Free Essay

Substance Abuse and Disability

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By mcleodkeith
Words 964
Pages 4
Chapter 19: Substance Use and Disability The chapter on Substance Use and Disability in the Marini and Stebnicki textbook was a brief discussion of the various drugs categories and the comorbidity of drug use and mental/physical disability. The occurrence of two separate clinical diagnoses is referred to as “dual diagnosis”. As used in this chapter, the term dual-diagnosis includes the occurrence of a physical, mental, or intellectual disability along with the presence of a substance use disorder (Marini & Stebnick, 2012).
There are several different categories of substances and they all have different effects on the body. Stimulants such as cocaine, amphetamines, and methamphetamines effect the central nervous system and often have behavioral effects such as mood elevations and euphoria. Hallucinogens such as MDMA, LSD, and psilocybin can have hallucinogenic effects on a person’s perception, mood, and state of mind. Marijuana is described as a drug that effects the central nervous system and can cause a euphoric high, heightened sensory perceptions, and hallucinations in higher doses. Depressants consist of psychoactive drugs such as barbituaties, sleeping pills, and alcohol. These substances depress the central nervous system and can result in decreased motor activity and a sedating effect (Marini & Stebnick, 2012, pgs. 295-99).
Opiates include substances such as heroin, morphine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and codeine. These drugs have an effect on the brain with feelings of a euphoric high and can be psychologically and physiologically addicting. Inhalants are another class of abused substances which can be solvents, glue, paint, gasoline, and other chemicals that are sniffed, huffed, or inhaled into the lungs. Benzodiazepines and sedative hypnotics have a tranquilizing effect or anxiety reducing effect on the central nervous system (Marini & Stebnick, 2012, pgs. 299-301).

According to the Marini textbook, substance use disorders among people with disabilities occurs at a much higher rate than that of the general population. Depending on the type of disability, substance abuse prevalence among people with disabilities range from 12% up to 60% (Marini & Stebnick, 2012, p. 292). A report by the U.S. Surgeon General in 2005 indicated that each year an estimated 1.5 million people with disabilities need substance abuse treatment. The Surgeon General’s report also stated that people with disabilities have a greater likelihood of substance use than people from the general population (Surgeon General, 2005). Substance abuse rates among people with spinal cord injuries, traumatic brain injuries, or forms of mental illness is estimated to approach or exceed 50%. This is compared to the 10% rate for people in the general population, which illustrates the wide disparity (Gilson et al, 1996).
The use of illicit substances among the disabled population only adds to the challenges that people with disabilities have to face. Substance use disorders in people with disabilities can impair self-care activities, increase medical complications, and can result in overall poorer physical health. This often has a negative impact on vocational rehabilitation outcomes by creating additional difficulties in adapting to disability and recovering from a substance use disorder (Ebener & Smedema, 2011). Studies have indicated that many people began substance use as a way to cope with their physical or mental disability. The numbing effects of alcohol or illicit drugs are often used as a way try to cope with physical pain or emotional stress during the initial onset of the disability. However this results in poor psychosocial adaptation to the disability and also results in poor vocational outcomes in vocational rehabilitation cases (Ebener & Smedema, 2011). A 1996 study by Gilson, et al found that the type of drugs used varies based on the age group. The study found that “younger people with disabilities were more likely to have used crack or heroin than their nondisabled peers, but among older subjects (35 and older), the use of non-medically prescribed sedatives or tranquilizers was more prevalent among disabled than nondisabled respondents” (Gilson et al, 1996). Furthermore, the study by Gilson et al, (1996) also found that people with more severe physical disabilities reported a higher use of non-medically prescribed tranquilizers and sedatives than those with less severe disabilities or with no disability. Tranquilizers and sedatives are sometimes used to treat anxiety and other disorders but the medications are highly addictive and can lead to prescription abuse. These medications start out being prescribed for medical reasons but after it becomes addictive, the person needs more and more of the medication in order for it to have the same effect. Substance abuse counseling and treatment for people with a disability can have its own set of challenges because of issues in adapting to their disability as well as disability-related functional limitations. Treatment of a person with a disability often takes the approach from a quality of life standpoint to address issues such as problems with social, family, employment, and financial areas of life. Addressing the issue of denial is also important in successful recovery from a substance abuse disorder. It is suggested by some researchers that as the level of adaptation to disability increases, the individual’s level of denial will likely decrease and lead to a more successful recovery for the substance user (Ebener & Smedema, 2011) .

