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In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By gorman19984
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The plain old telephone system is simple network that connects houses or a business to the central office through a local loop. The local loop is made up of twisted pair cable and cannot exceed 3 miles. In addition the local loop can also include DSL systems to connect computer and phones with a maximum length of 11 miles. DSL transmits at a higher frequency but is still limited in its speed and distance because it is coming over an analog twisted pair line. These connections make up an entire network of interconnected devices that come together at the local exchange. The local exchange is a local service provider like Comcast or Frontier that provide the service to homes and businesses in a certain area.
Besides POTS there are wireless options available for telecommunication services. Mobile or cellular phones have become the standard today for most communications. Cell phones connect to the telephone network through cell sites. Cell sites are just antennas that convert the radio signal to electrical or optical signals. These signal travel on a separate network to an antenna close to the cell phone that will then receive the signal. If the cell phone placing the call is calling someone on a land line then that signal will then be connected through the public switched telephone network. Cellular data travels in the same manner; it is anything that is non-voice. Cellular communications systems have many advantages and can have cost savings but they are also most vulnerable security wise if not configured properly. Cellular data communications have become overwhelmingly popular with today’s society because ifs convenience and ease of use. It is used to primarily for email or connecting to the internet.
Network topology is something that plays a large role in how the communications, whether its data or voice are delivered. Network topologies because of their various sizes and roles are divided into several different topologies. Access networks, which are a connection directly to the end user, access networks connect to the backbone of the network which is made up of high speed connections. The next topology is a regional or metropolitan network. This is simply a network in which two or more computer devices or networks that are in the same city or area are connected to each other, commonly known as MAN. Another topology is core or long haul networks, which generally deploy line of site communications. This could include satellite communications, HF/VHF radio systems with repeaters to enhance and carry the signal to greater lengths. And the last being Ocean networks, which are cable links that are underwater, spanning the great lengths of the ocean to reach the destination. This point is usually the demarcation point, which put simply is just the hand-off from the service provider to the inside wire. The inside wire is the wire that spans the demark to the phone system. Maintenance of the inside wire is generally the plant or building owners responsibility.
Each of these different topologies requires different equipment sets to make them function properly. Access networks could use as much as a simple modem and a router to connect a home user to the service provider over the DSL analog line. Metropolitan networks can use fiber optic cabling or copper wire to connect the different locations. Long haul networks could use satellites or long range uhf/vhf radio antennas to connect remote sites to one another. And again ocean networks use fiber optic cabling and repeaters to handle attenuation over the long distances that the signal must travel.
Cable TV and internet systems are also a part of the global telecommunications system, which has rapidly evolved with technology. TV started out as being a black and white signal broadcasted over radio waves, while the home user would use an antenna to receive the signal. It did have limitations based on distance and terrain features making it difficult for some people to get the signal. To assist with some of the limitations to the broadcast CATV was introduced, which would take the signal to an antenna on a hilltop and then carry the signal down copper cable to the user. They used amplifiers in this method to assist in creating a stronger signal. Network access points were located close to homes or buildings that it serviced. The network access point is a terminal that is the main connection or drop point for the cable. The drop cable would then run from the NAP to the network interface device, which would be typically mounted to the outside of the building. Understanding the technology and where it comes from helps us to understand what are options are. Starting off there was not a lot of options for people to choose from for telecommunications providers. The regional bell operating company was the main one until 1984 when they were then split into seven baby bells. Since then most of these companies have expanded and been renamed or bought out by new emerging companies. In 1996 the Telecommunications act was established, stating that ILECs must give other service providers access to their equipment in ore rot offer consumer’s competitive pricing and options. While doing this it created something known as unbundling. Unbundling gave service providers access to the local loops without having to own them outright. This opened the market up to the consumer and gave those competitive prices and options to people. Multiple system operators are what the consumers know to be the cable company, such as Cox, or Time Warner that offer television service to the consumer using radio frequency over hybrid fiber cable. They can also provide phone services in the same fashion, an internet service provider is any company that can offer access to the internet either through a fiber optic connection to the a home or business or with a DSL connection. The triple play is where you can get all three of these services from the same provider, which in today’s market are usually offered in bundled packages at good rates in order to keep your business with the same company.
Cloud computing is a way to increase the capabilities of a device or add new services without making changes to hardware. This basically is the internet, data storage is a prime example of cloud computing, Take for example dropbox, you can store data on their site which has physical devices connected and access it from anywhere as long as you have an internet connection. Software is another key component of cloud computing, being able to use specific software without the need to install it on your computer, or deal with any to the licensing concerns is a major enhancement.

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