Free Essay

Swami Vivekananda : Life and Teachings

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By aranaprasad
Words 3297
Pages 14
Swami Vivekananda : Life and Teachings

Swami Vivekananda, known in his pre-monastic life as Narendra Nath Datta, was born in an affluent family in Kolkata on 12 January 1863. His father, Vishwanath Datta, was a successful attorney with interests in a wide range of subjects, and his mother, Bhuvaneshwari Devi, was endowed with deep devotion, strong character and other qualities. A precocious boy, Narendra excelled in music, gymnastics and studies. By the time he graduated from Calcutta University, he had acquired a vast knowledge of different subjects, especially Western philosophy and history. Born with a yogic temperament, he used to practise meditation even from his boyhood, and was associated with Brahmo Movement for some time.

With Sri Ramakrishna
At the threshold of youth Narendra had to pass through a period of spiritual crisis when he was assailed by doubts about the existence of God. It was at that time he first heard about Sri Ramakrishna from one of his English professors at college. One day in November 1881, Narendra went to meet Sri Ramakrishna who was staying at the Kali Temple in Dakshineshwar. He straightaway asked the Master a question which he had put to several others but had received no satisfactory answer: “Sir, have you seen God?” Without a moment’s hesitation, Sri Ramakrishna replied: “Yes, I have. I see Him as clearly as I see you, only in a much intenser sense.”
Apart from removing doubts from the mind of Narendra, Sri Ramakrishna won him over through his pure, unselfish love. Thus began a guru-disciple relationship which is quite unique in the history of spiritual masters. Narendra now became a frequent visitor to Dakshineshwar and, under the guidance of the Master, made rapid strides on the spiritual path. At Dakshineshwar, Narendra also met several young men who were devoted to Sri Ramakrishna, and they all became close friends.

Difficult Situations
After a few years two events took place which caused Narendra considerable distress. One was the sudden death of his father in 1884. This left the family penniless, and Narendra had to bear the burden of supporting his mother, brothers and sisters. The second event was the illness of Sri Ramakrishna which was diagnosed to be cancer of the throat. In September 1885 Sri Ramakrishna was moved to a house at Shyampukur, and a few months later to a rented villa at Cossipore. In these two places the young disciples nursed the Master with devoted care. In spite of poverty at home and inability to find a job for himself, Narendra joined the group as its leader.

Beginnings of a Monastic Brotherhood
Sri Ramakrishna instilled in these young men the spirit of renunciation and brotherly love for one another. One day he distributed ochre robes among them and sent them out to beg food. In this way he himself laid the foundation for a new monastic order. He gave specific instructions to

Beginnings of a Monastic Brotherhood
Sri Ramakrishna instilled in these young men the spirit of renunciation and brotherly love for one another. One day he distributed ochre robes among them and sent them out to beg food. In this way he himself laid the foundation for a new monastic order. He gave specific instructions to Narendra about the formation of the new monastic Order. In the small hours of 16 August 1886 Sri Ramakrishna gave up his mortal body.
After the Master’s passing, fifteen of his young disciples (one more joined them later) began to live together in a dilapidated building at Baranagar in North Kolkata. Under the leadership of Narendra, they formed a new monastic brotherhood, and in 1887 they took the formal vows of sannyasa, thereby assuming new names. Narendra now became Swami Vivekananda (although this name was actually assumed much later.)
After establishing the new monastic order, Vivekananda heard the inner call for a greater mission in his life. While most of the followers of Sri Ramakrishna thought of him in relation to their own personal lives, Vivekananda thought of the Master in relation to India and the rest of the world. As the prophet of the present age, what was Sri Ramakrishna’s message to the modern world and to India in particular? This question and the awareness of his own inherent powers urged Swamiji to go out alone into the wide world. So in the middle of 1890, after receiving the blessings of Sri Sarada Devi, the divine consort of Sri Ramakrishna, known to the world as Holy Mother, who was then staying in Kolkata, Swamiji left Baranagar Math and embarked on a long journey of exploration and discovery of India.

