Premium Essay

Suffrage Denied

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Laurencio
Words 8733
Pages 35

SUFFRAGE DENIED: Sociedad Comercial del Plata and the Disenfranchisement of Its Bondholders
By Laurence P. Wiener1

To promote investment in Argentine companies, in 1988 the Argentine Government revised laws to imbue holders of securities qualified as obligaciones negociables (negotiable obligations) with specific rights to assure the securities’ transferability and rapid judicial resolution of claims for nonpayment.2 To further attenuate risk, investors insisted on foreign laws to govern substantive terms of the securities. By the late 1990s, as various Argentine issuers began defaulting on their obligations, these bondholder rights and protections were tested. It soon became apparent that bondholders were far more vulnerable than originally thought. Highly-publicized reorganization proceedings undertaken by Argentine bond issuers, including In re Central Términal Güemes S.A.3 and In re Supercanal S.A.4, illustrated procedural difficulties encountered by bondholders. Investors found themselves hampered in having their claims admitted by Argentine bankruptcy courts and in being represented as a group by a bondholder trustee or fiscal agent. No case, however, better illustrates the great divide between the expectations of foreign creditors and the outcome of an Argentine insolvency proceeding than In re Sociedad Comercial del Plata S.A.5

Of Counsel, Negri & Tejeiro Abogados (Buenos Aires, Argentina). The author wishes to give special thanks to Dr. Alejandro Breit for his invaluable help and patience in reviewing this article and to Stephanie de Moerloose for her comments and help with the more tedious tasks. This publication has been prepared solely for educational purposes. It provides general information and should not be used or taken as specific legal advice. For further information on this publication, please contact the author at (54-11)...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

How Far Could Britain Be Described as a Democratic Country by 1911?

...extension of the franchise in Britain was a significant factor in securing democratic status. The Second Reform Act of 1867, known as the “Great leap in the dark” doubled the British electorate and gave one in three men living in towns the vote if they were property owners or paid an annual rent of over £10. This was a step towards democracy however, although a greater number of men were now liable to vote the electorate system was still dominated by middle classes and voting remained open to bribery and corruption. The 1884 Reform Act proposed further parliamentary reform, allowing working class men living in the countryside the same voting rights as those in towns; thus ensuring the electorate was further doubled to almost 5million. Universal suffrage was quickly evolving and political parties faced increasing pressure. The rapid extension of the franchise stimulated differentiating political ideology and this aided democracy as voters were given more choice, however not all adults held the right the right to vote. Historian TC Smout argued that “some 40%of the adult males in...

Words: 1066 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Business Management work is not consider to be hard labor. However, with all that said women roles in society began to change during the eighteenth and nineteenth century when women began to work outside the home during war time. In the late eighteenth and nineteenth century women’s rights began to take center stage in the United States because women wanted the same rights as men’s. They also began to challenge laws that denied them the same rights under the law as men such as the right to hold on to their property once they were married to hold government offices, equal pay, and the right to vote and many others. During the 19th century women began to campaign for the right to vote in the form of the Women’s’ Suffrage Legislations which is the nineteenth amendment in the constitution that granted women the right to vote because at the time only white males could vote. However, even though the woman suffrage movement brought about the outspoken articulations of women's increasing demand to be given rights traditionally denied them. The lesser-known voices for gender equality and woman suffrage, especially from black women who suffered the prejudices of both gender and race, even from white women who often excluded black women from their delegations and conventions...

Words: 609 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...exploiting ways on taking advantage of its use. The newspaper was very diverse with its variety of information that was prevalent during 1911. However, during this time period and publication dates of October 10th through the 16th there were many different views within the government politics, women’ suffrage, Negros, sports and a diseases namely tuberculosis and typhoid fever, and the world series of baseball. The Dallas Morning news was a daily paper and the reader’s intended for this newspaper was for middle to higher-class citizens, who were looking for the latest and greatest information about the world. Also, intended for spectators of sports in detail and perhaps who would play that day or who would win a specific game. During 1911 and October 10-16th there was an immense amount of talk about California Election Day and if woman suffrage would be allowed. This was a hard fault battle according to the letter “Relegation to secondary positions by strenuous exponents of suffrage”, which was very downgrading to woman and how they could be essential to the voting and having a right to vote on what they feel is right or not right. Essentially, the triumph was recorded for women suffrage, which was huge for women’s rights and equality as a citizen. There was talk about Woodrow Wilson almost certain he and the Democrats would win the next election, he...

