Free Essay

Technological Innovations

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By saxynateman86
Words 1484
Pages 6
Project 2 – Technological Innovations
Nathan Brenner
Westwood College


The open source software Linux, was introduced in 1991, by Linus Torvalds. He developed the UNIX based operating system because, the education oriented operating system he was working with was not meeting his needs. Linux has grown to be an innovative powerhouse, because Linux is so versatile it can be used in hundreds of applications and shows no signs of age or being outmoded.

Technological Innovations The financial burden put on college students is staggering. However, there is one corner that can be cut when deciding what kind of operating system for your computer to purchase. Most people are mundane and choose whatever is pre-installed on the computer they are purchasing, but did you know there is an alternative? When you think of a computer operating system, what is the first thing that comes to mind? Windows? Apple? Did you know there was a third alternative? I am talking about the open source software known as Linux. What is Linux? The actual definition is “a freely-distributable open source operating system that runs on a number of hardware platforms” (webopedia, 2014). The technological advantage that the open source software Linux has given to the world is immense. This open source software has come a long way since its inception in the early 1990’s, and has grown to be the most versatile open source operating system to date. Along with its versatility, it continues to evolve and meet a multitude of needs desired by industry professionals, software engineers, and individual computer tinkerers. The Linux craze has not subsided, and continues to expand and multiply. For a software that was pronounced dead on arrival, Linux may just surpass us all. Like the tallest oak tree we must go back to the roots, back to the beginning to see where this behemoth has come from, and where it is going.
Linux, a Brief History The year was 1991, the place was the University of Helsinki in Finland, and the man was Linus Torvalds. While studying at the university, Torvalds became curious about operating systems and frustrated by the licensing of MINIX (an inexpensive minimal Unix-like operating system), which limited it to educational use only. He began to work on his own operating system which eventually became the Linux kernel. Torvalds began the development of the Linux kernel on MINIX, and applications written for MINIX were also used on Linux. Later, Linux matured and further Linux kernel development took place on Linux systems. During the late 1980’s, another UNIX based operating system was emerging, this system was known as the GNU Project (pronounced g’noo), which is a recursive acronym meaning GNU not UNIX. This project was spear headed by Richard Stallman, unfortunately the GNU Project was stymied by legal issues. Linus Torvalds has said that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time (1991), he would not have decided to write his own. GNU applications also replaced all MINIX components, because it was advantageous to use the freely available code from the GNU Project with the fledgling operating system; code licensed under the GNU GPL (General Public License) can be reused in other projects as long as they are also released under the same or a compatible license. Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license, which prohibited commercial redistribution, to the GNU GPL. Developers worked to integrate GNU components with the Linux kernel, making a fully functional and free operating system. Because of this freedom, Linux has been integrated tenfold into the technological innovations that we experience and take for granted each and every day.
Linux in your life Have you used the internet? Chances are you have accessed a website that is running a Linux based web server. Statistically speaking, around 60 percent of all websites on the internet are running an open source program named “Apache” (Davis, 2002). Whether it is indirectly via the internet or directly via your smartphone, Linux has played a part in your day to day activity. The Android operating system powering so many phones and tablets around the world is actually derived from a Linux kernel. While yes, Android is a branch unto itself, it wouldn’t exist as it does today if it weren’t for the work being put in to Linux by the open source community up to that point. Linux is also the primary foundation on which ChromeOS, Google’s flagship open source operating system, runs and operates. In addition, many computer manufacturers have started to develop their own custom Linux distros which are included either in the back end or as a primary operating system for netbooks, tablets, and other computer hardware. If you own a modern television with app support, you’ll probably find a EULA (End-User License Agreement) in the back of the owner’s manual. This is due, in part, because many manufacturers including Visio and Sony have turned to Linux as the operating system of choice when creating their television user interface. You may not see familiar UI tools such as a dock or standard desktop on these machines, but the various menus and apps you use are actually made possible by a small and specific Linux distro custom-made for the television. In addition, many user-specific appliances are also powered by a Linux core. Some refrigerators with built-in computers, DVR systems including TiVo, and more can attribute their functionality to a Linux derivative. Linux, and various derivatives thereof, currently serve as a primary operating system for over 90 percent of the world’s 500 most powerful supercomputers. This is according to the Top 500 project, a project dedicated to accurately listing and describing the top 500 supercomputers based on various subjects and categories. With this in mind, these supercomputers are presently being put to work making crucial calculations in the name of science, education, mathematics, and other important applications for our day-to-day lives. This isn’t to say that Linux is the best or most popular choice in all computing categories. Consumers still appreciate the commercial gloss and usability that comes with a financially supported and better-organized operating system such as Windows and Mac OS X. There are, however, applications in which Linux has and continues to come out ahead of the competition for its flexibility and stability. There's scarcely a part of computing today, from cloud servers to phone OSes, that isn't powered by Linux or in some way affected by it. But where from here?
Linux in the Future If there's one adjective that sums up a significant source of Linux's power, it's "malleable." Linux is raw material that can be cut, stitched, and tailored to fit any number of scenarios, from tiny embedded devices to massively parallel supercomputers. Linux is unquestionably here to stay, and in more than one form. But how it will do that and at what cost is up for debate. The most obvious future path for Linux is where it becomes that much more of a substrate for other things. It is a way to create infrastructure and where it becomes much less a product unto itself in any form. That creates more of a burden on the core team to keep Linux moving forward in ways that complement its existing and future use cases. If Linux's future really is everywhere, it might well also be in a form that no one now can conceive, and that's a good thing. Linux has come a long way from its foundation, and has proven to be the robust and versatile operating system that fortune 500 companies can rely on
Linus Torvalds had a simple plan, to build an operating system that could be manipulated to any personal desire. Through its trials and tribulations Linux has surpassed expectations in portability and functionality. Having the Linux kernel freely traded for profit or for not, allows developers the ability to try new things, as well as improve old ideas. Linux has been proven to be a cost effective alternative to the Microsoft and Apple proprietary operating systems, with their linear functionality. Linux will continue to be a cutting edge technology that will make its mark well into the future, whether it is as on the front end or back end Linux will continue to benefit and surprise generations to come.
Brief History of Linux. (2014, 05 05). Retrieved from
Davis, L. U. (2002, 08 10). What is Linux Used For. Retrieved from (n.d.). Retrieved from (2014, 05 07). Project. Retrieved from webopedia. (2014, 05 05). Linux. Retrieved from

