Free Essay


In: Science

Submitted By johnmaina
Words 294
Pages 2
How a Submarine Works


Institutional Affiliation

A submarine is a unique watercraft capable of operating on or under water. Like other water vessels, a submarine floats on water because it displaces water that is equal to its weight. The pressure exerted by the submarine down on the water is equal to the pressure of the water pushing it up (Doyle, 2003, p.3).
A submarine can move on water or underwater because it can control its buoyancy. A submarine has special tanks that can be filled with water or air that helps it to control its buoyancy. When the tanks are occupied with water, the submarine weight increases, and, therefore it sinks. When the tanks are filled with air, the weight of the submarine decreases, and, therefore it floats on water (Doyle, 2003, p.4).
When the submarine is diving into the water, the air is released through a vent, and the vacuum created is filled with water, and the submarine sinks in water. The amount of water in the tank determines the depth that the submarine will sink.
A supply of air is maintained onboard to fill and refill the tanks. The air is important in controlling the depth of the submarine. During emergency situations, the tanks are filled with high-pressure air to return the submarine to the surface quickly (Doyle, 2003, p.9).
Oxygen used in the submarine by the crew is pumped in, and it is monitored by a computer. The carbon dioxide exhaled by the crew is removed by machines called scrubbers to prevent toxicity. The moisture exhaled from breathing is eliminated by machines called dehumidifiers to prevent condensation on the interior of the submarine (Doyle, 2003, p.15).

Doyle, K. (2003). Submarines. Minneapolis: Lerner Pub.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Submarine Warfare

...WWII Submarine Warfare Germany’s surrender and agreement not to retain any submarines due to the Armstice terms in 1918 and the Treaty of Versailles was short-lived. Britain was not ready for Hitler’s initiation 20 years later. After building up his submarine stock since 1935, his initiative to intercept merchant ships in the Atlantic commenced in 1939. The directive was to sink more supply line ships than the Allies could replace to force a surrender through starvation and lack of supplies. This initiative created what was known as the Battle of the Atlantic. Known as the longest continuous campaign of World War II, the Battle of the Atlantic mostly involved the Allies protecting the shipping routes across the Atlantic which were constantly being intercepted by German U-boats. The Nazi’s submarines, referred to by most as U-boats, were more like submersible ships than submarines at the time. They ran on diesel engines for their surface time and battery for their submersed. They dove beneath the water only when they were attacked or for torpedo strikes during the day. More often attacks were made on the surface at night. This was extremely effective in the early years of the war as they were virtually untraceable due to the lack of sonar technologies at the time. This time was known to Germans as “die gluckliche Zeit” or “the happy time”. Many classes of U-boats were made, but the most prominent of them were Type VII, the workhorse (700 active), Type IX, larger with......

Words: 672 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

A Submarine Voyage During the American Revolution

...A Submarine Voyage During the American Revolution Community College HRY 101: Modern Western Civilization II April 7th, 2014 A Submarine Voyage During the American Revolution It is usually not too difficult for most Americans to rattle off the names of heroes associated with the American Revolution. George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Ben Franklin, or Paul Revere would likely be at the top of most lists. But, what of the heroes of the American Revolution that are rarely talked about? What of heroes such as the Bushnell Brothers and Sgt. Ezra Lee, for example, who scared the British Navy with an early creation of a military submarine? That's right. A submarine existed during the American Revolution. Certainly, most would admit very little knowledge of these unknown heroes, let alone a submarine, when referencing the American Revolution. There were so many important figures and major events that happened throughout the war, that it would be difficult for anyone, with the exception of some historians, to review and remember every detail. Yet, reviewing the lesser known details of the American Revolution will also reveal just as important figures and events that helped frame the outcome of American history. David and Ezra Bushnell, along with Sgt. Ezra Lee, might be unfamiliar to most Americans, but their ingenuity and courage is certainly worthy of recognition for giving the American Colonies an advantage over the British Naval Fleet...