References
Ebener, D. J., & Smedema, S. M. (2011). Physical Disability and Substance Use Disorders: A
Convergence of Adaptation and Recovery. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 54(3), 131-141. doi:10.1177/0034355210394873
Gilson, S.F., Chilcoat, H.D., & Stapleton, J.M. (1996). Illicit drug use by persons with disabilities: Insights from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.
American Journal of Public Health, 86(11), 1613-1615.
Marini, I. & Stebnicki, M. (2012). The psychological and social impact of illness and disability. 6th ed. New York: NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Surgeon General: Substance abuse problems affect 87% of the disabled. (2005). Alcoholism &
Drug Abuse Weekly, 17(31), 3-4.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Careers in Human Services

...outlook of whether or not I would go into this career? Why or why not? First I would like to start off with a Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors whom primary tasks are counseling and advising individuals who suffer from alcohol, drug addiction, eating disorders, gambling, and other behavioral problems. They may counsel individuals, families, groups, or even engage in prevention programs, to help individuals recover from addiction or modify their behavioral patterns with the intentions of gaining full recovery. As a Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors they provide direct service to the clients. In their role they provided services geared towards behavior changes, primarily to change clients’ behavior, ranging from coaching and counseling to casework, psychotherapy, and behavior therapy (Woodside & McClam, 2012, p.186). Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselor are always ready to lend a helping hand to people who may be struggling with addiction of behavioral disorder, and they will work with their clients to better understand the conditions of that human being. The educational requirements to become a Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselor can range from a high school diploma and certification to a Master's Degree in Counseling or Social Work (U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014). However, Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors that chooses to work in private practices must be licensed, which varies......

Words: 1548 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Alcohol Abuse

...Running Head: Alcohol and Substance Abuse 1 Alcohol and Substance Abuse Special Populations Lynne Trevisan September 14, 2013 Alcohol and Substance Abuse 2 Alcohol and Substance Abuse Alcohol and substance abuse is a very big problem in the United States. Many times it is the root cause of other problems exists in our lives. It not only affects the individuals’ physical and mental abilities, but it also affects the lives of family members. Therapy starts with the individual wanting to get better, and also with the members of the community taking notice of the vulnerable population in their neighborhoods, and surrounding communities. In this presentation, we will identify the people who are, or maybe most vulnerable to alcohol and substances, for whatever the reason might be, and identify the causes that make them vulnerable. We will look to implement a program into the community that will focus on prevention, and treatment in long term continuum program of therapy. These population groups, those who suffer from alcohol and drug use are most vulnerable because, there are limited jobs, leaders, and community cohesiveness. With limited jobs coming into the community, many people suffer from depression, and many times this is what starts the drinking or drug use. It might be a reaction to a problem that was already under the surface, lying dormant in a person’s sole, but the truth is, this problem only become worse once depression...

Words: 2314 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Stats Final

...and Treatments of Addictions Tracy J Lancaster Behavioral Satistics 325 July 29th 2012 Instructor Sasha Flearly Causes and Treatments of Addiction Introduction Addiction is a condition defined by an individual's intense need to consume a particular substance, usually an illicit drug or alcohol. Typically regarded as a disease or medical condition, addiction is seen by many as a form of disability. Addiction is generally diagnosed based on the following criteria: tolerance, withdrawal, and craving. Tolerance refers to the body's ability to metabolize, or tolerate, a certain quantity of a substance prior to reaching the point of intoxication. Withdrawal refers to the agitated behavior, ranging from mild irritability to severe physical illness that many habitual substance users display when they cannot consume their desired substances (Hamid, 2002). Finally, craving refers to a user's physical, and frequently psychological, need to consume a substance in order to offset withdrawal symptoms. People are believed to be addicts when they habitually consume drugs or alcohol, often to the point of intoxication, and when they display signs of withdrawal and craving in the absence of those substances. Recently some scholarship has examined how many behaviors like gambling, sex, and exercise can also be addictive based on these criteria. Thesis Statement Drug Addiction is a relatively recent construct in a social phenomenon. That is, regardless of the use of......