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Technological Innovation

...* Structural dimensions of the firm: Structural dimensions deals with propensity to innovate and effectiveness at innovation. It includes the following terms: Formalization: It is the degree to which the firm utilizes rules, procedures, and written documentation to structure the behavior of individuals or groups within the organization. KFC, McDonalds etc., are well known to the world. To maintain their level over the top they follow set of rules and procedures in preparing their recipes, storing them and serving to people. Following these rules and procedures helps the organization to regulate employee behavior by providing clear expectations of behavior and decision making. Standardization: It is the degree to which the activities are performed in a uniform manner. It ensures the quality levels are met. Standardization is similar to that of a benchmark. KFC or McDonalds have many number of branches all over the world. If any branch does a mistake in some process, then whole unit (KFC or McDonalds) has to face the consequences. Hence, each and every branch has to follow the uniform rules and procedures which we call standardization. To be on the top, organizations have to maintain high level standards. This may limit innovation which doesn't mean that organizations cannot be creative. Centralization: It is the degree to which decision-making authority is kept at the top levels of the firm. In this type of organizations employees do not have authority over the...

Words: 1074 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Technological Innovation

...and discuss how technological innovation and industry dynamics have influenced its emergence. (Answer due before 10:00 PM (PST), Sunday, November 18, 2012. No late assignments will be accepted.). The computer industry is a prime example of technological innovation and industry dynamics. For example due to constant evolution of the processor and its ability to multitask various programs simultaneously to complete complex jobs for let’s say engineers, academics and government. We have developed smaller faster desktops and laptops. Consumers are constantly searching for the next best piece of tech, thus creating a want for more efficient and compact hardware. The actors being machine tools and instruments powered with central processing units have dramatically increased efficiency, profits and overall workflow. In turn the computer industry further fuels the software and programmer industry, thus complementing industry dynamics. Universities and venture capitalists have lead the advancement of computers to a level unparalleled. This is due to the fact that universities develop new knowledge that could be a major input to innovation, train human capital that form the backbone of the R&D laboratories of firms, sometimes patent in certain technologies and often are a source of new firms in specific sectors (Malerba, F.). Finally, the role of different institutions — some of them national, other sectorial — has been acknowledged to be relevant for innovation and diffusion in...