Discovery of Real India
During his travels all over India, Swami Vivekananda was deeply moved to see the appalling poverty and backwardness of the masses. He was the first religious leader in India to understand and openly declare that the real cause of India’s downfall was the neglect of the masses. The immediate need was to provide food and other bare necessities of life to the hungry millions. For this they should be taught improved methods of agriculture, village industries, etc. It was in this context that Vivekananda grasped the crux of the problem of poverty in India (which had escaped the attention of social reformers of his days): owing to centuries of oppression, the downtrodden masses had lost faith in their capacity to improve their lot. It was first of all necessary to infuse into their minds faith in themselves. For this they needed a life-giving, inspiring message. Swamiji found this message in the principle of the Atman, the doctrine of the potential divinity of the soul, taught in Vedanta, the ancient system of religious philosophy of India. He saw that, in spite of poverty, the masses clung to religion, but they had never been taught the life-giving, ennobling principles of Vedanta and how to apply them in practical life.
Thus the masses needed two kinds of knowledge: secular knowledge to improve their economic condition, and spiritual knowledge to infuse in them faith in themselves and strengthen their moral sense. The next question was, how to spread these two kinds of knowledge among the masses? Through education – this was the answer that Swamiji found.

Need for an Organization
One thing became clear to Swamiji: to carry out his plans for the spread of education and for the uplift of the poor masses, and also of women, an efficient organization of dedicated people was needed. As he said later on, he wanted “to set in motion a machinery which will bring noblest ideas to the doorstep of even the poorest and the meanest.” It was to serve as this ‘machinery’ that Swamiji founded the Ramakrishna Mission a few years later.

Decision to attend the Parliament of Religions
It was when these ideas were taking shape in his mind in the course of his wanderings that Swami Vivekananda heard about the World’s Parliament of Religions to be held in Chicago in 1893. His friends and admirers in India wanted him to attend the Parliament. He too felt that the Parliament would provide the right forum to present his Master’s message to the world, and so he decided to go to America. Another reason which prompted Swamiji to go to America was to seek financial help for his project of uplifting the masses.
Swamiji, however, wanted to have an inner certitude and divine call regarding his mission. Both of these he got while he sat in deep meditation on the rock-island at Kanyakumari. With the funds partly collected by his Chennai disciples and partly provided by the Raja of Khetri, Swami Vivekananda left for America from Mumbai on 31 May 1893.

The Parliament of Religions and After

His speeches at the World’s Parliament of Religions held in September 1893 made him famous as an ‘orator by divine right’ and as a ‘Messenger of Indian wisdom to the Western world’. After the Parliament, Swamiji spent nearly three and a half years spreading Vedanta as lived and taught by Sri Ramakrishna, mostly in the eastern parts of USA and also in London.
Awakening His Countrymen
He returned to India in January 1897. In response to the enthusiastic welcome that he received everywhere, he delivered a series of lectures in different parts of India, which created a great stir all over the country. Through these inspiring and profoundly significant lectures Swamiji attempted to do the following:

to rouse the religious consciousness and create in them pride in their cultural heritage;

to bring about unification of Hinduism by pointing out the common bases of its sects;

to focus the attention of educated people on the plight of the downtrodden masses, and to expound his plan for their uplift by the application of the principles of Practical Vedanta.

Founding of Ramakrishna Mission
Soon after his return to Kolkata, Swami Vivekananda accomplished another important task of his mission on earth. He founded on 1 May 1897 a unique type of organization known as Ramakrishna Mission, in which monks and lay people would jointly undertake propagation of Practical Vedanta, and various forms of social service, such as running hospitals, schools, colleges, hostels, rural development centres etc, and conducting massive relief and rehabilitation work for victims of earthquakes, cyclones and other calamities, in different parts of India and other countries.

Belur Math
In early 1898 Swami Vivekananda acquired a big plot of land on the western bank of the Ganga at a place called Belur to have a permanent abode for the monastery and monastic Order originally started at Baranagar, and got it registered as Ramakrishna Math after a couple of years. Here Swamiji established a new, universal pattern of monastic life which adapts ancient monastic ideals to the conditions of modern life, which gives equal importance to personal illumination and social service, and which is open to all men without any distinction of religion, race or caste.

Disciples
It may be mentioned here that in the West many people were influenced by Swami Vivekananda’s life and message. Some of them became his disciples or devoted friends. Among them the names of Margaret Noble (later known as Sister Nivedita), Captain and Mrs Sevier, Josephine McLeod and Sara Ole Bull, deserve special mention. Nivedita dedicated her life to educating girls in Kolkata. Swamiji had many Indian disciples also, some of whom joined Ramakrishna Math and became sannyasins.

