Free Essay

Taxation

In: Business and Management

Submitted By nafoino
Words 5050
Pages 21
BASIC FINANCIAL LITERACY
Guiding Principles for You

2010 Microfinance Opportunities 2010.Used by Permission

: For inquiries regarding rights and permission, please contact:

Microfinance Opportunities
1701 K Street NW , Suit 650
Washington, DC 2006 USA
TEL:202 -721-0050
FAX: 202 -721-0010
Email: financialed!@mfopps.org www.microfinanceopportunities.org Equity Group Foundation
P.O BOX 75104 00200
Nairobi, Kenya
Tel: 254 20 274 4000
FAX: 254 20 273 7276
Email: info@equitybank.co.ke www.equitybank.co.ke/company/foundation INTRODUCTION
While the poor share the same goals as all people – economic security for themselves, their families, and future generations – their limited resources and options often lead to a sense of hopelessness and inertia. Careful management of what little money they do have is critical to meet day- to –day needs, cope with unexpected emergencies, and take advantage of opportunities when they come along. The bad news is that the poor often lack the knowledge and experience they need to be these careful money managers
This is the purpose of this book. It teaches people about the concept of money and how to manage it wisely. It offers the opportunity to learn basic skills related to earning, spending, budgeting, saving, and borrowing. The good news is that when people do become more informed financial decision makers, they can plan for and realize their goals .Moreover, once people have acquired financial literacy skills, those skills cannot be taken away.
Financial education is relevant for anyone who makes decisions about money and finances.
The Global Financial Education Program, led by Microfinance Opportunities and Freedom for Hunger, started with a focus on micro entrepreneurs and clients of microfinance programs. For this group , Financial education is more relevant now than ever before.
The Global Financial Education Program developed five modules over three year period. Seven partners around the globe actively participated in the project. The participating partners were Teba Bank (South Africa), SEWA Bank (India), Equity Bank (Kenya), ProMujer (Bolivia), Al Amana(Morocco), CARD Bank(The Philippines) and the Microfinance centre(Poland).
The curriculum, developed specifically for Equity Group Foundation, consists of Four chapters on four distinct topics. They are as follows * Budgeting: Use money wisely * Saving: You Can D o It * Bank Services * Know your options * Debt Management * Handle with care

SESSION ONE: BUDGETING CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION TO BUDGETING
When I chased after money, I never had enough, when I got my life on purpose and focused on giving of myself and everything that arrived on my life, and then I was prosperous. M.Gandhi
Objectives
i) Discover your goals for the future ii) Creating a budget iii) Comparing money management behaviors of two budgeters using stories iv)Conclusion GOALS
The entire world is concerned about the future. Attempts have been through various forms to explain what will happen in the future. For example religious organizations talk about another world that will never end. Countries also have also formed plans or strategies to predict what the future will be like. For example our country Kenya has developed visions 2030 which is supposed to project the socio economic projection of the country by 2030
Moving further as human beings we also aspire for a better future. A future with financial prosperity in which we expect our living standards will be better.
Before we start our financial education sessions, we also have to think about our future. Think about the following quote.
“Maisha Mema ya usoni huanzia sasa.”(A good future starts now.)

The question to ask yourself is when the above quote is true and when it isn’t
The quote will not be true if you are not doing anything now. On the same vain the quote will be true when you do something now. The something you should do now is having a good judgment or plan for the future. In other words in order to arrive at a good future, like the quote says , you need to start planning now, I n the present.
In summary remember that a good financial management person sets goals that will propel him/her to develop a good plan for the future.
Goals are important to successful money management. Goals guide you to use money for the things that are really important to you and your family

BUDGET
As mentioned above if we want to achieve our goals, we have to plan and prepare using our good judgment, just as the quote wisely advises. A tool that can help us to achieve our goals is a budget.

MEANING OF A BUDGET
A budget is a summary of estimated income and how it will be spent over a period of time. Budget is an important tool that can help us to manage our money. It is more than just a plan to spend our money. It is a plan that divides our income among our necessary living expenses, our discretionary expenses – like entertainment or sweets - our savings or investments. In summary it helps us to track our income and expenses over a certain period of time, like a week or a month.
Budgets can be created for both our personal income and expenses, and our business income and expenses. A budget is useful to everyone regardless of their income level and financial situation. Anyone can use this tool to help them better manage their money.

CREATING A BUDGET
Below is Mama Matoke. Her sales vegetables in her local market and on average make sales averaging kshs 500 a week. She also has two cows in which she gets milk and sells every morning. From the milk her average sales is Kshs 600 in a week. Every week her husband gives her Shs.250 to support the family’s weekly financial needs. Her eldest daughter who has finished college has committed to support her through sending kshs 250 every week. Her weekly expenses includes paying kshs 100 to a veterinary doctor, paying ksh 250 toward school fees, paying ksh 200 for her hair, She also buys clothes for shs 100 for either her children or herself. Other expenses totals shs 250

Recall from the definition of a budget, that a budget has three essential components i.e. time period, income and expenses .Mama Matoke’s period for the budget is therefore one week and her major income and expenses are as follows

INCOME EXPENSES
Vegetable Sales Veterinary fee
Milk Sales Schools fees
Husband Money Clothes
Daughter Money Food Hair Other expenses
Having identified the major sources of income and expenditure we can now prepare her budget. But before we do that it is important to understand the Format of a budget.

