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ARTICLE 1: COMMUNITY MUSIC LESSONS IMPROVE MINDS OF
DISADVANTAGED KIDS

SUMMARY

This article is written by Shereen Lehman. It was about music lessons can improve the minds of children. Community based music lessons for disadvantaged youth can have positive biological effects on their brains. The children were actively playing instruments themselves rather than passively listening to others’ music. In this article, it explained that the children between the ages six and nine participated in the study published in the Journal of Neuroscience. They all went to public schools and lived in gang-reduction zones of Los Angeles. The children were split it into two groups. One group started lessons right away. For two hours per week, they received training in music fundamentals and learning to play the recorder. Most kids progressed to group instruction with instruments after six months. The second group waited a year before starting lessons. Each year the research team evaluated the children’s ability to process speech. Children who took lessons for two years showed improvements in their ability to distinguish similar sounds. However, these changes were not apparent after only one year. The music deeply engages the emotional system of the brain and children learn best when they’re excited about things.

COMMENT

Music is an art form whose medium is sound. It is about melody and harmony. Music is something that known as universal language. Regardless of where are you from and what your background, a good melody is something that anyone can enjoy and understand. There are many benefits of music for the human beings especially, kids. Firstly, music can help to boost the children’s brain power. Music simply stimulates the parts of the brain that are related to reading, math and emotional development. This can help to ensure the brain of the children works smoothly and the children can use their brain properly. Secondly, music is important to improve their memory. With the music, it can sharpen the children’s minds. This is because music is something that is very interesting for everyone. So, the more you are interested in something, the more quicker you will learn. We can see on the kids. When the kids attracted and interested toward the music, the more easier for them to learn and adept in the music lessons. Thirdly, music also helps the kids in socially. It can breaks out of their social shell. As an example, when you have the children, you sent them to the music class. You encouraged your children to involve in musical group. There, you kids will meet many children from difference background. They need to work as a team. As a result, it can assist the children to connect and communicate with each other. At that time, it will improve the communication skills besides the talent skills.

ARTICLE 2: SHARE YOU FEELINGS, BE HAPPY

SUMMARY

This article wrote by Edmund Ngo, about the women that struggled with breast cancer should share their feelings and be happy. Share the feelings and be happy are the two vital factors in fighting breast cancer. One of the patient of this serious disease said that, being joyful not only reduces the worry, but it also helps to rejuvenate the health too. It is important as a person that suffered the breast cancer to share their feelings, forgiving others appreciating life and being contended because all of them play a major part in our wellbeing. On the other hand, the support and warmth from family members and friends is also important. The family is the one that play important role to provide the support actions to ensure the sufferer has the confident and can share their stories with other survivors. This is because, when the sufferer share their stories with others, it can help them to share their feeling and at the same time give an option for others to know a little bit about the how the life as being a sufferer of this serious disease.

COMMENT

Both women and men can get the breast cancer, but major amount of the sufferer are the women. It is difficult and frightening experience for the sufferer and also for the people around them. But, it is important for the patients, not to take this problem as the burden that can crushed whole of their life. They should not continuously have negative thinking about their life and get started to a new life with good and strong spirit. For my opinion, the people around such as the family and friends play such the main role to support the sufferer and give them strength. Firstly, the family and friends must support them no matter what. We need to be prepared and be willing to help and comfort the sufferer when they need it. As their family, we also need to distance ourselves when they need a space and be willing to do tasks for them when they cannot manage in their current state of mind. Secondly, comfort them. The sufferer might know how they feel actually. The feeling of numbness can set in during the initial weeks of diagnosis, surgery and treatment. The strange things may surface and appear in their minds. So, you need to act as the responsible person to comfort them. Thirdly, take her mind off cancer. No matter how well intentioned, talking about the cancer can make the life get old quickly for someone whose life is already consumed by the disease. Let your friend or family members that suffer towards the breast cancer to know that you are there to listen. We also can tell them about the funny stories or having a spa day just to take her mind off her illness. Lastly, get the pictures taken. Now might not seem like the best time for a glamour shoot, but before your love ones losses their hair, gains or losses weight and feels really run down, arrange for a private session with a photographer. Ask the photographer to get the family sessions and also make sure your love ones can have the portraits of her alone. This is because, they can be inspirational and empowering for people about to embark on a journey of life like this. So, there are a few of ways that we can use to help the sufferer of the breast cancer in order to help them in having a beautiful and meaningful life.