Last Days
In June 1899 he went to the West on a second visit. This time he spent most of his time in the West coast of USA. After delivering many lectures there, he returned to Belur Math in December 1900. The rest of his life was spent in India, inspiring and guiding people, both monastic and lay. Incessant work, especially giving lectures and inspiring people, told upon Swamiji’s health. His health deteriorated and the end came quietly on the night of 4 July 1902. Before his Mahasamadhi he had written to a Western follower: “It may be that I shall find it good to get outside my body, to cast it off like a worn out garment. But I shall not cease to work. I shall inspire men everywhere until the whole world shall know that it is one with God.”
Vivekananda’s contributions to World Culture
Making an objective assessment of Swami Vivekananda’s contributions to world culture, the eminent British historian A L Basham stated that “in centuries to come, he will be remembered as one of the main moulders of the modern world…” Some of the main contributions that Swamiji made to the modern world are mentioned below:

1. New Understanding of Religion: One of the most significant contributions of Swami Vivekananda to the modern world is his interpretation of religion as a universal experience of transcendent Reality, common to all humanity. Swamiji met the challenge of modern science by showing that religion is as scientific as science itself; religion is the ‘science of consciousness’. As such, religion and science are not contradictory to each other but are complementary.
This universal conception frees religion from the hold of superstitions, dogmatism, priestcraft and intolerance, and makes religion the highest and noblest pursuit – the pursuit of supreme Freedom, supreme Knowledge, supreme Happiness.

2. New View of Man: Vivekananda’s concept of ‘potential divinity of the soul’ gives a new, ennobling concept of man. The present age is the age of humanism which holds that man should be the chief concern and centre of all activities and thinking. Through science and technology man has attained great prosperity and power, and modern methods of communication and travel have converted human society into a ‘global village’. But the degradation of man has also been going on apace, as witnessed by the enormous increase in broken homes, immorality, violence, crime, etc. in modern society. Vivekananda’s concept of potential divinity of the soul prevents this degradation, divinizes human relationships, and makes life meaningful and worth living. Swamiji has laid the foundation for ‘spiritual humanism’, which is manifesting itself through several neo-humanistic movements and the current interest in meditation, Zen etc all over the world.

3. New Principle of Morality and Ethics: The prevalent morality, in both individual life and social life, is mostly based on fear – fear of the police, fear of public ridicule, fear of God’s punishment, fear of Karma, and so on. The current theories of ethics also do not explain why a person should be moral and be good to others. Vivekananda has given a new theory of ethics and new principle of morality based on the intrinsic purity and oneness of the Atman. We should be pure because purity is our real nature, our true divine Self or Atman. Similarly, we should love and serve our neighbours because we are all one in the Supreme Spirit known as Paramatman or Brahman.

4. Bridge between the East and the West: Another great contribution of Swami Vivekananda was to build a bridge between Indian culture and Western culture. He did it by interpreting Hindu scriptures and philosophy and the Hindu way of life and institutions to the Western people in an idiom which they could understand. He made the Western people realize that they had to learn much from Indian spirituality for their own well-being. He showed that, in spite of her poverty and backwardness, India had a great contribution to make to world culture. In this way he was instrumental in ending India’s cultural isolation from the rest of the world. He was India’s first great cultural ambassador to the West.
On the other hand, Swamiji’s interpretation of ancient Hindu scriptures, philosophy, institutions, etc prepared the mind of Indians to accept and apply in practical life two best elements of Western culture, namely science and technology and humanism. Swamiji has taught Indians how to master Western science and technology and at the same time develop spiritually. Swamiji has also taught Indians how to adapt Western humanism (especially the ideas of individual freedom, social equality and justice and respect for women) to Indian ethos.

Swamiji’s Contributions to India
In spite of her innumerable linguistic, ethnic, historical and regional diversities, India has had from time immemorial a strong sense of cultural unity. It was, however, Swami Vivekananda who revealed the true foundations of this culture and thus clearly defined and strengthened the sense of unity as a nation.
Swamiji gave Indians proper understanding of their country’s great spiritual heritage and thus gave them pride in their past. Furthermore, he pointed out to Indians the drawbacks of Western culture and the need for India’s contribution to overcome these drawbacks. In this way Swamiji made India a nation with a global mission.
Sense of unity, pride in the past, sense of mission – these were the factors which gave real strength and purpose to India’s nationalist movement. Several eminent leaders of India’s freedom movement have acknowledged their indebtedness to Swamiji. Free India’s first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru wrote: “Rooted in the past, full of pride in India’s prestige, Vivekananda was yet modern in his approach to life’s problems, and was a kind of bridge between the past of India and her present … he came as a tonic to the depressed and demoralized Hindu mind and gave it self-reliance and some roots in the past.” Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose wrote: “Swamiji harmonized the East and the West, religion and science, past and present. And that is why he is great. Our countrymen have gained unprecedented self-respect, self-reliance and self-assertion from his teachings.”
Swamiji’s most unique contribution to the creation of new India was to open the minds of Indians to their duty to the downtrodden masses. Long before the ideas of Karl Marx were known in India, Swamiji spoke about the role of the labouring classes in the production of the country’s wealth. Swamiji was the first religious leader in India to speak for the masses, formulate a definite philosophy of service, and organize large-scale social service.