Words: 1814 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Us Navy Submarines

...US Navy Submarines Today I want to tell you about US Navy submarines. My first question when thinking about submarines was, “why are they painted black”? The answer is they are painted black to help them hide while they are doing their jobs. Black has been proven to be the best color for hiding in the ocean. I found it interesting that submarines can go faster than 25 knots under water, which is about 29 miles per hour. The actual depth they can go to is classified, but they can go to depths greater than 800 feet. Submarines are not equipped with windows to let the crew see outside under water. Next I started wondering about how big a submarine was. There are two classes of submarines that are each 33 feet wide. The Fast Attack Submarines (which are the ones my dad served on) are 362 feet long, which is a little bit longer than a football field. The other class, Ballistic Missile Submarines are 560 feet long. This is almost as long as 2 football fields, or a few feet longer than the Washington Monument. They both carry torpedoes, cruise missiles, and mines. Ballistic Missile Submarines also carry long range ballistic missiles. Considering the size of these vessels, and all the ammunition they carry, you can imagine that the crew must not be very large. Generally, the crew consists of 14 Officers, 18 Chief Petty Officers, and 109 enlisted men. Their living quarters are called “berthing areas” and are less than 15 square feet of space per man for sleeping and......

Words: 346 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Collins Class Submarine

...The Collins Class Submarine Story: Steel, Spies and Spin is the joint production of Peter Yule and Derek Woolner, and is a project commissioned by Cambridge University Press with support from the Department of Defence. It cites its aim as ‘simply to tell the story of the submarine project from its origins to about 2005.’ The book itself is based upon a combination of unclassified, open source and specially declassified material and, perhaps most importantly, more than 130 interviews with many of the protagonists. In many ways the book achieves what it sets out to do. The authors have, despite the introduction indicating a certain hauteur in relation to military and defence issues, presented an honest, generally dispassionate and reasonably comprehensive narrative. They have let the various actors speak for themselves and, so far as the third-person narrative permits, with their own voices. They convey very well the tale of an extraordinarily ambitious project that achieved much, but which was dogged by complex problems, conflicting interests and increasing controversy as the years went on. They give credit where it is due and are careful about ascribing blame to individuals. This is as it should be, since some of the decisions which may appear most egregious in retrospect generally had more than reasonable justification at the time. Nevertheless, there are some significant faults. The text is somewhat dense and the technical explanations not always completely clear......

Words: 1791 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Global Submarine Market Is Expected to Reach Us $36.6 Billion by 2025

...The Global Submarine Market 2015-2025 report provides readers with a detailed analysis of both historic and forecast global industry values, factors influencing demand, the challenges faced by industry participants, analysis of industry leading companies, and key news. Key Findings – The global Submarine market is expected to be worth US$22.9 billion in 2015, and is expected increase to US$36.6 billion by 2025, representing a CAGR of 4.78% during the forecast period. – The market is anticipated to be dominated by North America, followed by Asia- Pacific and Europe. The US is the largest spender, with a cumulative expenditure of US$112.2 billion over the next decade. – In terms of segments, SSN is expected to account for 39% of the global submarine market, followed by SSKs and SSBNs, occupying shares of 36% and 25% respectively. Synopsis This report offers detailed analysis of the global submarine market with market size forecasts covering the next ten years. This report will also analyze factors that influence demand for the global submarine market, key market trends, and challenges faced by industry participants. In particular, it provides an in-depth analysis of the following: – Global submarine market size and drivers: detailed analysis of the global submarine market during 2015-2025, including highlights of the demand drivers and growth stimulators for submarines. It also provides a snapshot of the spending and modernization patterns of different regions......

