gvbeRxeb, Rb¥f~wgi m‡½ †h-gvbyl Mfxifv‡e m¤úwK©Z|

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

221

Abykxjbx Kg©-Abykxjb
1| cÖK…wZi m‡½ †Zvgvi m¤ú‡K©i cwiPq `vI|

eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ
1| Avnmvb nvexe Kvi wPi‡Pbv ¯^Rb ? K. cvwLi L. K`g Avjxi M. †RvbvwKi N. Rwgjvi gvÕi 2| Kwe ˆeVvq jvO‡j nvZ ivL‡Z e‡j‡Qb †Kb ? K. kc_ †bqvi Rb¨ L. cik Abyfe Kivi Rb¨ M. Kwe‡K Lyu‡R cvevi Rb¨ N. Aw¯—Z¡ cÖgvY Kivi Rb¨ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU c‡o 3 I 4 bs cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI : wicf¨vb DBsKj `xN© wek eQi ci Zvi Muv‡q wd‡i G‡j Zv‡K †KD wPb‡Z cv‡i wb| mevB Zvi w`‡K DrmyK `„wó‡Z ZvwK‡q _v‡K| Ae‡k‡l Zvi ¯^Rb Ug G‡j me ksKvi Aemvb N‡U| 3| DÏxc‡Ki U‡gi mv‡_ ÔAvwg †Kv‡bv AvMš‘K bBÕ KweZvi mv`„k¨ i‡q‡Q Ñ i. Rwgjvi gvÕi ii. K`g Avjxi iii. A‡eva evj‡Ki wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK ? K. i M. i I ii 4| Gi~c mv`„‡k¨i KviY Kx ? K. eva©K¨ M. cwiwPZ L. N. L. N. ii ii I iii wPi‡Pbv ¯^vRvZ¨‡eva

m„Rbkxj
Avevi Avwme Avwg evsjv b`x gvV †LZ fv‡jv‡e‡m Rjv½xi †XD‡q †fRv evsjvi G meyR Ki“Y WvOvq; nq‡Zv †`wL‡e †P‡q my`k©b Dwo‡q‡Q mܨvi evZv‡m; nq‡Zv ïwb‡e GK j²x‡cuPv WvwK‡Z‡Q wkgy‡ji Wv‡j; nq‡Zv LB‡qi avb Qov‡Z‡Q wkï GK DVv‡bi Nv‡m; i~cmvi †Nvjv R‡j nq‡Zv wK‡kvi GK mv`v †Quov cv‡j wWOv evq; ivOv †gN muvZiv‡q AÜKv‡i Avwm‡Z‡Q bx‡o †`wL‡e aej eK; Avgv‡iB cv‡e Zzwg Bnv‡`i wf‡o| we¯—i †RvbvwK †Kv_vq †`Lv hvq ? ÔAvwg †Kv‡bv AvMš‘K bBÕ Ñ Kwe GK_v e‡j‡Qb †Kb ? DÏxc‡K dz‡U IVv wP‡Îi mv‡_ ÔAvwg †Kv‡bv AvMš‘K bBÕ KweZvi mv`„k¨c~Y© w`KwU e¨vL¨v Ki| DÏxc‡Ki mv‡_ ÔAvwg †Kv‡bv AvMš‘K bBÕ KweZvi †PZbvMZ ˆemv`„k¨B †ewk Ñ hyw³mn we‡k−lY Ki|

K. L. M. N.

222

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

†cv÷vi
Aveyj †nv‡mb
[Kwe cwiwPwZ : Aveyj †nv‡mb 15B AvM÷ 1922 wLªóv‡ã Lyjbv †Rjvi dwKinvU _vbvi Avo–Wv½v MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi wcZv Gm.Gg. BmgvBj †nv‡mb| Aveyj †nv‡mb KjKvZv †cÖwm‡WwÝ K‡jR †_‡K A_©bxwZ wel‡q we.G. m¤§vb I Gg.G. wWwMÖ jvf K‡ib| wZwb evsjv‡`k miKv‡ii hyM¥mwPe c` †_‡K Aemi MÖnY K‡i XvKvq emevm Ki‡Qb| Zuvi KweZvq †`‡ki cÖwZ Mfxi ggZ¡‡ev‡ai ¯^”Q›` cÖKvk N‡U‡Q| wPÎgqZv I k‡ãi cÖ‡qvMKzkjZv Zuvi KweZv‡K wewkóZv `vb K‡i‡Q| Zuvi D‡j−L‡hvM¨ Kve¨MÖš’ n‡”Q : beemš—, weim msjvc, nvIqv †Zvgvi Kx `ytmvnm, `yt¯^cœ †_‡K `yt¯^cœ BZ¨vw`| BKev‡ji KweZv, wewfbœ fvlvi KweZv, Ab¨ †¶‡Zi dmj BZ¨vw` Zuvi Abyev` Kve¨MÖš’| Aveyj †nv‡mb evsjv GKv‡Wgx cyi¯‹vi, GKz‡k c`K, c`vejx cyi¯‹vimn cÖPzi cyi¯‹vi I m¤§vbbvq f~wlZ n‡q‡Qb|]

†R‡bwQ mZ¨ eû w`b g‡b g‡b gyw³i c_ wg‡k †M‡Q RbM‡Y, †hLv‡b j¶ †jv‡Ki i“¶ nvZ m„wói gv‡S wb‡qvwRZ w`bivZ, †hLv‡b gvbyl ˆ`bw›`b Kv‡R cÖvYcvZ K‡i `yt¯^‡cœi gv‡S, gvwU‡Z wkKo †M‡o hviv †eu‡P Av‡Q, Avagiv n‡q cvlv‡Yi i‡m euv‡P, †mB RbZvi `xß wgwQj a‡i behyM Av‡m i³ w`‡bi †fv‡i| kãv_© I UxKv : †R‡bwQ mZ¨ .... †M‡Q RbM‡Y Ñ Ô†R‡bwQ mZ¨Õ n‡jv GK ai‡bi wek¦vm hv eûw`b a‡i g‡bi gv‡S Kwe enb K‡i P‡j‡Qb| Avi †m wek¦vmwU n‡jv gvby‡li gyw³i c_ RbM‡Yi gv‡SB wg‡k Av‡Q| ÔRbMYÕ ej‡Z mvaviY †L‡U LvIqv, kÖwgK I †gnbwZ gvbyl‡K †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q| †mB RbM‡Yi †fZi †_‡KB gyw³i †mvcvb †ewi‡q Avm‡e| Avagiv n‡q cvlv‡Yi i‡m euv‡P Ñ mgv‡Ri †L‡U LvIqv gvbyl, hv‡`i Kg©h‡ÁB GB c„w_ex GZ my›`i †mB gvby‡liv mgv‡R `yÕ‡ejv †L‡Z cvq bv, Zv‡`i Rxe‡b †Kv‡bv im †bB, ˆewPΨ †bB, †hb cvlv‡Yi g‡Zv ev cv_‡ii g‡Zv wbim Zv‡`i Rxeb| †mB RbZvi `xß ... i³ w`‡bi †Wv‡i Ñ †L‡U LvIqv gvbyl, RbZv wb‡R‡`i fvM¨‡K wb‡R‡`i nv‡Z e`jv‡bvi Rb¨ GKw`b †mv”Pvi n‡q I‡V, we¶zä n‡q I‡V, ivRc‡_ †b‡g Av‡m, wgwQj K‡iÑ Gfv‡e GK ˆec−weK Ae¯’vi m„wó K‡i ZLbB bZzb hy‡Mi m„wó nq; mKj AZ¨vPvi wbh©vZb `~i nq|

cvV cwiwPwZ : GB mf¨Zv M‡o D‡V‡Q kªgRxex I †gnbwZ gvby‡li cwikª‡gi Kvi‡Y| †hLv‡b j¶ nvZ GKwÎZ nq †mLv‡bB kw³ `„pZi nq; †mLv‡bB m„wói bZzb c_ nq iwPZ| †h gvbyl `yt¯^‡cœi g‡a¨I w`bivZ KvR K‡i, hviv kZ evav‡K D‡c¶v K‡i gv I gvwUi Uv‡b †`‡ki wnZv‡_© wb‡qvwRZ, hviv Aa©vnvi-Abvnv‡iI †`kZ¨vM K‡i Ab¨Î wPiw`‡bi g‡Zv P‡j hvq bv ZvivB cÖK…Z †`k‡cÖwgK| †mB kªgRxex, †gnbwZ mvaviY gvby‡li KvZv‡i wg‡k †M‡jB Rxe‡bi cÖK…Z Avb›` cvIqv m¤¢e| Kwe g‡b K‡ib, GUvB gyw³i †gŠj mZ¨|

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

223

Abykxjbx Kg©-Abykxjb
1| mf¨Zv weKv‡k †L‡U LvIqv gvby‡li Ae`v‡bi avivevwnK weeiY `vI| 1|

eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ

gyw³i c_ †Kv_vq wg‡j †M‡Q ? K. c‡_ L. M. RbM‡Y N. K. M. mgm¨vi Rb¨ D‡c¶vi Rb¨

wgwQ‡j m‡¤§j‡b L. N. m„R‡bi Rb¨ ˆ`bw›`b Kv‡Ri Rb¨

2| gvbyl †Kb myt¯^‡cœi gv‡S _v‡K ?

DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI : c„w_exi AwaKv‡i ewÂZ †h wf¶z‡Ki `jÑ Rxe‡bi eb¨v‡e‡M Zvnv‡`i Kv‡iv wePÂj AmZ¨ Ab¨vq hZ Wz‡e hvK, m‡Z¨i cÖmv` wM‡q jf Ag„‡Zi ¯^v`| 3| DÏxc‡K Ô†cv÷viÕ KweZvq †Kvb w`K D‡b¥vwPZ n‡q‡Q ? i. eÂbv ii. AwaKvinxbZv iii. bZzb w`‡bi m¤¢vebv wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK ? K. i M. iii K. L. M. N. L. N. ii i I iii

4| DÏxc‡Ki fvebvi m‡½ Ô†cv÷viÕ KweZvi mv`„k¨c~Y© cO&w³ †KvbwU ? gyw³i c_ wg‡k †M‡Q RbM‡Y, ˆ`bw›`b Kv‡R, cÖvYcvZ K‡i `yt¯^‡cœi gv‡S, behyM Av‡m i³ w`‡bi †fv‡i Avagiv n‡q cvlv‡Yi i‡m euv‡P|

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[Kwe cwiwPwZ : nvmvb nvwdRyi ingvb 14B Ryb 1932 wLªóv‡ã Rvgvjcyi †Rjvi KzjKvw›` MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi wcZv Ave`yi ingvb wQ‡jb ¯‹zj wk¶K| nvmvb nvwdRyi ingvb 1946 wLªóv‡ã XvKv K‡jwR‡qU ¯‹zj †_‡K g¨vwUªK Ges 1948 mv‡j XvKv K‡jR †_‡K AvBG cvm K‡ib| 1951 mv‡j XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K weG Ges 1955 mv‡j evsjvq GgG wWwMÖ jvf K‡ib| wZwb wQ‡jb fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi GKRb AmvaviY msMVK| 1953 mv‡j Zuvi m¤úvw`Z ÔGKz‡k †deª“qvwiÕ MÖš’wU we¯§qKi Av‡jvob m„wó K‡i| Kg©Rxe‡b wZwb wewfbœ cwÎKvq mvsevw`KZvmn Aa¨vcbvi Kv‡R wb‡qvwRZ wQ‡jb| gyw³hy‡× wZwb wQ‡jb AKzZfq GK ˆmwbK| ¯^vaxbZv-DËi Kv‡j wZwb miKv‡ii wewfbœ ms¯’vq ¸i“Z¡c~Y© `vwq‡Z¡ wb‡qvwRZ wQ‡jb| 1977 mv‡j MYcªRvZš¿x evsjv‡`k miKv‡ii Z_¨ gš¿Yvj‡qi Ôgyw³hy‡×i BwZnvm cÖKíÕÑGi wZwb wQ‡jb cÖavb| Zuvi m¤úv`bvq †lvj L‡Ê Ôevsjv‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZvhy×Õ : `wjjcÎÕ cÖKvwkZ nq| wZwb Kwe, mgv‡jvPK I MíKvi wn‡m‡e L¨vwZgvb| wefvM DËi c~e©evsjvi AvaywbK Kve¨ Av‡›`vj‡bi wZwb wQ‡jb GKRb Ab¨Zg ¯’cwZ| Zuvi D‡j−L‡hvM¨ Kve¨MÖš’ : wegyL cÖvš—i, AvZ©kãvewj, Awš—g k‡ii g‡Zv, D`¨Z m½xb, †kvKvZ© Zievwi, Avgvi †fZ‡ii evN BZ¨vw`| cÖeÜMÖš’ : AvaywbK Kwe I KweZv, mvwnZ¨ cÖm½, MíMÖš’ : Av‡iv `ywU g„Zz¨ BZ¨vw`| nvmvb nvwdRyi ingvb †jLK msN cyi¯‹vi, Av`gRx cyi¯‹vi, evsjv GKv‡Wgx cyi¯‹vi, GKz‡k cyi¯‹vimn AmsL¨ cyi¯‹vi I m¤§vbbvq f~wlZ nb| 1983 mv‡ji 1jv GwcÖj wZwb g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib|]

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[Kwe cwiwPwZ : mybxj M‡½vcva¨vq 7B †m‡Þ¤^i 1934 wLªóv‡ã dwi`cyi †Rjvq Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| eZ©gv‡b wZwb KjKvZvq ¯’vqxfv‡e emevm Ki‡Qb| Zuvi wcZvi bvg Kvjxc` M‡½vcva¨vq Ges gvZv gxiv M‡½vcva¨vq| 1954 wLªóv‡ã mybxj M‡½vcva¨vq KjKvZv wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K evsjvq GgG wWwMÖ jvf K‡ib| †ckvMZ w`K †_‡K g~jZ GKRb mvsevw`K| we‡kl K‡i 1953 mvj †_‡K Zuvi m¤úv`bvq cÖKvwkZ ÔKxwZ©evmÕ cwÎKvi gva¨‡g wZwb bZzb cÖR‡b¥i wbix¶vcÖeY Kwe‡`i weKv‡k AmvaviY f~wgKv †i‡L Avm‡Qb| wZwb mvwnZ¨ mvabvi GK wbijm Kgx©| KweZv I K_vmvwn‡Z¨ †h fzeb wZwb iPbv K‡i‡Qb †mLv‡b Avgv‡`i BwZnvm, HwZn¨, ms¯‹…wZ I gvbexq †cÖ‡gi GK Amvgvb¨ RMr ˆZwi n‡q‡Q| wZwb cÖvq `yB kZvwaK mvwnZ¨K‡g©i mªóv| Zuvi D‡j−L‡hvM¨ Kve¨MÖš’ : GK Ges K‡qKRb, Avgvi ¯^cœ, RvMiY †ngeY©, `uvovI my›`i, gb fv‡jv †bB, ¯^MbMixi Pvwe, ¯§„wZi kni, nVvr bxivi Rb¨ © BZ¨vw`; Dcb¨vm : Ai‡Y¨i w`bivwÎ, AvZ¥cªKvk, cÖwZØ›Øx, †mB mgq, c~e©-cwðg BZ¨vw`| wZwb mvwnZ¨ AvKv‡`wg cyi¯‹vi, ew¼g cyi¯‹vi, Avb›` cyi¯‹vimn cÖPi cyi¯‹vi I m¤§vbbvq f~wlZ nb|] z

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[Kwe cwiwPwZ : ˆmq` kvgmyj nK 27†k wW‡m¤^i 1935 wLªóv‡ã KzwoMÖvg kn‡i Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi wcZvi bvg Wv. ˆmq` wmwÏK nymvBb Ges gvZvi bvg ˆmq`v nvwjgv LvZzb| wZwb XvKv K‡jwR‡qU ¯‹zj †_‡K g¨vwUªK, RMbœv_ K‡jR †_‡K B›UviwgwW‡qU I XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡q fwZ© n‡q wKQzw`b cov‡kvbv K‡ib| GKmgq †ckvq mvsevw`KZv‡K †e‡Q wb‡jI cieZx© mg‡q wZwb mve©¶wYK mvwnZ¨K‡g© wbgMœ †_‡K ˆewPΨgq m¤¢v‡i evsjv mvwnZ¨‡K mg„× K‡i‡Qb| wZwb KweZv, Mí, Dcb¨vm I bvUK iPbv K‡i‡Qb| Zuvi wkï‡Zvl iPbvI i‡q‡Q| evsjv fvlv I mvwn‡Z¨ Ae`v‡bi Rb¨ wZwb GKz‡k c`K, evsjv GKv‡Wgx cyi¯‹vimn A‡bK mvwnZ¨-cyi¯‹vi jvf K‡i‡Qb| Zuvi D‡j−L‡hvM¨ MÖš’ : GK`v GK iv‡R¨, ˆekv‡L iwPZ cO&w³gvjv, AwMœ I R‡ji KweZv, ivR‰bwZK KweZv; Mí : kxZ we‡Kj, i³‡Mvjvc, Avb‡›`i g„Z¨, R‡jk¦ixi Mí¸‡jv; Dcb¨vm: e„wó I we‡`ªvnxMY; bvUK : z cv‡qi AvIqvR cvIqv hvq, b~iyj`x‡bi mvivRxeb, Cl©v; wkï‡Zvl MÖš’ : mxgv‡š—i wmsnvmb|]