FORMAT OF A BUDGET NAME OF BUSINESS TIME PERIOD | INCOME | AMOUNT (Kshs) | SalesPart Time jobSalariesWagesGiftsDonations | | TOTALS | | EXPENCES | | FoodClothesRentHospitalHairTransportElectricityStationary | | TOTAL | | SAVINGS | | SURPULS/DEFICIT | |

MAMA MATOKE BUDGET Mama MATOKE’S BUGTET FOR ONE WEEK | INCOME | AMOUNT (Kshs) | Sales VegetableSales MilkMoney From HusbandMoney From Daughter | 500 600 250 250 | TOTALS | 1 600 | EXPENCES | | Veterinary expensesSchool feesHair plaitingFoodclothesother expenses | 100 250 200 100 100 250 | TOTAL | 950 | SAVINGS | | SURPULS/DEFICIT | 550 |

CONCLUSION Take note of the following points about a budget * A budget is a tool that helps one to achieve set goals, it is therefore critical to clarify and fully understand the goals * A budget is an estimate of income and expenditure in a given predetermined period * A budget is prepare before the period and not after the period * On does not necessary have to have money in order to budget.

CHAPTER TWO: LIVING WITHIN YOUR MEANS

I will go line by line to make sure that we are not spending money unwisely. Barrack Obama
OBJECTIVES
(i) Distinguishing between needs and wants (ii) Steps to help live within your means

NEEDS AND WANTS
Living within your means simply means to adjust your needs and wants to fit the amount of money you have to spend. If you have to spend more than you have to earn, you are less likely to have debt that you cannot pay.
We spend money on many things. Some of these things are necessary for our survival. These things are called needs. Needs are therefore a basic necessity we cannot do without. Other things that we spend money on are things we want and when we buy them we are happy. We call these things wants. Wants are therefore something optional, or not needed for every day survival.
The following is a least of things that Makori spend money on
-Rent -Makeup
-Soda -Food
-Hair plaiting -Clothes
-School supplies -Airtime

Makori has categorized the things that are most important ,or necessary ,items for his surval and the least important items as shown below:
Necessary items Least Necessary Item
-Food -Soda
-Rent -Makeup
-School supplies -Hair plaiting
-Clothes -Airtime

STEPS TO HELP LIVE WITHIN YOUR MEANS Step 1: Identify important responsibilities .make a list of high priority expenses will occur in your lifetime. These expenses include your responsibilities like education and expenses on extracurricular activities of your children, health of all members of family including parents and pets, and life insurance, apart from routine expenses.
Step 2: Adjust your budget for the future Put money aside from your budget every year for the future. This may involve spending lesser amounts now. You might have to buy a smaller car, so that money is available to pay installments for the house purchase.
Step 3: Pick up bargains Spending wisely implies saving money where you can. Watch out for discounts and sales carefully. Pick up the free offers at the supermarkets.
Step 4: Track expenses Many times we wonder where all the money goes

SESSION 2: SAVINGS

CHAPTER THREE: PLAN TO SAVE It has been presented to me that the inability to save, in little things, is one reason why so many families suffer for lack of the necessities of life (E.G White).
Objectives
i) Define saving and tips to start saving ii) Creating a saving plan iii) Conclusion
Definition: Putting money aside is called saving. Our saving can help us meet our goals .Goals that involve what we want to do with the money we save are called saving goals or financial goals. These goals can either be short term or they may be long term in nature. A goal that will take you just a few months to achieve can be called a short-term goal. You can achieve short-term goals in a relatively short amount of time.
A good savings goal can help you save since when you are saving for something that you really want, or that is really important to you, you are motivated to save and have discipline to control your spending.
TIPS TO START SAVING * Save any little change * Cut back on food * Put a shilling a day into a savings account * Save any raise in pay * Hide your saving n a save place until you have enough to put in the bank * Open an interest paying savings accounts
CREATING A SAVING PLAN
A good saving plan has four major components * a saving goal * how much money you need for the set saving goal * the duration you think you need to save money for the goal * amount of money needed per duration
CASE STUDIES:
The table below summarizes application of the components of a good plan to save by use of practical examples from the Region of Kisii. SAVING GOAL | TOTAL AMOUNT | DURATION | AMOUNT TO SAVE EACH MONTH | Hiring 2 hectares for farming Maize and beans | Kshs 15 000 | 6 months | Kshs 2 500 | Buying Milking Cow | Kshs 30 000 | 12 months | Kshs 2 500 | Salon | Kshs 50 000 | 18 months | Kshs 2 800 | Motor Bike | Kshs 90 000 | 24 months | Kshs 3 750 |

JUSTIFICATION CASE OF FARMING: Two hectares can give you roughly at the worse 30 sacks of maize and 6 sacks of beans. Assuming at the worse scenario a sack of maize is kshs 2 and beans is ksh 8 000.At the end of the harvest one is therefore bound to have Kshs 60 000(30 x 2/) and kshs 48 000(8000 x 6).Hence a total of kshs 108 000.
CASE OF COW, SALON AND MOTORBIKE: From the research done and the response from the kisii entrepreneurs in this field the average one can get per is a net income of Kshs 10 000
CONCLUSION
It is important to take note of the following * A good plan to save defines your wealth * A good plan to save has four components, goal ,capital, duration and amount per duration * A good plan to save is prepared before commencement of the period * A good plan to save is prepared not necessarily when one has money. *
CHAPTER FOUR: SAVING ON LIMITED INCOME