ARTICLE 3: ECOTOURISM SET TO BENEFIT ORANG ASLI

SUMMARY

This article wrote by M. Hamzah Jamaludin. It was about the improvement that is made for the Orang Asli as the improvement to them. About 2,000 Orang Asli in Runchang are set to benefit from the state government’s plan to turn the South-East Pahang Peat Swamp Forest (SEPPSF) into a leading ecotourism destination where they would be able to venture into various activities that could supplement their income. Apart from working as nature guides and boatmen, the Orang Asli from the Jakun community could supplement their income by selling handicrafts and food to visitors. In this article, it shown at present, most of the 400 Orang Asli families rely on forest produce and earn RM500 monthly. Tourism Pahang general manager Ishak Mokhtar said the agency would ensure that the Orang Asli would enjoy the benefits as the ecotourism initiative was a community-based project. It was reported that some of the Orang Asli were using illegal fishing methods, hunting protected animals and harvesting ornamental and medicinal plants in SEPPSF to supplement their meagre income. However, many were able to improve their living standards when the government implemented a resettlement scheme in the village and introduced various economic activities. So, as this new platform of the ecotourism introduced, it can help Orang Asli to improve their life under the control and in legal ways.

COMMENT

For my opinion, this is the best way in order to improve Orang Asli’s life. Through ecotourism, the place where Orang Asli live could be developed in right way. Orang Asli can have the better place to live and have a better life. They will not continuously having in the same situation that cannot help them to improved themselves. The benefit of ecotourism can be resulted also in their income. Orang Asli can generate theirs own income properly. According to the article, it said previously they only had RM500 monthly as their income, but after this new platform of ecotourism had been introduced, they can increase their income. As a result, they can change and improve their family’s conditions. Older, they may face the difficulties in managed their family using the lower income, but it was the previous matter. Nowadays, they may have more income if they take the chances to do something related with the ecotourism. There are a lot of opportunities for them. As an example, they may sell the handicrafts and food to investors as said in the article. When they sell those things, it will be the supplement to their income. Last but not least, the ecotourism is good enough for Orang Asli to make a change and get the better life, besides to care and be responsible towards the environment from being lost its beautifulness.

ARTICLE 4: MH370: MALAYSIA NEEDS MORE SATELLITES TO BE ITS 'EYES AND EARS', SAYS MEASAT

SUMMARY

This article has told us that, it has been suggested that Malaysia needs a low-earth orbit satellite for monitoring and detecting communication frequencies, following the disappearance of Malaysia Airlines flight MH370. Malaysian satellite operator Measat Satellite Systems Sdn Bhd said the need for such a satellite was pressing because it can be the nation's 'eyes' and 'ears' in space. Measat operations and engineering deputy president, Zainudin Abdul, said the satellite, stationed 300km above earth, would be equipped with a high-resolution camera. Included in the satellite, a radio frequency detection system that could also help to detect or send much clearer signals to any ship or aircraft. If a satellite is placed at a high orbit, it will be able to see the whole surface of the earth but photographs taken will be not as clear due to the distance. The requirement was also in line with Malaysia's aspirations, which wanted a real-time aircraft detection system and sharing of information on flight risks. This was stated by Transport Minister Datuk Seri Liow Tiong Lai on Oct 25, and Malaysia would submit it, including other matters, to the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO). The 203rd session of the ICAO Council is scheduled to take place in Montreal. On March 8, 2014, flight MH370, with 227 passengers and 12 crew, went off the radar over the South China Sea, one hour after taking off from the KL International Airport at 12.41am. The aircraft was scheduled to arrive in Beijing, China at 6.30am on the same day. Efforts to find MH370 are still ongoing, but no firm evidence of the plane has been found to date.

COMMENT

Satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon. Without satellites we would be lost. We wouldn't know what the weather is going to be tomorrow. We wouldn't know what the world looked like. Without satellites we wouldn't even know how to travel. Satellites really help us out in everyday life and we depend on them. The satellites give many benefits to us. It can help the society. We are no longer at the mercy of unexpected weather patterns that kill hundreds of people, as our weather satellites warn us of impending disasters. Farmers and foresters benefit from satellites, as they receive reports about river flooding and forest fires. Our future itself is more secure as we need NASA's warnings about the depleting ozone layer. NASA will get the information about the warning of disaster from the satellite. The satellites help the NASA to have better and accurate information. By using the satellites, the Scientists can often obtain much more information when they take pictures at a wide range of wavelengths. Landsat takes photographs of the ground at seven different wavelengths. Another benefit of satellite is through the space program. It serves us and makes our lives better. It is impossible for us now to contemplate not being able to reach relatives on a foreign continent or not seeing international news "live". So, because of existence this satellite, it helps us to get much information from around the world in a few second. We are so used to having all this technology at our fingertips that it is hard to imagine what our society would be like without it.

