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Synthesis Definition

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Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a chemoattractant cytokine produced by a variety of tissue and blood cells. Unlike many other cytokines, it has a distinct target specificity for the neutrophil, with only weak effects on other blood cells.
Interleukin 8 (IL-8) or CXCL8 is a chemokine produced by macrophages and other cell types such as epithelial cells, airway smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. Endothelial cells store IL-8 in their storage vesicles, the Weibel-Palade bodies. In humans, theinterleukin-8 protein is encoded by the IL8 gene.

Lipid profile or lipid panel is a panel of blood tests that serves as an initial broad medical screening tool for abnormalities in lipids, such as cholesterol and triglycerides.

Total Cholesterol (TC)
Directly linked to risk of heart and blood vessel disease.
Goal values: * 75-169 mg/dL for those age 20 and younger * 100-199 mg/dL for those over age 21
This test may be measured any time of the day without fasting. However, if the test is drawn as part of a total lipid profile, it requires a 12-hour fast (no food or drink, except water). For the most accurate results, wait at least two months after a heart attack, surgery, infection, injury or pregnancy to check cholesterol levels.
Cholesterol is a type of fat, found in your blood. It is produced by your body and also comes from the foods you eat (animal products). Cholesterol is needed by your body to maintain the health of your cells. Too much cholesterol leads to coronary artery disease. Your blood cholesterol level is related to the foods you eat or to genetic conditions (passed down from other generations of family members).
High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) “Good cholesterol”
High levels linked to a reduced risk of heart and blood vessel disease. The higher your HDL level, the better.
Goal value: * Greater than 40 mg/dL
This test may be measured any time of the day without fasting. However, if the test is drawn as part of a total lipid profile, it requires a 12-hour fast (no food or drink, except water). For the most accurate results, wait at least two months after a heart attack, surgery, infection, injury or pregnancy to check HDL levels.
HDL is a lipoprotein (a combination of fat and protein) found in the blood. It is called "good" cholesterol because it removes excess cholesterol from the blood and takes it to the liver. A high HDL level is related to lower risk of heart and blood vessel disease.
Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) “Bad cholesterol”
High levels are linked to an increased risk of heart and blood vessel disease, including coronary artery disease, heart attack and death. Reducing LDL levels is a major treatment target for cholesterol-lowering medications.
Goal values: * Less than 70 mg/dL for those with heart or blood vessel disease and for other patients at very high risk of heart disease (those with metabolic syndrome) * Less than 100 mg/dL for high risk patients (e.g., some patients who have multiple heart disease risk factors) * Less than 130 mg/dL for individuals who are at low risk for coronary artery disease
Blood should be collected after a 12-hour fast (no food or drink, except water). For the most accurate results, wait at least two months after a heart attack, surgery, infection, injury or pregnancy to check LDL levels.
LDL is a lipoprotein (a combination of fat and protein) found in the blood. It is called "bad" cholesterol because it picks up cholesterol from the blood and takes it to the cells. A high LDL level is related to a higher risk of heart and blood vessel disease.
Triglycerides (TG)
Elevated in obese or diabetic patients. Level increases from eating simple sugars or drinking alcohol. Associated with heart and blood vessel disease.
Goal value: * Less than 150 mg/dl
Blood should be collected after a 12-hour fast (no food or drink, except water). For the most accurate results, wait at least two months after a heart attack, surgery, infection, injury or pregnancy to check triglyceride levels.
Triglycerides are a type of fat found in the blood. The blood level of this type of fat is most affected by the foods you eat (such as sugar, fat or alcohol) but can also be high due to being overweight, having thyroid or liver disease and genetic conditions. High levels of triglycerides are related to a higher risk of heart and blood vessel disease.

