Free Essay

Style

In: English and Literature

Submitted By anua
Words 954
Pages 4
Из огромного многообразия особенностей процесса социализации, проявляющихся по-разному у различных индивидов социология вычленяет только те факторы. которые могут характеризовать значительное число индивидуальностей, а потому способны объединяться в определенные типы, например, возрастные половые, профессиональные, субкультурные и т.н. Именно с учётом таких типологических особенностей выделяют различные этапы социализации.
Первый ее этап - младенчество, охватывающее примерно два года жизнедеятельности, доступно ребенку изначально. Основной канал социализации на данном этапе общение. Оно начинается с обмена улыбками с матерью, с обращения к ней и к другим вступающим с ним в контакт людьми и к домашним животным (кошки, собаки, попугаи и др.,) неартикулированными, но эмоционально-выразительными звуками, а также жестами, мимикой. Постепенно эти средства общения дополняют, во многом их заменяют словесные формы общения и поведения, где слово, которому ребенка учат взрослые, уже обобщает не одно, а несколько ощущений, чувств, ожиданий и т.п., и является продуктом воплощения социального опыта в нормах и ценностях культуры. В связи с такой особенностью развертывания процесса социализации мышление, ценностные ориентации и продуктивное воображение в младенческом возрасте развивается гораздо медленнее и слабее, чем общительность, вырастающая из глубокой привязанности ребенка к матери, отцу, бабушке, дедушке, т.е. к тем людям, с которыми он находится в постоянном общении.
Второй этап социализации - детство, простирающееся примерно от двух до шести лет, т.е. до поступления ребенка в школу. В этот период ведущим каналом социализации становится игра, в первую очередь ролевая игра, которая представляет собой эмоционально-образное воссоздание поведения и действий взрослых, но осуществляющееся в игровой форме. Основной формирующей ребенка в этом возрасте формой деятельности становится освоение различных ролей в игре в прятки, в куклы, в войну, в,а также общение его с миром сказок, книжек, художественно оформленных настольных игр, мульт- ТИНКмов видеофильмов, детских песен. В этом возрасте развитие воображения, значительно опережают обретение знаний и развитие умственных способностей.
Третий этап социализации начинается с переломного для формирующейся личности события - перехода от «возраста игр» к «возрасту учения» в школе, завершаясь другим переломным событием -половым созреванием. Он охватывает возраст от 6-7 до 13-14 лет. Здесь опять-таки изменяется доминанта социализирующего процесса - ею становится обучение и познание мира, осуществляемое с помощью учителей, учебников, активного приобщения к художественной литературе, другим видам культуры. Такое изменение направленности и средств социализации приводит к активному, опережающему все другие психические процессы, развитию абстрактного мышления, оттесняющего на задний план художественную фантазию, продуктивное воображение (у большинства учащихся) одновременно с ослаблением эмоциональной отзывчивости и потребности общения. Последнее становится более избирательным, но зато и более стабильным, что находит свое воплощение прежде всего в дружбе, которая, возникнув в школьные годы, сохраняется нередко на всю жизнь.
Четвертый этап социализации начинается еще в школьные годЫ, имеет своим нижним пределом половое созревание, а верхним рубежом - завершение учебы. В этом периоде происходит существенное изменение в самосознании и самооценке формирующейся личности, возникает потребность в выработке мировоззренческих установок, смысложизненных принципов, в самоуважении и уважении со стороны окружающих людей, в самостоятельном обдумывании и конструировании системы ценностей, связанных с ними ценностных ориентаций, Сохраняется социализирующая доминанта, воплощенная в потребности познания мира и окружающих людей, но