Words: 306 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Technological Innovation

...Discussion 2.1 • Considering each technological innovation discussed in the case, identify which has had the biggest influence on the music industry’s business model and provide a rationale. The biggest technological innovation that has had the biggest influence on the music industry’s business is the ability to download music online. That technology has it so bad to the point that people can get a whole album online without paying for it. Even if the album is purchased online, the is not as expensive as in store. Another reason why it has a big influence in the music industry’s business is that once one person buys an album online, they can easily share with many other people with those people paying for the album. • Discuss how the music industry can change their business model to remain profitable. In the age and time, the internet sells everything. So in order to remain profitable in the music industry record companies should cut down on how many CD’s are printed. That would also save some money on printing CDs. Record Labels should make digital purchases more accessible and cheaper, that way people would be more inclined to purchase. Although it is very easy to get music online for free, these record labels should stress the benefits of getting music online vs. at a store. They should make it easily accessible to purchase and send music directly to any phone. If music industry adapts to the change in electronics then I believe they will......

Words: 715 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Technological Innovation

...New technologies have changed teaching and learning in a number of ways—from graphing calculators to online lesson plans to virtual field trips and simulated dissections, educational technologies can help students access content in new and often exciting ways. In fact, one would be hard pressed to find a single school that doesn’t have access to some kind of educational technology. According to surveys, as many as 95% of schools are connected to the Internet; even at the level of the individual classroom, connection is nearly as universal—close to 75% of classrooms in the United States have Internet access (CEO Forum, 2000). Despite this nearly ubiquitous access to computer technology, however, there is a significant gap between the presence of technology and its usage in the classroom. While some type of technology is present in nearly every classroom in the country, it is rarely used to its fullest potential (Royer, 2002). Some of this discrepancy is due to a lack of comfort with using technology for teaching and learning. Even teachers who are using technology and report a high degree of comfort with technology tend to use it in fairly rigid ways, such as searching for activities to use with students, communicating with other teachers, and word processing (Price, Cates, & Bodzin, 2002). And while students frequently do use computers in the classroom, use is often limited to information gathering and word processing rather than using multimedia tools or digital content to......

Words: 553 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Technological Innovations In The Gilded Age

...Technological innovations in the Gilded Age has had a huge impact on life today. Many of the innovations made in that day are still being used today, although due to business competition things we're taken out of hand big impacts were made through people such as Nicola Tesla and Thomas Eddison. The light bulb made by Thomas Eddison has had such a huge impact on our lives even today, without the invention of the light bulb we could possibly still be using kerosene or another type of gas to generate light for us. Nicola Tesla invented a different form of electricity apart from Eddison's form of electricity, Tesla's electricity was known as AC or Alternate Current and Eddisons DC or Direct Current. The Alternate Current was a more...

Words: 296 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Is Technological Innovation the Main Source of All Economic Development and Change? How Might Differing Research and Development Systems Influence the Performance of Major Nations

...Is technological innovation the main source of all economic development and change? How might differing research and development systems influence the performance of major nations? Introduction   Technological innovation has come to be regarded as a central factor upon which success is contingent (Dodgson and Bessant, 1996: 3; Schumpeter, 1943: 83). Not only has it been considered a promise for generating competitive advantage but it has also been prescribed as a remedy for a broad range of managerial problems such as intense competition, globalised marketplace and technology fusion (Eris & Saatcioglu, 2004). Since the middle of the 20th century many theorists have explored the issue of technological innovation and how it influences performance on the national, industry and firm level. This report will firstly, compare the R&D systems of the USA, UK, Germany, Japan and China and then analyse the automobile and semiconductor industries in relation to these systems to show that technological innovation is not the main source of economic development.   Technological innovation Various definitions of technological innovation have been devised as part of existing theories. In addition, technology and innovation are often used interchangeably. Throughout this report, however, technological innovation will be regarded as the usage and knowledge of tools, techniques, crafts or methods in terms of new products and processes (Porter, 1990; Nelson, 1993). Further, a......

Words: 2609 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Technological Innovations During The Gilded Age

...The impact of technological innovations during the gilded age was very strong. Industrialization was a big part in the gilded age, Andrew Carnegie was the power man he was apart of the most biggest and the most helpful of transportation. Andrew Carnegie helped with the transcontinental railroad, he created the railroads and that helped and made the beginning of transportation without him creating that then I have no idea where transportation would look like today. Technological innovations during the gilded age had a big impact in the U.S today, J.P Morgan and Thomas Eddison created the first ever electricity theirs was the DC, without the ideas of Morgans and Thomas Eddisons electricity we would not have that technology today. there...