ARTICLE 5: DONORS: PRIVATE HOSPITALS CHARGING EXCESSIVE
FEE FOR DONATED BLOOD

SUMMARY

This article is written by Christina Chin. It says about the private hospitals have charge the excessive price for donated the blood. Blood donors say that private hospitals are charging patients exorbitant prices for donated blood. They accuse these hospitals of profiting from the goodwill of donors. Apart from donors, most private hospitals get blood from the National Blood Centre (NBC) at nominal cost. A check by Sunday Star found that patients requiring transfusion pay between RM160 and RM500 for 350ml to 450ml bags of blood in private hospitals even if they bring along donors to replenish the blood used during treatment. Yap Sow Chong, a 56-year-old regular donor from Ipoh, related an incident where a private hospital might have taken advantage of the civic-mindedness of many people. A hospital must inform donors once sufficient blood had been collected for a particular patient. They must be given the option whether or not they wish to donate to the hospital’s blood bank. In adding that, there were many people willing to help a stranger in need but their kindness should not be abused.

COMMENT

The blood is not for sale. The private hospital should not charge the excessive price in donating the blood. The private hospital cannot gain the profit without thinks about others. As live in the circumstances that contains different matter, we should be responsible person to help others. The private hospital should not take the opportunity to gain the profit in wrong ways. The aim of the people that donate the blood is only to help the people that need the blood. So, the other people that in charge in the middle between the donor and the receiver, must make sure the process is going smoothly. On that time, the middlemen should not grab the opportunity to gain the profit in wrong ways. The middlemen especially the hospital should not charge the expensive price for the donor to donate their blood. Among the people, there are not many people that want to sacrifice to help other people to give their blood in order to help the patients that need the blood to stay healthy. As a conclusion, the private hospital must reduce the fee of donating the blood because the blood is not for sale.

ARTICLE 6: GST NOT SOLE FACTOR INFLUENCING PRICE
MOVEMENTS, SAYS CHUA

SUMMARY

The Goods and Services Tax (GST) will not be the only factor affecting price movements when it is implemented in April next year, said Datuk Chua Tee Yong. The Deputy Finance Minister said price movements were influenced by a combination of factors, including foreign exchange rates, cost of services, and supply and demand, apart from taxes. He said that, all the factors play a role in setting the prices. With or without the GST, there will be inflation and price movements. Chua also said, in asserting the needs for the country to implement the GST to remain competitive in exports. In Asean, Thailand and Indonesia’s exports are GST-free. In Malaysia, it still has the sales and service tax, for which exporters could not claim from the government. Then, with the GST, this will be removed. This is important because businesses cannot survive from domestic demand alone as we don’t have a huge population base, that said by Chua.

COMMENT

GST (Goods & Services Tax), which is also known as VAT or the value added tax in many countries is a multi-stage consumption tax on goods and services. GST is levied on the supply of goods and services at each stages of the supply chain from the supplier up to the retail stage of the distribution. There are many benefits of GST. Firstly, it helps to lower Cost of doing the business. The revenue from GST could be used for development purposes for social infrastructure like health facilities and institutions, educational infrastructures and public facilities to further improve the standard of living. It also can improve the fairness and equality. Under the present SST, businesses must apply for approval to get tax-free materials and also for special exemption for capital goods. Under GST, this system is abolished as businesses can offset the GST on inputs in their returns. The GST can increase Global Competitiveness. With the GST, taxes are levied fairly among all the businesses involved, whether they are in the manufacturing, wholesaling, retailing or service sectors.