The greatest wealth is to live content with little Plato
Objective
i) Reasons for savings ii) Categorization of reasons for saving iii) Ways to increase savings iv) Conclusion

REASONS TO SAVE
Saving money is important for several reasons as outlined below i) Provides funds for unexpected expenses ii) Helps one reach his/her financial goals iii) Gives a feeling of security iv) Helpful in building assets v) Helpful to provide funds for expected future events vi) Useful in providing funds for optional expenses.
To be more specific the following are reasons why we should save money:
Sickness Weddings Funerals
Retirement/Old age Seasons of low income because others are saving
Emergencies House or property TV
Refrigerator Motorcycle Bicycle
Education Home Improvement Invest in business
Luxury item A new born baby Gifts

Given the list above we can categorize the reasons for saving by combing similar items and the resultant is shown in Tabular form below. UNEXPECTED FUTURE EVENTS | EXPECTED EVENTS | OTIONAL EXPENSES | BUILDING ASSETS | SicknessFuneralEmergenciesTheft | EducationWeddingA new babyRetirement/old ageSchool FeesLow income seasons | Home improvementLuxury itemsGiftsMotivation to be like others | HouseBicycleMotor cycleBusiness |

WAYS TO INCREASE SAVINGS

* You should save when the business is doing well * Reduce on unnecessary expenses * Use a budget to track and plan expenses * Use the seasonality calendar to think about the year as a whole, and plan accordingly * Find ways of increasing your income
CONCLUSION
It is important to take note of the following * Classification of the reasons why we save helps us to plan to save when the income is limited * You should spend less than you earn * Save something – even 1 shilling every day or every week

CHAPTER FIVE: WAYS TO SAVE

It’s the little things citizens do. That’s what will make the difference. My little thing is planting trees. Wangari Maathai
Objective
i) Factors that Influence saving ii) Identifying saving options iii) Consideration for saving services iv) Conclusion

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE SAVING
These can be factors that are part of an individual or something in that individual’s environment..They include * A safe place to keep savings * A good saving plan * Discipline * Family support for the decision to save * Motivation to meet personal goals(Like a house or school fees) * A convenient place to save (close to home or easy to get to). * Interest on savings * Desire to resist temptation * Size of deposits(in a bank, for example) * Willingness to reduce expenses. * Ability or opportunity to earn more income
Take note that those factors that are within your control have been underlined

IDENTIFYING SAVING OPTIONS There are many ways to save as listed below * Banks Livestock SACCO * Chamas Land Microfinance Institution * Jewelry Home Bank Post Bank * Under Mattress TYPES OF SAVING INSTITUTIONS One way to understand the differences between ways to save and how to make the best and safest decisions is to understand the difference between formal, semiformal and informal savings. Formal: Regulated by a government agency to ensure savings. Sometimes pay interest on saving and insure savings. Informal: Something you manage yourself, usually at home. You may keep this type of savings in cash, jewelry, or livestock, for example. Semi-Formal: Somewhere between formal and informal. These services are organized, but not overseen or regulated by the government. This could be a saving circle or chama.

Advantages and disadvantages of various saving services SERVICES | ADVANTAGES | DISADVANTAGES | Formal | | | BanksPost-officeCredit UnionRegulated MFIRegulated SACCO | * High Safety * Less temptation to withdraw and spend * May earn interest * Access to other products e.g. loans * Helps to manage money | * May have high minimum deposit * May charge fess * Long lines * May be confusing or require literacy * May be far away | Semi- Formal | | | Saving GroupROSCASavings collector | * Easy Access * Savings may be linked to credit * May earn dividends on loans made with savings * Group rules encourage savings * Can be somewhat safe | * Safety not guaranteed * May or may not earn interest * May have limited or no access to loans * Limited access to savings * Withdrawals based on group approval | Informal | | | At Home /Cash under the mattress | * Easy access | * Low safety * Easy to spend or waste money on wants | In Kind e.g. Jewelry, livestock or land | * Value might increase over time. e.g. livestock gives birth , etc * Must sell to access cash , which decreases temptation | * May be difficult to sell quickly in case of emergency * Value could decrease over time * Risk of theft or death |

Conclusion It is important to remember that the following factors are important in considering when choosing a saving service * Access * Convenience * Opening deposit requirements * Safety * Interest * Fees SESSION THREE: BANKING SERVICES Objectives i) Myths about Banks ii) Financial Services iii) Fixed deposit account iv) Current account v) Conclusion COMMON MYTHS ABOUT BANKS We will start by looking at myths and facts about banks. Sometimes, a group of people or a type of institution develops a false reputation – Something that is believed to be true but is not actually based on reality. * You must be rich to use a bank Myth – Even though many banks require a minimum amount of money to open an account, ,it is still often possible for people who do not have a lot of money to open an account and benefit from banking services. Sometimes there are even special accounts with low fees or minimum balances * Banks are a safe place to keep your money Fact- Banks is often the most secure place to keep money. Many are guarded by askaris and have secure premises. Many have insurance to cover losses if there is theft. * Going to the bank takes a lot of time Myth or fact- It depends on the place. Sometimes the lines in a bank can be long .However, now there are ATMs to help deal with traffic. * Banks lend you money so that they can take your assets like T.V when you fail to pay. Myth; Banks make loans and sometimes the borrower must offer something for value to guarantee the loan incase he or she cannot repay. But banks prefer that clients repay, and do not want the hassle of taking their client’s valuable things.. * If a bank is robbed, you will lose your money. Myth- Banks usually have insurance to cover theft of other losses, such as fire FINANCIAL PRODUCTS A bank can provide you with various financial services. These includes loans, ATM, salary advances, keeping title deeds, savings account, employment, help pay bills, Training, foreign currency services, money transfer among others. The following table summarizes various bank services SAVINGS | INSURANCE | CURRENT | LOAN | PAYMENT | Hold deposits and may pay interest Different accounts tailor to short or long term saving goals Interest rate varies with type of account and length of time | Client makes regular payments to institution for protection in case of accident or loss Events could include accident, death ,hospitalization.etc | Account that enables a client to make regular deposits and withdrawals. May provide ATM or debit cards for easier withdrawals | Money lent to clients for consumer and business purposes Type of loan and terms vary with purpose | Institution transfer money to recipient Bill payment |

