Free Essay

Term Paper

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By nikkaandreiane
Words 8433
Pages 34
Table of Contents
Pages
Chapter I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction Statement of the Problem Theoretical Framework Conceptual Framework
Significance of the Study Scope and Delimitation of the Study Definition of Terms

Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES Related Literature
Related Studies

Chapter III METHOD AND PROCEDURES Research design Research Environment •Historical Notes • Location Research Respondents Research Procedures Research Instrument Statistical Treatment
Chapter IV
Thesis Title <Title> Document of the Current System Hardware Setup Software and Application Used Document of the Proposal System Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) Gantt chart Requirement Analysis Specification Data Flow Diagram System Flowchart
Database Design

Introduction
Information Technology has brought different changes in the environment especially in the growth of advanced technology. Modern technology is used by many establishment either private or public in order to benefit the advantages that it brings to them. They use a computer as one of the devices to make work easier and faster. It is one of the aspects considered in order to gain accurate computation and easy manipulation of data and information in convenient way.
This study reviews the development of approaches to reservations management in the hotel industry alongside models of the stages of development in information technology. An Online hotel reservation systems are increasing in importance and greatly facilitate cross border consumer activity. The Internet has enabled hotels to contract directly with a huge number of potential customers. It has also revitalized the role of agents and lead to a new type
Of agent, the web agent or travel gate, selling a far wider range of accommodation on behalf
Of a far wider range of hotels. Many systems used an automation process like using computer system, due to effiency and accuracy. Hotel Reservation is a transaction processing system, in this system there are more advantages rather than a manual Hotel Reservation. La Rica Hotel the project proposed to implement still uses a manual procedure in keeping records of their clients and past, current and upcoming reservation of event and rooms. In making a reservation the client must fill-up some forms such as waiver/ gate pass and the reservation form before proceeding to the cashier for payment. This type of process best applies to walk-in customers only since they have the privilege of looking around the rooms and facilities. As for phone call reservation same process applies but it takes more time because of too many inquiries and question, and because it is not a face-to-face transaction error is inevitable.
With proposed On-line La Rica Hotel Reservation system an automated system that can be used by the worker of the hotel. In this system it can be monitored all transaction manipulated by the worker. La Rica On-Line Hotel Reservation Management System is wide-ranging software suite incorporate of integrated modules for various features of hotel management. This system offers an operational integration between reservations, guest history, reception/ front desk and Reporting modules.it is made to eliminate hassle and error handling in recording process in client’s reservation. To provide management that can manage user, room reservation transaction. To have a convenient transaction between clients and management. And that will replace manual procedure system.

Statement of the Problem
Occurrence of error in existing manual system brought hotel management reservation hassle and inconvenience in transaction process. Do recording and transaction procedure much convenient in on-line hotel reservation system provided. 1. How to create a system that will reduce the time consumed and error in the reservation system? 2. How to create a system that will reduce the operational cost of the company? 3. How to improve the productivity and increase in sales of the company?