Avwg R‡b¥wQ evsjvq, Avwg evsjvq K_v ewj, Avwg evsjvi Avjc_ w`‡q nvRvi eQi Pwj| Pwj cwjgvwU †Kvg‡j Avgvi Pjvi wPý †d‡j| †Z‡ivkZ b`x ïavq Avgv‡K, Ô†Kv_v †_‡K Zzwg G‡j?Õ Avwg †Zv G‡mwQ Ph©vc‡`i A¶i¸‡jv †_‡K| Avwg †Zv G‡mwQ mI`vM‡ii wWOvi eni †_‡K| Avwg †Zv G‡mwQ ˆKe‡Z©i we‡`ªvnx MÖvg †_‡K| Avwg †Z G‡mwQ cvjhyM bv‡g wPÎKjvi †_‡K| G‡mwQ evOvwj cvnvocy‡ii †eŠ×wenvi †_‡K| G‡mwQ evOvwj †Rvoevsjvi gw›`i-†ew` †_‡K| G‡mwQ evOvwj e‡i›`ªf~‡g †mvbv gmwR` †_‡K| G‡mwQ evOvwj AvDj-evDj gvwUi †`Dj †_‡K| Avwg †Zv G‡mwQ mve©‡fŠg ev‡iv f~uBqvi †_‡K| Avwg †Zv G‡mwQ ÔKgjvi `xwNÕ, Ôgûqvi cvjvÕ †_‡K| Avwg †Zv G‡mwQ wZZzgxi Avi nvRx kwiqZ †_‡K| Avwg †Zv G‡mwQ MxZvÄwj I AwMœexYvi †_‡K| G‡mwQ evOvwj ¶zw`ivg Avi m~h© †m‡bi †_‡K| G‡mwQ evOvwj Rqbyj Avi Aeb VvKzi †_‡K| G‡mwQ evOvwj ivóªfvlvi jvj ivRc_ †_‡K| G‡mwQ evOvwj e½eÜz †kL gywReyi †_‡K| Avwg †h G‡mwQ Rqevsjvi eRªKÉ †_‡K| Avwg †h G‡mwQ GKvˇii gyw³hy× †_‡K| G‡mwQ Avgvi †cQ‡b nvRvi PiYwPý †d‡j| ïavI Avgv‡K ÔGZ`~i Zzwg †Kvb †cÖiYvq G‡j?Õ Z‡e Zzwg eywS evOvwj RvwZi exRgš¿wU †kvb bvB Ñ Ômevi Dc‡i gvbyl mZ¨, Zvnvi Dc‡i bvB|Õ GKmv‡_ AvwQ, GKmv‡_ euvwP, AvRI GKmv‡_ _vKeB Ñ me we‡f‡`i †iLv gy‡Q w`‡q mv‡g¨i Qwe AuvKeB|

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

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kãv_© I UxKv : Avjc_ Ñ Rwgi mxgvbvi c_| GLv‡b nvRvi eQi a‡i evOvwj RvwZi c_ Pjvi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q; Ph©vc` Ñ evsjv fvlv I mvwnZ¨-HwZ‡n¨i cÖ_g wb`k©b| nicÖmv` kv¯¿x †bcvj †_‡K Ph©vc‡`i cvÊzwjwc D×vi K‡ib| QqkZ kZvãx †_‡K GMvik kZ‡Ki g‡a¨ c`¸‡jv iwPZ n‡q‡Q| GB c`¸‡jvi g‡a¨ cÖvPxb evsjvi AwZ mvaviY gvby‡li cÖvYgq Rxeb wPÎ dz‡U D‡V‡Q; mI`vM‡ii wWOvi eni Ñ g½jKv‡e¨ Puv` mI`vM‡ii evwY‡R¨i K_v Av‡Q| Kwe Avgv‡`i e¨emv-evwY‡R¨i HwZn¨ †evSv‡Z GB †jvKKvwnbxi AvkÖq MÖnY K‡i‡Qb| ˆKeZ© we‡`ªvn Ñ AvbygvwbK 100-75 wLªóv‡ã gnxcv‡ji wei“‡× Abš—-mvgš—-Pµ wgwjZ n‡q †h we‡`ªvn K‡ib Zv-B Avgv‡`i BwZnv‡m ˆKeZ© we‡`ªvn bv‡g L¨vZ| GB we‡`ªv‡ni †bZv wQ‡jb ˆKeZ© m¤úª`v‡qi †jvK| Zuvi bvg w`e¨ ev w`‡e¦vK| evOvwj RvwZi we‡`ªv‡ni HwZn¨ †evSv‡Z GB we‡`ªv‡ni D‡j−L Kiv n‡q‡Q| cvjhyM Ñ 750 wLªóv‡ã †Mvcv‡ji ivR¨ kvm‡bi ga¨ w`‡q e‡½ cvjhy‡Mi m~Pbv nq| Zvici PvikZ eQi cvj es‡ki ivRZ¡ wU‡K wQj| G mgq wkí-mvwn‡Z¨i Amvgvb¨ weKvk mvwaZ nq| wPÎKjvqI GB mg‡qi mg„w× j¶‡hvM¨| Kwe Avgv‡`i wk‡íi mg„× HwZn¨ †evSv‡Z cvjhy‡Mi wPÎKjvi D‡j−L K‡i‡Qb| cvnvocy‡ii †eŠ×wenvi Ñ eZ©gvb bIMuv †Rjvi e`jMvwQ _vbvq cvnvocyi MÖv‡g GB cÖvPxb wenvi Aew¯’Z| 1879 mv‡j m¨vi Kvwbsnvg GB wekvj KxwZ© Avwe®‹vi K‡ib| wØZxq cvj ivRv kÖx ag©cvj‡`e (ivRZ¡Kvj 777-810 wLª.) GB wekvj wenvi ˆZwi K‡iwQ‡jb| G‡K †mvgcyi wenviI ejv nq| c„w_exi me‡P‡q eo wenvi¸‡jvi g‡a¨ GwU Ab¨Zg| Kwe Avgv‡`i cÖZœZvwË¡K HwZ‡n¨i cwiPq w`‡Z cvnvocy‡ii †eŠ×wenv‡ii D‡j−L K‡i‡Qb| e‡i›`ªf‡g †mvbvgmwR` Ñ e‡i›`ªf‡g †mvbvgmwR` ~ ~ ej‡Z PuvcvB beveMÄ †Rjvq Aew¯’Z †QvU †mvbvgmwR`‡K †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q| eo †mvbvgmwR` fvi‡Zi †MŠ‡o Aew¯’Z| †nv‡mb kv‡ni (ivRZ¡Kvj 1493-1519 wLª.) Avg‡j GB gmwR`wU wbwg©Z nq| AmvaviY wkí‡mŠ›`h©gwÊZ ¯’vcZ¨Kg© wn‡m‡e †mvbvgmwR` Ab¨Zg| Kwe Avgv‡`i gymwjg HwZ‡n¨i mygnvb wb`k©b w`‡q GwU D‡j−L K‡i‡Qb; †`Dj Ñ †`evjq; mve©‡fŠg ev‡ivf~uBqv Ñ evsjvq cvVvb Ki&&ivbx es‡ki ivRZ¡ `ye©j n‡q co‡j Lyjbv, ewikvj, †mvbviMuvI, gqgbwmsn I kªxn‡Æ ¯^vaxb Rwg`vi‡`i DÌvb N‡U| 1575 mv‡j †gvMj m¤ªvU AvKei evsjv Rq Kivi ci GB ¯^vaxb Rwg`viMY Cmv Luvi †bZ…‡Z¡ HK¨e× n‡q †gvMj kw³i wei“‡× i“‡L `uvovb| BwZnv‡m GuivB ev‡ivf~uBqv bv‡g cwiwPZ| Guiv n‡jb Ckv Luv, Puv` ivq, †K`vi ivq, cÖZvcvw`Z¨, j²Y gvwYK¨ cÖgyL; Kgjvi `xwN Ñ ˆggbwmsn MxwZKvi GKwU cvjv; gûqvi cvjv Ñ ˆggbwmsn MxwZKvi GKwU cvjv; wZZzgxi Ñ PweŸk ciMbv †Rjvi nvq`icyi MÖv‡g 1782 mv‡j gxi wbmvi Avjx Ii‡d wZZzgxi Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| wZwb AZ¨vPvix Bs‡iRx I wn›`y Rwg`vi‡`i wei“‡× `xN©w`b msMÖvg K‡i‡Qb| 1831 mv‡ji 19†k b‡f¤^i Bs‡iR evwnbxi m‡½ jovB K‡i wZwb kwn` nb| nvRx kixqZ Ñ nvRx kixqZDj−vn (1781-1840 wLª.) gv`vixcyi †Rjvi wkePi _vbvi mvgvBj MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| wZwb `xN©Kvj g°vq Ae¯’vb K‡i Bmjvg ag© wel‡q AMva cvwÊZ¨ AR©b K‡ib| wZwb ag©‡K AvkÖq K‡i mKj Kzms¯‹v‡ii wei“‡× †mv”Pvi nb| Zuvi GB Av‡›`vjb‡K div‡qwR Av‡›`vjb e‡j| Gici wZwb Ave`yj Inve bvgK GK ag©ms¯‹vi‡Ki gZv`‡k© wek¦vmx n‡q Invex Av‡›`vj‡bi m‡½ hy³ nb| wZwb mvaviY gvbyl‡K a‡g©i cÖK…Z i~c I Zv‡`i AwaKvi m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb Kivi †Póv K‡i‡Qb| GQvov we‡`wk kvmb-†kvlY; Rwg`vi, †RvZ`vi I gnvRb‡`i AZ¨vPvi †_‡K gvbyl‡K gy³ Kivi Rb¨ Av‡›`vjb K‡ib| ¶zw`ivg Ñ ¶zw`ivg emy (1889-1908 wLª.) †gw`bxcyi †Rjvi †gŠewb MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| ˆkke †_‡KB weªwUk we‡ivax Av‡›`vj‡bi m‡½ RwoZ wQ‡jb| AZ¨vPvix g¨vwR‡÷ªU wKsm‡dvW©‡K nZ¨v Ki‡Z wM‡q fzjekZ `yBRb Bs‡iR gwnjv‡K nZ¨v K‡ib| 1908 mv‡ji 11B AvM÷ GB gnvb wec−exi duvwmi Av‡`k Kvh©Ki nq| m~h© †mbÑ gv÷vi `v m~h© †mb (1893-1934 wLª.) PÆMÖvg †Rjvi ivDRvb _vbvi †bvqvcvov MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| AvRxeb