Words: 716 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Collins Class Submarine Project

...EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Royal Australian Navy’s Collins Class Submarine is designed to replace the 30 year old Oberon Submarines. The Collins Class is the first submarine to be made in Australia and is the most advanced of its time due to its software architecture. Deep Trouble addresses various issues that were faced during the design and development stages of the Collins Class project. This report will focus on the interrelationship between the three PMBOK knowledge areas of scope, procurement and quality management and the impact each had on the final project. The Collins Class submarine was prone to excessive noise signatures whilst travelling at speed and lacked the operational capability to enter conflict situations due to the an insufficient combat system. The selection process for the design of the Collins Class and the fundamental capabilities the navy required directly impacted the quality of the final product due to the scope of the design not being fully understood by the manufacturing companies. The Collins Class project was an opportunity for Australia to become a ‘technological powerhouse’ by having the Collins Class submarines built within Australia. This report addressed how certain issues discussed within Deep Trouble impacted the knowledge areas of scope, procurement and quality management within this complex project and how the interrelationship between them contributed to a submarine that has adversely weakened our national defences. ...

Words: 1357 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Crimson Tide

...Crimson Tide: A Study in Organizational Behavior Ziyao Yang 23 Feb. 2015 The Alabama of submarine is a closed system of organization system in the movie "Crimson Tide." This organization has a specific goal - to complete the military mission nuclear attack. The submarine has very clear of organizational structure. It has a professional positions setting and the organization internal rules, hierarchy is very specification and organization members have their expertise. This is a typical hierarchical organization and it has advantage of formal, normative, rigorous, and rational. There characteristics is a necessary condition keeping the normal function effectively. The Alabama is an organization. In this Alabama of submarine, clear Level and stringent system are reflected in submarines of organizational. In this Alabama submarine, all actions are made order to the captain. The main action within the submarine can be attributed to a captain has supreme the power. The Ramsey of captain uses a way to show his power. He is vigorous and resolute to do everything. He insistence his rules, and with respect and norms subordinates stringent education. This organization described Ramsey of captain use an effective control strategy to manage this submarine. For subordinates, the captain takes the extreme pressure means: “Any crew member who feels he can't handle this situation, can leave the ship right now." Also the captain had told the vice captain "Those sailors out there are......

Words: 966 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Whales Fam

...Whales subjected to military sonar will neither dive nor feed, according to an unpublished 2007 report from the UK military, obtained by Nature after a request under the Freedom of Information Act 2000. The impact of sonar on whales has become an increasingly fraught issue in recent years, with submarine exercises being linked to several high-profile mass strandings. The US Navy has admitted concerns over sonar’s effects on marine mammals, although actual evidence for harm has been in short supply. submarine Submarines' sonar has been implicated in whale strandings.Punchstock But military-sponsored tests now suggest that low levels of sonar, which do not cause direct damage to whales, could still cause harm by triggering behavioural changes. The UK military report details observations of whale activity during Operation Anglo-Saxon 06, a submarine war-games exercise in 2006. Produced for the UK’s Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, it states the results are “potentially very significant”. The study used an array of hydrophones to listen for whale sounds during the war games. Across the course of the exercise, the number of whale recordings dropped from over 200 to less than 50. “Beaked whale species ... appear to cease vocalising and foraging for food in the area around active sonar transmissions,” concludes the report. It notes, “Since these animals feed at depth, this could have the effect of preventing a beaked whale from feeding over the course of......

Words: 889 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...A Little Man with a Big Problem Theme: God's forgiveness. Proper 26 (31) Year C Object: A periscope. (You can make your own.) Scripture: For the Son of Man came to seek and to save what was lost." Luke 19:10 (NIV) Have you ever been to a parade where you couldn’t see over the person in front of you? It isn't much fun to go to a parade if you can't see the marching bands, the floats, or the fire trucks with their flashing lights, is it? When that happens, a periscope may be just what you need. The periscope has two mirrors in it so that you can look in the bottom and see out the top. It allows you to see over tall objects or even around a corner. Periscopes are used in submarines so that the people in the submarine can see what is happening above the water. I have seen people using these at parades and at sports events where they may have difficulty seeing above the crowd. Today’s Bible story is about a man who went to a parade, but couldn't see above the crowd. The main attraction in this parade was Jesus. He had become quite famous because he had performed many miracles. He had raised Lazarus from the dead and had restored sight to a blind man named Bartimaus, so when he entered the city of Jericho, the atmosphere was very much like a circus parade. People lined the streets hoping to get a glimpse of Jesus. One of the people in the crowd was a man who was very short. He was so short that he couldn’t see above all the people in the crowd. You probably know this......