она изменяет свою дислокацию: юноша, обдумывающий житье, стремится получить нужные ему знания, ценности* систему оценок и представлений о добре и зле, благородстве и подлости не из учебников и уроков, а из собственного опыта и общения со сверстниками, из активного приобщения к художественной литературе, музыке, театру, несколько позже - к политической, религиозной и иной активной деятельности. Именно в этот период происходит формирование жизненных позиций. приобретение из разных источников, а не только из учебников, личных знаний, жизненных наблюдений, оценок, - одним словом разнообразного жизненного опыта, становится теперь преимущественным средством формирования самосознания, мировоззрения, жизненной позиции. В это время в воспитании и самовоспитании молодого человека резко возрастает роль культуры, прежде всего искусства; его узкий личный жизненный опыт расширяется и обогащается опытом героев, живущих в мирах, созданных Л. Толстым, У. Шекспиром, П. Чайковским, Ф. Феллини и других мастеров культуры, а также вовлечением в сферу спорта, политики, рекламной деятельности и т.д.
Четвертым этапом завершается дотрудовая стадия социализации и открывается путь к следующей ее стадии - трудовой. Она начинается пятым этапом социализации, знаменующим собой переход от систематического обучения к продуктивному труду. В этот этап человек входит в качестве социально и духовно сформировавшейся личности, обладающей более или менее разносторонне развитым сознанием и самосознанием, более или менее прочными мировоззрением, системой ценностей и социальных установок. Тот факт, что в процессе развертывания этого этапа личность не только усваивает социальный опыт, но и активно воспроизводит его, обогащает его новым содержанием, придает особое социальное значение именно этому периоду. На этом этапе важную роль приобретает специализация, выражающаяся в разделении труда, в силу чего она, с одной стороны, способствует росту его производительности, а с другой - профессионально-квалификационному развитию личности. Специализация резко интенсифицирует развертывание социализационного процесса, который на этапе трудовой деятельности осуществляется на трех уровнях социализации личности: 1) как члена специфической профессиональной группы (микроуровень); 2) как члена конкретного трудового коллектива или организации (микроуровень); 3) как принадлежащего к работающей части населения определенного государства (макроуровень).
Социализация на этом этапе приобретает две возможности соединения с процессом культурализации, т.е. приобщения личности к ценностям, нормам и идеалам культуры. Одна из них, ограничивающая духовное развитие личности, заключается в том, что человек, завершив определенный уровень обучения в системе образования, стремится сохранить (нередко - забыть) усвоенные знания, ценности, вкусы. Вторая, создающая широкие возможности для дальнейшего духовного развития личности, проявляется в том, что человек, став взрослым и начав свой самостоятельный трудовой путь, продолжает овладевать богатствами культуры посредством самообразования, самовоспитания, саморазвития..
Завершение трудового этапа социализации смыкается с началом ее шестого этапа, завершающей стадии - после трудовой деятельности, когда человек переходит к заслуженному отдыху. Этим этапом охватывается весь период пенсионерского существования личности. Проблемы жизнеустройства людей пенсионного возраста в современном обществе приобретают большую социальную значимость, так как в структуре народонаселения люди пожилого возраста занимают значительное место. Поэтому проблемы послетрудовой стадии социализации становятся очень актуальными и важными, особенно в связи с углубляющимся социальным расслоением общества на богатых и бедных и значительно более масштабным представительством пожилых людей в составе бедняков.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Learning Styles