238

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wZwb weªwUk‡`i wei“‡× mk¯¿ hy‡× wb‡qvwRZ wQ‡jb| 1930 mv‡j wZwb PÆMÖvg‡K Bs‡iRgy³ K‡i ¯^vaxbZv †NvlYv K‡ib| wKš‘ †ewkw`b Zv i¶v Ki‡Z cv‡ib wb| 1934 mv‡ji 12B Rvbyqvwi Zuvi duvwm nq| RqbyjÑ Rqbyj Av‡ew`b (1914-1976 wLª.) wK‡kviM‡Äi †K›`yqv _vbvq Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| ÔwkívPvh©Õ wn‡m‡e wZwb L¨vZ| †`kR BwZnvm, HwZn¨ I ms¯‹…wZi cUf~wg‡Z Zuvi wecyj wkíKg© iwPZ| `ywf©¶ ZvwoZ Rxeb I RM‡Zi Qwe Gu‡K wZwb Amvgvb¨ GK Rxeb-Z…òvi cwiPq w`‡q‡Qb| evsjv‡`‡k wkíKjv Av‡›`vj‡bi wZwb cw_K…Z| Aeb&&VvKzi Ñ Aebx›`ªbv_ VvKzi (1871Ñ1951 wLª.) KjKvZvi †Rvovmuv‡Kvi VvKzi cwiev‡i Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| wZwb weL¨vZ wPÎwkíx| Z‡e wkïmvwnwZ¨K wn‡m‡eI wZwb AmvaviY cÖwZfvi cwiPq w`‡q‡Qb| ivóªfvlvi jvj ivRc_ Ñ 1952 mv‡j ivóªfvlv evsjvi AwaKv‡ii Rb¨ G‡`‡ki gvby‡li i‡³ iwÄZ n‡q‡Q XvKvi ivRc_| Avi †mB ivóªfvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi mvd‡j¨i c_ a‡iB m~wPZ nq ¯^vaxbZv Av‡›`vjb| e½eÜz †kL gywReyi Ñ e½eÜz †kL gywReyi ingvb (1920Ñ1975 wLª.) dwi`cyi †Rjvi (eZ©gvb †MvcvjMÄ) Uzw½cvov MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| evOvwj RvwZi wZwb Awemsevw`Z †bZv, RvwZi wcZv| Zuvi we¯§qKi cÖwZfv`xß †bZ…‡Z¡ `xN© msMÖv‡gi c_ AwZµg K‡i 1971 mv‡j evsjv‡`k ¯^vaxbZvhy‡× Rqjvf K‡i| wZwb Avgv‡`i ¯^vaxbZvi cÖZxK, gyw³i cÖZxK, mg„w×i cÖZxK| Rqevsjv Ñ gyw³hy‡×i mg‡q RvZxq †¯−vMvb wn‡m‡e AmvaviY GK †cÖiYv mÂvix kãgvjv| GB †¯−vMvb HK¨ I msnwZi cÖZxK| cvV cwiwPwZ : ˆmq` kvgmyj n‡Ki ÔwK‡kvi KweZv mgMÖÕ †_‡K ÔAvgvi cwiPqÕ kxl©K KweZvwU m¤úvw`Z AvKv‡i Pqb Kiv n‡q‡Q| evsjv‡`k AvR ¯^vaxb mve©‡fŠg GKwU †`k| AvZ¥gh©v`v‡eva m¤úbœ GB ¯^vaxb mve©‡fŠg ivóª I RvwZmËv cÖwZôvi cðv‡Z Av‡Q mg„× GK BwZnvm| ˆmq` kvgmyj nK Mfxi gg‡Z¡i m‡½ KweZvi Avw½‡K wPwÎZ K‡i‡Qb mg„× †mB BwZnvm, HwZn¨ I ms¯‹…wZi cUf~wg| mnwRqvcš’x †eŠ× Kwe‡`i m„ó Ph©vc‡`i g‡a¨ evOvwj RvwZmËvi †h Amv¤úª`vwqK Rxeb‡ev‡ai cwiPq gyw`ªZ n‡q Av‡Q Ñ hy‡M hy‡M bvbv Av‡›`vjb, wec−e-we‡`ªvn, Avi gZv`‡k©i weKvk n‡Z n‡Z Avgiv G‡m †cŠu‡QwQ AvR‡Ki evsjvq| ˆmq` kvgmyj nK GB weeZ©‡bi wewPÎ euvK I †gvo Zvrch©gq K‡i Zz‡j‡Qb| Puv`ÑmI`vM‡ii evwYR¨ hvÎv, ˆKeZ©we‡`ªvn, cvjhy‡Mi wPÎKjv Av‡›`vjb, †eŠ×wenv‡ii ÁvbPP©v, gymwjg ag© I mvwnZ¨ ms¯‹…wZi weKvk, ev‡ivf~uBqv‡`i DÌvb, gqgbwmsn MxwZKvi Rxeb, wZZzgxi Avi nvRx kwiq‡Zi we‡`ªvn, iex›`ªÑbRi“‡ji KvjRqx m„wó, e„wUk-we‡ivax Av‡›`vjb, fvlv Av‡›`vjb Ges cwi‡k‡l e½eÜzi ¯^vaxb evsjv‡`k Ñ ÔAvgvi cwiPqÕ KweZvi g‡a¨ GB wecyj evsjv‡`k Abe`¨i~c jvf K‡i‡Q|

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Avgvi cwiPq KweZvq D‡j−wLZ b`xi msL¨v KZ ? K. 1200 L. 1300 M. 1400 N. 1500

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2| ÔAvwg †Zv G‡mwQ Ph©vc‡`i A¶i¸‡jv †_‡KÕ Ñ GLv‡b ÔPh©vc‡`i A¶i¸‡jvÕ ej‡Z Kwe Kx eywS‡q‡Qb ? K. M. AZxZ HwZn¨ HwZnvwmK cUf~wg L. N. mvs¯‹…wZK i~c mvs¯‹…wZK cwiPq

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240

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[Kwe cwiwPwZ : Avj gvngy` 1936 wLªóv‡ã eªvþYevwoqv †Rjvi †gvovBj MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi cÖK…Z bvg gxi Ave`ym ïKzi Avj gvngy`| wZwb `xN©Kvj mvsevw`KZv †ckvi m‡½ RwoZ wQ‡jb| c‡i wZwb evsjv‡`k wkíKjv GKv‡Wgx‡Z †hvM`vb K‡ib Ges cwiPvj‡Ki c` †_‡K Aemi MÖnY K‡ib| gyw³hy× Zuv‡K we‡klfv‡e AbycÖvwYZ K‡i| ¯^vaxbZvi ci wZwb Ôˆ`wbK MYKÉÕ cwÎKvi m¤úv`K wbhy³ nb| Zuvi KweZvq †jvKR k‡ãi mywbcyY cÖ‡qvM †hgb j¶Yxq †Zgwb i‡q‡Q HwZn¨cÖxwZ| Zuvi cÖKvwkZ Kve¨MÖš’ : †jvK †jvKvš—i, Kv‡ji Kjm, †mvbvjx Kvweb, gvqvex c`©v `y‡j I‡Vv, Avie¨ iRbxi ivRnuvm, eLwZqv‡ii †Nvov BZ¨vw`| K_vmvwnZ¨ : cvb‡KŠwoi i³, cvwLi Kv‡Q dz‡ji Kv‡Q Zuvi wkï‡Zvl KweZvi eB|]

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242

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m„Rbkxj mKvj †_‡KB wSi wSi K‡i e„wó co‡Q| `ycy‡i e„wó gvÎv LvwbKUv †e‡o hvq| mܨvi ci ïi“ nq `gKv nvIqv I Nb e„wó| iv‡Z Avevi ïi“ n‡jv cÖej e„wói, GB e„wó cÖej S‡o iƒcvš—wiZ n‡jv| GB S‡o †f‡O co‡jv, A‰ea m¤ú‡` M‡o IVv evwo| evwoi cv‡k LoKz‡Uvi evwo, wU‡bi evwo ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡j mvaviY gvbyl B‡Ui evwowU †f‡O covq Lywk n‡jv| K. L. M. N. ˆekvL Kx‡mi cvLv `yg‡o †k‡l AvQvo gv‡i ? ce‡bi Kv‡Q Kwe Kx wgbwZ K‡i‡Qb ? eywS‡q †jL| DÏxc‡Ki fvebv Ô†ev‡kLÕ KweZvi †Kvb w`K‡K Zz‡j a‡i‡QÑ e¨vL¨v Ki| ÔevowZ Zv‡`i evnv`ywi Myuwo‡q †d‡jvÕ Kwei GB fvebv DÏxc‡K cy‡ivcywi cÖwZdwjZ nqwb Ñ g~j¨vqb Ki|

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[Kwe cwiwPwZ : iwdK AvRv` 14B †deª“qvwi 1941 mv‡j Uv½vBj †Rjvi Rvwn`M‡Äi MyYxMÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi wcZv mvwjg DwÏb Lvb Ges gvZv iv‡eqv Lvb| wZwb 1959 mv‡j Uv½vB‡ji eªvþYkvmb D”P we`¨vjq †_‡K cÖ‡ewkKv Ges 1962 mv‡j †b·Kvbv K‡jR †_‡K D”P gva¨wgK cvm K‡ib| XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K 1966 I 1967 mv‡j wZwb evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ mœvZK I mœvZ‡KvËi wWwMÖ jvf K‡ib| Kg©Rxe‡b wZwb mvsevw`KZv, Aa¨vcbv I miKvwi PvKwi‡Z wb‡qvwRZ wQ‡jb| †cÖg, †`ªvn I cÖK…wZwbf©i KweZvi GK Zvrch©cY© RMr wZwb m„wó K‡ib| Zuvi ~ D‡j−L‡hvM¨ Kve¨MÖš’ : Am¤¢‡ei cv‡q, Pzwbqv Avgvi Av‡K©wWqv, mk¯¿ my›`i, nvZzwoi wb‡P Rxeb, cwiKxY© cvbkvjvq Avgvi ¯^‡`k, Aci Ai‡Y¨, wewiwkwi ce© BZ¨vw`| mvwn‡Z¨ Amvgvb¨ Ae`v‡bi Rb¨ wZwb AvjvIj cyi¯‹vi Ges evsjv GKv‡Wgx cyi¯‹vimn A‡bK cyi¯‹vi I m¤§vbbvq f~wlZ nb]|