FIXED DEPOSIT ACCOUNT This is a long term savings account where you put your money for a fixed period of time and earn a higher interest than a demand deposit account. If you withdwal the money before the time period is complete, you will not earn all of the interest. ADVANTAGES * Usually has a high interest rate * Your money is not easily available for you to spend on temptations or day to day needs , making it easier to meet your long term saving goals DISADVANTAGES * Bank charges a fee if you take money out of the account before your term is complete * Your money is not readily available to you in case of an emergences * Normally requires a minimum amount to open the account which may be higher than for many people.
CURRENT ACCOUNT
Is an account where you can make deposits and withdrawal when you want.You may earn interest on the amount of money in the account.There is normally a minimum amount required to open the account and minimum balance required to maintain the account.
ADVANTAGES
* Your money is easly available to you if you have an emergence or unexpected need * Sometimes withhdrawal are free
DISADVANTAGES
* Normally hhas montly service fees fee for maintaining te account * Sometimes there are fees on transactions like deposits or witdrawals

CHAPTER 6:USING AUTOMATIC TELLER MACHINE Objectives
i)Meaning of ATM ii)How to use an ATM Machine iii)Risks associated with ATMs and How to manage them iv)Advantages and disadvantages of ATMs
v)Conclusion

MEANING OF AN ATM An ATM is a machine that takes the place of going to the bank to make withdrawals and check balances. Sometimes you can even transfer money or make deposits using an ATM. Its purpose is to make bank services more convenient, quick and accessible. Each bank has its own network of ATMs, but you can use your bank card or ATM card to withdraw cash from any ATM – Whether it belongs to your bank or not. Be careful, though – you may be charged a fee each time you use an ATM that is not part of your bank’s network. An ATM card is the tool you use to access you r money in the machine .It is your own personal card, with your own personal number. Your card also comes with a PIN - Personal Identification Number – that only you know. In that way, no one else can take your card and get more money without permission. An ATM card is not the same thing as credit card. An ATM card helps you access or use money that you already have, while a credit card is like taking out a loan

HOW TO USE AN ATM MACHINE * Insert your ATM card * Choose language (English or Kiswahili) * Enter your PIN * Select “withdrawal” * Choose the correct account * Enter or choose the amount you want * Take you cash * Take your card * Take your receipt or withdrawal slip RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH ATMS AND WAYS TO MANAGE THEM ATM cards are changing the way that customers interact with banks. There are many advantages and disadvantages to using ATM cards. Some of the disadvantages are linked to the risks involved with using these machines and cards. They Include: Forgot to take the card when you finish: Do not be in a rush or hurry when you use the ATM; remind yourself of the steps of ATM use each time you use the ATM. Robbed at ATM: Do not use an ATM that is located in a place that is not secure; do not use the ATM after dark; do not use an ATM when there is someone lurking near you. Lost ATM Card: Keep your card in safe place; report the lost card immediately; keep the bank’s help line information in a safe place. People standing too close to you: Do not use an ATM when someone is standing too close to you to be safe. Forgotten PIN: Keep your PIN somewhere in a safe place separate from your card; choose a PIN that you can remember – but not a PIN that is too easy for other people to guess. Card is swallowed by the machine; alert a bank staff person or staff person in the store or shopping centre. Advantages and Disadvantages of ATM ADVANTAGES | DISADVANTAGES | * You do not have to carry cash around with you * If your card is stolen, the thief cannot get your money without your PIN * You can use it to pay at some retail shop * Keep your money safe * You can withdraw cash at any time day or night. * ATMs offer the convenience of multiple locations. You can withdraw cash at any bank that is part of the system to which your card is linked * ATMs are faster than going to the bank -- No long lines * You can withdraw cash at ATMs in foreign countries | * If you forget your PIN number you cannot use the card * The system can be offline * Training is needed * Difficult to maintain spending discipline * Risk of robbery when you leave the ATM * The ATM can break down or run out of cash * Fees charged to use ATMs of other banks can become expensive |

Tips for Using ATM Cards * Keep your card in a safe place * Do not write the PIN number on the card * Never allow other people to use your card * Never tell anyone else your PIN number * Do not accept help from strangers at ATM .Wait until you can ask bank staff member to help you * If someone is standing too close to you at ATM, ask that person to move away

SESSION FOUR: DEBT MANAGEMENT

The borrower is servant to the lender Bible
Objective
i) Reasons For Borrowing Money ii) Identifying Creditworthiness iii) Distinction between good loan and Bad Loan iv) Conclusion

A loan is money that a borrower can use temporarily. After which a defined period of time, the money is repaid to the owner, usually with interest or a fee charged for the money. Credit means becdd\

\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\oming indebted to someone else; you have to pay the debt.