Swamiji’s Contributions to Hinduism
1Identity: It was Swami Vivekananda who gave to Hinduism as a whole a clear-cut identity, a distinct profile. Before Swamiji came Hinduism was a loose confederation of many different sects. Swamiji was the first religious leader to speak about the common bases of Hinduism and the common ground of all sects. He was the first person, as guided by his Master Sri Ramakrishna, to accept all Hindu doctrines and the views of all Hindu philosophers and sects as different aspects of one total view of Reality and way of life known as Hinduism. Speaking about Swamiji’s role in giving Hinduism its distinct identity, Sister Nivedita wrote: “… it may be said that when he began to speak it was of ‘the religious ideas of the Hindus’, but when he ended, Hinduism had been created.”

2.Unification: Before Swamiji came, there was a lot of quarrel and competition among the various sects of Hinduism. Similarly, the protagonists of different systems and schools of philosophy were claiming their views to be the only true and valid ones. By applying Sri Ramakrishna’s doctrine of Harmony (Samanvaya) Swamiji brought about an overall unification of Hinduism on the basis of the principle of unity in diversity. Speaking about Swamiji’s role in this field K M Pannikar, the eminent historian and diplomat, wrote: “This new Shankaracharya may well be claimed to be a unifier of Hindu ideology.”

3. Defence: Another important service rendered by Swamiji was to raise his voice in defence of Hinduism. In fact, this was one of the main types of work he did in the West. Christian missionary propaganda had given a wrong understanding of Hinduism and India in Western minds. Swamiji had to face a lot of opposition in his attempts to defend Hinduism.

4. Meeting the Challenges: At the end of the 19th century, India in general, and Hinduism in particular, faced grave challenges from Western materialistic life, the ideas of Western free society, and the proselytizing activities of Christians. Vivekananda met these challenges by integrating the best elements of Western culture in Hindu culture.

5. New Ideal of Monasticism: A major contribution of Vivekananda to Hinduism is the rejuvenation and modernization of monasticism. In this new monastic ideal, followed in the Ramakrishna Order, the ancient principles of renunciation and God realization are combined with service to God in man (Shiva jnane jiva seva). Vivekananda elevated social service to the status of divine service.

6. Refurbishing of Hindu Philosophy and Religious Doctrines: Vivekananda did not merely interpret ancient Hindu scriptures and philosophical ideas in terms of modern thought. He also added several illuminating original concepts based on his own transcendental experiences and vision of the future. This, however, needs a detailed study of Hindu philosophy which cannot be attempted here.
( This article is from a Publication of Ramakrisha Mission )

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Swami Vivekananda and Ethics

...SWAMI VIVEKANANDA AND ETHICS PREFACE This paper presents the Ethics of Swami Vivekananda. It shows how anyone's life's condition may be improved through an understanding of the ethics of Swami Vivekananda and the application of his principles to lead a better existence. This paper is primarily addressed to all interested in the working of spirituality and religion from Swami Vivekananda's perspective, which will play a very important role in the growth and development of the oneself. An understanding of ethics, as one of the basic factors that influence behavior will help us shift towards the necessity and purity of universalism by treating all around us equally. Grateful acknowledgment is here made to our History professor, Mrs Archana Raj Mishra and those who helped us gather data for this paper. This work would not have reached its present form without their invaluable help. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND Swami Vivekananda was born on 12th January 1863 in Kolkata. He was named Narendranath Datta by his parents Vishwanath Datta and Bhuvaneshwari Devi. Swamiji’s father was a successful attorney while mother had qualities like deep devotion and a strong character. Swamiji was always bright student. Being from an affluent family, he graduated from the Calcutta University and had a vast knowledge of different subjects, especially Western philosophy and History. Nonetheless he was also good at Music, Gymnastics and Studies. One would wonder how a person could excel in so many......