Words: 303 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Case Study on the Danish Wind Energy System

...The Technological Innovation System Case study on the Danish Wind Energy System Questions 1 and 2: The two most important scientific journals that publish theoretical work on Innovation Systems: The two most important scientific papers are research policy with 330 published articles about innovation systems and technological forecasting and social change with 364 published articles on innovation systems. These two journals have the most articles published on Innovation systems and the biggest journal impact factor. The 3 most cited papers that cite the paper by Malerba, and their main research question: First reference: Geels, F.W. , (2004) From sectoral systems of innovation to socio-technical systems: Insights about dynamics and change from sociology and institutional theory, Research Policy, 33 (6-7), pp. 897-920. (Cited 380 times) Main research question: How can widening the unit of analysis from the sectoral system into an socio-technical system and conceptualize the dynamic interplay between actors, structures and institutions. Second reference: Tödtling, F., Trippl, M. (2005) One size fits all?: Towards a differentiated regional innovation policy approach, Research Policy, 34 (8), pp. 1203-1219. (Cited 294 times) Main research question: How can we construct an innovation policy for regions where innovation activities are strongly different between central, peripheral and old industrial areas Third reference: Bergek, A., Jacobsson, S...

Words: 2877 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

New It Technolgies

...stay behind or are incorporated to supplement new ones. This is called convergence. Technological convergence is defined as the combining of two or more different technologies or services to create a new product (). Nowadays, technology convergence has been very successful acting as a stepping stone. Convergence has allowed consumers to enjoy the convenience of incorporating the best features to enjoy a better product. The truth is that technology convergence offers convenience, efficiency and new opportunities to both the consumer and provider (). As consumers, we are constantly looking to buy the latest technological invention or upgrade to the newest technological discovery. It almost seems like a race or competition, consumers are so quick to jump into the newest advance or discovery and often do so without being informed or conducting research. Often, consumers rely on other opinions to help them decide what product they should buy. The Iphone 5 is an excellent example, it’s such a popular item, people are buying it without even testing it out. They don’t know if there are any glitches that need to be fixed. However, consumers are buying based on reviews, opinions and previous experiences. Unfortunately, when investing in technology, as consumers we don’t tend to make asserted choices. We let popularity and looks take over function. With emerging technology comes innovations and one of the new technologies that has grown in popularity is Cloud Computing. ......

Words: 742 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Impact of Technology

...multitude of changes in our everyday lives over the course of the last decade; arguably as a direct result of technology. We are constantly reminded of the technological advances when attempting to complete the simplest of everyday tasks, viewing entertainment, and all other various forms of entertainment. Nearly everything we do on a daily basis requires some form of technology; cell phones, emailing, vehicles, computers, even schools are all the result of technological advancements that would not have been possible without the significant strides that have been taken in both the business and scientific worlds’. Understanding that technology carries such significance in our lives, can we fathom even just one day without any form of technology? For any business, technology impacts internal and external users alike; companies should take heed to view any new technology they want to implement from all aspects. The company should conduct research to ensure any technological changes will ultimately benefit their customers, employees, and potential customers. One of the most important things to do as a business owner is to ensure that all updated technology is done so in such a way that is conducive to new and repeat business; by maintaining customer awareness, this will aid in the IT team developing the most beneficial technological advances while also discovering new ideas for improvement. * A business should introduce a new product to customers using technology.......

Words: 1514 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Dromology and Convergence

...produced to increase the speed at which we do things. The difference is that digital technology is increasing not only the speed of the new products, but the speed at which these new products are being produced. Either way it is safe to say that technology and the world revolve around speed. The main goal of every industry is to do things fast and efficiently. Accessing information and communication is already faster than one could have ever imagined. The quest now is to become even faster. Push technology to its limits. In fact, the quest now is to set new limits. Is it plausible to think that we could one day communicate faster than the speed of light? Olympic track athlete Usain Bolt is a good comparison to where we are today as a technological society. His record breaking 100 meters times have reached mythical proportions. It used to be that taller heavier athletes were at a disadvantage in the 100 meters. Their height and weight would work against them, allowing the smaller runner to jump out to a lead that could not be overcome. Bolt however has been blessed with extraordinary ability. He possess the best of both worlds. The speed and quickness of a smaller runner with the power and stride of a bigger one. Technology today possess those same remarkable abilities. The ever popular smart phone is small, fast, but just as powerful as the desktop computer. Current technology gives its user the ability to interact with...