¯úk© KvZiZvgq GB bvg D”PviYgvÎ †hb †f‡O hv‡e, Aš—wn©Z n‡e Zvi cªK…Z gwngv, Ñ Pzwbqv GKwU MÖvg, †QvÆ Ñ wKš‘ †fZ‡i-†fZ‡i Lye kw³kvjx gviYv¯¿gq mf¨Zvi wei“‡× `uvov‡e| ga¨iv‡Z Pzwbqv bxie| Pzwbqv †Zv fv‡jvev‡m kvš—wmœ» c~wY©gvi Puv`, Pzwbqv cªK…Z †eŠ×-¯^fv‡ei wbwiwewj meyR cªK…wZ; Pzwbqv †hvRbe¨vcx g‡bvig Avw`evmx f~wg| Pzwbqv KL‡bv †Kv‡bv wnsmªZv `¨v‡Lwb| Pzwbqv ¸wji k‡ã AvuZ‡K I‡V wK ? cÖwZwU Mv‡Qi cvZv gbyl¨ckwi wnsmªZv †`‡L bv bv K‡i I‡V ? Ñ Pzwbqv gvbyl fv‡jvev‡m| e„¶‡`i mvnP‡h© Pzwbqvevmxiv cÖK…Z cÖ¯—v‡e Lye my‡L Av‡Q| Pzwbqv GL‡bv Av‡Q GB mf¨mgv‡Ri Kv‡iv-Kv‡iv g‡b, †KD-†KD GL‡bv †Zv †cv‡l ey‡Ki wbf…‡Z GK wbweo Pzwbqv| Pzwbqv ïkÖ~lv Rv‡b, Pzwbqv e¨v‡ÛR euv‡a, Pzwbqv mvš—¡bv ïay Ñ Pzwbqv KL‡bv Rvwb Kvi“‡KB AvNvZ K‡i bv; Pzwbqv meyR Lye, kvwš—wcÖq Ñ kvwš— fv‡jvev‡m, KvVz‡ii cÖwZ ZvB ¯úóZB Zxeª N„Yv nv‡b| Pzwbqv wPrKvi Lye AcQ›` K‡i,

244

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1| Pzwbqv MÖv‡gi ˆewk󨸇jvi GKwU ZvwjKv ˆZwi Ki| Pzwbqv Kx Lye AcQ›` K‡i ? K. dzj L. nwj M. mrfve N. gviYv¯¿ 2| Pzwbqv ˆbivk¨ev`x bq †Kb ? i. Avkvev`x e‡j ii. mf¨Zvi cÖwZ weiƒc e‡j iii. cwieZ©b cÖZ¨vkx e‡j wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK ? K. i L. ii M. iii N. i I iii wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI : gaycyix cwj−wU AZ¨š— g‡bvigfv‡e M‡o †Zvjv n‡q‡Q| kni †_‡K A‡bK `~‡i Aew¯’Z e‡j †mLv‡b AgvbweK hvwš¿K †Kvjvnj †cŠuQv‡Z cv‡iwb| cÖK…wZi wbweo mvwbœ‡a¨ cï, cvwL I cÖvYx emevm K‡i| gv‡S g‡a¨ †mLv‡b kywUs n‡jI RvqMvwUi †mŠ›`h© I gwngv nvwi‡q hvqwb| 3| DÏxcKwU ÔPzwbqv Avgvi Av‡K©wWqvÕ KweZvi †Kvb w`K‡K cÖKvk Ki‡Q ? K. ¯úk©KvZiZv L. mg„× M. GKwU MÖvgxY Rxeb N. cwieZ©bkxjZv 4| DÏxc‡K cÖwZdwjZ fvewU ÔPzwbqv Avgvi Av‡K©wWqvÕ KweZvi †Kvb cO&w³‡Z cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q ? K. Pzwbqv †hvRbe¨vcx g‡bvig Avw`evmx f~wg L. Pzwbqv GL‡bv Av‡Q GB mf¨ mgv‡Ri Kv‡iv Kv‡iv g‡b M. GB bvg D”PviY gvÎ †hb †f‡O hv‡e, Aš—wn©Z n‡e Zvi cÖKZ gwngv Pzwbqv GKwU MÖvg … 1|

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DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : Rvwb †b †Zvi abiZb Av‡Q wKbv ivwbi gZb ïay Rvwb Avgvi A½ Ryovq †Zvgvi Qvqvq G‡m| K. L. M. N. Pzwbqvi meyR cÖK…wZ †Kgb ? Pzwbqv GL‡bv †Kb mf¨ mgv‡Ri Kv‡iv Kv‡iv g‡b Av‡Q ? eywS‡q †jL| DÏxcKwU ÔPzwbqv Avgvi Av‡K©wWqvÕ KweZvi †Kvb w`K‡K cÖwZdwjZ K‡i‡Q Ñ e¨vL¨v Ki| DÏxcKwU ÔPzwbqv Avgvi Av‡K©wWqvÕ KweZvi mgMÖ fve‡K aviY K‡i wb Ñ g~j¨vqb Ki|

246

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[Kwe cwiwPwZ : wbg©‡j›`y ¸Y 1945 mv‡j †b·Kvbv †Rjvi Kvkeb MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi wcZv my‡L›`y cÖKvk ¸Y †PŠayix Ges gvZv exYvcvwb ¸Y| wbg©‡j›`y ¸Y 1962 mv‡j wm‡Kwc Bbw÷wUDkb, evinvÆv †_‡K gva¨wgK, 1964 mv‡j †b·Kvbv K‡jR †_‡K D”Pgva¨wgK Ges 1969 mv‡j XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K mœvZK cvm K‡ib| lv‡Ui `k‡Ki m~Pbv †_‡K eZ©gvb Kvj ch©š— wZwb KweZvq I M‡`¨ ¯^”Q‡›` m„Rbkxj n‡jI Kwe wn‡m‡eB wZwb L¨vZ| Zuvi KweZvq cÖwZev`x †PZbv, mgKvjxb mvgvwRK-ivR‰bwZK Rxe‡bi Qwe †hgb cÖLi, KweZv-wbg©v‡Y wkí-†mŠ›`‡h©i cÖwZI †Zgwb wZwb mRvM| wbg©‡j›`y ¸Y †ckvq mvsevw`K| Kve¨ mvwn‡Z¨ Ae`v‡bi Rb¨ wZwb GKz‡k c`K, evsjv GKv‡Wgx cyi¯‹vi, Kwe nvmvb nvwdRyi ingvb ¯§„wZ ¯^Y©c`K, RvZxq KweZv cwil` cyi¯‹vimn AmsL¨ cyi¯‹vi I m¤§vbbvq f~wlZ nb| Zuvi D‡j−L‡hvM¨ Kve¨MÖš’ : †cÖgvsïi i³ PvB, evsjvi gvwU evsjvi Rj, Pvlvf~lvi Kve¨, cÂvk mnmª el©; †QvUMí: Avcb `‡ji gvbyl| †QvU‡`i Rb¨ †jLv Dcb¨vm-Kv‡jv‡g‡Ni †fjv, evev hLb †QvU wQ‡jb|]

GKwU KweZv †jLv n‡e Zvi Rb¨ A‡c¶vi D‡ËRbv wb‡q j¶ j¶ Db¥Ë Aaxi e¨vKzj we‡`ªvnx †kÖvZv e‡m Av‡Q †fvi †_‡K Rbmgy‡`ªi D`¨vb ˆmK‡Z : ÔKLb Avm‡e Kwe?Õ GB wkï cvK© †mw`b wQj bv, GB e„‡¶ dz‡j †kvwfZ D`¨vb †mw`b wQj bv, GB Z›`ªv”Qbœ weeY© we‡Kj †mw`b wQj bv| Zv n‡j †Kgb wQj wkï cv‡K©, †e‡Â, e„‡¶, dz‡ji evMv‡b †X‡K †`qv GB XvKvi n„`q gvVLvwb ? Rvwb, †mw`‡bi me ¯§„wZ gy‡Q w`‡Z n‡q‡Q D`¨Z Kv‡jv nvZ| ZvB †`wL Kwenxb GB wegyL cÖvš—‡i AvR Kwei weiy‡× Kwe, gv‡Vi weiy‡× gvV, we‡K‡ji weiy‡× we‡Kj, D`¨v‡bi weiy‡× D`¨vb, gv‡P©i weiy‡× gvP©...| †n AbvMZ wkï, †n AvMvgx w`‡bi Kwe, wkï cv‡K©i iwOb †`vjbvq †`vj †L‡Z †L‡Z Zzwg GKw`b me Rvb‡Z cvi‡e; Avwg †Zvgv‡`i K_v †f‡e wj‡L †i‡L hvw”Q †mB †kÖô we‡K‡ji Mí| †mw`b GB D`¨v‡bi i~c wQj wfbœZi| bv cvK© bv dz‡ji evMvb,ÑGm‡ei wKQzB wQj bv, ïay GKLÊ ALÊ AvKvk †hiKg, †miKg w`Mš— c−vweZ