...literature for this study focuses on procedures used to identify teaching and learning styles and what effect a match between the two has on student learning outcomes and evaluation of instructors. The review focuses on a number of different instruments used to identify teaching and learning styles. The chapter begins with a definition of learning styles, teaching styles, and matching, followed by the findings of researchers using various instruments to measure learning and teaching styles. The research outcomes germane to learning styles, teaching styles, and a match between the two in relation to course grades, final exam scores, and instructor evaluations are discussed. Learning and Teaching Styles Many researchers have proclaimed the significance of identifying preferred teaching styles and preferred learning styles. Claxton and Ralston (1978, in Miller, 1982) alluded to this significance: The research findings on learning styles offer substantial promise to teachers, counselors, and the students themselves in terms of finding better ways for students to learn. But while matching learning style with instructional mode apparently facilitates positive interpersonal relations, and while it would seem to point the way for increased learning, the empirical data that support this idea are rather scarce. Such a significant gap in the research must be filled if knowledge about learning styles is to become a significant force in improving college and university......

Words: 5658 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

Parenting Styles

...of Parenting Styles on Junior Secondary School Students' Performance in Social Studies in ilorin Emirate AbdulRaheem Yusuf, Ayorinde Samuel Agbonna and Hamdalat Taiwo Yusuf Department of Arts and Social Sciences Education, University of llorin, llorin Abstract The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of parenting styles on junior secondary school students' performance in social studies in llorin Emirate, Nigeria. The study used questionnaire and Proforma to collect data on parenting styles and students' performance. The data on junior school certificate and parenting styles were analyzed using frequency count, percentages and chi- square to answer the research questions and test the hypotheses raised in the study. The results showed that the parenting styles adopted had influence on the performance of the students. In addition, it was observed that students from authoritative parenting had better performance than students from other parenting styles. It was recommended among others that parents should adopt authoritative parenting style to enhance optimal performance of the students. In addition, the school should create structures and strengthen the existing ones that would provide parent training intervention. Introduction The relationship between a student and his or her parents has been noted to have an influential impact on not only the studen t performance in school but also in his/her life generally. Parenting styles have......

Words: 4165 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Learning Style

...LSRC reference Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review This report critically reviews the literature on learning styles and examines in detail 13 of the most influential models. The report concludes that it matters fundamentally which instrument is chosen. The implications for teaching and learning in post-16 learning are serious and should be of concern to learners, teachers and trainers, managers, researchers and inspectors. Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review LSRC reference Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review LSRC reference LSRC reference Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review Frank Coffield Institute of Education University of London David Moseley University of Newcastle Elaine Hall University of Newcastle Kathryn Ecclestone University of Exeter The Learning and Skills Research Centre is supported by the Learning and Skills Council and the Department for Education and Skills The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Learning and Skills Research Centre or the Learning and Skills Development Agency Published by the Learning and Skills Research Centre www.LSRC.ac.uk Feedback should be sent to: Sally Faraday Research Manager Learning and Skills Development Agency Regent Arcade House 19–25 Argyll Street......

Words: 108874 - Pages: 436

Premium Essay

Learning Styles

...different ways of learning including both activity and study based learning, explaining the effect of understanding your learning style. Learning styles are different approaches or ways of learning. Everyone has a preferred learning style and learn better through different means. Understanding our preferred learning style and how to best meet the needs of that particular style is essential to improve our performance in education. In order to understand information we take it all in with our senses, through sight, sound, touch, smell or taste. The Vak system is categorized into three main styles: Visual, auditory and Kinaesthetic. This essay will explore these learning styles as well as activity and study based learning. Also the effect of understanding our preferred style. Visual is learning though seeing information presented in an illustrated or graphical way. 29% of us prefer to learn by seeing ( Smith 1998). Visual styles of learning is effective by communicating through pictures, diagrams, videos, charts, remembering what we see and needing an overall picture and purpose before we start ( Kelly, n.d). Auditory is learning through spoken words or listening. This particular type of learners Learns best through hearing things and benefits from class lectures. According to ( Smith 1998) 34% of us enjoy communicating through this particular style. Auditory learners learn more effectively by listening to audio tapes, radio programmes, reading aloud, through......

Words: 630 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Learning Styles

... p.117). Knowledge on the other hand consists of three indivisible facets, Explicit, Implicit and Emancipatory (Yang, 2003, p.108).Explicit knowledge refers to that of mind apprehension, Implicit relates to the body, more of a personal context and Emancipatory knowledge which relates to emotion and affection. According to Yang (2003, p. 108), we learn not only through mental correspondence but also by direct personal involvement. In order for individuals to learn, there are a number of learning styles that a person has that differ from another. According to Lu et al. (2007, p.188), learning styles are categorised in four stages cycle which are concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization and active experimentation. These stages are developed to classify learners based on their usual approach to perceiving and processing information. It also demonstrates how managers and supervisors can classify their employees in order to identify which learning styles suits each individual the most. Every student differs from each other, and these differences can be notices in many aspects, such as behavioural, thinking, interaction and...