Words: 1756 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Women's Suffrage

...York, which is known as the Women’s Suffrage movement. This movement was a fight for equality, which could be seen as the birth of feminism. Although there were many women who led the fight for equal voice, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony were the two primary figures of the movement. Due to California’s political climate, the movement brought great disappointment and victory for women’s rights. Disappointment turned into resolve and set forth the movement in California. Women created coalitions and started to spread their word from southern to northern California for their voice to be heard by others. The movement in California was comprised of white middle class women, but they didn’t support Asians because they feared white backlash. Soon, the eyes of the nation opened in 1911 when male voters approved women’s right vote making California the largest state to approve of women’s suffrage. Women’s suffrage in California reached started out on a high note. In 1893, early success came when the women’s suffrage bill won approval in the state legislature but it was vetoed by the governor claiming it was unconstitutional. The suffragists later took the same issue to California voters in 1896, where Populists, Prohibitionists, Republicans, and unions joined the women’s alliance to promote the issue, but it was still defeated by a majority. The Liquor Dealers League and the Democratic Party played a big role in defeating the suffrage (Silver). Not willing to admit......

Words: 1280 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Changing Role of Women Since 1865

...The Changing Role of Women Since 1865 “It can be said that the feminist movement has resulted in action and legislation; that in consciousness-raising it has found a new technique and self-realization; that at its very best it has counseled that men as well as women should be able to do and to be whatever they wish- and that if this involves men staying at home while women work, so be it” (Banner, 1974, p. 250). Women have come a long way since the late 1800s. They have fought many hard battles to change the way they were viewed in American society and have achieved much over the decades. The movement of women’s rights and being treated as an equal to men has been part of history for well over 100 years as women fought to be heard by obtaining a higher education, equality in the job market and in the voting booth. “Before the Civil War women could attend only three private colleges. After the war they had new ones all their own, among them Smith (1871), Wellesley (1875), and Bryn Mawr (1885)” (Davidson et al., 2008, p. 587). In the 1920s, a woman with a college education was part of a small advantaged group. The female students were discriminated against and in some cases, were asked to withdraw from courses so that a man could take her place in the classroom. Women were not taken seriously in the college setting. Men were the ones with the bachelor’s or master’s degrees at a rate of two to one. However, by 1970 this rate did change. For every five men that......

Words: 3105 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Bahamas Women's Suffrage Movement Bgcse Question

...BGCSE History Coursework | Paper 3 | Bradley Wright | BGCSE History Coursework | Paper 3 | Bradley Wright | Question 1: (a) Study source A. What role did the Womens’ Suffrage Movement play during the ‘Quiet Revolution’ in The Bahamas? (7 points) “No nation can rise to the height of glory unless your women are side by side with you. We are victims of evil customs. It is a crime against humanity that our women are shut up within the four walls of the houses as prisoners. There is no sanction anywhere for the deplorable condition in which our women have to live. ” The country could not have been the way it is now without the help of the Women's Suffrage Movement. Women a critical aspect of live we all need, and just like 50 years ago the people needed them. Womens’ Suffrage began in 1952 and was started by Mary Ingraham and Mabel Walker, her close friend who were both wives of Members of Parliament. Many other women contributed to the revolution of the entire country such as; Doris Johnson, Eugenia Lockhart, Nora Hannah, and Georgianna Symonette. These women knew how women in other countries were prohibited from voting, and were aware of what they had to do to get equal rights. These contributions include: financial aid, social outreach, educational awareness and politics. The leader of the Progressive Liberal Party (PLP), Lynden Pindling, knew how these women were half of the population and took advantage of the situation. Not to mention these women......

Words: 1209 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

The History of Women

...have strong, powerful women that fought for women’s rights for centuries. Women encouraged other women to fight for equality, fight for freedom, fight for the opportunity to be a strong independent woman in a nation of strong independent men. This paper will discuss several significant events that shaped the future for women in America. Events driven by women that wanted their voices to be heard through a sea of men, women that wanted men to realize that women had a lot to offer this world we live in. The first event this paper will discuss is the American Equal Rights Association started in 1866 by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. This association would shine a light on women’s suffrage in the nation and later inspire a more radical group called The National Woman Suffrage Association. World War I was another event that that the shaped the future for women in America and around the world. Women left their homes to become nurses that would care for wounded soldiers around the world. Another event is the passage of the 19th amendment in 1920. The 19th amendment gave women a voice in elections throughout the country. Their votes would now count alongside the men’s to shape the nation. As years went by the issues women faced did not cease. Women fought for more and more rights and notoriety, such as Amelia Earhart. Ms. Earhart would be the first women to flight solo across the Atlantic and later would accomplish many other firsts as a woman, in and out......