Words: 1918 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

...Running Head: FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME 1 FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME 2 Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most recognizable form of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FAS is characterized by a pattern of minor facial anomalies, prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, and central nervous system abnormalities. Those born with FAS often have behavioral and learning difficulties. The consequences of the damages caused by the mother's drinking is lifelong (Wattendorf & Muenke, 2005). To date, there has been no extensive population-based studies done (Vaux & Chambers, 2012). However, data in one sample demonstrated that approximately 1 in 100 children have alcohol-related effects. In high-risk pregnancies, predicted incidences of fetal alcohol syndrome are approximate and differ because of varied definitions of heavy drinking and inconsistent methods of diagnosis. For this reason, rates range from 4% to as much as 44%.The estimation of FAS in the United States is 1-2 cases per 1000 live births (Wattendorf & Muenke, 2005) . Fetal alcohol exposure is the leading known cause of mental retardation in the Western world. The term Fetal Alcohol Syndrome was first published in a 1973 article in the British medical journal......

Words: 2136 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Social Security Benefits

...Can alcoholics and drug addicts really get Social Security disability benefits? Not anymore. There never were all that many people getting Social Security disability benefits on account of alcoholism or drug addiction, but Congress has now prohibited Social Security from paying disability benefits on the basis of alcoholism or drug addiction. However, alcoholics and drug addicts have heart attacks, get cancer or get sick in other ways just like everyone else. Alcoholics and drug addicts who become disabled apart from their alcoholism or drug addiction can become eligible for Social Security disability benefits. Abstract Social Security Disability Insurance (SSD or SSDI) is a payroll tax-funded, federal insurance program of the United States government. It is managed by the Social Security Administration and is designed to provide income supplements to people who are physically restricted in their ability to be employed because of a notable disability, usually a physical disability. SSD can be supplied on either a temporary or permanent basis, usually directly correlated to whether the person's disability is temporary or permanent There are many different types of disablities that are covered under SSDI. However, one area that has been under heavy debate is whether or not substance abuse should be considered a disablity and funded by SSDI. This study examined symptom severity and level of functioning in recipients of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits...

Words: 1299 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Child Abuse

...Child Abuse 2 Just about all children have many different experiences that will have a major impact on their lives before they reach full maturity. A child can face a lot of dangerous things from the environment surroundings them which might seriously affect their whole life. The definition of Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act: Child abuse is any action from adult to a child that can be harmful to the child’s body or mental (Children Welfare Information Gateway 2007). In the year 2005 there were about 3.6 million investigations by Child Protective Services Agencies in the U.S. an estimated 899,000 children (24.97%) were confirmed to be victims of child abuse (Children’s Bureau 2005). In general there are 4 different types of child abuse and they are as follows neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse. In the case of neglect this is a parent or guardian is not meeting the primary needs of a child. The second is physical abuse and this is any physical injury inflicted upon the child with cruel or malicious intent. The third type of abuse is sexual abuse this is when an adult is involve in any sexual activity with a child. The last type of abuse is emotional maltreatment this is simply known as a behavior of children abuse that affects to the psychology life or social Child Abuse 3 Skills of a child. We can classify the reasons of child abuse into three different categories parental causes, ecological causes, and child......

Words: 987 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Effects of Substance Abuse on Unborn Babies

...Abstract Substance abuse during pregnancy can cause many medical problems for the baby after birth. Tobacco, alcohol, and many other forms of illegal substances can cause medical concerns both during pregnancy and after birth to a baby exposed during pregnancy. Low birth weight, heart defects and premature birth are some of the common effects of substance abuse during pregnancy. The Effects of Substance Abuse on Unborn Babies In today's society, people are talking about babies being born addicted to drugs, and how a mother could harm her unborn child. Substance abuse during pregnancy can have devastating and lasting effects on unborn babies. Drug addiction is a very serious condition that requires more research. We are still learning the effects of substance abuse. Doctors and nurses should not judge these women, but should instead give them the best prenatal care that can be provided. We need to see what harm and side effects substance abuse has on the mother and baby so that we can be able to better understand how to treat the both of them during pregnancy and after birth. Tobacco is sometimes called the lessor of all evils, but “there are over four thousand chemicals” (Johnson, 2012), including nicotine and carbon monoxide. These are the two most dangerous chemicals. Smoking during pregnancy affects the mother and baby’s health before, during, and after the baby is born. The nicotine (the addictive substance in tobacco), carbon monoxide, and numerous other......