Words: 1440 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Learning Styles

...LEARNING STYLES Students preferentially take in and process information in different ways: by seeing and hearing, reflecting and acting, reasoning logically and intuitively, analyzing and visualizing, steadily and in fits and starts. Teaching methods also vary. Some instructors lecture, others demonstrate or lead students to self-discovery; some focus on principles and others on applications; some emphasize memory and others understanding. When mismatches exist between learning styles of most students in a class and the teaching style of the professor, the students may become bored and inattentive in class, do poorly on tests, get discouraged about the courses, the curriculum, and themselves, and in some cases change to other curricula or drop out of school. Professors, confronted by low test grades, unresponsive or hostile classes, poor attendance and dropouts, know something is not working. They may become overly critical of their students (making things even worse) or begin to wonder if they are in the right profession. Most seriously, society loses potentially excellent professionals. To overcome these problems, professors should strive for a balance of instructional methods (as opposed to trying to teach each student exclusively according to his or her preferences.) If the balance is achieved, all students will be taught partly in a manner they prefer, which leads to an increased comfort level and willingness to learn, and partly in a less preferred manner, which......

Words: 1203 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Learning Style

...TSS444 Tertiary Skills Assignment 1: Learning analysis Assignm ent purpose The purpose of this assignment is to demonstrate you understand a variety of learning styles and preferences and have considered how this affects your own learning. Date due This assignment is due in Week 4. Refer to Assessment tab, then Summary of your assessment, for the actual due date for this assignment. W eighting This assignment is worth 20% of your final mark. W ord lim it Part 1 300–500 words; Part 2 400–600 words Required resources • • • • Module 1 and the first topic of Module 2. Any notes you took from the Module 1 readings. Assignment 1 Reading Summary Chart. This can be found in the Assessment tab, Assignment 1 page, below assignment 1 link. The Module 1 readings (all found in Module 1 Learning Strategies and Techniques) Hock, R. R. (2013). Forty studies that changed psychology: Explorations into the history of psychological research (7th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.edmondschools.net/Portals/3/docs/Terri_McGill/READMultiple%20Intell.pdf Mobbs, R. (2003). Honey and Mumford learning styles. Retrieved from http://www.le.ac.uk/users/rjm1/etutor/resources/learningtheories/honeymumford.html Sidhu, A. (n.d.). VARK learning style. Retrieved from http://futurehumanevolution.com/vark-learning-style Form atting your assignm ent • • • • The first page is the title page; this includes the title of the assignment, the assignment number, your name and student...

Words: 1118 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Learning Style

...Learning Style 2 Every person has their own manner in preparing and recovering information. People acquire knowledge in different ways, such as visualizing, listening or hands on experience. One of these styles or techniques will usually be more prevalent than the other. When a person discovers which style best suits them, they can then become more efficient in the way they attain knowledge. Comprehending which learning style allows an individual to make the most of their abilities may lead to increased communication and skills. This may allow a person to study for an exam better by using note cards, process information more efficiently, by listening to verbal instruction, lectures or recordings, and the heightening of communication skills with classmates, coworkers and family. After taking the survey, I myself learned that I was a sensory and reflective learner with visual and sequential skills being balanced. A sensory learner prefers concrete and practical information. They like to memorize facts and are great with details. Reflective learners think things through and evaluate options. They enjoy working out a problem on their own. The results of the survey did not surprise me. They were right on target. My job is an accounting assistant at a school district. I work with numbers and figures on a daily basis and have to be accurate at all times. My job encompasses many of the traits for reflective and sensory learning styles. I process......

