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Swimming

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I. INTRODUCTION

SWIMMING

Swimming is an aquatic sport which is based on the human act of swimming. Basically, the goal of swimming sport is to complete a given distance in the smallest time. Different swimming competitions are held which are totally based on speed and endurance such as crossing an English Channel. Swimming as a sport, is different from other aquatic sports like diving, synchronized swimming and water polo that involves the act of swimming but the goal is neither speed nor endurance. However, it is widely believe that swimming is the best aerobic exercise in the world.
During 19th century, competitive swimming became very popular and the international swimming association, Federation Internationale de Natation (FINA) was formed in the year 1908. Professional swimming develops with the formation of this swimming association. There are thirty six officially individual swimming events including 18 male events and 18 female events. These competitive swimming events are governed and organized by FINA. However, among 36 events only 34 of them are recognized by the International Olympic Committee which includes 17 male and 17 female.

(Source: sportslister.com/swimming)
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II. HISTORY

SWIMMING

The sport of swimming has been recorded since prehistoric times; the earliest recording of swimming dates back to Stone Agepaintings from around 7,000 years ago. Written references date from 2000 BC. Some of the earliest references to swimming include the Gilgamesh, the Iliad, the Odyssey, the Bible, Beowulf, Quran and other sagas. In 1538, Nikolaus Wynmann, a German professor of languages, wrote the first swimming book, The Swimmer or A Dialogue on the Art of Swimming (Der Schwimmer Oder ein Zweigespräch über die Schwimmkunst).

Swimming emerged as a competitive sport in the 1830s in England. In 1828, the first indoor swimming pool, St George's Baths was opened to the public.[1] By 1837, the National Swimming Society was holding regular swimming competitions in six artificial swimming pools, built around London. The sport grew in popularity and by 1880, when the first national governing body, the Amateur Swimming Association, was formed, there were already over 300 regional clubs in operation across the country.
The routes taken by Webb and T.W. Burgess across the English Channel, in 1875 and 1911, respectively.
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In 1844 two Native American participants at a swimming competition in London introduced the front crawl to a Western audience. Sir John Arthur Trudgen picked up the hand-over stroke from some South American natives and successfully debut the new stroke in 1873m, winning a local competition in England. His stroke is still regarded as the most powerful to use today.[3]

Captain Matthew Webb was the first man to swim the English Channel (between England and France), in 1875. He used breaststroke, swimming 21.26 miles (34.21 km) in 21 hours and 45 minutes. His feat was not replicated or surpassed for the next 36 years, until T.W. Burgess made the crossing in 1911.

Other European countries also established swimming federations; Germany in 1882, France in 1890 and Hungary in 1896. The first European amateur swimming competitions were in 1889 in Vienna. The world's first women's swimming championship was held inScotland in 1892.

Swimming became part of the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens. In 1902, the Australian Richmond Cavill introduced the front crawl to the Western world. In 1908, the world swimming association, Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA), was formed. Butterfly was developed in the
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1930s and was at first a variant of breaststroke, until it was accepted as a separate style in 1952.

(Leander swimming across the Hellespont. Detail from a painting by Bernard Picart.)

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(Ancient Time)

10,000-year-old rock paintings of people swimming were found in the Cave of Swimmers near Wadi Sura in southwestern Egypt. These pictures seem to show breaststroke or dog paddle, although it is also possible that the movements have a ritual meaning unrelated to swimming.[1] An Egyptian clay seal dated between 9000 BCE and 4000 BCE shows four people who are believed to be swimming a variant of the front crawl.