Words: 6716 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Complete Life History of Vivekananda

...Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda Volume 1 Addresses at The Parliament of Religions Karma-Yoga Raja-Yoga Lectures and Discourses Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda Volume 1 Addresses at The Parliament of Religions Response to Welcome Why We Disagree Paper on Hinduism Religion not the Crying Need of India Buddhism, the Fulfilment of Hinduism Address at the Final Session Home / Complete-Works / Volume 1 / Addresses at The Parliament of Religions / > Home / Complete-Works / Volume 1 / Addresses at The Parliament of Religions / > Home / Complete-Works / Volume 1 / Addresses at The Parliament of Religions / > Home / Complete-Works / Volume 1 / Addresses at The Parliament of Religions / > Home / Complete-Works / Volume 1 / Addresses at The Parliament of Religions / > Home / Complete-Works / Volume 1 / Addresses at The Parliament of Religions / > Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda Volume 1 Karma-Yoga Karma in its Effect on Character Each is great in his own place The Secret of Work What is Duty? We help ourselves, not the world Non-attachment is complete self-abnegation Freedom The Ideal of Karma-Yoga Home / Complete-Works / Volume 1 / Karma-Yoga / > Home / Complete-Works / Volume 1 / Karma-Yoga / > Home / Complete-Works / Volume 1 / Karma-Yoga / > Home / Complete-Works / Volume 1 / Karma-Yoga / > Home / Complete-Works / Volume 1 / Karma-Yoga / > Home / Complete-Works / Volume 1 / Karma-Yoga / > Home /......

Words: 3725 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Swami Vivekanand Narendranath Datta

...Swami Vivekananda (12 January 1863 – 4 July 1902) or Narendranath Datta was an Indian Hindu monk, a chief disciple of the 19th-century Indian mystic Ramakrishna. He was a key figure in the introducing the Indian philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga to the Western world and also in raising interfaith awareness, bringing Hinduism to the status of a major world religion during the late 19th century. He worked for the revival of Hinduism in India, and also contributed to the concept of nationalism in India. He is best known for his speech which starts, "Sisters and brothers of America ...,"where he introduced Hinduism at the Parliament of the World's Religions in Chicago in 1893. He was born into an aristocratic Bengali family of Calcutta and was...

Words: 1423 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Vivekananda

...Prepared by: Radhika Bhalotia CONTENTS Brief bio-sketch of Swami Vivekananada | Family background | 1 | The Child- Narendranath | 1-2 | Early boyhood of Narendranath | 3 | The multi-faceted Narendranath | 4 | Major turnaround events and their impact on the Vivekananda | Vivekananda- Lover of life | 5 | Does God exist?- Engagement with the Brahmo Samaj | 5-7 | Association with Shri Ramakrishna | 7-8 | Developing eminence and emergence of leadership | Early development of leadership traits | 8 | Dasasya | 9 | Vivekananda at Chicago | 10 | Vivekananda’s take on Vedanta | 10-11 | Vivekananda’s Works  | 11 | Vivekananda on his Last Days | 11-12 | Major contributions and demonstrated leadership capability | 12-13 | Swami Vivekananda’s leadership concepts, as applicable in organizations of today | 13-15 | Comments on the person’s leadership styles and attributes | 16-17 | Motivation behind this writing this paper and choosing Swami Vivekananda Leadership is seen in the board room and in the kindergarten classroom. It is needed to guide nations as well as a scout troop. Leadership is exercised all over the world. Perhaps the fact that leadership is “omnipresent” is why it is often ignored, neglected and taken for granted. It’s like air; we don’t even think about it unless it’s lacking. The fact that leadership is so pervasive should make it a required subject in business school. While some topics are electives, everyone needs......

Words: 6433 - Pages: 26

Free Essay

Sagar

...may be argued that even a person given to sinful ways has self-confidence. Sometimes a liar escapes detection, for, he has the supreme self-confidence to assert himself and fool others. Even a famous politician, who is in the highest state of social life, hoodwinks people by misusing his influence and power. He has extreme self-confidence and he is able to beguile others. Truthfulness, honesty, patience, compassion, love etc. are positive qualities while anger, deception, dishonesty, untruthfulness ex. are negative qualities. We should avoid negative qualities and develop positive qualities. Self-confidence is one of the priceless positive qualities. Swami Vivekananda, the great Hindu monk, was not one who spoke only of God and his supernatural powers. His teachings are applicable to us in our practical lives. He once said, ‘Get me a hundred youngsters stout of heart and sturdy and I will change the whole India’. He believed in the power of the youth to change India from a backward nation to a progressive nation. The character of all of us matters a great deal in the improvement of our nation. A self-confident person, a person of great foresight, can bring about remarkable changes in him, in others, in the nation. Swami Vivekananda said ‘Atheism is not disbelief in God but disbelief in you?’ What a thought-provoking statement! If you believe in yourself, if you believe that you can bring about changes in your family, you can do it. You will be able to convince others who......