Words: 470 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Parenting Styles

...Parenting Styles Infancy and early childhood is one of the most serious and complicated stage of development because in this span of ages, the human being’s world still evolves in its parents’ means of taking care of them. “Each phase of the parent- child interaction can alter the status of the child so that during the subsequent phase of interaction the child stimulates the parent in a different way or reacts differently to parent behavior. In turn, parents discover that previous behaviors are no longer appropriate, and they are faced with finding new ways of guiding and interacting with the child” ( Hamner, 2001). Parenting is a huge responsibility. Some parents choose to practice an authoritative style of parenting. This type of parenting has high control but low responsiveness. Parents are often strict and have high expectations for their child’s behavior. They also value obedience and discipline and sometimes use punishment when their children do not do what is expected of them. The parents that practice this type of parenting do not explain the reasoning behind the rules they set. If the child asks why things and rules are like they are, the parents’ response will simply be because they said so. These parents are “obedience- and status-oriented, and expect their orders to be obeyed without explanation” (Baumrind, 1991). The product of such parenting is children that are obedient and good student but are also unhappy, anxious, and......

Words: 606 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Parenting Styles

...Week 2 Discussion 2 Parenting Styles The text describes four basic parenting styles in chapter four. Describe each parenting style and list probable outcomes for a child based on the style of parenting he/she received. Provide an example of someone you know who was at an advantage or was at a disadvantage based on the parenting style he/she received at home. Authoritarian Parenting In this style of parenting, children are expected to follow the strict rules established by the parents. Failure to follow such rules usually results in punishment. Authoritarian parents fail to explain the reasoning behind these rules. If asked to explain, the parent might simply reply, "Because I said so." These parents have high demands, but are not responsive to their children. Authoritive Parenting Like authoritarian parents, those with an authoritative parenting style establish rules and guidelines that their children are expected to follow. However, this parenting style is much more democratic. Authoritative parents are responsive to their children and willing to listen to questions. When children fail to meet the expectations, these parents are more nurturing and forgiving rather than punishing. Permissive Parenting Permissive parents have very few demands to make of their children. These parents rarely discipline their children because they have relatively low expectations of maturity and self-control. permissive parents are more responsive than they are demanding. They are......

Words: 511 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Learning Style

...My Learning Style? What's my learning style? Why is it important? Every day we interact with the world around us, and as we do we are constantly learning. Recently I have begun to pursue my Bachelors Degree. Our first college course is designed to help us achieve that goal by providing us insight to the type of student we are and how we learn best. We have been focusing on learning styles and our motivation to learn. Using examples in the next few paragraphs I will attempt to show what I have identified to be my motivation and learning style for pursuing my degree. First lets cover motivation. "Motivation is the force that draws us to move towards something" (Connor 2004). Motivation can play a very large part on how we learn. If you are motivated, you are more likely to learn faster because you find the subject fun or interesting. There are many reasons on why someone might be motivated to learn. For example my motivation to learn is to change my life and the type of work I do, while still providing for my family. Recently I have come to the realization that I am bored in my current career. My parents always taught me that since we have to work most of our lives, choose something you enjoy and if you no longer enjoy it make changes because doing what you enjoy leads to a more happy fulfilling life. So I have decided to change career fields. In order to enter my new chosen field I must have the basic knowledge and understanding of that field, therefore I must learn.......