ARTICLE 7: BREAK POVERTY CYCLE AMONG URBAN POOR

SUMMARY

In this article explained that, the government should strengthen and multiply its efforts to solve issues related to the urban poor, especially among the Bumiputera. Cheras Wanita Umno chief Umno Datuk Zurainah Musa said there were poor urbanites, including youths who faced a tough time owning homes and obtaining entrepreneur opportunities. She said that, there is in cities now is a second wave of urban poor. Their parents had also moved into the cities many years ago to seek their fortune, but they remain in the low-income group till this day. And now their children are in the same predicament and they remain in this income bracket. She said, the effort to change the cycle of poverty among urbanites was necessary, as the problem was faced by the youth. Zurainah said despite initiatives, such as the People’s Housing Project (PPR) and 1Malaysia People’s Housing (PR1MA), which are to ease the people’s burden in obtaining homes, the government faced constraints in implementing them. She said such efforts remained a big challenge for policy-makers despite a policy that required private developers to build affordable and low-cost housing priced between RM42,000 and RM200,000 in each housing estate. There should also be more collaboration by local authorities in building affordable homes. On a related matter, Zurainah, who had raised these issues at last week’s Umno General Assembly, said the government should rope in the private sector in its effort to set up a quality and skilled workforce. She said the policy would serve as a comprehensive strategy to help the Malays and Bumiputera to have access to capital, and access to domestic and global markets for their ventures.

COMMENT

In my opinion, other than the government, we as an individual also can do something that can help to improve the lives of poor. The first point is, we can donate. Donations to your local and global organizations are incredibly important. Many of these organizations rely on donations to survive and serve their communities. As an example, make a pledge to give up some treat for a month like fancy coffee, or chocolate, or clothes shopping and use the money that you save to donate to a local or global charity or non-profit. Other than money you can donate food, clothing, toiletry items, old furniture, toys and books to local shelters and programs. These donations help people in straitened circumstances. Secondly, be as a volunteer. There are tons of ways to help out in your community through direct action. Ask at your local religious organization, or non-profit. Check out programs at your local library and see if they need assistance. There are many different groups that you can work with. Especially with children, the elderly, the mentally ill, the homeless, women. You'll need to decide which group you want to focus on. We can do things like teach a course in resume development, computer skills. We also could start up a local community garden and teach courses on how to grow sustainable food. A large number of people who are poor cannot afford to buy much produce, so teaching them a sustainable and cheap way to grow their own food, could help alleviate some of that vitamin deficiency. Lastly, is helping an individual. Even helping one individual can make a small change for the better. If you see someone who needs help, talk to them. Give them some money, even a few dollars or ringgits can help. Offer your help without being condescending or judgmental. So, as the human being that live with many people around, we should start to be the responsible one to ensure that the other people that were not gifted with the wealthiest, can have the better life.

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...Summary of Articles Bibliography Mallon, G. P. (2006). Busting Out of the Child Welfare Closet: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender-Affirming Approaches. Child Welfare, 115-122. The subject of working with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) children, teens and their families is virtually unrecognized by the child welfare system. In order to make changes and human service professionals to start effectively assist this population, significant changes must be made. The focus must be to embrace the child and his lifestyle and show the family that they can function to the best of their ability. The first step is acceptance and to recognize that this effects all areas of child welfare services. This will not occur unless the case manager takes them out of the “heterocentric” world. Policies and laws must change. The government must take a step back and realize that this issue is not going away and ignoring it by worrying about the implications of funding programs to support this alternative lifestyle, will only make this population for more alienated. Agencies working with the LGBT community should look at the work those areas such as New York and San Francisco, where the youth are sheltered by local laws and acceptance of their lifestyle is tolerated. Information alone will not make a transformation. Acceptance and training must infiltrate all areas of the agency. The youth and their families must be met with understanding and guidance. There......

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...JOMO KENYATTA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY Nairobi CBD Campus Department: Human Resource Development Course: MSc. Project Management. HEPM 3111: PROJECT QUALITY &RISK MANAGEMENT Assignment 2: Summary of Articles Estimations in Project Management In essence, estimates are forecasts of the future; unfortunately, people are not very good at forecasting. While it is difficult to make forecasts of natural phenomena such as the weather; it is even harder to make forecasts of any processes that include people, their knowledge and behavior. Project management is one of these processes. Estimation is a very important step in modeling and decision analysis. Without proper assessments of project duration, finish time, cost, resources, success rate and other parameters, it is almost impossible to select a proper alternative and ultimately make a good decision. Accurate estimation cannot be done without valid inputs. The information for estimations can only come from two sources: 1) Historical data or data about previous similar projects. This data can be captured in the project manager’s brain or obtained as a result of data analysis. 2) Measurements of the current project’s performance. Analysis of current project performance project makes is possible to forecast what will happen in the future. The human brain processes this information extremely fast using certain simplification techniques. In many cases, they work very well...

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