How is it used?
The lipid profile is used as part of a cardiac risk assessment to help determine an individual's risk of heart disease and to help make decisions about what treatment may be best if there is borderline or high risk.
Lipids are a group of fats and fat-like substances that are important constituents of cells and sources of energy. Monitoring and maintaining healthy levels of these lipids is important in staying healthy. (For more on lipids, see the "What is being tested?" section.)
The results of the lipid profile are considered along with other known risk factors of heart disease to develop a plan of treatment and follow-up. Depending on the results and other risk factors, treatment options may involve lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise or lipid-lowering medications such as statins.
A lipid profile typically includes: * Total cholesterol — this test measures all of the cholesterol in all the lipoprotein particles. * High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) — measures the cholesterol in HDL particles; often called "good cholesterol" because it removes excess cholesterol and carries it to the liver for removal. * Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) — calculates the cholesterol in LDL particles; often called "bad cholesterol" because it deposits excess cholesterol in walls of blood vessels, which can contribute to atherosclerosis. Usually, the amount of LDL-C is calculated using the results of total cholesterol, HDL-C, and triglycerides. * Triglycerides — measures all the triglycerides in all the lipoprotein particles; most is in the very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL).
Some other information may be reported as part of the lipid profile. These parameters are calculated from the results of the tests identified above. * Very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) — calculated from triglycerides/5; this formula is based on the typical composition of VLDL particles. * Non-HDL-C — calculated from total cholesterol minus HDL-C. * Cholesterol/HDL ratio — calculated ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C.
An extended profile (or advanced lipid testing) may also include low-density lipoprotein particle number/concentration (LDL-P). This test measures the number of LDL particles, rather than measuring the amount of LDL-cholesterol. It is thought that this value may more accurately reflect heart disease risk in certain people. For more, see Common Questions #5 or the article on LDL Particle Testing.

The FEV1/FVC ratio, also called Tiffeneau-Pinelli[1] index, is a calculated ratio used in the diagnosis of obstructive andrestrictive lung disease.[2][3] It represents the proportion of a person's vital capacity that they are able to expire in the first second of forced expiration.[4] See the Wikipedia article on spirometry for the definitions of FEV1 and FVC.
Normal values are approximately 80%.[5] Predicted normal values can be calculated online and depend on age, sex, height, mass and ethnicity as well as the research study that they are based upon.
A derived value of FEV1% is FEV1% predicted, which is defined as FEV1% of the patient divided by the average FEV1% in the population for any person of similar age, sex and body composition.

Spirometry (meaning the measuring of breath) is the most common of the pulmonary function tests (PFTs), measuringlung function, specifically the amount (volume) and/or speed (flow) of air that can be inhaled and exhaled. Spirometry is an important tool used for generating pneumotachographs, which are helpful in assessing conditions such as asthma,pulmonary fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, and COPD. * Spirometry should be used to diagnose airflow obstruction in patients with respiratory symptoms but should not be used to screen for airflow obstruction in people without respiratory symptoms.[1] * Spirometry can also be used to monitor disease progression and also rehabilitation and treatment gains. * There is strong epidemiologic evidence to indicate that reduced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) is a marker of cardiovascular mortality, independent of age, gender and smoking history.[2] * It is the gold standard for the diagnosis, assessment and monitoring of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is now the preferred method in adults for demonstrating obstruction of airways in the diagnosis of asthma.[3] * The recommendation of national evidence-based guidelines on asthma[3] and COPD[4] for the use of spirometers in diagnosis and monitoring, together with their required use in the Quality of Outcomes Framework (QOF), has led to a large increase in the use of spirometry in primary care (70-80% of UK practices in 2005[5]).

The P value, or calculated probability, is the probability of finding the observed, or more extreme, results when the null hypothesis (H0) of a study question is true – the definition of ‘extreme’ depends on how the hypothesis is being tested. P is also described in terms of rejecting H0 when it is actually true, however, it is not a direct probability of this state.
In statistics, the p-value is a function of the observed sample results (a statistic) that is used for testing a statistical hypothesis.

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