Words: 1113 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Teretagon Use

...Fayne Davis Mary Beth Ray Psychology 220 15 April 2012 When Treatment Does Not Work Then Prosecute The phenomenon of substance abuse during pregnancy has fostered much controversy, specifically regarding treatment vs. punishment. Should the pregnant mother who engages in substance abuse be viewed as a criminal or as someone suffering from an illness requiring appropriate treatment? This diversity of dramatically different responses illustrates the failure to establish a uniform policy for the management of this problem. The issue of substance abuse is one that has negatively plagued society. The complexities surrounding addiction are not easily overcome. These complexities are even more defined in cases of substance abuse by pregnant women, including legal addictive substances such as nicotine and alcohol. This issue has been pushed to the forefront of the public consciousness over the course of the past 30 years. Murphy and Rosenbaum 1999, describe maternal prenatal substance abuse as “chronic use of alcohol and/or other drugs by pregnant women”. It is my belief that the use of tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs during pregnancy is still child endangerment .All these tetatogen’s can kill your baby or cause serious problems for them with the development of cognitive, physical, social, and emotional abilities. It is unfair to the child to have no control over what has caused them problems with development as a result of their mother’s......

Words: 2198 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Mental Health

...Flow Chart Mobile Treatment: Mobile Treatment Services provide assertive outreach, treatment and support to children and adults, within their natural environment. Our multi-disciplinary team of mobile treatment professionals provides culturally competent treatment services such as medication management, individual and group psychotherapy and case management services to effectively decrease the prevalence of mental illness, emotional dysfunction and social disturbance in children, youth, adults and families. Substance Abuse: Substance Abuse Treatment services encompass a continuum of preventative and customized treatment regimens for adolescents and adults seeking help for alcohol and drug addictions. Clients receive treatment from their own primary care physician and counselor addressing all aspects of life including mental health, referrals for medication management and other community based support. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Program: PRP services children, adolescents and adults by assigning each client a family service coordinator based upon the clients need and personality traits. The FSC provides one-on-one assistance via mobile treatment in the home, community or OMHC. The family service coordinator navigates the client through improving in areas such as social skills, coping skills, self sufficiency, academic success, anger management, family relationships and community integration, while consistently engaging the client in recreational......

Words: 490 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Chronically Homeless and Mentally Ill, and Their Plight to Housing

...the homeless system or on the street are both frequent and long. People that are homeless are reflective of every population demographic. There is no single path to homelessness, and despite stigmatizing images, no single stereotype fits. Individuals that are chronically homeless represent a range of individual vulnerabilities and face a many of systematic barriers that impede accessing adequate housing and services. Current economic climate presents the chance for homelessness to remain high (Coalition for the Homeless, 2002a). According to research, a substantial reduction in the occurrence of chronic homelessness could be achieved by linking affordable housing with treatment and support services. Alcohol and substance abuse is known as both a precipitating factor and consequence of homelessness can effect an individual’s ability to retain housing or limit housing options offered by programs requiring sobriety, and mask underlying or related mental health issues undetected or untreated in addiction treatment programs (Zerger, 2002). Individuals who have co-occurring disorders (COD) are particularly vulnerable to homelessness caused by more severe psychiatric symptoms, self-medication with drugs and alcohol, and frequent contact with the criminal justice system. Typically, once homeless, individuals with COD will have greater problems, need more help and are more...

Words: 1250 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Substances Abuse Is Serious Problems

...Substance Abuse is Serious Problem Substance abuse is on the rise amongst students not just in Fiji, but right around the world. Some common substances that student’s abuse is drugs, tobacco, white benzene and many more. Drugs can be inhaled, smoked, injected and taken as tablets. Glue and white benzene are sniffed whereas tobacco is smoked as cigarettes. This is the reason why “The Ministry of Education has reaffirmed its zero tolerance stands against the possession consumption, promotion, distribution, or sale of sale of all drugs” (Cababenatabua, 2009). Students normally start abusing these substances due to peer pressure; stress accumulated in school and at home, curiosity to try out new things, and to overcome bad experiences that they have gone through. This essay mainly focuses on how substance abuse affects the health, social, academic and economical sphere of student’s lives. First and for most, ‘substance abuse’ drastically affects the health of those students who consume it. As is highlighted by NSAAC Pamphlet, substance abuse affects student’s mental and physical health. In terms of mental health, the use of drug leads to memory loss which also associates with lack of concentration and focus. Other side effects mentioned are the decrease in intelligence level and depression. In addition to that, students who take drugs find it difficult to recall what he or she have read, heard or seen. Secondly, the physical health is also drastically affected when......