More references to swimming are found in the Babylonian bas-reliefs and Assyrian wall drawings, depicting a variant of the breaststroke. The most famous drawings were found in the Kebir desert and are estimated to be from around 4000 BCE. The Nagoda bas-relief also shows swimmers inside of men dating back from 3000 BCE The Indian palace Mohenjo Daro from 2800 BCE contains a swimming pool sized 30 m by 60 m. The Minoan palace of Knossos in Crete also featured baths. An Egyptian tomb from 2000 BCE shows a variant of front crawl. Depictions of swimmers have also been found from the Hittites, Minoans, and other Middle Eastern civilizations, in the Tepantitla compound at Teotihuacan, and in mosaics in Pompeii.
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Written references date back to ancient times, with the earliest as early as 2000 BC. Such references occur in works like Gilgamesh, theIliad, the Odyssey, the Bible (Ezekiel 47:5, Acts 27:42, Isaiah 25:11), Beowulf, and other sagas, although the style is never described. There are also many mentions of swimmers in the Vatican, Borgian and Bourbon codices. A series of reliefs from 850 BC in the Nimrud Gallery of the British Museum show swimmers, mostly in military context, often using swimming aids. The Germanic folklore describes swimming, which was used successfully in wars against the Romans.

(Rock paintings from the Cave of Swimmers.)

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(EARLY MODERN ERA)

Leonardo da Vinci made early sketches of lifebelts. In 1539, Nikolaus Wynmann, a German professor of languages, wrote the first swimming book Colymbetes. His purpose was to reduce the dangers of drowning. The book contained a good methodical approach to learning breaststroke, and mentioned swimming aids such as air filled cow bladders, reed bundles, and cork belts.
In 1587, Everard Digby also wrote a swimming book, claiming that humans could swim better than fish. Digby was a Senior Fellow at St. John's College, Cambridge and was interested in the scientific method. His short treatise, De arte natandi, was written in Latin and contained over 40 woodcut illustrations depicting various methods of swimming, including the breaststroke, backstroke and crawl. Digby regarded the breaststroke as the most useful form of swimming. In 1603, Emperor Go-Yozei of Japan declared that schoolchildren should swim. In 1696, the French author Melchisédech Thévenot wrote The Art of Swimming, describing a breaststroke very similar to the modern breaststroke. This book was translated into English and became the standard reference of swimming for many years to come. In 1739, Guts Muts (also spelled as Guts Muth) from Schnepfenthal, Germany, wrote Gymnastik für die
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Jugend (Exercise for youth), including a significant portion about swimming. In 1794, Kanonikus Oronzio de Bernardi of Italy wrote a two volume book about swimming, including floating practice as a prerequisite for swimming studies.

In 1798, Guts Muts wrote another book Kleines Lehrbuch der Schwimmkunst zum Selbstunterricht (Small study book of the art of swimming for self-study), recommending the use of a "fishing rod" device to aid in the learning of swimming. His books describe a three step approach to learning to swim that is still used today. First, get the student used to the water; second, practice the swimming movements out of the water; and third, practice the swimming movements in the water. He believed that swimming is an essential part of every education. The Haloren, a group of salt makers in Halle, Germany, greatly advanced swimming through setting a good example to others by teaching their children to swim at a very early age.

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(Lifebelt sketch by Leonardo da Vinci(circa 1488–90).)

(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_swimming)

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SWIMMING AS A COMPETETIVE SPORT

Swimming emerged as a competitive sport in the 1830s in England. In 1828, the first indoor swimming pool, St George's Baths was opened to the public. By 1837, the National Swimming Society was holding regular swimming competitions in six artificial swimming pools, built around London. The sport grew in popularity and by 1880, when the first national governing body, the Amateur Swimming Association, was formed, there were already over 300 regional clubs in operation across the country.

`Les Nageurs (The Swimmers), from the series Le Supreme Bon Ton, c.1810-1815.

