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Из огромного многообразия особенностей процесса социализации, проявляющихся по-разному у различных индивидов социология вычленяет только те факторы. которые могут характеризовать значительное число индивидуальностей, а потому способны объединяться в определенные типы, например, возрастные половые, профессиональные, субкультурные и т.н. Именно с учётом таких типологических особенностей выделяют различные этапы социализации.
Первый ее этап - младенчество, охватывающее примерно два года жизнедеятельности, доступно ребенку изначально. Основной канал социализации на данном этапе общение. Оно начинается с обмена улыбками с матерью, с обращения к ней и к другим вступающим с ним в контакт людьми и к домашним животным (кошки, собаки, попугаи и др.,) неартикулированными, но эмоционально-выразительными звуками, а также жестами, мимикой. Постепенно эти средства общения дополняют, во многом их заменяют словесные формы общения и поведения, где слово, которому ребенка учат взрослые, уже обобщает не одно, а несколько ощущений, чувств, ожиданий и т.п., и является продуктом воплощения социального опыта в нормах и ценностях культуры. В связи с такой особенностью развертывания процесса социализации мышление, ценностные ориентации и продуктивное воображение в младенческом возрасте развивается гораздо медленнее и слабее, чем общительность, вырастающая из глубокой привязанности ребенка к матери, отцу, бабушке, дедушке, т.е. к тем людям, с которыми он находится в постоянном общении.
Второй этап социализации - детство, простирающееся примерно от двух до шести лет, т.е. до поступления ребенка в школу. В этот период ведущим каналом социализации становится игра, в первую очередь ролевая игра, которая представляет собой эмоционально-образное воссоздание поведения и действий взрослых, но осуществляющееся в игровой форме. Основной формирующей ребенка в этом возрасте формой деятельности становится освоение различных ролей в игре в прятки, в куклы, в войну, в,а также общение его с миром сказок, книжек, художественно оформленных настольных игр, мульт- ТИНКмов видеофильмов, детских песен. В этом возрасте развитие воображения, значительно опережают обретение знаний и развитие умственных способностей.
Третий этап социализации начинается с переломного для формирующейся личности события - перехода от «возраста игр» к «возрасту учения» в школе, завершаясь другим переломным событием -половым созреванием. Он охватывает возраст от 6-7 до 13-14 лет. Здесь опять-таки изменяется доминанта социализирующего процесса - ею становится обучение и познание мира, осуществляемое с помощью учителей, учебников, активного приобщения к художественной литературе, другим видам культуры. Такое изменение направленности и средств социализации приводит к активному, опережающему все другие психические процессы, развитию абстрактного мышления, оттесняющего на задний план художественную фантазию, продуктивное воображение (у большинства учащихся) одновременно с ослаблением эмоциональной отзывчивости и потребности общения. Последнее становится более избирательным, но зато и более стабильным, что находит свое воплощение прежде всего в дружбе, которая, возникнув в школьные годы, сохраняется нередко на всю жизнь.
Четвертый этап социализации начинается еще в школьные годЫ, имеет своим нижним пределом половое созревание, а верхним рубежом - завершение учебы. В этом периоде происходит существенное изменение в самосознании и самооценке формирующейся личности, возникает потребность в выработке мировоззренческих установок, смысложизненных принципов, в самоуважении и уважении со стороны окружающих людей, в самостоятельном обдумывании и конструировании системы ценностей, связанных с ними ценностных ориентаций, Сохраняется социализирующая доминанта, воплощенная в потребности познания мира и окружающих людей, но она изменяет свою дислокацию: юноша, обдумывающий житье, стремится получить нужные ему знания, ценности* систему оценок и представлений о добре и зле, благородстве и подлости не из учебников и уроков, а из собственного опыта и общения со сверстниками, из активного приобщения к художественной литературе, музыке, театру, несколько позже - к политической, религиозной и иной активной деятельности. Именно в этот период происходит формирование жизненных позиций. приобретение из разных источников, а не только из учебников, личных знаний, жизненных наблюдений, оценок, - одним словом разнообразного жизненного опыта, становится теперь преимущественным средством формирования самосознания, мировоззрения, жизненной позиции. В это время в воспитании и самовоспитании молодого человека резко возрастает роль культуры, прежде всего искусства; его узкий личный жизненный опыт расширяется и обогащается опытом героев, живущих в мирах, созданных Л. Толстым, У. Шекспиром, П. Чайковским, Ф. Феллини и других мастеров культуры, а также вовлечением в сферу спорта, политики, рекламной деятельности и т.д.
