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SCIE 206-1204A-05 BIOLOGY Unit 5 Individual Project Dawn Romero TAXONOMY


The following paper contains a table with nine images of different animal phyla. Using the Dichotomous Key the nine different animal phyla are placed in class categories. The different steps are used to identify each class are submitted as well as the phyla name for each animal. In part two, several questions relating to the animal phyla are answered.

Unit 5 Individual Project
Name: Dawn Romero
Date: 09-21-2012

Part 1. There are 9 animals in nine different Phyla. Be sure to look at every page.
| |Animal |Phylum |Dichotomous Key (steps) |Classification |
|1 |[pic][pic] |Cnidaria |1b.,2a.,3b.,4b. |Class:1B |
| | | | |Scyphozoa |
|2 |[pic][pic] |Mollusca |1b.,2b.,6a.,7b.,11a. |Class:12b, 13a |
| | | | |Gastropoda |
|3 |[pic][pic] |Annelida |1b.,2b.,6a.,7a,8a. |Class: 9a |
| | | | |Secernentea |
|4 |[pic][pic] |Chordata |1b.,2b.,6a.,7b.,11b. |Class: 4b, 15b |
| | | | |Insecta |
|5 |[pic][pic] |Porifera |1a. |Class:1a |
| | | | |Demospongiae |
|6 |[pic][pic] |Echinodemata |1b., 2a., 3b., 5a. |Asteriodia |
|7 |[pic][pic] |Chordata |1b., 2b, 6b, 16b, 18b |Class: 19b, 20a |
| | | | |Aves |
|8 |[pic][pic] |Platyhelminthes |1b., 2b., 6a., 7a., 8b., 9b. |Class: 10a |
| |Image Rights: Allen G. | | |Turbellaria |
| |Collins and the UC Museum of Paleontology | | | |
|9 |[pic][pic] |Platyhelminthes |1b., 2b., 6a., 7a., 8b., 9b., |Cestoda |
| |Image Rights: Courtesy of University of Minnesota | |10b., | |

Part 2: Answer the following questions as they relate to the nine phyla in the assignment table. (Porifera, Cnidaria, Nematoda, Athropoda, Platyhelminthes, Annelida, Mollusca, Echinodermata, and Chordata.) 1. Which phyla lack organs? What type of symmetry do they have? Sponges are asymmetrical and lack organs. They are the least complex of all animals. The cell layers are loose federations of cells. Sponges have no nerves or muscles, but the individual cells can sense and react to changes in the environment.

2. List all of the phyla that show cephalization. The phyla that show cephalizations are as follows: Platyhelminther, Nematode, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, and Chordata.

3. Do all organisms on the table have 3 germ layers (endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm)? If not, which phyla have fewer than three germ layers? Not all organisms on the table have 3 germ layers. Porifera and Cnidarians do not contain all three germ layers.

4. One phylum on the table has more species than all the others. State the name of this phylum, and provide several different examples of species found in this phylum. One phylum that has more species than all others is Phylum Arthropoda. There may be at a minimum, over one million species of insects. Ants outnumber any other individual insect and when speaking of about species of insects, there are more kinds of beetles than anything else. Nearly 50% of insect species are beetles. There are more species of insects than all other plants and animals togethers. 5. Fish do not all have the same skeletal structure. Describe the differences among fish from the most primitive to more advanced types of fish. The three different skeletal structures of fish are as follows: Agnatha: This fish is referred to as a jawless fish and the most primitive of fish. They lack a jaw and they have no bone skeleton. The hagfish and lamprey are examples of this type of fish (Bucheim, 2012). Osteichthyes: This fish is referred to as the boney fish. They have calcified skeletons. They can maneuver very well and have excellent speed. Their jaws are protrusible and they are the largest of all three groups with 20,000 species. Examples of this species of fish include trout, bass, salmon, and perch (Bucheim, 2012). Chondrichtyes: These types of fish have a cartilage-based skeleton instead of calcified bones. Their jaw is also cartilaginous with a loosely attached lower jaw and an array of teeth that attach or defend. Examples of this species of fish include sharks, rays, and rat-fish (Bucheim, 2012).

6. Describe the three types of mammals based on how their young develop. Placental: This diverse group of mammals includes 4000 described species, some of them are humans, cats, horses, bats, whales, etc. . They are nourished in their mother’s uterus, in an embryonic organ (the placenta), attached to the uterus wall, before they are born (, 2006). The placenta is made up of the same membranes that surround the embryos in the amniote eggs of reptiles, birds and Monotreme: This type of mammal hatches from an egg rather than a live birth. The adults have no teeth, they have highly modified snouts or beaks. There are only five living species of this mammal. The duck-billed platypus is a perfect example of a monotreme and four species of echidna make up the rest of this type of species. All of these mammals are found in Australia and New Guinea. They are similar to other mammals because they have a single lower jawbone, three middle ear bones, high metabolic rates, hair, and they produce milk to nourish their young (, 2006). Marsupial: This type of mammal is born in a stage continuous development. The first stage starts inside the mother’s womb in an egg yolk type placenta that is very fragile. Because the embryo is so fragile the mammal is born very early, climbs it’s way to a nipple and latches on with it’s mouth and continues to develop outside the mother’s womb usually in a pouch. It continues to develop for weeks or even months depending on the species. Kangaroos and opossums are perfect examples of a marsupial. The opossum is the only marsupial found in North America.


Bucheim, J. A Quick Course in Ichthyology. Retrieved September 21, 2012, from Odyssey Expeditions: Tropical Marine Biology Voyages:

Eutheria, the Placental Mammals. (2006). Retrieved September 21, 2012, from
Monotremes, Egg-laying Mammals. (2006). Retrieved September 21, 2012, from
Marsupial Mammals. (2006). Retrieved September 21, 2012, from

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