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Telephone

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Submitted By crazyso
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Qui saurait de nos jours se passer du fameux téléphone? Nous devons cette merveilleuse invention à Alexandre Graham Bell. Durant cette présentation, nous allons vous parler de ce personnage qui a changé l’histoire de la communication.

Alexandre Graham Bell est né le 3 mars 1847 à Édimbourg en Écosse. Il devient citoyen Canadien en 1882. Il avait deux frères : Melvin James Bell et Edward Charles Bell. Tous deux morts de la tuberculose. À sa naissance, Bell n’avait pas encore de deuxième prénom. Ce n’est qu’à l’âge de 11 ans qu’il fit la demande pour avoir Graham inclus dans son nom. C’était son cadeau d’anniversaire.

Ses parents s’appelaient Alexander Melvin Bell et Eliza Grace. Son père était un professeur de diction.

Durant son enfance, Alexandre collectionnait des espèces botaniques et réalisait déjà ses premières expériences. Encouragé par sa mère, Bell s’intéresse aussi à l’art, la poésie et la musique.

Quand Bell avait douze ans, sa mère commença à perdre graduellement l’audition. C’est pour cette raison qu’il a appris le langage des signes pour pouvoir communiquer avec elle. La surdité de sa mère amène Alexandre à étudier l’acoustique.

À l’école, la science et la biologie étaient ses intérêts principaux. Ses notes, cependant étaient piètres, car il manquait souvent les cours.

Il déménage à Londres pour vivre avec son grand-père après avoir quitté l’école. C’est dans cette période de sa vie qu’il prit goût à l’enseignement. À 16 ans, à Weston House Academy, il fut nommé étudiant-professeur de diction et de musique. Il étudie à l’université d’Oxford, en Angleterre.

Il fut professeur de diction pour les malentendants et c’est ainsi qu’il rencontra Mabel Gardiner Hubbard, son élève. Celle-ci était sourde à cause d’une scarlatine. Ils se marièrent et eurent 4 enfants. Mme. Bell avait aussi des intérêts pour la science et la philanthropie. À partir de 1910, elle milite pour le droit de vote en faveur des femmes avec ses deux filles.

En 1870, Bell et sa famille déménage au Canada. Un an plus tard, il part pour les États-Unis. Là-bas, il fonde une école pour les personnes atteintes de surdité. En 1872, il commence à travailler sur sa future invention révolutionnaire, LE TÉLÉPHONE.

Dès 1874, Bell est certain de pouvoir transformer les ondes sonores en impulsion électrique. C’est le 10 mars 1876 à Boston, au Massachussetts qu’Alexandre Graham Bell réussie à transmettre sa voix à distance pour la première fois.

Au début son appareil s’appelait le vibraphone. Il obtient son brevet dans la même année que son invention. Le vibraphone connaît un immense succès dès sa sortie. Bell passe beaucoup de temps à faire la promotion commerciale de son produit aux États-Unis. Il se fait cependant poursuivre à nombre reprise pour le brevet de son téléphone, mais il gagne à chaque fois. Il devient riche dès 35 ans.

Avec la fortune que lui procure son invention, Bell fonde la national geographic society quelques années plus tard. Il fonde aussi en 1876 la Compagnie de téléphone Bell comme on la connait aujourd’hui.

Lors de l’exposition du centenaire de l’indépendance des États-Unis, à Philadelphie, Bell rencontra l’empereur du Brésil. Dom Pedro 2. Celui-ci était intéressé sur le fonctionnement du téléphone et lui demanda de lui en faire une démonstration. Bell décida de lui réciter un monologue d’Hamlet. Le fameux to be or not to be au téléphone.

Alexandre Graham Bell consacre le reste de sa vie à la science. Que se soit en l’expérimentant lui-même ou en finançant d’autres recherches scientifiques.

Son invention est controversée car il déclare que c’est au Canada qu’il a inventé le téléphone et non aux États-Unis d’Amérique. Il affirme que le téléphone a seulement été fabriqué aux États-Unis.

En 1913, il fut lauréat de la médaille Hughes. Ce prix existe depuis 1902 pour récompenser les grandes découvertes scientifiques.

Ce grand inventeur est décédé le 2 août 1922 à Baddeck, Nouvelle-Écosse à l’âge de 75 ans. Son épouse mourra peu après en 1923.

À la mort de Graham Bell, le Canada et les États-Unis coupèrent les lignes téléphoniques pendant 1 minute à sa mémoire.

En terminant, nous avons choisi Alexandre Graham Bell comme héro canadien, parce qu’il a rendu honneur au Canada et que son invention a changé le cours de l’histoire. Grâce à lui, le domaine de la communication a évolué grandement. Il mérite qu’on connaisse son histoire.

On pourrait le comparer à Reginald Fessenden un Canadien qui a inventé le sondeur sonore et les appareils de transmission sous-marine de signaux. Il eut plus de 500 brevets. Il est né en 1866 dans les Cantons-de-l’Est, dans le compté de Brome. À l’âge de 10 ans, il a même assisté à une conférence de Bell, sur le téléphone en Ontario. Il fut très inspiré par les travaux d’Alexandre et les étudia. Son rêve était de transmettre la voix humaine sans fil. Reginald Fessenden fut malheureusement reconnue pour ses recherches en radiodiffusion que récemment. Il meurt en 1932.

Merci de nous avoir écoutées. J’espère que vous en avez appris un peu plus sur le téléphone et son inventeur. N’oubliez que c’est grâce à lui qu’on peut de nos jours, parler avec nos amis ou avec notre famille même s’ils sont loin de nous. Que ce soit avec un cellulaire ou avec un plus vieil modèle de téléphone.

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