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Synopsis of the Last Supper

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SYNOPSIS OF THE LAST SUPPER ACCOUNTS

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In the New Testament, the Last Supper refers to the last meal that Jesus shared with his disciples on the night of his betrayal. This last meal mentioned in different terms in different texts. These terms include the Lord's Supper, Eucharist, communion and mass. The last supper serves as an encouragement and a unifying factor to Christians. It binds them in fellowship of love, trust and mutual acceptance. Sharing of the last supper is one of the orders that Jesus gave to his church. It is ideally Christian’s remembrance of Jesus, acknowledgement of his presence, confident hope in his second coming, fellowship with him and his people, self-examination, thanksgiving and gratitude. 1This paper explores the last supper event as presented by the books of Matthew, Mark, Luke and 1st Corinthians. Historical Background of the Last Supper The last supper concept dates back to the early times in the Old Testament where Jews used to celebrate the Passover. The Passover ritual entailed an opening course where the paterfamilias spoke a blessing over the first cup of wine. The preliminary dish comprised green herbs, bitter herbs and a sauce made of fruit puree placed over a table also containing a bowl of salt and water to remind the partakers of the tears they shed while they were in slavery in the land of Egypt. Then the meal would be served but not yet taken. A second cup of wine would then be put on the table and during this time the second part of the ritual, that is, explanation of the meaning of the Passover meal by the paterfamilias would take place. At this time, the first part of Psalms 113-114 would be sung. At that time, the third feature would take place where the paterfamilias would speak grace over the unleavened bread. 1. Frank, Stag. New Testament Theology. Nashville: Broadman Press, 1962.
The meal itself comprised the Pascal lamb, the bread, bitter herbs, charoseth and the lamb wrapped together. After prayer, the participants would drink the third cup of wine. This third cup is the most likely to be the cup of the Lords Supper because Jews called it the” cup of blessing," just as Paul calls the Christian cup in 1st Corinthians 10:10.The service closed with a fourth cup amid praise and singing of the remainder of the Psalms 115-118. Matthew explains his account of the last Passover and the Lords supper against this background.2 The Jewish Passover to a great extent relates to the Last Supper in the New Testament. However, the contention arises on whether the Last supper shared by Jesus and his disciples was a Passover or a specially arranged meal. Despite the uncertainty, Jesus death was perceived in terms of the paschal lamb that is the customary lamb that used to be slain a night before Passover meal. In the last supper, Jesus and his disciples shared bread and wine. According to Paul in (1st Cor.11:24) Jesus said these words during the sharing of the bread and wine “Do this in remembrance of me.” It is, therefore, right to infer that the sharing of the meal (bread and wine/cup) was developed for memorial purposes. The last supper is a memorial of Jesus. It is a remembrance of the decision he made to offer himself for death at Golgotha. The circumstances under which the last supper meal was developed and its purpose resonates with the Jewish Passover that Jews celebrated in remembrance of the mighty act of God in which he had brought the Israelites from slavery in Egypt(Exodus). Similarly, the lord Supper represents the new exodus or victory over sin and death that were accomplished at Golgotha when Jesus was crucified and, therefore, the development of the last supper can be 2. Stag. New Testament Theology. seen as a way of thanksgiving for God’s deliverance. According to Paul in 1 Corinthians 10:17, Paul declares, “the many of us are one loaf, one body, for all of us partake of one loaf. “Therefore, fellowship with Christ is also fellowship with Christ. Paul emphasizes an additional importance of the last supper Jesus shared with his disciples, that is, it was to unite all believers in Christ. Hans Lietzmann argues that two different supper observances arose among the early Christians. He named one the Jerusalem type and the other the Pauline type. Jerusalem type was the table fellowship described in some early chapters of Acts. Pauline type was a memorial to the death of Christ as advanced by Paul and is related to the Last Supper observed by Jesus and his disciples before his death.3 Literally Comparison/ Contrast of the Last Supper Texts
Narrative Context The whole narrative that is shared in the Gospel books leads to the last supper that occurred after the triumphant entry of Jesus into Jerusalem early in the week and meeting with different people and the Jewish leaders. Jesus and his disciples share the last supper meal towards the end of the week. After they have had the meal Judas betrays Jesus, and he is arrested, prosecuted and crucified.
Differences between the four Accounts The three Gospel books, that is, Matthew, Mark and Luke present a detailed description of the events that occurred during the night of the Last Supper. However, the book of Acts that was probably written before the other Gospels talks about the Supper but it puts emphasis on the theological basis of the event instead of giving details and background of the event.