WHY DO WE BORROW MONEY?
We borrow money to fulfill the following * Investment purposes: Loans for investment will earn income that you can use to repay the loan. * To respond to an unexpected emergence: Loan for emergencies do not bring new income and must be paid back from other sources .They include for instance sickness, death etc. * To consume: Loan for consumption do not bring new income and must be paid back from other sources. They include loans generally for personal expenses.

DETERMING CREDITWORTHNESS
When you apply for credit, the potential creditor will want to know if you are “creditworthy.”. In other words the creditor wants to know if you are willing and able to repay the debt. To determine your creditworthiness, a creditor usually looks at three factors * Capacity: This refers to your current and future ability to repay. * Capital: What do you own that could be used to guarantee the debt? Even if you don’t have to put up “security”, creditors usually prefer that you have assets other than just your income that could be used to repay the debt. * Character: This refers to your willingness to repay the debt. How trustworthy are you? In the past, how prompt have you been in paying your debts, rent and utility bills?

REVIEWING TH ECONTRACT
I f you decide to use credit, you will be asked to sign a contract or agreement .It is legally binding. You need to understand the following. * The cash price * The down payment * Finance charge * The annual percentage rate * Any other charges that are not included in the cash price * The number, amount and due dates of payment * What happens if you miss a payment * A description of any security held by the creditor
Distinguishing Between Good and Bad Loan
A good loan is a loan that can help the borrower to improve their current condition and that the borrower is able to repay. Borrowing money can help you start or expand a business. It can help you respond to an emergency in your family. Or, it can help you improve your living conditions sooner rather than later. When a loan helps you in these ways, it is usually a good loan. When it ends up costing you money or forcing you to go deeper into debt or default, it is a bad loan. In short a bad loan is a loan taken out that brings fewer benefits than it costs hence making it difficult for the borrower to repay.

Deciding to use Credit/Loans
Whether or not you use credit is a decision that requires careful thought. Using credit creates a financial obligation that can affect your family’s future. So, whenever you are considering using credit, ask yourself the following question * Is it worth the extra cost to have the item now? * Is this something I really want? * Is this something I had planned to buy? Is it related to my financial goals? * Can I make the payments? * Have I been realistic in estimating my other expenses? * Will I want to be paying for this for the length of the credit agreement * Will the payments force me to use savings that have been set aside to meet my financial goals? * Can I afford to tie up my future income * What if I get sick or have an accident * Do I want to risk repossession, a bad credit history , or legal action if I cannot repay the debt * Would it be wiser to save money and buy this later * Am I borrowing from a fair and honest lender * Do I understand what the contract says

How Much Debt Can I Afford
Often people take too much debt and have trouble making repayments. It is worth nothing that as you take a loan the Following “Rule of Thumb” will be helpful. * Do not let debt prevent you from paying for basic expenses such as food, school fees, and their necessary items * Keep track of the amount and frequency of your loan payments * The total of your loan payments should not exceed 20% of your usual income * Try to limit borrowing for personal consumption * Have a plan for making loan payments if it take time for the loan to generate more income for you.
Conclusion
Remember when you use credit, you are promising * Pay back the amount of money you borrow * Pay back the debt regardless of any personal crisis or expected situation you face. * Keep any item that has been used as security for the debt until all payments have been made.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Taxation

... I.GENERAL PRINCIPLES ( THE POWER OF TAXATION ( Definitions: 1. Taxation: Power by which the sovereign raises revenue to defray the necessary expenses of the government from among those who in some measure are privileged to enjoy its benefits and must bear its burden. 2. Taxes: Enforced proportional contribution from properties and persons levied by the State by virtue of its sovereignty for the support of government and for public needs. ( Characteristics of Taxes: 1. forced charge; 2. generally payable in money; 3. levied by the legislature; 4. assessed with some reasonable rule of apportionment; 5. imposed by the State within its jurisdiction; 6. levied for public purpose. ( Theories or bases of taxation: 1. Lifeblood Theory Taxes are the lifeblood of the nation. Without revenue raised from taxation, the government will not survive, resulting in detriment to society. Without taxes, the government would be paralyzed for lack of motive power to activate and operate it. (CIR vs Algue, Inc., et. al.) Illustrations of Lifeblood Theory: a. Collection of taxes may not be enjoined by injunction. b. Taxes could not be the subject of compensation and set-off. c. A valid tax may result in destruction of the taxpayer's property. 2. Necessity Theory Existence of a government is a necessity and cannot continue without any means to pay for expenses. a. Marshall Dictum “ Power to tax is the power to destroy” – describes the unlimitedness of the......

Words: 3955 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Taxation

...Taxation Taxation - A means by which governments finance their expenditure by imposing charges on citizens and corporate entities. Governments use taxation to encourage or discourage certain economic decisions. For example, reduction in taxable personal (or household) income by the amount paid as interest on home mortgage loans results in greater construction activity, and generates more jobs. Characteristics * Enforced contribution. * Generally payable with money. * Proportionate in character. * Levied on persons or property * Levied by the state which has jurisdiction mover the subject. Advantages * Corrects market failure.  * Companies are in favor of it as they pass on the costs to their consumers. * Provides public goods. Disadvantages * Can become excessive in certain ways, discouraging investment or work. Advantages and disadvantages of taxation to redistribute income Taxation is a tool commonly used by government as a means of redistributing income amongst its citizens. In some instances, taxation can have a positive effect on the redistribution of income, other times, it can do more harm than good. Taxation helps greatly in the redistribution of income as it gives the government funds which they can use to fund public services. In countries that have solid taxation systems, revenue from taxes will be great. The more revenue there is coming from taxes, the more money there will be left over for the government...