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ZLb RbZvi †Rvqv‡ii †mªv‡Z †m †bŠKvq jvMj DÏvg nvIqv, Qz‡U Pjj †mB ¯^‡cœi eû AvKvw•¶Z Zix| eRªKÉ evYx Ñ mn‡R DÏxß `y¨wZgq e½eÜzi evYx| Gev‡ii msMÖvg Avgv‡`i gyw³i msMÖvg/Gev‡ii msMÖvg ¯^vaxbZvi msMÖvg Ñ 1971-Gi 7B gvP© e½eÜz ¯^vaxbZvi WvK †`b, G‡`‡ki gyw³i WvK †`b| Zuvi e³‡e¨i GUvB wQj g~jK_v| Zuvi G AvnŸv‡b mgMÖ †`kevmx HK¨e× n‡q gnvb gyw³hy‡× Suvwc‡q c‡o Ges Ae‡k‡l Avgiv Rqx nB| ¯^vaxbZv kãwU Avgv‡`i Ñ Ô¯^vaxbZv kãwU GLb Awfav‡bi GKwU wbQK kã bq| G kãwU D”Pvi‡Yi m‡½ Avgv‡`i msMÖvg I gyw³i cÖm½ hy³| ZvB 1971 mv‡ji 7B gvP© hLb e½eÜzi KÉ †_‡K aŸwbZ n‡jv : Gev‡ii msMÖvg ¯^vaxbZvi msMÖvg, ZLb Ô¯^vaxbZvÕ kãwU †cj bZzb A_© I e¨Äbv| cvV cwiwPwZ : wk¶v_x©‡`i g‡b e½eÜzi HwZnvwmK 7B gv‡P©i fvlY, ¯^vaxbZv I †`k‡cÖ‡gi †cÖiYv RvMÖZ Kiv KweZvwUi D‡Ïk¨| 1971 mv‡ji 7B gvP© e½eÜz igbv †im‡Kvm© gq`v‡b j¶ j¶ gvby‡li m¤§y‡L eRªK‡É cvwK¯—vwb ˆ¯^ikvm‡bi wbMo †_‡K evOvwj RvwZi gyw³ I ¯^vaxbZv msMÖv‡gi WvK †`b| e½eÜzi GB fvl‡Yi g‡a¨B †mw`b m~wPZ n‡qwQj Avgv‡`i ¯^vaxbZvi ¯^cœ I gnvb gyw³hy‡× Suvwc‡q covi AvnŸvb| †mw`b K…lK-kªwgK-gRyi-eyw×Rxex-wkï-wK‡kvi-bvix-cyi“l-hyeK-e„× mevB mg‡eZ n‡qwQj evOvwji gnvb †bZvi K_v †kvbvi Rb¨| mevi g‡b wQj AvKzjZv| †m AvKzjZv wQj †bZvi Kv‡Q ¯^‡cœi K_v †kvbvi Rb¨| Zuvi gy‡L Avkvi evYx †kvbvi Rb¨| igbvi †im‡Kv‡m© †hLv‡b †mw`‡bi g ˆZwi n‡qwQj GLb †mLv‡b Zvi †Kv‡bv wPý †bB| †m RvqMvq M‡o D‡V‡Q wkïcvK©| Kwe g‡b K‡ib, AbvMZ Kv‡ji wkï‡`i Kv‡Q GB K_vwU Rvwb‡q †`Iqv `iKvi †h Ñ GLb †_‡KB, GB cv‡K©i g †_‡KB, evOvwji Agi ARi wcÖq kã Ô¯^vaxbZvÕ K_vwU D”PvwiZ n‡qwQj| Avcvgi RbZvi mvg‡b whwb †mw`b G‡m `uvwo‡qwQ‡jb wZwb evOvwji eo wcÖq gvbyl, evOvwji wkKo †_‡K †R‡M IVv GK we‡`ªvnx †bZv| wZwb †Kv‡bv mvaviY ivRbxwZwe` bb, wZwb GKRb Kwe, GKRb ivRbxwZi Kwe| G †`‡ki gvby‡li fv‡jvevmvq Mov GK gvbyl Ñ RvwZi RbK e½eÜz †kL gywReyi ingvb| wZwb †mw`b (7B gvP© 1971) we‡K‡ji coš— †iv‡` WvK w`‡qwQ‡jb Ñ ÔGev‡ii msMÖvg Avgv‡`i gyw³i msMÖvg, Gev‡ii msMÖvg ¯^vaxbZvi msMÖvg|Õ

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G‡`‡ki Av‡Q KweZvi mg„× GK HwZn¨| wPi KweZvi †`k ej‡Z Kwe evsjv‡`k‡K eywS‡q‡Qb; evOvwj Abvh© RvwZ Ñ Avh©MY fvi‡Z Avmvi eû c~e© †_‡KB A‡bK RvwZi †jvK G‡`‡k emevm Ki‡Zb| Zviv Abvh© wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ| Avh©MY Abvh©‡`i N„Yvi †Pv‡L †`L‡Zb, AZ¨vPvi-AwePvi Ki‡Zb| Kwe evOvwj‡`iI Abvh© wn‡m‡e AvL¨v w`‡q‡Qb| wKš‘ evOvwjiv †h fxZz bq, `ye©j ev Kvcyi“l bq, eis ex‡ii RvwZ Kwe Zv‡`i GB HwZnvwmK I mvnmx cwiP‡qi cÖwZ Bw½Z K‡i‡Qb; A Av K L eY©gvjv c‡_ c‡_Ñ evOvwji exiZ¡ Avi †kŠ‡h©i my`xN© BwZnvm Av‡Q| †mB BwZnv‡mi Zvrch©cY© Aa¨vq 1952 mv‡ji fvlv Av‡›`vjb| fvlvi Rb¨ evOvwji AvZ¥Z¨v‡Mi mygnvb †cÖiYvi ~ c_ a‡i evOvwj RvwZ GwM‡q G‡m‡Q gyw³i c‡_, ¯^vaxbZvi c‡_| KweZvi GB As‡k Kwe Avgv‡`i fvlv †cÖ‡gi DÏxcbvgq wPÎKí wbg©vY K‡i‡Qb; N„Yvi KvZy©R Ñ KvZ©yR kãwU G‡m‡Q Kvi&&wUR kã †_‡K| Gi A_© n‡jv e›`y‡Ki †UvUv| N„Yvi KvZ©R ej‡Z Kwe evOvwj RvwZi we‡ùviY Db¥yL N„Yvi mw¤§jb‡K eywS‡q‡Qb; bxjKg‡jiv Rv‡M Ñ y bxjKgj A_© bxj i‡Oi cÙ| wKš‘ Kwe GLv‡b iƒcK_vi ivRKzgvi‡`i K_v e‡j‡Qb| Avi GB ivRKzgviMY n‡jb 71-Gi exi gyw³hy×v hviv †`kgvZ…Kvi gyw³i Rb¨ `xN©w`b ivZ †R‡M KvwU‡q‡Qb; KweZvi nv‡Z ivB‡djÑ K_vwU iƒcK A‡_© e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q| 1971 mv‡j evOvwj Kweiv KweZv‡KI hy‡×i A¯¿ wn‡m‡e e¨envi K‡iwQ‡jb| A_©vr KweZvi gva¨‡gI cÖwZ‡iva I gyw³i K_v ejv n‡q‡Q; Gevi ev‡Ni _vevÑ gyw³‡hv×v‡`i kw³kvjx AvµgY †evSv‡Z cÖZxKwU e¨envi Kiv n‡q‡Q; ivZRvMv wbe©vmb †k‡lÑ 1971 mv‡j cvwK¯—vwb nvbv`vi evwnbxi Avµg‡Yi d‡j G‡`‡ki wecyj msL¨K gvbyl wf‡UgvwU Qvov nb| Zviv `xN© bq gvm wbR †`‡kB wKsev cÖwZ‡ekx ivóª fvi‡Z wbe©vwmZ Rxebhvcb Ki‡Z eva¨ nb| wKš‘ Zviv G Ae¯’v‡ZB M‡o †Zv‡jb cÖej cÖwZ‡iva| wbNy©g ivw·K Zviv DrmM© K‡ib wcÖq gvZ…f~wgi gyw³i j‡¶¨| GK mgq kΓ‡K civwRZ K‡i Zviv wd‡i Av‡mb ex‡ii †e‡k| Av‡jvP¨ As‡k Kwe Zuv‡`i Mwe©Z cÖZ¨veZ©‡bi K_v e‡j‡Qb| cvV cwiwPwZ : Kwe Kvgvj †PŠayixi Ôa~wj I mvMi `„k¨Õ Kve¨MÖ‡š’i Aš—M©Z Ômvnmx Rbbx evsjvÕ KweZvwU Zuvi ÔKweZvmsMÖnÕ MÖš’ †_‡K msKjb Kiv n‡q‡Q| GLv‡b ejv n‡q‡QÑ fxZz I †f‡Zv e‡j hv‡`i AwfwnZ Kiv n‡qwQj, †m wg_¨vPvi e¨_© K‡i w`‡q evOvwj RvwZ Zv‡`i †kŠ‡h©i gwngvq Rq K‡i †bq ¯^vaxbZv| gyw³i cZvKv Zv‡`i nv‡Z| kΓi AvmywiK AvPiY, weKU Dj−vm Avi b„ksmZv ¯^í mg‡q civf~Z Kiv m¤¢e nq G †`‡ki gvby‡li g‡b Kve¨gq wmœ»Zvi m‡½ mvn‡mi B¯úvZ`„pZv Av‡Q e‡j| Abvw` AZx‡Zi msMÖvg, fvlvi Rb¨ i³`v‡bi BwZnvm gyw³hy×Kv‡j wQj evOvwji †cÖiYvi evwZNi| G‡`‡ki RbRxe‡bi wewfbœ euv‡K Av‡Q cÖwZ‡iva I msMÖv‡gi HwZn¨| MÖvgevsjvi gvbyl mgwš^Z msnwZ‡Z civf~Z K‡i Aïf kw³‡K| Avm‡j GmeB evsjvRbbxi cÖv‡Yi DËß ¯ú›`bRvZ, Zuvi gvwU †_‡K D‡V Avmv mvn‡mi †dvqvivøvZ| mg¯— evavweNœ AwZµg K‡i GB exi RvwZ weR‡qi cZvKv Dwo‡q wd‡i G‡m‡Q †`kgvZ…Kvi †µv‡o|

