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Studi Kasus Puente Hills Toyota

Dalam studi kasus Puente Hills Toyota, Howard Hakes, Wakil Presiden Hitchcock Automotive Services menggambarkan beberapa tantangan yang dihadapi oleh timnya dalam mengelola stabilitas perusahaan diler automobile.
Terdapat survey kepuasaan pelanggan, struktur organisasi, dengan lampiran contoh halaman laporan keuangan, kutipan dari laporan konsultasi yang menunjukkan data diler dan departemen mobil, dan kutipan dari laporan konsultasi yang menunjukkan data kompensansi manajer departemen. Untuk mengetahui kepusaan pelanggan terhadap produk dan service Puente Hills Toyota dengan menanyakan pelayanan kepada konsumen dalam bentuk kuesioner melalui serangkaian yang di fokuskan pada kepuasan terhadap : * pembuatan janji pelayanan service * penulisan pesanan pelayanan * kualitas pekerjaan * ketepatan waktu pekerjaan * harga * fasilitas Kemudian hasil dari respons pertanyaan survey dikirim secara langsung pada perusahaan dan dijumlahkan dalam indeks kepuasan konsumen (customer satisfaction indeks-CSI) yang memberi perhatian mengenai apa yang dibayar oleh pabrik dan manager diler. Pabrik sering kali merubah alokasi kendaraan pada diler jika penilaian CSI lebih rendah dari tingkatan yang bisa diterima dalam tiga tahun berturut-turut. Contoh formulir survei kepuasan pelanggan sebagai berikut : * presentasi produk * negosiasi * dokumen final * menerima kendaraan anda * komunikasi diler * fasilitas, dsb

Dengan struktur organisasi PHT cukup khas dalam industri, manajer dari departemen penjualan kendaraan baru dan bekas melaporkan secara langsung pada general manager diler. Akan tetapi,manager PHT lebih menyukai fleksibilitas dari tenaga penjual mereka untuk menjual kendaraan yang diinginkan oleh konsumen.masing-masing departemen PHT dikelola sebagai pusat keuntungan.ada banyak biaya tidak langsung atau biaya overhead yang dialokasikan pada departemen.keuntungan dari departemen lain, data posisi keuangan, penjualan perunit berdasarkan model,rekening personil perdepartemen dan kategori dan berbagai rasio kinerja (misalnya, bonus total sebagai persentase penjualan, rata-rata laba kotor perunit masing-masing model yang terjual).
Keuntungan departemen PHT sangat beragam.pada sebagian besar diler, penjualan baru di PHT hanya memberikan keuntungan marginal.kendaraan bekas memberikan sumber keuntungan yang lebih tinggi.untuk beberapa kendaraan baru, hanya berbeda $800 antara window sticker price dan biaya diler,sehingga margin tidak terlalu banyak dan tidak terlalu banyak ruang untuk menawar.
Pada kendaraan bekas, kami memiliki kesempatan keuntungan yang lebih sedikit.sering kali dapat melakukan tukar tambah sebesar $2.000, mengambil sebesar $1.500 yang senilai dengan pekerjaan tersebut dan menjualnya dengan harga $6.000. Walaupun semua tenaga penjual PHT dapat menjual kendaraan bekas maupun baru, pemisahan keuntungan kendaraan baru dan bekas untuk mengalokasikan beberapa biaya.hal yang berkaitan dengan biaya dipisahkan 70% untuk kendaraan baru dan 30% untuk kendaraan bekas. Itulah cara department PHT mengombinasikan penjualan kendaraan baru dan bekas.
Pengendalian hasil biasanya digunakan untuk mengendalikan perilaku karyawan pada berbagai tingkat organisasi. Pengendalian hasil umumnya didominasi pengertian pengendalian perilaku dari karyawan professional; dengan kekuasaan keputusan.
Pengendalian hasil menyediakan beberapa manfaat tipe pencegahan. Hasil yang didefinisikan dengan baik akan memberi informasi pada karyawan apa yang diharapkan dari mereka dan mendorong mereka untuk melakukan tindakan yang dapat mengeluarkan hasil yang diinginkan.
Pengendalian hasil juga dapat menjadi efektif khususnya terkait dengan masalah motivasi. Pengaruh motivasi muncul khususnya ketika insentif untuk mendapatkan hasil yang diinginkan juga memajukan imbalan pribadi bagi karyawan sendiri.
Akhirnya, pengendalian hasil juga dapat mengurangi keterbatasan individual. Karena pengendalian hasil biasanya menjanjikan imbalan bagi mereka yang memiliki kinerja yang bagus, mereka dapat membantu organisasi untuk menarik dan menahan karyawan yang percaya diri dengan kemampuan mereka.

Implementasi dari pengendalian hasil melibatkan empat tahapan: 1. Mendefinisikan dimensi-dimensi dari hasil yang diinginkan 2. Mengukur kinerja dari dimensi yang telah terpilih 3. Menentukan target kinerja karyawan pada tiap-tiap ukuran pencapaian 4. Menyediakan imbalan bagi pencapaian target dan mendorong perilaku yang akan membawa pada hasil yang diinginkan.

Memiliki kemampuan untuk membangkitkan perilaku yang diinginkan, untuk mengukur efektivitas hasil yang dapat dikendalikan secara efektif dalam perusahaan seperti sebagai berikut: a) Ketepatan Ketepatan adalah kualitas yang penting karena tanpanya pengukuran kehilangan banyak informasi yang berharga.pengukuran yang tidak tepat meningkatkan risiko kesalahan evaluasi kinerja.karyawan akan bereaksi negatif terhadap ketidakadilan yang pasti akan timbul ketika kinerja yang sama-sama baik diukur secara berbeda.
b) Objektivitas Ada dua cara untuk menaikan objektivitas pengukuran: - Memiliki pengukuran yang dilakukan oleh orang yang independen dalam proses, seperti pada departemen pengendalian. - Memiliki pengukuran yang telah diverifikasi oleh pihak yang independen, seperti auditor.
c) Tepat waktu
Tepat waktu sangat penting dalam pengukuran kualitas kinerja karyawan, seperti
- motivasi,karyawan membutuhkan penekanan kembali terhadap kinerjanya agar dapat melakukan kinerja yang baik.
- Tepat waktu dapat meningkatkan nilai intervensi yang mungkin diperlukan.jika pengukuran kinerja yang digunakan tidak tepat waktu,maka tidak mungkin untuk mengintervensi untuk memastikan penyebab masalah sebelum masalah itu menyebabkan (lebih banyak) kerugian.

d) Mudah dipahami
- karyawan perilakunya dikendalikan seharusnya memahami bahwa mereka harus bertanggung jawab terhadap apa yang mereka lakukan.
- Karyawan seharusnya memahami apa yang harus mereka lakukan untuk memengaruhi pengukuran, para karyawan diberdayakan untuk mengerjakan apa yang dapat mereka lakukan untuk dapat mempengaruhinya.pada kenyataannya, ini merupakan keunggulan dari pengendalian,pengendalian yang baik dapat dicapai tanpa memahami secara pasti bagaimana para karyawan akan memproduksi hasilnya.
e) Efisiensi biaya
Pengukuran yang memiliki semua kualitas, tetapi terlalu mahal untuk dikembangkan atau digunakan dalam pengumpulan data.perusahaan memerlukan alternatif penyesuaian yang lain, dengan pengukuran yang lebih efisien dari sisi biaya.

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