Theoretical Framework
Process & procedures of reservation handling in the hotel
By: Ramu http://modernhotelsofnepal.blogspot.com/2011/07/process-procedures-of-reservation.html There is a systematic process & procedure of reservation handling in the hotel. All the reservation attendants must undergo these procedures to complete the reservation complete.
1. Receive reservation inquiry / request:
Reservation section receives a request for room reservation from various process. The reservation assistant must be capable of quickly determining the clients need and should be ready with reservation form and pencil or pen while getting reservation inquiry. The reservation assistant must obtain the following guest related information:
Guest name, address and telephone number
Date of arrival and departure
Desired room rate and plan
Number of pax
Type of room requested
Method of payment any other special request
2. Determining the room availability: After receiving the information about the guest duration of stay next step of reservation procedure is to check the availability of room type requested by the guest referring to the forecast board, reservation chart or through computerized system.
3. Accepting or denying the request: After checking the room availability, if the requested room is available the reservation will be accepted. If the rooms are sold out on the requested date, apologize with the suggestion of any other alternative rooms or hotels. The request is also denied if the guest or travel agencies are black listed.
4. Documenting the reservation details: If the reservation request is accepted, the reservation is taken in the reservation form with all the necessary information.
5. Confirming the reservation: Once the rooms requested by the guest is available and guest agrees to the rates, the reservation is confirmed by the reservation assistant by the advance deposit through various modes and confirmation number is given to the guests as a proof that the room is booked.
6. Maintaining the reservation record: After recording the reservation details in the reservation form, it should be properly filed for the future reference. In case of any changes or cancellation is done, the details must be attached with reservation form and updated.
7. Compiling the reservation report: The details from the reservation are most important. Such details help in forecasting cancellation, no show analyzing the market segment, preparing the history carded.
Conceptual Framework
Our project is carried out to develop a web-based application called Online Hotel Reservation System. The purposes of building the Online Hotel Reservation System are for guests to make online reservations and for hotel personnel to manage reservations, housekeeping matters and content of the web application.
La Rica Hotel Reservation System is based an automated system that can be used by the user of the hotel. In this system it can be monitored all transaction manipulated by the user. Offers an operational integration between reservations, guest history, reception/ front desk and Reporting modules. It is designed to simplify the booking process and allow you to get on with running your business. You can analyze the booking, reservation, check in & checkout trends and work towards your forthcoming future requirements although the system can only privilege to manage the user. This system can determine all reserve rooms in the La Rica Hotel Reservation System and it can utilized the data of the system. You can request to the user to input your reserve rooms and can have convenient transaction between the client and the management.
In following steps the system flow is this: * First the client must fill-up the forms in reserving a room. * The client choose the room availability. * Client will choose other services. (Foods, services etc.)