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1| ÔGK mvaviY hye‡Ki gyw³‡hv×v nIqv Ges hyׇk‡l ¯^vaxb †`‡k wd‡i AvmvÕÑ GiKg cUf~wgi GKwU KweZv ev Kvwnbx †jL|

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1| evOvwji nv‡Z Kx D‡V‡Q? K. M. Kv‡¯— Rvj L. N. †MÖ‡bW jvwV

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2| ÔbxjKg‡jivÕ Kviv ? K. M. cÖnixiv ü`qevb e¨w³MY L. N. mvnmxiv gyw³‡hv×vMY

DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI : we‡`wk †mbvi Kvgv‡bÑey‡j‡U we× bvix wkï Avi hyeK-†Rvqvb e„× kΓ †mbviv nZ¨vi Awfhv‡b Ñ gyw³evwnbx cÖwZ‡iva DÌv‡b| 3| DÏxc‡K ÔRbbx mvnmx evsjvÕ KweZvi †Kvb w`KwU cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q ? i. gyw³hy‡×i cÖwZ‡iva ii. mvaviY gvby‡li AmnvqZ¡ iii. `xN©k¦vm wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK ? K. M. K. L. M. N. i iii L. N. ii ii I iii

4| DÏxc‡Ki Abyfe Ômvnmx Rbbx evsjvÕ KweZvi †Kvb cO&w³i m‡½ mv`„k¨c~Y© ? †Zv‡`i i³v³ nvZ gyP‡o w`‡qwQ bq gv‡m eywoM½v cÙv b`xZxi/WvKvZ c‡o‡Q MÖv‡g †fvR n‡e AvR cÖwZ‡kv‡a/hvi m‡½ †h iKg, †m iKg †Lj‡e evOvwj mvnmx Rbbx evsjv, ey‡K Pvcv g„‡Zi Av¸b|

m„Rbkxj hLb nvbv`viea msMx‡Z N„Yvi cÖej g‡š¿ RvMÖZ ¯^‡`‡ki ZiyY nv‡Z wbZ¨ †e‡R‡Q Aweivg †gwkbMvb, gU©vi †MÖ‡bW| K. L. M. N. ga¨iv‡Z Kviv G‡mwQj ? eY©gvjv c‡_ c‡_ †Zcvš—‡i Ny‡iwQj †Kb ? DÏxc‡Ki Abyfe Ômvnmx Rbbx evsjvÕ KweZvi Abyf‡ei m‡½ mv`„k¨c~Y©Ñe¨vL¨v Ki| DÏxc‡Ki fvebv Ômvnmx Rbbx evsjvÕ KweZvi mvgwMÖK cwiPq bqÑ g~j¨vqb Ki|

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[Kwe cwiwPwZ : i“`ª gyn¤§` kwn`yj−vn 16B A‡±vei 1956 mv‡j ewikv‡j Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| 1974 mv‡j wZwb I‡q÷ GÛ nvB¯‹zj †_‡K GmGmwm Ges 1976 mv‡j XvKv K‡jR †_‡K GBPGmwm cvm K‡ib| AZtci 1980 mv‡j wZwb XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi evsjv wefvM †_‡K m¤§vbmn mœvZK I 1983 mv‡j mœvZ‡KvËi wWwMÖ jvf K‡ib| wZwb Ômw¤§wjZ mvs¯‹…wZK †RvUÕ I ÔRvZxq KweZv cwil`Õ MV‡b D‡j−L‡hvM¨ f~wgKv iv‡Lb| g~jZ ¯^vaxbZv-DËi evsjv KweZvq D”PK‡É cÖwZev`x Kwe wn‡m‡e Zuvi Avwef©ve| GQvov evsjv‡`‡ki gyw³hy×, †`kvZ¡‡eva, MYAv‡›`vjb I Amv¤úª`vwqK Rxeb‡ev‡ai AmvaviY GK Kwe i“`ª gyn¤§` kwn`yjvn| Zuvi − D‡j−L‡hvM¨ Kve¨MÖš’ : Dc`ªyZ DcK~j, wd‡i PvB ¯^Y©MÖvg, gvby‡li gvbwPÎ, †Qvej BZ¨vw`| MxwZKvi wn‡m‡eI wZwb RbwcÖqZv jvf K‡ib| 21‡k Ryb 1991 mv‡j iy`ª gyn¤§` kwn`yj−vni AKvj cÖqvY N‡U|]

ÔnvZ evov‡jB gy‡Vv f‡i hvq F‡Y A_P Avgvi k‡m¨i gvV fiv| †ivÏyi Lyu‡R cvB bv KL‡bv w`‡b, Av‡jv‡Z fvmvq iv‡Zi emyÜiv| †UvKv w`‡j S‡i cPv AvOy‡ji Nvg, a¯— ZLb gM‡Ri gv¯—yj bvwe‡Kiv †fv‡j wb‡R‡`i WvK-bvg †PvLRy‡o †dv‡U i³Revi dyj| †W‡K I‡Vv hw` ¯§…wZ‡fRv ¤−vb ¯^‡i, DovI bxi‡e wbf…Z iygvjLvbv cvwLiv wdi‡e c_ wP‡b wP‡b N‡i Avgvwi †Kej _vK‡e bv c_ Rvbv †UvKv w`‡j S‡i co‡e cyi‡bv ay‡jv †Pv‡Li †KvYvq Rgv GK‡duvUv Rj| Kvc©vm †d‡U evZv‡m fvm‡e Zy‡jv _vK‡e bv ïay wb‡ew`Z Zi“Zj RvM‡e bv ebf~wgi wm_v‡b Pvu` evwji kix‡i m‡d` †dbvi †Qvuqv co‡e bv g‡b AgxgvswmZ duv` AweKj i‡e i‡q‡Q †hgb †kvqv nvZ evov‡jB gy‡Vv f‡i hvq †c«‡g A_P Avgvi e¨vcK weinf~wg Qy‡U †h‡Z PvB c_ hvq cv‡q †_‡g †X‡K `vI †PvL AvOy‡ji b‡L Zywg| kãv_© I UxKv : emyÜiv Ñ c„w_ex; a¯— Ñ webvk, ¶qcªvß nIqv; gM‡Ri gv¯—yj Ñ gv¯—yj n‡”Q Rvnv‡Ri ev †bŠKvi cvj LvUv‡bvi LuywU| gM‡Ri gv¯—yj ej‡Z GLv‡b c‡_i wbkvbv †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q| Kwe Zuvi c_ nviv‡bvi K_v eywS‡q‡Qb; †PvLRy‡o †dv‡U i³Revi dzj Ñ AwaK cwikÖg ev NygnxbZvi Kvi‡Y †PvLi i³eY© aviY Kiv| i³Rev dz‡ji is n‡jv UKU‡K jvj i‡³i g‡Zv| GLv‡b †PvL‡K i³Revi mv‡_ Zzjbv Kiv n‡q‡Q; wm_v‡b Ñ wkq‡i| gv_vi Dc‡i| ebf~wgi wm_v‡b Puv` ej‡Z Kwe e‡bi Dc‡i Puv`‡K eywS‡q‡Qb; m‡d` †dbv Ñ mv`v i‡Oi †dbv|

gva¨wgK evsjv mvwnZ¨

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cvV cwiwPwZ : i“`ª gyn¤§` kwn`yj−vnÕi Ô†gŠwjK gy‡LvkÕ Kve¨MÖš’ †_‡K KweZvwU msKwjZ n‡q‡Q| cÖYq Avi Abyiv‡Mi Av‡e`b wPiš—b| †mLv‡b gvbyl me©`vB wbf©iZv Luy‡R cvq, cvq †eu‡P _vKvi Avb›`| wb‡Ri cwic~Y©Zvi g‡a¨I cÖv_©wqZvi mvwbœa¨ gvbyl‡K Av‡iv FYx K‡i †Zv‡j| Ggb FYx n‡Z †m fv‡jvIev‡m| †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv FY gvbyl‡K †eu‡P _vKvi †cÖiYv †`q Av‡iv| Pvwiw`‡K hLb Ae¶q, `y‡h©vM, nZvkv, cÖvK…wZK weiƒcZv ZLb †mB AbyivM ev cÖYq gvbyl‡K euvPvi ¯^cœ †`Lvq| gvbyl ZvB evi evi wd‡i Av‡m Zvi GKvš— g‡bi gvby‡li Kv‡Q| GB `~‡i hvIqv Ges wd‡i Avmvi we¯—…Z weeiY _v‡K gvby‡li RxebcvZvi cÖwZwU Q‡Î|