Words: 609 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

How Responsive the Demand for Potato Chips

...Jesse Barrett February 1, 2010 HUMN 432 Weapons of the Future: Welcome to the future of technology in the 20th century. As the world progresses to grow, the weapons and technology do to. The question exist that “ What will the future be with weapons?” Will robots be built to have weapons in place of human soldiers? Many questions pop in our minds, thoughts, and opinions about what the future is capable of. In humanity today, we usually hear or see these issues from the radio, television, internet, and so on. Meaning that we can believe whatever the media is saying, but we honestly don’t know what the future holds in store for weapons, just violence. I wanted to talk about robots and the U.S. Department of Defense that will have one-third of its fighting capacity provided by robots. In this issue robots can be good or bad, just depending on the scenario at hand. The good reason is that these robots take place of human beings to save many lives. It saves humanity from risking their own lives in the line of battle, to spend more time with their loved ones. Another reason robots are good for taking out terrorist, and any other dangerous situation without feeling, emotion, or heart. On the opposite side, if robots fail or turn against their creator or humanity, just like the movie “ Terminator”, starring Arnold Schwarzenegger. Robots would also cause chaos if not programmed correctly to follow orders but is just required to kill. By the year 2035, the 1st completely...

Words: 1403 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Impact of Sonar on Marine Mammals

...The U.S. Navy has been working to advance its ability to detect enemy submarines for decades. The Navy’s low-frequency sonar system has been a topic of controversy among environmental advocates for years. This system, known as Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LAF) allows the Navy to detect enemy submarines with enough time to react and defend themselves. During the course of developing and testing the SURTASS LFA system, environmental interest groups raised concerns that the system may cause harm to marine mammals. Whales use sound for communication, navigation, orientation, and in locating food. This is known as echolocation. The Navy’s mid-frequency sonar can cause whales to dive deeper into the ocean, or rise quickly. Like humans, whales can get the bends from these types of underwater movements. The loud noises created by the Navy’s sonar system are believed to interrupt their ability to communicate, navigate and look for food. These disruptions are believed to harm the whales physically and cause state of panic which often leads to strandings and collisions (Drumm). Active sonar utilizes sound in order to find objects in the water. A pulse is sent through the water, and then reflects off an object. This is called an echo. The receiver will convert the echoes into electrical signals which are digitally displayed on board the vessel. The high tech computers will be able to extract information such as distance and direction of the......

Words: 1293 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Pearl Harbor

...interest. They also knew that they had some of the oldest and seasoned Admirals in the world. Ones who did not need to know about new technology as long as they could command the leviathans, the dreadnaught battleships, which had been the center of U.S. Naval strategy for over 60 years. However as the last of Admiral Nagumo’s airplane banked triumphantly away from the smoking ruins of the US Pacific Fleet, most in America at first believed that American had indeed lost the war before war could even be officially declared. (Whitlock, Flint; Smith, Ron (2008). The U.S. Navy's failure wasn't just because of lack of leadership or technology. It was also due to racial stereotypes that American's believed to be true. "Bud Cooper says that on his submarine, “We believed [the Japanese] couldn’t really sail a ship without going aground. We had a very low regard for...