Words: 545 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Education and Self

...2013 at IIIT Hyderabad. Apart from the normal classes we had many field visits and guest lectures, by eminent people who were champions of practicing their own alternative path to education in different parts of the country. We met Partho Sanyal – Sri Aurobindo’s school of thought, Ravindra Sharma – Adilabad Kala Ashram, Rajesh Dalal – following J Krishnamurthi’s philosophy, Swami Bodhomayananda – Vivekananda Institute of Human Excellence, Ramakrishna Math, Pawan Gupta –SIDH. All introduced their approach to education and also discussed some key issues which Education and society is facing presently. In our limited interactions we succeeded in learning the crux of all of these philosophies towards education. This was enabled by lengthy discussions in class on what our frame of mind and what kind of questions need to be asked in such lectures. Follow up of all interactions was done and this helped make the topics come alive for us. Education is not just a topic – it is something which is a very important part of lives. Its importance even further exemplified by the fact that we are still in this phase of life – of being educated or getting educated. The class lectures allowed us to introspect and see for ourselves our own education – from different perspectives like competition, enjoyment, satisfaction, goals, impact on society and many more....

Words: 4809 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Talks

...Compiled Talks of Swami Vivekananda KARMA IN ITS EFFECT ON CHARACTER The word Karma is derived from the Sanskrit Kri, to do; all action is Karma. Technically, this word also means the effects of actions. In connection with metaphysics, it sometimes means the effects, of which our past actions were the causes. But in Karma-Yoga we have simply to do with the word Karma as meaning work. The goal of mankind is knowledge. That is the one ideal placed before us by Eastern philosophy. Pleasure is not the goal of man, but knowledge. Pleasure and happiness come to an end. It is a mistake to suppose that pleasure is the goal. The cause of all the miseries we have in the world is that men foolishly think pleasure to be the ideal to strive for. After a time man finds that it is not happiness, but knowledge, towards which he is going, and that both pleasure and pain are great teachers, and that he learns as much from evil as from good. As pleasure and pain pass before his soul they have upon it different pictures, and the result of these combined impressions is what is called man's "character". If you take the character of any man, it really is but the aggregate of tendencies, the sum total of the bent of his mind; you will find that misery and happiness are equal factors in the formation of that character. Good and evil have an equal share in moulding character, and in some instances misery is a greater teacher than happiness. In studying the great characters the world has produced, I......

Words: 42419 - Pages: 170

Free Essay

Pintu Kumar Maji

...CURRICULUM VITAE Dr. Pintu Kumar Maji Post-Doctoral Fellow, ICSSR, New Delhi, India Assistant Professor and Head Department of Education, Sarsuna College (Affiliated to University of Calcutta) 4/HB/A, Ho-Chi-Minh Sarani, Sarsuna Upanagari, Kolkata – 700 061, West Bengal, India Guest Faculty Department of Education, Rabindra Bharati University, Kolkata-700 050 E-mail: pkm.edu@rediffmail.com Phone: +91 9836622451(M), +91 033-2452-3699/4104 (Office) Fax: 033-2473-7365 Website: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2041-2603, http://www.hindawi.com/50378302/ www.sarsunacollege.ac.in ======================================================================= PERSONAL DETAILS Date and Place of Birth : 4th March, 1980 Kuldanga, Panchla, Howrah, West Bengal-711302, India Nationality : Indian Cast : General Permanent address : Vill. & P.O.-Kuldanga, Via-Andul, Mouri, P.S.-Panchla, Dist.-Howrah, Pin-711302, West Bengal, India Corresponding Address : Dr. Pintu Kumar Maji, C/O- Sri Lakshmi Kanta Maji, Vill &P.O.-Kuldanga, Via-Andul, Mouri, P.S.-Panchla, Dist.-Howrah, Pin-711302, West Bengal, India ACADEMIC QUALIFICATION 2013 Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. D.). Major: Education. Title: “A Study of the Locus of Control, Ecological Value and Environment Related Behaviour amongst Visually Impaired Students in West Bengal”. Area: Environmental Education and Special Education. Department of Education, University of Calcutta, West Bengal, India 2007 Master of Philosophy (M.......