In 1844 a swimming competition was held in London with the participation of two Native Americans. The British competitor used the traditional breaststroke, while the Native Americans swam a variant of the front crawl, which had been used by people in the Americas for generations, but was not known to the British. The winning medal went to 'Flying Gull' who swam the 130 foot length in just 30 seconds - the Native American swimming method proved to be a much faster style than the British breaststroke. The Times of London reported
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disapprovingly that the Native American stroke was an unrefined motion with the arms "like a windmill" and the chaotic and unregulated kicking of the legs. The considerable splashing that the stroke caused was deemed to be barbaric and "un-European" to the British gentlemen, who preferred to keep their heads over the water. Subsequently, the British continued to swim only breaststroke until 1873. The British did, however, adapt the breaststroke into the speedier sidestroke, where the swimmer lies to one side; this became the more popular choice by the late 1840s. In 1895, J. H. Thayers of England swam 100 yards (91 m) in a record-breaking 1:02.50 using a sidestroke. Sir John Arthur Trudgen picked up the hand-over stroke from South American natives he observed swimming on a trip to Buenos Aires. On his return to England in 1868, he successfully debuted the new stroke in 1873 and won a local competition in 1875. Although the new stroke was really the reintroduction of a more intuitive method for swimming, one that had been in evidence in ancient cultures such as Ancient Assyria, his method revolutionised the state of competitive swimming - his stroke is still regarded as the most powerful to use today.[9] In his stroke, the arms were brought forward, alternating, while the body rolled from side to side. The kick was a scissors kick such as that familiarly used in breaststroke, with one kick for two arm strokes, although it is believed that the Native Americans had indeed used a flutter kick. Front crawl variants used
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different ratios of scissor kicks to arm strokes, or alternated with a flutter (up-and-down) kick. The speed of the new stroke was demonstrated by F.V.C. Lane in 1901, swimming 100 yards (91 m) in 1:00.0, an improvement of about ten seconds compared to the breaststroke record. Due to its speed the Trudgen became very quickly popular around the world, despite all the ungentlemanlike splashing.

The routes taken by Webb and T.W. Burgess across the English Channel, in 1875 and 1911, respectively.

Captain Matthew Webb was the first man to swim the English Channel (between England and France), in 1875. He used breaststroke, swimming 21.26 miles (34.21 km) in 21 hours and 45 minutes. His feat was not replicated or surpassed for the next 36 years, until T.W. Burgess made the crossing in 1911. Other European countries also established swimming federations; Germany in 1882, France in 1890 and Hungary in 1896. The first European amateur swimming competitions were in 1889 in Vienna. The world's first women's swimming championship was held in Scotland in 1892.

Nancy Edberg popularised women's swimming in Stockholm from 1847. She made swimming lessons accessible for both genders and
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later introduced swimming lessons for women in Denmark and Norway. Her public swimming exhibitions from 1856 with her students were likely among the first public exhibitions of women swimming in Europe.
In 1897, Capt. Henry Sheffield designed a rescue can or rescue cylinder, now well known as the lifesaving device. The pointed ends made it slide faster through the water, although it can cause injuries.

(Les Nageurs (The Swimmers), from the series Le Supreme Bon Ton, c.1810-1815.)

(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_swimming)

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III. DEFINITION

SWIMMING Swimming is one of the most popular recreational sports that can be enjoyed by all ages. The ability to swim enables people to participate in a wide variety of water sports such as snorkeling, water skiing, jet skiing, wind surfing, sailing, boating, fishing, rowing, and canoeing, without the fear of getting into trouble, and reduces the risk of drowning. Fear of water, particularly if a person suddenly gets out of their depth, prevents a lot of people going into a swimming pool or enjoying beach holidays. Many of the newer watersports require expertise in handling a craft as well as swimming proficiency.

Water is a very dangerous place for non swimmers, particularly if it is cold and an excessive amount of alcohol has been drunk. Unfamiliar surroundings, and no knowledge of local tides, can be lethal to careless individuals. Water-related fatalities are the second leading cause of accidental death in the UK and Australia, and the third in the US. The risk of drowning is 2.5 deaths per 100 000 in USA and 1 per 100 000 in the UK.