Words: 3271 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Elizabeth Cady Argumentative Analysis

...Elizabeth Cady Stanton was a woman’s rights activist and an influential person in gaining voting rights for women. Stanton helped start the Women’s Labor Reform Association, co-organized the Women’s Rights Convention with Lucretia Mott, and co-founded The Revolution, a newspaper that was written for suffragists. Stanton also co-wrote the History of Woman’s Suffrage with Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage and Ida Husted Harper. At her father’s law office, Stanton was insulted by the sections of books that regarded women’s rights. “She wanted to take a pair of scissors to her father's law books and remove the offending portions.” At a young age this first motivated her to spend her life fighting for women’s rights. Stanton started her work after attending an anti-slavery convention with her husband. At this convention, women were denied being able to participate in any conferences that were held....

Words: 264 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Votes for Women

...How important were the activities of the Women’s suffrage movement in the decision to grant women to vote. On February the 6th 1918 women over the age of 30 who were householders or married to a householder were granted the vote in Britain. This came after 60 years of suffrage campaigns. The women’s suffrage campaign was a powerful political force by 1914. There were 56 suffrage groups and two main bodies, whom of which were national - The suffragists (NUWSS) and The Suffragettes (WSPU). This essay will analyse how far the women’s suffrage movement was responsible for women being granted the vote by comparing it to other important factors such as the changing attitudes towards women in society, the part played by women in the war effort 1914-1918 and the changes in other countries. It can be argued that the activities of the suffrage movement in the decision to grant the vote for women was a big factor but their war work perhaps had just as big a part to play and the changes in other countries perhaps also just as big an influence. Therefore it can be argued the women’s suffrage movement was important in the decision to grant women the vote. It is undeniable that the activities of the women’s suffrage movement in the decision to grant them the vote was important as they were always being spoken about and they were known nationwide. The two different groups had two completely different approaches to their cause. The campaigning methods of the NUWSS were ‘peaceful’ tactics......

Words: 1454 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

The Progressive Era Through the Great Depression

...Era Through The Great Depression Kaishonta Arnold Professor John Swann History 105 February 9, 2013 The Progressive Era was a period of social activism and political reform in the United States. From the Progressive Era through the Great Depression there were many significant turning points within this period. The Women’s Suffrage Movement was one major historical turning point of the Progressive Era. Another turning point in this period was the Stock Market Crash of 1929. Although “women were basically the main players in the Progressive Era reforms, there right to vote were still denied” (Schultz, 2012). Many pushed for the franchise for all women and through their efforts in the Nineteenth Amendment to the constitution provided full women suffrage. There were two groups that pushed and furthered the cause of women’s suffrage. These two groups were formally called “The National American Women Suffrage Association (NAWSA), as well as The National Women’s Party (NWP)” (Schultz, 2012). The National American Women’s Suffrage Associations strategy was basically a way to push for suffrage at the state level, hoping that the federal government would pass the amendment. The National Women’s Party’s goal was of eliminating all discrimination against women. As stated by Brown, “In 1923 The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), was announced and launched what would be a life-long campaign to win full equality for women,” (2010). Even with the......

Words: 1339 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

The Advancement of Women

...The Advancement of Women Tammy Phillips HIS 204 Instructor Vera Parham January 8, 2014 The Advancement of Women Through History Women’s Rights have grown stronger through the years. Women have gone from being seen and not heard to having a voice, supporting war multiple war efforts, and becoming politicians. In the landmark case of Roe verses Wade gave women the right to own their own body with the decision of whether or not to have an abortion. Women were battling for equality as well as the right to vote. This suffrage was a long drawn out battle through the years but finally was won. Women’s roles during all three wars, the Spanish American War, World War I, and World War II, included nurses, clerical positions, and they back filled spouse’s duties at home. A “New Woman came about in the 1920s as women changed their attitude along with hair, make-up and attitude. All of the progressions were won due to persistence. Women have played a significant throughout the wars in America, not just stateside but abroad. “The Spanish-American War created a substantial need for military nurses” (Small, 1998). Dr Anita Newcomb McGee became the nurse’s bureau chief. This was the first time contract nurses were hired to in military hospital. In September 1918, 1,100 nurses were serving in the United and overseas. During World War I women were allowed to serve in non-nursing positions performing clerical duties. 34,000 women served in the military and 10,000 served......