3. Stag. New Testament Theology. The Gospel of Luke, 22:19 contains some words that are not in the Gospels of Matthew and Mark, “Do this in remembrance of me.” These words are however found in the 1st Corinthians 11:23-26 in its earliest account of the Lords Supper. Although this last meal Jesus shares with his disciples the night prior to his death is generally referred to as the “Lords supper,” The name “Lords Supper” is only found in 1st Corinthians 11:20. The late gospel manuscripts teach that the Lords Supper depicts the broken body of Jesus. The reading in 1st Corinthians 11:24 proven by third and fourth century manuscripts states” This is my body for you.” However the late manuscripts add either “given” or “broken” for you. Paul puts emphasis in 1st Corinthians on the one-ness of the body of Christ proclaimed in the Last Supper. The Supper proclaims Christ’s body and not the broken body. The breaking of bread means a joint participation in one bread and not the fragmentation of the body.4 In the New Testament, the word Eucharist means “thanksgiving.” The New Testament describes the observance of the Last Supper as including giving of thanks. The participles for giving thanks and blessing are used inter-changeably. Mark describes Jesus as a “blessing,” the bread and “giving thanks” for the cup. Paul reverses the terms, and he talks of the “cup of blessing which we bless” in 1 Corinthians 10:16 and describes Jesus as “giving thanks” for the bread and for the cup. The three gospels, Matthew, Mark, and Luke, give a detailed event of the preparation of the last supper. They categorically state that the preparation took place on the first day of unleavened bread. 4. Stag. New Testament Theology. In Matthew, Mark and Luke, Jesus instructs the disciples go out to the city and meet a man who will direct them on where to hold the last Supper. There are no details on the preparation of the Last Supper in 1st Corinthians. In 1st Corinthians, Paul issues guidelines on how the Lords Supper should be celebrated. Paul emphasizes that the common meal (bread and wine) is the Lords Supper only if the partakers observed unity. He urges the partakers to wait for one another and eat together and in doing so see themselves as the body of Christ.
In the books of Matthew and Mark, Jesus breaks the bread after blessing it. In 1st Corinthians and Luke, Jesus breaks the bread after giving thanks.
Similarities Among the Four Accounts The three texts, Matthew, Mark and Luke state that the last supper was held towards one of the week after the triumphant entry of Jesus to Jerusalem and that the meal was shared shortly before crucifixion of Jesus at the end of the same week. In the course of the meal, Jesus foretells of his betrayal by one of his disciple present. Further, Jesus foretells that before the next morning, Peter will deny him. The four texts, Matthew, Mark, Luke and 1st Corinthians all talk of Jesus taking the bread, breaking it and then giving it to his disciples while describing it as his body that is given to them (disciples).Further in all the four texts, there is a cup that Jesus shares with his disciples and describes it as a covenant in his blood or blood of the covenant. Theological Comparison/Contrast of the Last Supper Texts Some Christians view the Lord's Supper (Last Supper) as full of symbols (bread and cup) as is true of baptism (water). However, true observance of the supper entails more than employment of symbolism The Lords supper has a theological meaning that can be deduced from presentation of the event by the four accounts.
Theological Focus of Each of the Four Accounts An act of Obedience. Jesus told to his disciples, "Do this in remembrance of me? (I Cor. 11:24, 25). This is a command. Jesus wanted his followers to continue this observance it is the only act that Jesus asked his followers to do in commemoration. Paul writes Jesus said, "As often as you drink, do it in remembrance of me" (I Cor. 11:25). The regularity of observation of Lord's Supper is not a straight command of the Bible. It is more essential that Christians appropriately remember Jesus Christ in the sharing of the bread and wine, every time it is observed. The point that Jesus did command this continuing act of commemoration is the base of the Church referring to it as one of its "ordinances" all over its history, and encouraging Christians to take part in it as an act of obedience.5 An act of Identification. Paul specifies that part of the purpose of Christians gathering together was to have Lord's Supper (I Cor. 11:20). The sharing of the food items in the observation of Lord's Supper will have little or no importance to those who have not accepted spiritual union with Christ. In the latter case, they will not be able to remember the importance of what the death of Jesus means to their lives. Lord's Supper is envisioned for those who know Christ as the Lord of their lives, and for whom the continuous commemoration of his sacrifice reminds them of their association with Him.6 5. Stag. New Testament Theology. 6. Ibid An act of Covenant. Jesus told his disciples, “this cup is the new covenant in my blood" (Luke 22:20; I Cor. 11:25). When Jesus said, "The cup is the new covenant in my blood," he meant that the blood he would shed in crucifixion would function as the endorsed of the "new covenant." The new covenant is built on the Spirit of grace (1Cor. 3:6). Jesus took accepted to die a death he didn’t deserve, in order to give man his spiritual and everlasting life. When we share of the Lord's Supper we recall the "new covenant" which God has effected by the blood thatJes1us shed on the cross.7 An act of Thanksgiving. Luke’s Gospel record that during the Last Supper, Jesus gave thanks before encouraging the disciples to share the bread and the cup (Luke 22:17, 19). To give thanks is to recognize God’s good grace. When we participate in Lord's Supper, we give thanks by recognizing the wonderful grace of God in the completed work of Jesus Christ.8 An act of Examination. Paul said that a man should to assess himself before taking the bread and the cup (I Cor. 11:28).The self-examination refers to examination of our mind-set within the sharing of Lord's Supper, and a discernment of our correct relation with the body of Jesus.9