Swimmers are usually taught the four swimming strokes used for competitions; the front crawl, backstroke, breaststroke and butterfly, which are swum either as a single stroke or in combination over various distances.

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Swimming programmes are helpful for both the mentally and the physically handicapped as they weigh less in water, and this makes it easier for them to move their muscles, enabling them to improve muscle tone and co-ordination of movement. Pregnant women can swim during their pregnancy while many other sports are not suitable. Swimming is also useful in rehabilitation of injured athletes. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis can improve their aerobic capacity by swimming in warm water. Asthmatics should be encouraged to swim, as swimming is the sport that is least likely to precipitate an asthmatic attack, and the fitter they are the fewer attacks they have; swimming improves their breathing. Asthma is not a handicap in achieving excellence in sport as shown by the number of Olympic gold medal swimmers who were asthmatics.

Water aerobics is becoming a popular method of keeping fit, with less potential for injury than high impact aerobics. Running in the water is a useful method for athletes to keep fit, if they are injured and unable to cope with full weight-bearing on hard surfaces. Hydrotherapy is also an effective rehabilitation after injury. Swimming is thus a sport that can be enjoyed by many different groups.

(Source: http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070619045718AAqAf1V)

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In recreation and sports, the propulsion of the body through water by combined arm and leg motions and the natural flotation of the body. Swimming as an exercise is popular as an all-around body developer and is particularly useful in therapy and as exercise for physically handicapped persons. It is also taught for lifesaving purposes. For activities that involve swimming, see also diving, lifesaving, surfing, synchronized swimming, underwater diving, and water polo.
(Source: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/577062/swimming)

(Photograph: Speedo)
(Source: http://www.google.com.ph/search?q=SWIMMING&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=6JAdU9PxIISaiAfN8YCwDg&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAQ&biw=1280&bih=630)

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IV. DIFFERENT STYLES/ STROKES IN SWIMMING

The Freestyle Stroke
The Freestyle Stroke or front crawl is often the preferred stroke of seasoned swimmers. It uses alternating arm movements with an above water recovery. The legs execute a flutter kick.

FREESTYLE STROKE

Freestyle is fast and efficient. In fact it is the fastest of all swimming strokes. That's why it is used in freestyle competitions and in the swimming leg of triathlons.

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Breaststroke Breast stroke is the most popular swim stroke of all. In breaststroke, both arms execute half-circular arm movements at the same time under water in front of the swimmer. The arm recovery also occurs under water. The legs simultaneously execute a whip kick.

Breaststroke
Breaststroke is often the first swimming stroke taught to beginners. In fact, many occasional swimmers can only swim this stroke. The advantage of breaststroke is that beginners can keep their head above the water. This avoids breathing and orientation issues. More experienced swimmers however submerge their head during the stroke cycle to improve efficiency. Breaststroke is the slowest of the competitive strokes.
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Backstroke
As its name suggests, backstroke is swum on the back. It uses alternating circular arm movements and an above water recovery. The legs execute a flutter kick similar to the one used in freestyle.

Backstroke
Backstroke is faster than breaststroke but slower than butterfly. Physicians often prescribe backstroke swimming to people experiencing back problems because it gives the back an excellent workout.
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Butterfly Stroke
The butterfly stroke stands out among the competitive strokes because of its unique and spectacular technique. It uses a symmetrical arm stroke with an above water recovery. It also uses a wave-like body undulation and a dolphin kick.

The Butterfly Stroke
Butterfly is the second fastest swim stroke after freestyle. It has a reputation of being hard to learn and is quickly exhausting. But once you have mastered it, swimming a few lengths of butterfly can be a lot of fun!

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Sidestroke
The sidestroke is an old swim stroke swum on the side that uses a scissor kick and asymmetrical under water arm movements.

Sidestroke
Side stroke is not used in swimming competitions and is therefore swum less often nowadays. Nevertheless it is easy to learn and can be an interesting alternative to the popular swim strokes. It is also used by lifeguards to rescue victims.