Words: 689 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Substances Abuse Is Serious Problem

...Substance Abuse is Serious Problem Substance abuse is on the rise amongst students not just in Fiji, but right around the world. Some common substances that student’s abuse is drugs, tobacco, white benzene and many more. Drugs can be inhaled, smoked, injected and taken as tablets. Glue and white benzene are sniffed whereas tobacco is smoked as cigarettes. This is the reason why “The Ministry of Education has reaffirmed its zero tolerance stands against the possession consumption, promotion, distribution, or sale of sale of all drugs” (Cababenatabua, 2009). Students normally start abusing these substances due to peer pressure; stress accumulated in school and at home, curiosity to try out new things, and to overcome bad experiences that they have gone through. This essay mainly focuses on how substance abuse affects the health, social, academic and economical sphere of student’s lives. First and for most, ‘substance abuse’ drastically affects the health of those students who consume it. As is highlighted by NSAAC Pamphlet, substance abuse affects student’s mental and physical health. In terms of mental health, the use of drug leads to memory loss which also associates with lack of concentration and focus. Other side effects mentioned are the decrease in intelligence level and depression. In addition to that, students who take drugs find it difficult to recall what he or she have read, heard or seen. Secondly, the physical health is also drastically affected when......

Words: 689 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Work Together to Prevent Substance Abuse

...Work Together To Prevent Substance Abuse in Adolescents Adolescent years can be really hard to deal with because of the many changes a teen can go through mentally and physically. Sometimes a teen can feel that turning to drugs or alcohol is the answer, which can lead to substance abuse. Substance abuse among teens can be one of the reasons they are not doing well in school, have problems with authority figures, drive under the influence and turn to having unprotected sexual relationships, resulting in a high risk for contracting sexually transmitted diseases like AIDS or HIV. The United States has the highest rate of adolescent drug use among teens who are around the ages of 12-17. Among these teens there are some risk factors that go along with the substance abuse. Teens may have poor self-esteem, learning disabilities, depression and other mood disorders, distancing from peers or family, aggression and physical or sexual abuse which can have serious effects on a teen and can lead to suicide. Substance abuse in teens can also be associated with disruptive behaviors such as conduct disorders, oppositional disorders like ADD or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder known as ADHD which can carry on into adulthood. There are other risk factors that can contribute to teens turning to drugs and alcohol and why teens continue to use these substances. For instance, peer pressure can have......

Words: 692 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Phoenix Center

...Lisa Wicker at Phoenix Center. She is the Coordinator of Developmental Disabilities. There are five people Ken Pritchard, Chairperson, Wayne Robinson, Vice Chairperson, Linda curry, Faye coulter, Harold Dickey. On the Board of Directors, Management team there are twelve Executive Management Team, James E. Singleton, Chief Executive Officer, Dan Ioanitescu, Medical Director, Patty Winter Clinical Director, Lisa Wicker, Coordinator of Developmental Disabilities, Nancie Masters, Director, Human Resources, James Parrish, Sr., Director of information Technology Management, Sandra Olsen, Chief Financial Officer, Angela Lofy, RN, Nurse Manager, Crisis Stabilization Unit, Demetrice Burner, Coordinator, Substance Abuse Service, Adrianne F. Towels, Outpatient Services Coordinator, Meave Brennan, CARF Accreditation & Performance Improvement(Phoenix Center n.d) Phoenix Center Behavioral Health Services was established in 1970. This organization has provided services for over 30,000 adults, children and adolescents, and families for the past 40 years in the Middle Georgia area. Phoenix center is a Not for Profit community care giver. Donations are received to help serve the local community. This public corporation was created by the Georgia General Assembly to address the needs of children and adults with a mental illness, addictive disease or intellectual or developmental disability. They primarily serve the counties of Houston, Peach, and......

Words: 1130 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Addiction

...allegedly prostituting for crack cocaine. Patient is in stable condition and being held for 24 hours for further observation. Per the police report, charges for possession of crack cocaine will be dropped if patient seeks treatment. Patient was referred to treatment by the hospital social worker. 26 Aug 2015 approx. 0900, I met with Candace regarding treatment options. Patient was noncompliant with further medical treatment and experiencing severe withdrawal from crack cocaine but willing to seek treatment. Patient has no previous treatment history for addictive behavior. Patient admits she was diagnosed with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder from an unknown provider for chronic history of physical and sexual abuse by men. Patient is unemployed and currently receiving disability payments for mental health issues. No amount was disclosed. No family support in current area, parents and siblings live out of state. Main Review Applications of Disease Models Upon discharge from Capella Hospital, I scheduled Candace for an appointment the following morning to continue the treatment process....

Words: 732 - Pages: 3