Words: 4650 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

Youth Suicides

...Abstract:- Youth awareness: paradigm shift in social and political scenario 200 to 400 words The first thought that strikes our mind when we think of the word “youth” is swami Vivekananda. His teachings are an inspiration not only for us Indians but for youth all around the globe. Even the national youth day 12 january is celebrated on his birthday. Youth being the Future of our country is highly relied upon. But what would our country do if even our future is depressed? Our Paper will focus upon some of the highly troubling and contributing factors due to which the youth today is losing its values and thereby its true potential. The young man today has hands and feet to work seemingly but yet he is crippled. Our youth is coming under the influence of the harsh circumstances and complex situations of the world which they are sometimes unable to manage. Focusing on politics first. Corruption in the political system either makes the youth succumb to the system by either becoming a part of the system itself or committing suicide. The ones who dare to stand against the system like Rajiv Gandhi are assassinated. Increasing rates of SUICIDES, RAPES, HOMICIDES. The society of conservatives questions the youth and labels them as WEAK. But nobody sees what lead to such a WEAKNESS; if at all these acts signify weakness. These acts don’t signify weakness. They signify deep anger, provocation, fear, anguish and dissatisfaction at the hands of those who in power. They signify a......

Words: 636 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Indian Philosophy of Education and Pedagogy

...inner potentiality of a learner through an integrated approach of knowledge of the content area and of the philosophy of teaching. Since, India won Independence; attempt has been made to formulate a national education policy. It has been essential to evolve an Indian philosophy of education in the light of the tradition and culture upheld by Swami Vivekananda, Rabindra Nath Tagore, M. K. Gandhi, Sri Aurobinda and others. Every nation needs an educational philosophy for building up a sound system of education. India has passed through various stages of development during different periods. Since Brahmanistic education it has followed the monastic scholastic, realistic, idealistic and pragmatic trends when values changed and new priorities emerged. India is a land where values have emerged and influenced the cultural life of the land. The cross-cultural studies of modern values show an increasing tendency towards materialistic and self-centered outlook. The world in which we live today is shrinking every day, but every nation is busy in building a wall of prejudice. This is why we need to develop an Indian Philosophy of Education. Since 1944 and uptil now about 150 philosophical studies have been carried out on education, out of which only 10 studies have been specially conducted on Indian philosophy of Education. Remaining studies are conducted either on the life and work of Educational thinkers and philosophers. Hardly any attempt has been made to study the Indian philosophy......

Words: 8178 - Pages: 33

Free Essay

Business Analyst

...most Supreme among all Incarnations of God, who established Dharma (religion) and who is the embodiment of all dharmas") ******************************************************************************************* Let us start with what the great Rajaji (C.Rajagopalachari) said about Bhajagovindam: RAJAJI’S INTRODUCTION “Adi Sankaracharya wrote a number of Vedantic works for imparting knowledge of the Self and the Universal Spirit. He also composed a number of hymns to foster Bhakti in the hearts of men. One of these hymns is the famous Bhajagovindam. The way of devotion is not different from the way of knowledge or Jnana. When intelligence matures and lodges securely in the mind, it becomes wisdom. When wisdom is integrated with life, and issues out in action, it becomes Bhakti. Knowledge, when it becomes fully mature, is Bhakti. If it does not get transformed into Bhakti, such knowledge is useless tinsel. To believe that Jnana and Bhakti, knowledge and devotion, are different from each other, is ignorance. If Shri Adi Sankara himself who drank the ocean of Jnana as easily as one picks water from the palm of one’s hand, sang in his later years hymns to develop devotion, it is enough to show that Jnana and Bhakti are one and the same. Sri Sankara has packed into the Bhajagovindam song the substance of all Vedanta, and set the oneness of Jnana and Bhakti to melodious music.”...

