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Symbolic Racism In Australia

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For as long as the white man has been evident on indigenous soil, the division of non-indigenous populations and indigenous populations have been present. The racism and discrimination that has impacted the Indigenous populations have drastically affected many generations. It is the development of the everyday Australian attitude that has encouraged social movements across the country; moving majority away from the traditional racism or “old-fashioned” racism. Old-fashioned racism regards the statement and policies that are intentionally and blatantly discriminative, it includes the genuine belief that a life of a black individual is worth significantly less than white individuals (Tesler, 2013). Movements across the decades have attempted …show more content…
Symbolic racism is the prejudicial behavior that embodies negative attitudes and behaviors towards people of color (Henry & Sears, 2002); its intention is to be subtler and more politically correct. It includes the belief that individuals of color no longer experience the disadvantages that they once did and therefore should have no obstacles or disadvantages to achieve better outcomes, that individuals of color are unable to help themselves (Virtanen & Huddy, 1998). Previously, to understand the racial attitude of Symbolic Racism, , measures were developed to quantify and determine the score. McConahay (1986) developed a measure of modern racism, The Modern Racism Scale (MRS). This originally was applicable to African Americans within the United States, and the prejudicial feelings felt by the white American. The MRS has been widely accepted, as there is no single unisons measure; broad faculties of psychology have used this measure as it is applicable to laboratory and correlational research (Henry & Sears, 2002). It suggested by Henry & Sears that the construct was multidimensional rather than one-dimensional, therefore suggesting that the construct was composed of four factors, ‘1) Work Ethic and Responsibility of outcomes, 2) Excessive Demands 3) Denial of Continuing Discrimination and 4) Undeserved Advantage …show more content…
Continuing, a factor produced was Excessive Demands, this is the idea that individuals of color expect more assistance than what is fair, similarly Underserved Advantage describes the feelings that individuals of color receive an inequitable amount of benefits when compared to white individuals. The final factor Denial of Continuing Discrimination; is the belief that prejudice and discrimination against colored individuals no longer exists, and therefore is no longer an issue (Henry & Sears, 2002). Despite being widely used multiple criticisms of the Modern Racism Scale have occurred. One concern of researchers is whether or not the Modern Racism Scale is merely ‘old wine in a new bottle’ (Morrison & Kiss, 2017). It is the concern that the new modern is not a distinct construct from previous concepts and that the factors used in the analysis correlated in a very similar way to the original variables produced for old-fashioned racism. It has also been a major criticism that the MRS does not focus on the potential intricacy of racial discrimination and prejudice, due to the limiting amount of items and unidimensional structure. Continuing the scale produced is singularly one dimension, aiming to capture a multidimensional construct, some of which possess items that are not seemingly captured (Morrison &

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