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Telecom Industry in India

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PALLAVI KARANDE BATCH 84 ROLL NUMBER 26 ITM SION SMBA CASE STUDY FOR ITC ENTERING INTO TELECOM SECTOR ITC: ITC has a diversified presence in FMCG, Hotels, Paperboards & Specialty Papers, Packaging, Agri-Business, and Information Technology. While ITC is an outstanding market leader in its traditional businesses of Cigarettes, Hotels, Paperboards, Packaging and AgriExports, it is rapidly gaining market share even in its nascent businesses of Packaged Foods & Confectionery, Branded Apparel, Personal Care and Stationery. TELECOM SECTOR INTRODUCTION: The Indian telecom industry is the fastest growing industry with an addition of 9- 10 million monthly subscribers. The Indian telecommunications network with over 995.9 Million subscribers is second largest network in the world after China. Major players in this sector are BSNL, MTNL, Airtel, Vodafone, BPL, Tata, Idea, etc. Buyer power and threat of rivalry is very high in Indian Telecom Sector. Telecom Industry Sectors From holistic point of view telecom industry can be divided to four sub-sets. The major forces in Indian telecom industry are Service providers. All major telecom equipment suppliers have their R&D centres in India. In last 5 years, global giants in mobile devices have set up their manufacturing facitilities in India EXISTING RIVALRY IN INDIAN TELECOM INDUSTRY There are three types of players in telecom services:
• • •

State owned companies (BSNL and MTNL) Private Indian owned companies (Reliance Infocomm, Tata Teleservices, Shyam ( Southern India) Foreign invested companies (Vodafone, Aircel, Bharti Tele-Ventures, Escotel, Siestema Idea Cellular, BPL Mobile, Spice Communications)

Wireless Segment (GSM, CDMA & FWP(FIXED WIRELESS PHONE) Wireless subscriber base increased from 525.15 Million in December-09 to 545.05 Million at the end of January-2010 at a monthly growth rate of 3.79%. Wireless Tele-density stands at 46.37. In any industry, if the exit barrier is high it increases the difficulty of any organization to leave the industry sector. The telecom industry suffers from high exit barriers, mainly due to its specialized equipment. Networks and billing systems cannot really be used for much else, and their swift obsolescence makes liquidation pretty difficult. High Fixed Cost: The industry also suffers from high fixed cost which makes the entry barrier also very high for the industry. It comes as no surprise that in the capital-intensive telecom industry the biggest

barrier to entry is access to finance. To cover high fixed costs, serious contenders typically require a lot of cash. When capital markets are generous, the threat of competitive entrants escalates. When financing opportunities are less readily available, the pace of entry slows. Meanwhile, ownership of a telecom license can represent a huge barrier to entry.
• •

6-7 players in each region 3 out of 4 BIG-Four present in each region

Very less time to gain advantage by an innovation: Every company in this industrial sector in investing a huge amount in research and development and marketing strategy. That is why we see any offer launched by any company is counter attacked by other companies very soon. This makes the industry rivalry most prominent. EXAMPLE: Caller tunes, life time card The price war is really very fierce in this industry. Price war in telecom industry has commoditized the market that branding has taken a backseat. STRATEGYWHICH CAN USED TO TACKLE THE INTENSITY OF COMPETITIVE RIVALRY 1. Always expanding the product and service range. 2. New ways of advertising. 3. Always enhancing the customer service. 4. Entry in new market segment as well as new geographical area. 5. Keeping the price of product and service according to demand and needs of different section of the society. 6. Always providing something new and extra in terms of product and service. SUGGESTIONS • Should focus more on new rural area where tele density is very low and competition is less. • Make strategic alliance with equipment supplier so that become a market leader in the terms of technology.

THE THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS (LOW) Both potential and existing competitors influence average industry profitability. The threat of new entrants is usually based on the market entry barriers. They can take diverse forms and are used to prevent an influx of firms into an industry whenever profits, adjusted for the cost of capital, rise above zero. In contrast, entry barriers exist whenever it is difficult or not economically feasible for an outsider to replicate the incumbents' position. The most common forms of entry barriers, except intrinsic physical or legal obstacles, are as follows: 1. Well Established Brands: There are 11 well established players in the telecom space namely Vodafone-Essar, Airtel, Aircel, Idea Cellular, Tata Indicom, Reliance Communications, Loop Mobile, Spice Telecom, Virgin Mobile, BSNL, MTNL.

2. Economies of Scale: Already established players in telecom Industry are enjoying economies of scale and if new entrant want to enjoy such economies has no choice but to start out at a relatively large scale of operations, in order to achieve unit costs close to existing players.

3. Limited Spectrum Availability: . Despite technological changes that reduce the demand for spectrum, availability of spectrum continues to be a constraint. In order to allocate spectrum amongst competing service providers, regulatory agencies often use auctions. The key challenge before regulatory agencies is to design auctions in such a way as to meet the objective of fostering competition while at the same time ensuring that bidders can effectively use the spectrum for their business. 4. Licensing Requirement: Licensing requirement also act as barrier to entry. Sometimes it became very difficult for the new entrants to obtain license. (i) Unified License for Telecommunication Services permitting Licensee to provide all telecommunication/telegraph services covering various geographical areas using any technology. (ii) License for Unified Access (Basic and Cellular) Services permitting Licensee to provide Basic and /or Cellular Services using any technology in a defined service area. STRATEGY FOR TACKLING NEW COMPETITORS 1. Reducing the product and service price. 2. New advertisement campaign. 3. Pressurizing the government to make the policy tough for new competitors. 4. New offer for current customer in terms of price and service. 5. Should provide better customer service through better customer relation so that old customer doesn't left. 6. Keep their technology up to date so that they should always offer something new to their existing customer and also new customer.