Words: 20925 - Pages: 84

Free Essay

Status of Women in India

...Status of Women in India: Women in ancient India were held in high esteem. The position of a woman in the Vedas and the Upanishads was that of a mother (maata) or goddess (Devi). In the Manusmriti, woman was considered as a precious being o be projected first by her father, then by her brother and husband and finally by, her son. With the passage of time, the status of woman was lowered. Muscle power and money power dominated the societies. Since men fought the wars and ran the enterprises of industrial production, they considered themselves superior to woman. In the early Vedic age, girls were looked after with care. They were given the facilities of education. Remarriage of windows was permitted. But in the later Vedic period, daughters were regarded as a source of misery. The practice of polygamy deteriorated the status of woman. Women in the later civilizations were not allowed to go to schools. In the Gupta period, they were allowed to listen to the scriptures. In the medieval period, the practices of purdha system, dowry and sati came into being. Sati and PolyGram were glorified.. It is thought that the right place for woman ins the home. Her main duty is to cook to all other menial jobs. They are considered fit for producing and bringing up children. Thus, women have been deprived of their rightful place in society and exploitation. has been going on for centuries. The inhuman practice of sati where the wife burns herself alive in the funeral pyre of husband existed...

Words: 868 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Englishh

...A language is a systematic means of communication by the use of sounds or conventional symbols. It is the code we all use to express ourselves and communicate to others. It is a communication by word of mouth. It is the mental faculty or power of vocal communication. It is a system for communicating ideas and feelings using sounds, gestures, signs or marks. Any means of communicating ideas, specifically, human speech, the expression of ideas by the voice and sounds articulated by the organs of the throat and mouth is a language. This is a system for communication. A language is the written and spoken methods of combining words to create meaning used by a particular group of people. Language, so far as we know, is something specific to humans, that is to say it is the basic capacity that distinguishes humans from all other living beings. Language therefore remains potentially a communicative medium capable of expressing ideas and concepts as well as moods, feelings and attitudes. A set of linguists who based their assumptions of language on psychology made claims that language is nothing but ‘habit formation’. According to them, language is learnt through use, through practice. In their view, ‘the more one is exposed to the use of language, the better one learns’. Written languages use symbols (characters) to build words. The entire set of words is the language’s vocabulary. The ways in which the words can be meaningfully combined is defined by the language’s......

Words: 1165 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Social Issues

...‘The Life of an Indian Woman’ (Status of Woman in India) Being an Indian woman is tough, especially in India. India is a country where laws are made and rights are given to women, but these laws and rights are never executed. “Gender equality” is something every woman knows about but still doesn’t understand the meaning of. Indians are influenced to a great extent by the Western lifestyle; the food we eat, the clothes we wear, the English language that has become a must, etc. In fact people who don’t know English are very wrongly considered “illiterate”. So, since we like to follow the West so much, why not follow their logic as well? Why is gender equality in India only nominal? I agree that most of the urban Indian women today work and earn for themselves. But the logic behind that is to be independent, have an identity and be considered as equal to men. But that’s not what an Indian woman is in the eyes of Indian Society. An Indian woman in India is still expected to take her husband’s last name and move into her husband’s house, the very husband whom her parents chose for her. She is not expected to be more educated than her husband or earn more money than him. Cooking for her husband and his family and doing all the household chores is supposed to be her sworn duty, no matter how tired she is after coming back home from work. It’s her problem. If she can’t handle both the responsibilities, she should give up her job. Is that equality? And the biggest......

Words: 1598 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Catholicism and Hinduism: Stands on Gender, Sexuality and Violence

...Catholicism and Hinduism: Stands on Gender, Sexuality and Violence 1. Introduction This essay aims to compare and contrast specific aspects of Catholicism and Hinduism, more specifically their stands on gender, sexuality and violence. Catholicism and Hinduism are two of the world’s greatest religions; the former originated in the west and spread across the world whereas the latter is followed primarily in the Indian subcontinent and to some extent in the Southeast Asian states. Catholicism and Hinduism are essentially different in their approach towards god and religion; Catholicism believing that there is one deity, and Hinduism on the contrary recognizes the existence of many. Two essential points of Christianity, particularly sin and salvation, aren’t present in Hinduism. The two religions nevertheless have several points of similarity. Hindus worship a number of gods and Catholics worship several saints; both of them make use of the burning of candles and incense before the statues for purposes of worship. Both religions make use of images, icons, music and rituals. Catholics chant prayers, whilst Hindus chant mantras; both of them have tremendously wealthy temples, full of statues and golden artefacts and make use of priesthoods that intermediate between humans and gods. Such similarities and dissimilarities notwithstanding, these two religions have distinct and deeply entrenched religious ethos and epistemologies that govern their practice and the attitudes,......

Words: 1880 - Pages: 8