7. Stag. NewTestament Theology. 8. Ibid 9. Ibid Reasons for Discrepancies in the Accounts There is a problem of identifying the last supper or determining the exact date when it took place between the synoptic on one hand and Paul on the other hand. 10 The three Synoptic Gospels evidently recognize the Last Supper as the Passover (Mark: 12, 14, 16, Matthew 26:17-19, Luke 22:7-15). Paul appears to fix the death of Jesus at the time of slaughtering of the Paschal Lamb, hence prior to the Passover Meal (1 Corinthians 5:7) This variation can be explained by the fact that there were two different feasts one coming immediately after the other, the Passover Feast observed the night after the slaughter of the Paschal lamb and the feast of Unleavened Bread that was celebrated for seven days. The two feasts could be differentiated or referred to as a single eight days feast referred to by either of the two names. In the proper sense, Passover could refer to a single day feast or to the eight-day feast combining Passover and the unleavened bread.11 The Lord's Supper must not be perceived as mere a recurring ritual. It is not a sacramental rite that provides spiritual benefit just because one takes bread and wine. The Lord Supper can only continue to be relevant if we maintain a disciplined mind while observing it. The. We there- fore need to come together with other Christians in communion, and together recall the importance of Jesus dying on our behalf.

10. Stag. NewTestament Theology. 11. Ibid Bibliography
Stag, Frank. New Testament Theology. Nashville: Broadman Press, 1962.

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...雅思7分词 汇 表 1. 1. 普通词汇 abbreviate to make (a word , story, etc.) shorter: 节略 abet to help in a plan, esp. a crime: 從恿; 教唆 ability power and skill ,esp. to do ,think, make, etc (尤指制作, 思考, 创造等的)能力; 才能 She has the ability to go to college, but she doesn’t want to. abrupt 1. sudden and unexpected:突然的 The train came to an abrupt stop, making many passengers fall off their seats. 2. ( of behavior, character, etc.) rough, rather impolite: (行为, 性格等); 无礼的 abuse 1. to do cruel things to(a person or animal): 虐待, 凌辱(人或动物) I won’t allow you to abuse that dog. 2. to say cruel or rude things to or about (somebody or something): 骂(人或事); 讲…坏话 3. to put to wrong use ;use badly: 滥用; 妄用 to abuse one’s power academic 1. concerning teaching or studying ,esp. in a college or university:(学院或大学) 教学的; 学术的 2. concerning those subject taught to provide skills for the mind rather than for the hand: 人文研究的; 学术上的 accelerator the piece of apparatus in a car , etc . which is used to increase speed:(汽车等的) 加速装置; 加速器 access 1.a means of entering ; way in ; entrance: 进入; 通路 The only ( means of ) access to their house is a narrow road. 2. means or right of using , reaching , or entering: 使用接近或者进入的方法权利 accommodation a place to live ; room , flat , house , hotel room ,etc...

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