Words: 1348 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Bmgt 301 Midterm

...Chapter 11 Managing Change and Innovation True/False Questions 1. Organizational change refers to the adoption of a new idea or behavior by an organization. Answer: True Level: 1 Page: 392 Type: F 2. Redesign and renewal of the total organization is addressed by operational change. Answer: False Level: 1 Page: 393 Type: F 3. Given that external problems are beyond the control of management, when organizations are caught flat-footed, failing to anticipate or respond to new needs, no one can be blamed. Answer: False Level: 2 Page: 393 Type: F 4. Forces for organizational change exist both in the external environment and within the organization. Answer: True Level: 1 Page: 393 Type: F 5. After the need for change has been perceived, the next part of the change process is implementing change. Answer: False Level: 2 Page: 394 Type: F 6. New department technologies, demands by labor unions, and production inefficiencies are all examples of some external forces. Answer: False Level: 1 Page: 394 Type: F 7. A performance gap is a disparity between the performance of the company when compared with a competitor. Answer: False Level: 3 Page: 395 Type: F 8. The disparity between existing and desired performance levels is the performance gap. Answer: True Level: 1 Page: 395 Type: F 9. The process of learning about current developments inside and outside the organization that can be used to......

Words: 5947 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay


...The growing impact of ICT on globalisation There is no doubt that scientific advances and technological change have been, are and will remain in the coming years important drivers of the globalisation process. They have been conducive to the creation, distribution and exploitation (in a positive sense of the word) of knowledge in such a manner that they have served as a major source of competitive advantage, wealth creation and improvement in the quality of life. The growing impact of ICT (information and communications technologies) on globalisation can be evidenced by the fact that it has led to a rapid application of recent scientific advances in new products and processes, a high rate of innovation across various countries, as well as a shift to more knowledge-intensive industries and services, together with rising skill requirements. In this day and age there has been a growing realisation that science, technology and innovation have served as the key to improving a nation's economic performance as well as its citizens' social well-being. For this reason government - irrespective of its political ilk and orientation - must serve as a facilitator, enabling business and consumers to adapt to the demands and opportunities of the new economy. When talking of globalisation one must not only assess it as a phenomenon but stock must also be taken of its vital and important policy implications. The impact of policy changes in any one country or region can be translated......

Words: 1001 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Joey's Bar

...Ashton Javier, Director for Facilities and Safety, is in a dilemma on what to do to turn around the company’s warehouse and storage system. III. Objective The primary aim of this analysis is to determine whether demand and inventory are in balance or not in the company and what course of action is to be undertaken to resolve the existing problem on storage and delivery of products. IV. Areas of Consideration 1. Panasonic Philippines, a branded name electronics manufacturer in Pasig, has been one of the leading electronic firms in the country. 2. Their products could not be shipped out of door because of poor storage and delivery system. V. Alternative Courses of Action Advantages | Disadvantages | 1. Technological changes will benefit the company because of its rich and deep stock of content. * Layout Master IV Simulation Software can implement new distribution design * Panasonic was able to increase the customers’ orders daily from 250 to 570 * The Technology eliminates order...

Words: 591 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...Tanya Leadmon English 111 11/04/13 Singularity When Raymond Kurzweil wrote “The Singularity is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology” in 2005, he predicted that Singularity would occur in the year 2045. Singularity is defined as when computers become smarter than humans. Kurzweil truly believes that this will happen in the year 2045. While reading my critique of Kurzweil’s theory, decide for yourself if you believe Singularity will occur in 2045, or ever. Kurzweil describes his law of accelerating returns as exponential increase in technologies like computers, genetics, nanotechnology and robotics, and artificial intelligence. Kurzweil also predicts that once Singularity has been reached, machine intelligence will be a quintillion times more powerful than all human intelligence combined. Before Singularity can occur, Kurzweil states that there will be exponential growth in evolutionary progress, computational capacity, how the brain works, and revolutions in genetics, nanotechnology, and robotics. Kurzweil believes computational capacity will continue to grow exponentially. He feels that a new paradigm will debut to carry on this growth. According to him, this new paradigm will be nanotubes. He goes on to say that the best way to build machine intelligence is to first understand human intelligence. The first step is to peer inside the brain. Kurzweil predicts that during the 2020’s greater details of the brain will surface because...

Words: 530 - Pages: 3