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Elementary Backstroke
Elementary backstroke is a swim stroke that is swum on the back, using a reversed breaststroke kick and a simple synchronous under water arm stroke.

Elementary Backstroke
Elementary backstroke can be used as a first swim stroke with children (or adults) that learn how to swim because its technique is very simple.
(Source: http://www.enjoy-swimming.com/swimming-strokes.html)

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V. TOOLS/ EQUIPMENTS IN SWIMMING

Swimsuit
The suit covers the skin for modesty. Competitive
Swimwear seeks to improve upon bare human skin for a speed advantage. In 2009, FINA rules and regulations were altered and suits made with polyurethane were banned because they made athletes more buoyant.

Swim cap
A swim cap (a.k.a. cap) keeps the swimmer's hair out of the way to reduce drag. Caps may be made of latex, silicone, spandex or lycra.

Goggles
Goggles keep water and chlorine out of swimmers' eyes. Goggles may be tinted to counteract glare at outdoor pools. Prescription goggles may be used by swimmers who wear corrective lenses.

Swim Fins
Rubber fins are used to help kick faster. They also improve technique by keeping the feet in the proper position while kicking.

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Drag suit
Swimmers use drag suits to make weight to pull them back, to increase resistance.

Paddles
Swimmers use these plastic devices to build arm and shoulder strength and refine pulling technique. Hand paddles attach to the hand with rubber tubing or elastic material. They come in many different shapes and sizes.

Kickboard
A kickboard is a foam board that swimmers use to support the weight of the upper body while they focus on kicking; helps build leg muscles.

Pull buoy
Often used at the same time as hand paddles, pull buoys support swimmers' legs (and prevents them from kicking) while they focus on pulling. Pull buoys are made of foam so they float in the water. Swimmers hold them in between the thighs.

(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swimming_(sport))

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Ankle bands
Improving balance will minimize the need for this kick to provide an upward, instead of a forward vector, and in some cases completely corrects the kick. Using an ankle band will have the immediate effect of turning off your kick, which then forces you to make efforts to correct your balance.
If you are successful in discovering these, then the ankle band has done part of its job.

Snorkel
A snorkel is a plastic device that helps swimmers breathe while swimming. This piece of equipment helps the swimmer practice keeping his or her head in one position.

Tempo trainer
A beeping clock attached to a swimmers cap or goggles helps them maintain a certain arm tempo or speed. As each beep is heard, their next stroke should be taken.

Zoomers
A type of rubber swimming fins, zoomers are cut off fins with the holes in the bottom. They help make the swimmer kick faster, but at the cost of working harder.

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VI. BENEFITS OF SWIMMING

In some ways, the health effects of swimming are similar to those of land-based aerobic activities, such as jogging, walking or bicycling, said Hirofumi Tanaka, the director of the Cardiovascular Aging Research Laboratory at the University of Texas at Austin. Like them, swimming is a “rhythmical aerobic exercise that you can maintain continuously” to improve cardiovascular and muscular health have found that swimming “is very effective at reducing blood pressure and improving vascular function,” just as walking and other land-based endurance exercises are.

Fitness: Getting or keeping in shape. Remember that you cannot just waddle back and expect great results. Improving your fitness depends on how much energy you use.

Therapeutic: Helping people recover from accidents and sickness. . Combating the process of aging

Social: Meeting and being with other people. You can talk to others as you water exercise. Work out facing a partner or side-by-side. Meet new people, too!

Stress Release: Gives you a chance to just relax and forget about work, problems, and other things.