Words: 406 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Taxation

...saved towards their future; saving money is always the right choice. If I were to go a step further to state that James was self-employed with very few workers, would be the retirement options available to him then? It is said that there are H.R. 10 plans, also called Keogh plans that are available for persons who are indeed self-employed. If James factors in his H.R.10 contributions for employees, these would be deductible for AGI on a Schedule C, and for himself, as a for AGI deductible on page 1 of the 1040 form. These would generally have the same contribution and benefit limits as other qualified plans, however there must be the consideration that, earned income must be reduced by two amounts. According to Prentice Hall’s Federal Taxation, these would be the 50% deduction for self-employment taxes and, the Keogh contribution itself. It states that “Since the contribution is based on earned income after contribution, the 25% contribution percentage must be reduced to 20 %”; there is indeed a maximum of $245,000 of earned income that is taken into account for every individual. Other options would be Simplified Employee Pensions and Simple Retirement Plans. Simplified Employee Pension plans are said to have reduced administrative complexity than the H.R. 10 plans, and contributions are made to the IRAs of one’s employees. Here, James would need to ensure that contributions are non-discriminatory, and would be able to receive an immediate tax deduction for......

Words: 1304 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Taxation

...(shareholders). 3. LIABILITY – Ordinary Partnerships are subject to unlimited liability, which means that each of the partners shares the liability and financial risks of the business. Which can be off putting for some people. This can be countered by the formation of a limited liability partnership, which benefits from the advantages of limited liability granted to limited companies, while still taking advantage of the flexibility of the partnership model. 4. TAXATION – One of the major disadvantages of partnership, taxation laws mean that partners must pay tax in the same way as sole traders, each submitting a Self Assessment tax return each year. They are also required to register as self employed with HM Revenue & Customs. The current laws mean that if the partnerships (and the partners) bring in more than a certain level, then they are subject to greater levels of personal taxation than they would be in a limited company. This means that in most cases setting up a limited company would be more beneficial as the taxation laws are more favourable (see our article on the 5. PROFIT SHARING – Partners share the profits equally. This can lead to inconsistency where one or more partners aren’t putting a fair share of effort into the running or management of the business, but still reaping the rewards. 1.5 IF YOU DECIDE ON A BUSINESS PARTNERSHIP... ...you should create a "business premiers" that will protect a business if someone leaves. This "business......

Words: 4972 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

Taxation

...E-commerce Taxation: Towards its Legalization Have you ever wanted to buy something with just one click without having to pay much as the usual? With the easy access and affordable prices, online purchasing has become the most convenient way of shopping for most teenagers. The popularity of the Internet particularly Facebook, Instagram and other social networking sites attracted many retailers to invest their businesses online without having to pay taxes like any other retailers do. By this, e-commerce continues to grow with the advancement in technology as it overshadows the traditional way of running a business by the insignificant purpose of the physical interaction between the buyer and the seller. E-commerce in itself is classified into three types: business-to-consumer in which online stores sell products to final consumers; consumer-to-consumer just in the case of eBay and Amazon and; business-to-business which involves job recruiting, online advertising, credit, sales, and the like (U, 2002, p.6). With the emergence of e-commerce, brick and mortar stores are slowly starting to degrade, thus alarming the government on the collection of lesser tax since the law regarding electronic commerce taxation is still being debated. This income generating phenomenon has been an attractive target to the government to cope with its huge loss on tax collection. So why pay tax? Richard Carlson (2002) once said, “At tax time, it helps to remember that if your tax obligation has......

Words: 3200 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Taxation

...public enterprises and foreign loans. Differentiate taxation from public finance? What are the situs or subjects of taxation? SITUS OF TAXATION- literally means the place of taxation, or the country that has jurisdiction to levy a particular tax on persons, property, rights or business. Basis: Symbiotic relationship. The jurisdiction, state or political unit that gives protection has the right to demand support. The situs of taxation is determined by a number of factors a. Subject matter- or what is being taxed. He may be a person or it may be a property, an act or activity; b. Nature of tax- or which tax to impose. It may be anincome tax, an import duty or a real property tax; c. Citizenship of the taxpayer d. Residence of the taxpayer. SITUS OF PERSONS - Residence tax- place where the person resides - Income Tax- a. citizenship, or the country of which he is a citizen b. legal residence c. place where the income is derived. - Estate Tax- residence of the decedent at the time of his death - Donor’s Tax- residence of the donor at the time of donation - Business/occupation tax- where the business is done or the occupation is engaged in; SITUS OF TAXATION OF PROPERTY - Real Property- location of the property - Tangible personal property- location of the property - Intangible personal property- domicile or residence of the owner What is the meaning of Double Taxation? Double taxation- both taxes where imposed in the same year for......