Words: 2479 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Felon Voting

...Felon Voting In the United States, people convicted with felony are barred from participating in voting in any election. According to Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law (2008), it is estimated that about five million felony victims have been denied this chance, a condition referred to as disenfranchisement. Every state in America has its own law concerning disenfranchisement. Felons are only allowed to vote in Maine and Vermont states (Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, 2008). Some states demand that felon re-enfranchisement should be enhanced to allow felons who have already completed their sentence to participate in elections. They argue that their privileges and rights should be restored by allowing them to cast votes. According to them, blocking felons from voting is undemocratic, unfair, racially, and politically motivated while opponents state that felons have poor judgment, and should not be entrusted with this fundamental right. This research paper gives a clear summary of two articles concerning their position on felon voting. The first article is Liberal and republication argument against the disenfranchisement of felons by Jeffrey Reiman, and the second one is Locked out: felon disenfranchisement and America democracy by Jeff Manza and Christopher Uggen. Both articles indicate that disenfranchisement of criminal offenders who are already through with their sentences is ethically and morally wrong. The two authors lobby for the......

Words: 1574 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Jacksonian Democracy Dbq

...expansion of our nation’s borders, but also put into place a spoils system. Perhaps the largest policy of the Jacksonian Democracy was the expansion of voting rights to all white men over a period of time. This was set into place to reflect Andrew Jackson’s belief of including the common (white) man in the democratic process. This was completely against what the founding fathers had set in place, a complex electoral process that would avoid giving too much power to the commoner. The document Universal Suffrage, shows how the ideal of extending suffrage to all white men, excited the people about a universal suffrage, which would extend the right to vote to women and African Americans. In 1848, these activists would organize a convention in Seneca Falls and publish a Declaration of Sentiments, which proposed to more than double the suffrage put in place to include women. In the document Women’s Suffrage, shows that while this was an unprecedented extension of suffrage, it actually harmed women and African Americans in some areas that had enjoyed the right to vote. They would argue against the system of owning property as an effective means of giving people the right to vote. Women and African Americans would be excluded from the voting process at this time, but all white males were now included in the political system. Westward territorial expansion would prove to be a major part in the Jacksonian Democracy. Under President Polk, the United States annexed Texas in......

Words: 728 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...term significance of Emmeline Pankhurst in bringing about the vote for women between 1903 and 1918? Emmeline Pankhurst was a highly controversial figure throughout the suffrage movement, through her radical, militant methods of protests, ensuring that the cause was not to be ignored. However, in many ways the shocking violence somewhat hindered a movement that had been established by Millicent Fawcett in a more peaceful, law abiding manner. Although women (over the age of thirty) were eventually given the right to vote when the Representation of the People Act was amended in 1918, Pankhurst’s contribution to this can be considered minimal. Although Pankhurst’s methods generated a huge amount of media attention, alternate factors such as women’s role during World War One can be seen as being of more relevance to women being enfranchised. As well as this, Fawcett's contribution to the movement encouraged the support of thousands, and therefore cannot be ignored. Emmeline Pankhurst can be seen as being a significant figure in bringing about the vote for women, due to the mass media attention her methods generated. In 1903, Pankhurst founded the National Women’s Social and Political Union. This was a response to the slow moving, gradualist approach from Fawcett, leader of the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies. British politicians, press and the public were astonished by the of window smashing, arson, hunger strikes and violence against the police. Source A shows......

Words: 1732 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Women's Rights Convention Analysis

...The first ever woman's rights convention was held I Seneca Falls in July of 1848. Elizabeth Cady Stanton made her first public statement for women's suffrage. Her call to her to action was codified in the groundbreaking piece of literature known as the declaration of sentiments. This moment in history marks the beginning of the woman's right's movement. The beginnings of the Seneca Falls Convention drawback to the anti-slavery movement, or more specifically the World's Anti-slavery Convention of 1840. The British abolitionist had denied female representation at the convention. Stanton and Mott, who were in attendance of this convention, decided to organize a protest convention back in the states. It would take several years for Stanton and...

Words: 1471 - Pages: 6