Words: 1461 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Supply in the Navy

...Supply in the US Navy I work for one of the largest companies in the world. This company is spread out throughout the United States, and even has bases overseas. The company that I’m referring to is the US Navy. Each command within this company has their own mission and requires different things to execute their mission. Spending millions on a weekly basis is very common within this organization. Suppliers have to be ready to ship parts needed out at all times, and be very flexible. The Us Navy spends most of its money on building new ships, supplies for ships, ammunition, and fuel. Without these supplies, they wouldn’t be able to conduct missions around world. I work in a division referred to as Dockmasters. The job of a Dockmaster is to safely dock and undock ships. Daily, I’m seeing twenty to thirty truckloads of supplies being brought to ships before they deploy for a span of nine to ten months. Over the last year, America has seen large cuts in the area of our defense referred to as Sequestration, but the Navy is still spending lots of money to execute. For example, “the request for the Department of Defense (DoD) includes $525.4 billion in discretionary budget authority to fund base defense programs and $88.5 billion to support Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO), primarily in Afghanistan. The discretionary budget, $155.9 billion represents the Department of the Navy's budget request. This is a decrease of $1.4 billion from last year's baseline appropriation......

Words: 702 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


.../170However, when buying a boat whether it is a pontoon or ski boat, it is not an easy choice. There are many things to think to keep in mind. Every boat has different amenities; pontoon boats can even have a barbeque grill. A key thing to look at is how many people will be going on the boat when at the lake. Also, keep in mind how long of a boat might be, they can range from 15 to 35 feet long. In addition, will the boat be used for fishing, skiing, or wakeboarding? Engine size might not be as important to some, but the bigger the engine the faster the boat. On the lake there is no speed limit to how fast a boat can go. One big factor to consider when buying a boat is if has the amenities that will be needed such as a good radio, ice chest, cup holders, and the amount of seats to accommodate everyone. In Oklahoma, Tahoe ski boats are the number one selling ski boat in the state. Tahoe ski boats are also very reasonable in price. Evan though pontoon boats are not the number one selling boat in Oklahoma, the brand Sun Tracker remains the most famous of all pontoon boats in the United States. Sun tracker pontoon boats are the most commonly used pontoon boat in all the United States lakes. Certainly a huge factor to consider is the price of the boat; ski boats cost aroud$15,000 to $45,000 although, on the other hand, pontoon boats average around $12,000 to $25,000 new. These are many things that can make it easier for choosing which style of boat when purchasing. In......

Words: 382 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...EUROPEAN QUALIFYING EXAMINATION 2009 PAPER A ELECTRICITY / MECHANICS This paper comprises: * * Client’s Letter Client’s Drawings 2009/A(E/M)/e/1-8 2009/A(E/M)/e/9-14 2009/A(E/M)/e -1Client’s Letter Dear Mr. Nedland, [001] My name is Pierre Aronnax. I am professor of marine biology and an enthusiastic hobby diver. I have invented a valve for a snorkel. [002] All too often, a breathtaking coral reef seduces the snorkeller to dive deeper under water. When the free end of a conventional snorkel submerges, i.e. plunges completely below the water surface, its breathing tube fills with water. Upon resurfacing the snorkeller has then to blow the breathing tube free of water before drawing another breath through the snorkel. Different snorkel valves are on the market, which prevent water from entering the breathing tube. These snorkel valves automatically close the free end of the snorkel when the snorkel submerges. [003] The most well-known of these snorkel valves is sold by Nemo Tubes Ltd. under the name "Nautilus". Fig. 1 shows a snorkel equipped with a Nautilus valve. Figs. 2A-2C show a Nautilus valve in use. [004] Snorkel 1 has a J-shaped breathing tube 2 with a mouthpiece 3 at one end. At the other end of the breathing tube 2, a tube portion 5 of a mushroom-shaped snorkel valve 4 is releasably fixed. Alternatively, the tube portion 5 may be integrally formed with the breathing tube 2. [005] The tube portion 5 opens into a hemispherical end piece 6. As......

Words: 2710 - Pages: 11