Words: 694 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Taxation

... TAXATION. Name: Institution: A) Effect of Taxation. Taxation is a system of levying taxes on various types of earnings, income and/or purchases. It is an essential part of a modern state whereby the government obtains revenue, which is used for provision of education, health care and living benefits to a range of its citizens (Sullivan 2003).  The UK tax system has several incompatible objectives, for instance redistribution of income and wealth creation (through tax breaks). The government must take into account the issue of fairness in taxation, if it is to provide an acceptable tax system in the United Kingdom (Wales 2008). The social function of taxation is to ensure that there is wealth redistribution, in order to create a fair and harmonious society. According to Adam Smith, fairness in taxation promotes morality and equity in free market economics (Sullivan 2003). Fairness in taxation ensures that market failures are tackled. A fair tax regime ensures that the revenue collected is shared equitably and appropriately through judicious expenditure. According to Adam Smith, equity in taxation implies that the taxpayers pay taxes that are proportionate to their income, while the allocation of government resources does not adhere to this proportionality. A fair tax has the following four attributes: equity, efficiency, certainty and convenience. Equity ensures that the tax has a reasonable impact on the taxpayers. Equity is......

Words: 2268 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Taxation

...Taxation My name is Sherri Washington and I am the new CEO of “Taxation”. The company’s mission is to implement multiculturalism associated with the organization’s social performance; while visualizing their objectives and goals. So why was the business steadily declining? I knew that this was a corporate issue and every Stakeholder as well as I; the CEO had to build a better relationship amongst each other if we wanted a successful organization; while serving our community. Corporate and all levels of management had to become socially responsible for the good of the market and non-market Stakeholders, while attaining economic envisions. I could not allow the organization to be outsourced to the evolving economies of the employees, customers, investors, suppliers, community and other environmental groups. Therefore, through globalization the company’s interaction model had to implement a strategic plan between the company and the slew of stakeholders finding out the interest, desires, goals, power and how it can increase the productivity through social performance and responsibilities. Building a positive environment through strategic innovation will induce a more ethical workplace. If the stakeholders focus on the ethical and social challenges that we are going to encounter as a whole, it will allow the organization to become one of the most revealing organizations around. As a multicultural, diversified company, we can become one of the best businesses society has...

Words: 328 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Taxation

...Where the taxable income exceeds Rs.4,550,000. 20.00%”; Share this: Sources of taxes in pakistan: Existing Sources of Revenues1. Property Tax 2. Motor Vehicle Tax 3. Entertainment Tax  4. Cinema Tax  5. Capital Gain Tax  6. Professional Tax. 7. Welfare Cess.  8. Hotel Tax. 9. Duty on spirits.  10. License Fee for sale of Foreign Liquor. 11. Permit fee on Liquor.  12. Distillery fee. 13. License fee on denatured spirit.  14. Permit fee on denatured spirit. 15. Assessment fee for sale of liquor. 16. Trade Tax 17. Collection of Income Tax and withholding Tax on behalf of federal Government form motor vehicle owners. |   | Tax system of pakistan Tax System in Pakistan | Federal taxes in Pakistan like most of the taxation systems in the world are classified into two broad categories, viz., direct and indirect taxes. A broad description regarding the nature of administration of these taxes is explained below:Direct TaxesDirect taxes primarily comprise income tax, along with supplementary role of wealth tax. For the purpose of the charge of tax and the computation of total income, all income is classified under the following heads: * Salaries * Interest on securities * Income from property * Income from business or professions * Capital gains; and * Income from other sourcesPersonal TaxAll individuals, unregistered firms, associations of persons, etc., are liable to tax, at the rates ranging from 10 to 35 per cent.Tax on CompaniesAll......

Words: 1218 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Taxation

...Taxation is a means by which government finances their expenditure by imposing charges on citizens and cooperate entities. Some of the key decision making factors of taxations are: adequacy, broad basing, efficiency and equity. The price elasticity of demand is a units-free measure of the responsiveness of the quantity demanded of a good to a change in its price when all other influences on buyers’ plans remain the same. The income elasticity of demand is a measure of the responsiveness of the demand for a good or services to a change in income, other things remaining the same. VAT is an indirect tax where the tax is charged as a percentage of the value of a good. The amount of VAT imposed on a product depends on the elasticity of demand for the product. If the demand for the good is very elastic then the price will not increase as much when the tax is imposed but the quantity demanded will fall significantly. Price S + tax S £1.00 D1 £0.80 2 8 Quantity In this case, we see that the price has only risen a little by £0.20 compared to the amount of the tax. The main burden of the tax has fallen on sellers; sellers have to pay the entire tax which is only compensated by a small increase in price. This is the reason why indirect taxes are generally not levied on goods with elastic demand as the tax revenue will be relatively small. If the demand for a good...

Words: 1060 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Taxation

...managerial decisions. Politically, the country is stable, which means that all management activities can be transferred in a reliable way to the newly established headquarters. Furthermore, this stresses that there is a stable legal framework in place for the continuation of a steady and secure transfer of headquarters. Tax reasons: In relation to the tax reasons, I must identify whether the following variables are being taken into consideration: tax rate, territorial system, lack of CFC legislation, taxation on passive income and access to multilateral agreements. The Group will be moving from a high income tax rate (US) to a low tax rate (UK). In addition to the restructuring it would shift from a worldwide system to a territorial system, which means that as a resident company it would be subject to tax in respect of income derived from the source of income. Furthermore, in relation to domestic rules there is only moderate CFC legislation in the UK and taxation of passive income when it comes to dividends. Evaluating the options: By taking into account the non-tax and tax reasons, we are able to identify that there are positive incentives to the restructuring of The Group. However, we must consider all the changes comprised in the decentralization of US Inc. to UK PLC. As CFO of The Group, I must evaluate that there is a smooth shift in management into the UK’s new headquarters. Regarding tax aspects, the centralization of the new HQ (UK) will lead to a......