Words: 1026 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Learning Styles

...All people have a different learning style such as visual, auditory or kinesthetic, but everyone has a dominant one. When a person is learning he or she uses the learning style that is suitable for them. There is a tool called VARK- A guide to learning by Neil D. Fleming that can determine which learning style each person prefers. According to the VARK (Visual, Aural, Read/Write, Kinesthetic) system questionnaire I scored Visual: 9, Aural: 3, Read/Write: 7 and Kinesthetic 9 and was considered a multimodal learner which is someone who has multiple preferences. As stated in the VARK learning styles 60% of the population fits this category. The learning style I prefer is kinesthetic. Throughout my career in military law enforcement I was able to learn many different ways, but I learned faster and retained more for a longer period of time if I can see what I am doing and having the hands on approach. I believe being able to do it yourself or having the chance to be more hands on with the problem can help the person get a far better understanding. My other preferred style is Visual. This style will benefit me because it helps me to have a visual of what I need in order to understand. Andragogy is a model of adult learning and education developed by Malcolm Knowles. Knowles' theory of andragogy is an attempt to develop a theory specifically for adult learning. Knowles emphasizes that adults are self-directed and expect to take responsibility for decisions.......

Words: 586 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Learning Styles

...! 
 Demid Naumov L8114SN ! ! ! TYPES OF LEARNING STYLES ! ! Report Business Management ! ! September 2014 CONTENTS ! 1. BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT DIFFERENT TYPES OF LEARNING ............1 1.1. Auditory Learner ............................................................................................1 1.2. Visual Learner ................................................................................................1 1.3. Kinesthetic Learner ........................................................................................2 2. MY LEARNING STYLE.........................................................................................2 3. CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................3 4. BIBLIOGRAPHY ....................................................................................................4 1 1. BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT DIFFERENT TYPES OF LEARNING ! There is no denying the fact that different persons prefer different learning styles, but usually people even didn’t think about it. Actually, the impact of learning style is crucial for all of us, because the way how you learn, the way how you recall information, and even the words you choose are depends on your learning technique. ! Most scientists believe that there are three different learning styles, which are: Auditory Learner, Visual Learner and Kinesthetic Learner, but usually the best way to learn something......

Words: 746 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Learning Style

...LEARNING, LEARNING STYLES AND PERSPECTIVE Date: 14/12/2012 Author: Darren Brown Learning Style From the article by Kolb and Kolb (2005) on learning styles, it clearly shows that the personality that we have defines the learning style that we adopt as an individual and is termed Constructivism in learning. I have found I do prefer the processing approach continuum that translates into the “doing” action as opposed to the watching. On the perception continuum I fall under the Concrete experience or “feeling” realm and not the “thinking “or abstract conceptualization. This leads onto to the further definition of an “accommodating” learning style but I also had a lot of consensus with the “diverging “learning aspect. Initially this was a bit of a conundrum for me as where did I actually fall as it seemed a clear cut theory. However when reading Kolb and Kolb 2005 and referring to the work of Abbey et all 1985 and Hunt 1987 it showed that there are indeed further actual combinations that can be found and in this aspect I would fall under the “Northerner “. It is also interesting to note this is the only synthesis of the learning behaviour that does not include the AC aspect at all. It seems nobody can posses all the different aspects as that is what makes us human beings and different to each other. There as been some criticism of the Kolb model in that it is quite Western culturally based and it does not take into account cultural differences or experiences as......

Words: 1307 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Learning Styles

...Learning Styles and Strategies  My learning style is generally well balanced between active, reflective, sensing and intuitive learning. However, I have a more moderate preference toward the visual learning over verbal and the sequential over global learning.  The results of my test did not surprise me. I realize that I comprehend better when shown how to do something over reading directions from a text. I feel the assessment of my test was very valid and the questions that were asked were relative to the process. I believe that my test results were very accurate.  As a learner the instructional strategies that work best for me are the visual along with sequential and I would use these in a classroom with games, graphs, pictures, charts, films, and other tools.  To help students that do not learn in the same way, an instructor must incorporate other strategies in the classroom to accommodate each of the different learning styles. This would include using the reflective learning style by giving the student a chance to think about a subject and come to a conclusion to bring to class a discussion. It would also include addressing the verbal learning style by assigning reading material of different types the student could address in class.  An evaluation quiz could be used in the classroom utilizing each learning style to access the different learning styles of the students, giving the instructor information about her students learning skills. This information......

Words: 331 - Pages: 2