Четвертым этапом завершается дотрудовая стадия социализации и открывается путь к следующей ее стадии - трудовой. Она начинается пятым этапом социализации, знаменующим собой переход от систематического обучения к продуктивному труду. В этот этап человек входит в качестве социально и духовно сформировавшейся личности, обладающей более или менее разносторонне развитым сознанием и самосознанием, более или менее прочными мировоззрением, системой ценностей и социальных установок. Тот факт, что в процессе развертывания этого этапа личность не только усваивает социальный опыт, но и активно воспроизводит его, обогащает его новым содержанием, придает особое социальное значение именно этому периоду. На этом этапе важную роль приобретает специализация, выражающаяся в разделении труда, в силу чего она, с одной стороны, способствует росту его производительности, а с другой - профессионально-квалификационному развитию личности. Специализация резко интенсифицирует развертывание социализационного процесса, который на этапе трудовой деятельности осуществляется на трех уровнях социализации личности: 1) как члена специфической профессиональной группы (микроуровень); 2) как члена конкретного трудового коллектива или организации (микроуровень); 3) как принадлежащего к работающей части населения определенного государства (макроуровень).
Социализация на этом этапе приобретает две возможности соединения с процессом культурализации, т.е. приобщения личности к ценностям, нормам и идеалам культуры. Одна из них, ограничивающая духовное развитие личности, заключается в том, что человек, завершив определенный уровень обучения в системе образования, стремится сохранить (нередко - забыть) усвоенные знания, ценности, вкусы. Вторая, создающая широкие возможности для дальнейшего духовного развития личности, проявляется в том, что человек, став взрослым и начав свой самостоятельный трудовой путь, продолжает овладевать богатствами культуры посредством самообразования, самовоспитания, саморазвития..
Завершение трудового этапа социализации смыкается с началом ее шестого этапа, завершающей стадии - после трудовой деятельности, когда человек переходит к заслуженному отдыху. Этим этапом охватывается весь период пенсионерского существования личности. Проблемы жизнеустройства людей пенсионного возраста в современном обществе приобретают большую социальную значимость, так как в структуре народонаселения люди пожилого возраста занимают значительное место. Поэтому проблемы послетрудовой стадии социализации становятся очень актуальными и важными, особенно в связи с углубляющимся социальным расслоением общества на богатых и бедных и значительно более масштабным представительством пожилых людей в составе бедняков.

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Parenting Styles

...Parenting Styles Infancy and early childhood is one of the most serious and complicated stage of development because in this span of ages, the human being’s world still evolves in its parents’ means of taking care of them. “Each phase of the parent- child interaction can alter the status of the child so that during the subsequent phase of interaction the child stimulates the parent in a different way or reacts differently to parent behavior. In turn, parents discover that previous behaviors are no longer appropriate, and they are faced with finding new ways of guiding and interacting with the child” ( Hamner, 2001). Parenting is a huge responsibility. Some parents choose to practice an authoritative style of parenting. This type of parenting has high control but low responsiveness. Parents are often strict and have high expectations for their child’s behavior. They also value obedience and discipline and sometimes use punishment when their children do not do what is expected of them. The parents that practice this type of parenting do not explain the reasoning behind the rules they set. If the child asks why things and rules are like they are, the parents’ response will simply be because they said so. These parents are “obedience- and status-oriented, and expect their orders to be obeyed without explanation” (Baumrind, 1991). The product of such parenting is children that are obedient and good student but are also unhappy, anxious, and......

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