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1| ÔAvkª‡q wd‡i Avmvi Rb¨ gvbyl K¬vš—-kªvš— c_ †cwi‡q P‡j Av‡mÕ GB †eva‡K DcRxe¨ K‡i GKwU iPbv wjL| †PvL Ry‡o Kx †dv‡U ? K. m‡l© dzj L. †Mvjvc dzj M. i³Rev dzj N. Muv`v dzj 2| Kwe Ôcyi‡bv ay‡jvÕ ej‡Z Kx eywS‡q‡Qb ? i. ¯§„wZ ii. kÖ“wZ iii. we¯§„wZ wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK ? K. i L. ii M. iii N. i I iii DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI : ¯§„wZiv †cvnvq †ivÏyi, ¯§„wZiv †cvnvq †ivÏyi| Avgv‡`i c`‡iLv wcQ‡b †d‡j, Zviv †M‡Q AvR KZ`~i| wcQ‡b `yBcv †g‡j, ¯§„wZiv †cvnvq †ivÏyi| 3| DÏxc‡K ÔLwZqvbÕ KweZvi †Kvb w`K D‡b¥vwPZ n‡q‡Q ? K. ¯§„wZgqZv L. wein M. wb‡e`b N. k~b¨Zv 4| DÏxc‡Ki AbyfewU LwZqvb KweZvi †Kvb cO&w³‡Z cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q ? K. †ivÏyi Lyu‡R cvB bv KL‡bv w`‡b L. bvwe‡Kiv †fv‡j wb‡R‡`i WvK-bvg M. Avgvwi †Kej _vK‡e bv c_ Rvbv N. Qz‡U †h‡Z PvB c_ hvq cv‡q †_‡g 1|

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m„Rbkxj bvB †Uwj‡dvb, bvB‡i wcqb, bvB‡i †UwjMÖvg| eÜzi Kv‡Q g‡bi Lei, †Kg‡b †cuŠQvBZvg| eÜz‡i †Zvi jvwM, ebevmx nBjvg| K. L. M. N. iv‡Zi emyÜiv Kx‡m fvmvq ? Ôwbf…Z i“gvjLvbvÕ ej‡Z Kwe Kx ej‡Z †P‡q‡Qb Ñ eywS‡q †jL| DÏxcKwU LwZqvb KweZvi †Kvb w`K‡K D‡b¥vwPZ K‡i‡Q Ñ e¨vL¨v Ki| ÔA_P Avgvi e¨vcK weinf~wgÕ Kwei GB g‡bvfve KweZvq I DÏxc‡K cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡QÑ g~j¨vqb Ki|

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...A lot of parents -- maybe yours -- have strong opinions about how kids study. Maybe they think kids should do their homework right after school. Maybe they think good study habits mean kids should study in the same quiet place every day. Maybe they think that you should sit still until all your work is done.Well, parents aren't always right!A lot of new research shows that the usual ways of studying may not always be the best ways. Different kids study best in different ways. Here are some twists on study tips and good study habits. You just have to figure out what works for you. Study Tip: Move Before You Study Maybe your mom or dad tells you to do your homework as soon as you get off the bus. Ask if you can shoot hoops or run for 15 or 20 minutes first. Explain that you're not trying to put off your work. It's just that exercising your body may help your brain.Kids in a Chicago-area school do PE first if they're having problems with math or reading. They do much better on tests after they exercise. Moving before you do homework can help get your brain ready to study. Study Tip: Pick Your Study Spot Your parents may have set up a great desk in a quiet room. But you feel better doing homework on the floor in the living room or in your bedroom. The important thing is to find a place where you'll pay attention.Your bedroom might give you privacy. That's great if you have annoying brothers or sisters. But if you start looking at the stuff in your room instead of your......

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...Study skills among LMC students Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Background of Research What are the effective study skills that college students should practice? Students are struggling against time in any college. Many students are not aware of this issue. Therefore, we are resolving it for them to practice and apply it on their daily lives. Our topic is vital for youngsters to get the best possible education. They should not get only best education but also the strategies to master their studies. However, not all students practice the same study skills. Study skills are not done just to excel academically, but also to discipline the students. Some students prefer to study according to a schedule they had prepared earlier and some did not do it as systematic as the others. Next, there are also students who prefer to study in the last minute as they thought it would race their brain to the fullest. However, their action which they thought would do them better actually lead them to a worse scenario such as stress, depression, and etc. Procrastination is a common habit that students do nowadays and this leads to the same thing as those who do not have an effective study skill. There are varieties of study skill that students can apply to excel in their academic. What students should know is they cannot imitate their friend’s study skills when they actually have different ways of study. Human’s brain does not function in the same way. Briefly, most important thing they......

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Study Habits

...Chapter IV Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data This chapter deals with the presentation, analysis, and interpretation of data gathered from the responses of the 271 respondents. The data are presented by tables and discussion of findings on the mainly on the problem of the study. Table 1 Age Number of respondents Percentage 15-17 73 26.94 18-20 155 57.20 21 up 43 15.86 Total 271 100% This table shows that 73 respondents or 26.94% out of 271 respondents from first year to third year has the age of 15-17, 155 respondents or 57.20% out of 271 respondents has the age of 18-20, and 43 respondents or 15.86% out of 271 respondents has the age of 21 and above. Gender Number of respondents Percentage male 57 21.03 female 214 78.96 Total 271 100% Table 2 This table shows that 57 respondents or 21.03% out of 271 respondents from first year to third year are male and 214 respondents or 78.96% out of 271 respondents are female. Part I Question #1 Number of respondents Percentage First year 92 33.95 Second year 79 29.15 Third year 100 36.90 Total 271 100% This table shows that 92 respondents or 33.95% out of 271 respondents are first year, 79 respondents or 29.15% are second year, and 92 respondents or 33.95% are third year. Question #2 Number of respondents Percentage Public 266 98.15 Private 5 1.85 Total 271 100% This table shows that 266 respondents or......

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Study Habits

...Title: “STUDY HABITS OF GRADE VI PUPILS OF MAYAMOT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ASSOCIATED WITH SELECTED FAMILY RELATED FACTORS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMENCES” ------------------------------------------------- A Thesis title Presented to the Faculty Of the Graduate Studies Greenville College Pasig City ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Education ------------------------------------------------- By: GINA L. AGAMON 2011 Statement of the Problem This study describes the study habits of pupils and determines their association with their family factors, and academic performance. Specifically, this study answer the following: 1. What is the personal profile of the subject pupils, terms of: A. Personal Profile 1. Age 2. Gender, and 3. Academic Performance; B. Family factors 1. Educational Attainment of Parents, 2. Occupation of Parents, 3. Family monthly income 2. What are the prevailing study habits of the pupil-respondents? 3. Are the study habits of the pupil-respondents significantly influenced by home and family related factors? 4. Are the study habits of the pupil-respondents significantly associated with academic performance? SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE Dear Respondents: I am undertaking a study on “Study Habits of......

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...RESPONDENTS INSTRUMENT(S) USED QUESTION NUMBER The main problem of this study is how factors of study habits affect nursing students. 1. What are the demographic datas that affect the study habits of nursing students in terms of: a) Age b) Gender c) Civil status d) Year level e) Socio-economic status f) Religion 2. What are the factors that affect the study habits as follow: a) Learning disabilities b) Personal life such as peer pressures and relationships c) Lab access d) Poor time management e) Lack of interest and focus f) Environmental factors such as noise, computer games,etc. g) Stress h) Improper study habits 3. How much time does nursing students a lot for studying? 4. How do these factors affect the grades of the nursing student? Does these help the respondents to pass or fail the recent examinations? 5. Where do nursing students prefer to study? 6. What time do nursing students usually study? 7. How often do nursing students study their lessons? 8. How do the respondents spend their spare time? 9. What are the things the respondents do while studying their lessons? 10. What are the techniques or strategies the respondents prefer to use? 11. Does stress affect the respondent’s study habits? 12. What are the teaching strategies the respondents study respondents prefer? Does it affect the respondents study habits? The respondents for the study are the nursing students of Laguna College, school year......

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...Study habit S. Edwards (2006) said that learning to study is like learning to ride a bike-once you get it you have the skills for life. Meaning that in steps to learning there are bumps and bruises along the way because the process of learning is sometimes painful. In addition to that learners who excel in school is not an exemption in creating a good study habit because learning is a lifetime process, it does not stop. Moreover study habit is important to all learners to perform well in school. There are many factors to be considered in discussing the reasons behind the formed study habit of the learners especially in the adolescent period. This is the stage where critical period begin when they wanted to go out under the custody of their parents. In such it is important to consider the parental involvement of the parents and its influence to the learners. The family monthly income is also one factor to be considered because now a day there is no such thing as free. This means that you don’t get something without anything or without money. In addition, it doesn’t mean that students that are enrolled in a public school are absolutely free from any expenses. Aside from the projects and assignment it cannot be missed at school that there are biological needs of a man to be feed. In one way or another, everybody will spend an ample amount for the desired learning. Learners’ academic performance must be considered also because it is interrelated to students’ study habit.......

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