Words: 785 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Taxation

...Taxation Finance Act 2009 Alan Melville S IT IN TH W EEN ON NO IFT ITI F ED ● ● 15th Annual Edition ● ● Class Tested Over 250 Worked Examples ● Over 250 Exercises and Questions On ACCA, CIPFA, AIA and IFA Reading Lists Taxation Supporting resources For instructors Visit www.pearsoned.co.uk/melville to find valuable online resources • Complete, downloadable Instructor’s Manual For more information please contact your local Pearson Education sales representative or visit www.pearsoned.co.uk/melville We work with leading authors to develop the strongest educational materials in accounting, bringing cutting-edge thinking and best learning practice to a global market. Under a range of well-known imprints, including Financial Times Prentice Hall, we craft high quality print and electronic publications which help readers to understand and apply their content, whether studying or at work. To find out more about the complete range of our publishing please visit us on the World Wide Web at: www.pearsoned.co.uk Taxation Finance Act 2009 Fifteenth edition Alan Melville FCA, BSc, Cert. Ed. Pearson Education Limited Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2JE England and Associated Companies throughout the world Visit us on the World Wide Web at: www.pearsoned.co.uk First published 1995 Fifteenth edition published 2010 © Pearson Professional Limited 1995, 1996 © Financial Times Professional Limited 1997, 1998......

Words: 209871 - Pages: 840

Premium Essay

Taxation

...INCOME TAXATION GBS 1 OBJECTIVE: The students at the end of the module should be able to distinguish the different kinds of taxes, the nature, scope, basis, theory, purpose, situs, limitations, subject of taxation and escape from taxation, the powers of the sovereign, characteristics of taxes, and the basic principles of a sound tax system, as well as the different taxable income and deductions. Definition of Terms TAXATION – is a power inherent in every sovereign state to impose a charge or burden upon persons, properties or rights to raise revenues for the use and support of the government and to enable it to discharge its appropriate functions. - It is a mode of raising revenue for public purposes. (Cooley) TAX – is a forced burden, charge, imposition or contribution assessed in accordance with some reasonable rule of apportionment by authority of the sovereign state upon person, property, or rights exercised, within its jurisdiction to provide public revenues for the support of the government, administration of the law or payment of public expenses. INCOME TAX SYSTEM OF THE PHILIPPINES • GROSS INCOME TAXATION-where a Final Tax is imposed on the gross amount of specified types of income. Example: Interest, royalty, prize, dividend, capital gain • NET INCOME TAXATION- certain deductions are allowed and subtracted from the aggregates of income not subject ot final tax; the tax is computed based on the resulting net income. THEORY AND BASIS OF TAXATION > necessity to defray......

Words: 16260 - Pages: 66

Premium Essay

Taxation

...benefits of implementing the Egyptian Accounting Standards, including benefits that may attract foreign investment, may promote greater investment and returns on those investments. Reviewing and updating the accounting curriculum can be one of the steps to develop the Egyptian accounting system so that international and Egyptian accounting standards can be incorporated. In addition, case studies may be taught to identify the ethical dimensions of business management, corporate finance, and accounting. REFERENCES Abdelsalam, O.H., and Weetman, P. 2003. Introducing International Accounting Standards to an emerging capital market: relative familiarity and language effect in Egypt. Journal of International Accounting, Auditing and Taxation, 12: 63-84. American Chamber of Commerce in Egypt (ACCE). 1995. The capital market in Egypt. ACCE, Business Service Division. Ball, R. 1995. Making Accounting more international: why, how, and how far will it go? Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, 8(3): 19-29. Bloom, R., Fuglister, J., and Myring, M. 1998. The state of accounting in Armenia: a case. The International Journal of Accounting, 33(5): 633-654. Briston, R.J. and El-Ashker, A.A. 1984. The Egyptian accounting system: a case study in Western influence. The International Journal of Accounting, 19(2): 129-155. Brown, A.D., and Humphreys, M. 1995. International cultural differences in public sector management: Lessons from a survey of British and Egyptian technical......

Words: 5622 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

Taxation

...Case exercise: Real Estate Taxation in Denmark Question 1. 1. What are the main factors about a real estate that is influencing the sales price? Answer: The factors that I think are influencing the the sales price are: * Location (Copenhagen or Vejen) * Size of the building and land * Condition of the building * Population growth (will effect the demand) * Interest (if low interest then more people can afford to buy ergo more demand) * Economic situation in the country is there ongoing recession or bubble growth * Sales situation (Is it a person that is in a rush to liquidate the real estate or is it a person that will wait for the best price, is it a sale between two people that know each other well, is it a bank selling a foreclosure property) * Unemployment rate * Size of the market (number of sales in a given time and location) * Market price (lets face it sometimes the market price is not based on any locical idea) 2. Which of these factors would you think are available in some data sources? Which of them are not? Answer: The factors that are in some datebases are: * Location * Size of the building * Population growth * Interest The factors that are not: * Condition of the building and land * Economic situation (there is probably not any one fixed number but it will derived from other key points) * Sales situation, this probably needed to be checked via opinon poll * Market price......

Words: 769 - Pages: 4