Fun: Enjoying the diversion. Water exercises in a playful way and don't worry about being serious! Laugh and enjoy it! Water exercise is fun!
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Physical Benefits * Improved flexibility and strength * Builds up endurance * Increases muscular flexibility * Muscular balance * Heart muscle becomes stronger * Improves the physique * Increases circulation * Rehabilitates muscles * Improved ability to control and maintain healthy weight

Social Benefits * Have fun * Fellowship with other people * Enjoyable - even when working hard * It is a safe program

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Psychological Benefits * Helps develop a positive attitude (individually and as a group) * Contributes to a feeling of well-being * Teaches patience * Releases stress and tension * Renews energy

(Source: http://www.bucknell.edu/x14331.xml)

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Other Benefits of Swimming

Low impact
There's no ground impact when you swim, and so you protect the joints from stress and strain. In fact, the Arthritis Foundation strongly recommends swimming and water activities for this reason so much so that they sponsor water classes all over the country (check http://www.arthritis.org for information). Water aerobics classes are also desirable for this reason, because even if you do jump and hit the bottom of the pool, you do so with less force because you're buoyant in the water. Not only that, but if you wear or hold a flotation device during a water aerobics class, the impact is even less.
Builds cardiorespiratory fitness
Swimming improves endurance. In one study of sedentary middle-aged men and women who did swim training for 12 weeks, maximal oxygen consumption improved 10% and stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped with each beat which indicates heart strength) improved as much as 18%.

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Builds muscle mass
In a study of men who completed an eight-week swimming program, there was a 23.8% increase in the triceps muscle (the back of the arm). My take on muscle mass and swimming is that if you have been doing no resistance exercise at all and you start to swim, you will certainly get more toned and you may even gain mass like the men in this study. But even without the gain in mass, it's well worth the strength and tone that you will almost certainly gain.
Burns calories
Swimming burns lots of calories, anywhere from 500-650 per hour depending on how efficiently you swim (you burn more flopping around than swimming cleanly!) and how buoyant you are (the more body fat you have, the more you float and the fewer calories it takes to swim). Very early and original research on swimming and calorie expenditure showed that swimming, regardless of the stroke, burned about 89% of the calories burned during running and 97% of the calories burned during cycling for the same time period.
(Source: http://www.medicinenet.com/swimming/page4.htm )
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VII. References/ Sources: VIII. * (Source: sportslister.com/swimming)

* (Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_swimming)

* (Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_swimming)

* (Source: http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070619045718AAqAf1V)

* (Source: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/577062/swimming) * (Source: http://www.google.com.ph/search?q=SWIMMING&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=6JAdU9PxIISaiAfN8YCwDg&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAQ&biw=1280&bih=630) * (Source: http://www.enjoy-swimming.com/swimming-strokes.html) * (Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swimming_(sport))

* (Source: http://www.bucknell.edu/x14331.xml) * (Source: http://www.google.com.ph/search?q=BENEFITS+OF+SWIMMING&biw=1280&bih=630&source=lnms&sa=X&ei=17UdU7ntMNGZiQfctYHYDQ&ved=0CAYQ_AUoAA * (Source: http://www.medicinenet.com/swimming/page4.htm )

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...completing the task and relying on another persons advise. If we relate this quote towards the way we learn in university, it can relate towards the way that many students may establish the way of learning in university, and rather than being practical and focusing within lessons and attempting all tasks and completing coursework, many students may always rely on the help of other students and take their notes to revise and complete work this way they will not be learning on the basis of their own effort and putting in the hard work leading to them not being able to learn anything. Relating back to this quote if a person wants to learn how to swim without getting wet, there are many alternatives to this, for instance practicing the swimming movements that you will need to know to help you to begin to learn to swim. However practicing inside water and practicing out of water can be a very different experience, and still not teach you how to be able to swim properly, this goes for if we took a persons advice and their experience on how to be able to swim and the different techniques that would need to be used, even despite knowing what we would need to do it would still be difficult for us to jump straight into the water and be able to adapt ourselves into this situation. In conclusion I feel that in order for us to ‘learn how to swim without getting wet’ it is necessary for us to actually get in the water and learn how to swim rather than taking the advise......

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