THE THREAT OF SUBSTITUTES (LOW) The threat that substitute products pose to an industry's profitability depends on the relative price-to-performance ratios of the different types of products or services to which customers can turn to satisfy the same basic need. The threat of substitution is also affected by switching costs that is, the costs in areas such as retraining, retooling and redesigning that are incurred when a customer switches to a different type of product or service. It also involves:
• •

Product-for-product substitution (email for mail, fax); is based on the substitution of need; Generic substitution (Video suppliers compete with travel companies);

• • • •

VOIP (Skype, Messenger etc.) Online Chat Email Satellite phones

All of these technologies have a huge potential, though none of the above a major threat in current scenario. Strategy for Tackling Threats of Substitute Products in Telecom Industry 1. Product innovation at regular basis. 2. Providing Value added services. 3. Keeping price according to market level. 4. Pressurizing government to make the policies unfavorable to the substitute product. 5. Providing the facility of substitute product in the current product or service range. For example. To tackle the threat the GSM mobile service the CDMA mobile Service provider have started to provide the additional GSM service in the same set. 6. Negotiation with suppliers for high quality service or raw materials.

BARGAINING POWER OF BUYERS (HIGH) Buyer power is one of forces that influence the appropriation of the value created by an industry. The most important determinants of buyer power are the size and the concentration of customers. i. ii. This force is relatively high where there a few, large players in the market, as it is the case with retailers a grocery stores; Present where there is a large number of undifferentiated, small suppliers, such as small farming businesses supplying large grocery companies;

In the context of Indian telecom industry we can say that the following points influence the buyer power:
• • • •

Lack of differentiation among the service provider Cut throat competition Customer is price sensitive Low switching costs

Number portability to have negative impact BARGAINING POWER OF SUPPLIERS (MEDIUM) Supplier power is a mirror image of the buyer power. As a result, the analysis of supplier power typically focuses first on the relative size and concentration of suppliers relative to industry participants and second on the degree of differentiation in the inputs supplied. The ability to charge customers different prices in line with differences in the value created for each of those buyers usually indicates that the market is characterized by high supplier power and at the same time by low buyer power. In case of Indian telecom industry the following should be kept in mind:

(i) Limited number of suppliers: The industry basically has limited number of suppliers. BSNL is one of the major supplier in Indian Telecom Sector, it provides link to all other service providers. TABLE:1 -SUPPLIERS OF INDIAN TELECOM INDUSTRY (ii) Shared tower infrastructure: Technology has helped them to share the tower infrastructure. This basically helps them to reduce the initial investment a lot. (iii) Limited skilled Managers: Limited pool of skilled managers and engineers especially those well versed in the latest. (iv) Medium Switching Cost: Medium cost of switching since changing their hardware would lead to additional cost in modifying the architecture. (v) Overall influence on the industry - medium. MARKET SHARE OF EXISTING PLAYERS

Market Share: 19.5% Airtel functions in 20 countries and has its operations spread across South Asia, Africa and the Channel Islands. It offers services like 2G, 3G and 4G depending upon the country of operation. It is the fifth largest telecom operator in the world. Market Share: 16.7% RCOM is the world's 16th largest mobile phone operator and was founded in the year 2004. It provides both 2 G and 3G services across the nation. The Reliance group can be credited for the telecom revolution in the country Market Share: 16.4% Vodafone India, formerly known as Vodafone Essar and Hutchison Essar was Founded in the year 1994. It is based in Mumbai, Maharashtra. It provides both 2 G and 3G services across the nation. Its advertising campaign of ZooZoos became a rage, and has given the brand a lot of recognition and respect Market Share: 11.9% Idea Cellular is part of the Aditya Birla Group, with its headquarters situated in Mumbai, India. It was founded in the year 1995. The company with its “Idea” branding has been able to create a huge market Market Share: 10.8% BSNL is a state-owned telecom company. Its headquarters are situated in New Delhi, India. It is the largest provider of fixed telephony and fourth largest mobile telephony provider in India. It even provides broadband services. Market Share: 9.2%

Tata Teleservices Limited serves over 85 million customers across the country offering Mobile Services, Wireless Desktop Phones, Public Booth Telephony and Wireline Data Services across one unified and integrated brand-Tata DOCOMO. Market Share: 6.9% Aircel provides wireless voice, messaging and data services in India and has over 43 million customers in the country. Market Share: 4.2% Uninor, based in Gurgaon, India has pioneered advances like charging according to day time and geographic location. Uninor has offerings like mobile voice and data services based on the GSM technology. Market Share: 0.6% Videocon Telecommunications Limited, a Videocon group company offers GSM mobile services GSM service under the brand name Videocon. The services are already up and running in Tamil Nadu Haryana, Mumbai, Gujarat, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, UP, HP and shortly be there across the country. Market Share: 0.6% MTNL, a state-owned telecommunications service provider in the metro cities of Mumbai and New Delhi, provides both 2 G and 3G services.

Operator wise Mobile Subscriber additions [May 12]

Bharti Airtel added 2 million new subscribers to its kitty accounting for 24% of all the new additions in May. Their total base now stands at 185 million. Idea added 17.6 million taking their tally to 116 million by end of May. After dismal last few months, where Tata was continuously loosing subscribers, they managed to add 307k subscriber. Tata’s total subscriber base now

stands at 81.5 million. The 2 PSU operators BSNL and MTNL were the only operators who witnessed a negative growth in May 2012.

Telecom Operator wise Market Share [May 2012]


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