Significance of the study
The application of modern information technology dominated so far by the use of Internet websites and online reservation systems, gives competitive advantage to other with same establishment. This automated system is aimed to save time and money for users thus resulting in high profit to the hotel and better services to the customers. Hotels will need low maintenance cost to maintain the system. The system to be developed would also provide an economical way for the customers to do room or meal booking, or to obtain information.
La Rica On-Line Hotel Reservation Management System is wide-ranging software suite incorporate of integrated modules for various features of hotel management. This system offers an operational integration between reservations, guest history, reception/ front desk and Reporting modules. It is designed to simplify the booking process and allow you to get on with running your business. You can analyze the booking, reservation, check in & checkout trends and work towards your forthcoming future requirements. Managing replication of customer records and record their comments on hospitality. Make your customers feel unique and special by recording personal notes. Reservations can be assigned to user defined rooms or suits. Main Features: • Customize Hotel rooms with prices.
• Save the client's information into the database prior to booking or Check-in for any forthcoming use.
• Check-in for the specified duration & room will appear engaged for the duration.
• Checkout hotel after complete payment insertion. Operational Advantages:
• Every single instance you make a reservation, the room status is modified and the customer details are added to your hotel database.
• Use the once entered records for life time for the repeated customers.
• Better option for expensive Customer Relations.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study La Rica hotel still uses a manual procedure in keeping records of their clients and past, current and upcoming reservation of event and rooms. In making a reservation the client must fill-up some forms such as waiver/ gate pass and the reservation form before proceeding to the cashier for payment. This type of process best applies to walk-in customers only since they have the privilege of looking around the rooms and facilities. As for phone call reservation same process applies but it takes more time because of too many inquiries and question, and because it is not a face-to-face transaction error is inevitable.
With the use of online reservation system created by the proponents, this will help the company in updating and improving their current system. The company will have their own website with a user-friendly interface wherein customers can easily book a room or plan an event through online giving them a more easy way and hassle free reservation.
This study is conducted to know the reason behind the proponents on how will their purposed system will help the La Rica Hotel Management. La Rica Hotel Reservation System is fully scalable and designed to provide extensive flexibility and varied choices. Typical La Rica Hotel reservation and e-commerce hotel system software are reservation solutions currently in place and available today are technically designed to achieve the only one objective function, which is to connect client to management.
SCOPE
Since their records are only kept in a filing cabinet it can easily be access by any staff in the company, the online system will feature a registration and security module.
This registration module will allow every level of access to register to the system administrators and customers. The adding of new customers in the database will be done by filing up an application form which will be recorded to the database and the proposed system will automatically generate an ID number that will also serve as proof that they are a registered user. The user will then give personal information such as name, address, age, contact numbers and email address. In addition, this module will also verify if the user has an existing record and will prompt a message that the user account already exists and if not, it will be recorded to the database.
In terms of security, the proposed system will include a log-in form. This will have two (2) levels of access. The first will be the administrator of the system and the customer for the second level of access. The authorized users will have a unique username and password, at least six to twelve (6-12) characters long and case sensitive. The user will be allowed three (3) consecutive times of entering an invalid user name and password combination. If ever the user exceeded the number of times in entering the invalid password, forgot password which will generate a new password and send an email containing their log-in details to the registered e-mail address on their account.
As for booking/planning an event, user will have the ability to manage and choose the rooms they need and will allow them to set the date and time depending on its availability. In addition to that they can also make a reservation for a certain type of events and add any additional services that they might need providing that there must be at least a minimum of three (3) days interval before the exact date of the reservation. When reserving for a room the client must fill-up a form provided within the site, he/she must indicate the date of the reservation (date and time of check-in and date and time of possible check-out), the number of adults and the number children before submitting the form. Same goes for planning an event, the user is required to fill-up a form, he/she has must chose a type of event packages offered by the resort, indicate the target date of the event and the possible number of visitors. After submitting the form a notification message will be sent to the email address of the client confirming that the reservation is successfully made, the notification will include details about the reservation, its total amount, and the deadline of the reservation. Fifty percent (50%) of the total amount must be deposited to the bank account of the resort for the down-payment before the deadline of the reservation for it assurance, and the other fifty percent (50%) can be paid on the exact date of the vent. Once the down-payment is receive by the company, another notification message will be sent including the reservation ID of the clients, the detail of the reservation, the total amount paid and the balance of the client. This will also serve as a gate pass for the clients when they came-in to the resort. Cancelation of any reservation can be made a day before the target date, no refunds for the clients who already deposited their down-payment.
The log-in module is the registered user way of gaining access to the additional content of the website not available to unregistered guest.
The monitoring module will display an overview of the system, the administrator is the only authorized person to view and manipulate the content of this module (Calendar Overview, Room Overview, Confirmed Reservation Overview, Pending Reservation Overview, Not Completed Reservations and User Overview).
The report module displays all the past, present and upcoming reservations/ events held in the resort which can be viewed in a month or week display. This will also generate a report about which month has the most reservation made, reservations/events that has been cancelled either by the client or terminated by the system and what type of event packages is usually availed by their clients.
In file maintenance administrator can edit, update and add new offers to their system, updating of account user is also included.
The proponents will be using PHP 5 as the front-end and MySQL as the back-end in this system. The proponents chose PHP because of its open source in addition to that it also runs on different platforms compatible with almost all servers used today.
The Proponents chose MySQL 5 as the data source because it is flexible and allows quick development in the database and it is free to download.
The use of a domain name over the internet will also be required to successfully implement the online reservation.
There will be assigned personnel in order to develop the said proposed system such as the researcher, analyst and programmer.
This study looked into a better impact of using technology today on how it affects our daily lives especially for being the costumer. With this studies it can help our beneficiaries to know the differences of using manual system to a computerized generation today, prioritize is to prove and to give them the right information.

DELIMITATION
The proponents created system also has its limitation. The system only displays other services offered by the company but it is not included in the reservation form, the client can only reserve the room and packages displayed in the website. Asking for any add-ons must be done directly to any authorized person in the company. If the user is not registered member no possible transaction can be done other than viewing the whole website, in terms of client inquiry the administrator can only send a reply to any message sent by the client at a given time. Payment for the reservation made is not include in the system, the customer must personally pay through visiting the resort or depositing their payment to the company’s bank account which is displayed in the site. The admin can only update/edit the price for each room and function halls but he/she can’t edit the content of other modules such us the about module, other services and rates. Also there is no audit trail included in the system.
Its powerful hotel reservation, marketing & merchandising features give you an ability to control dynamic room or tour allotments, distribute confidential trade rates, provide varying rates and commissions. The hotel Reservation system will allow you to dynamically control most of your Hotel reservation without the need for an expensive web designer.

Definition of Terms
Booking is a reservation, as of a table or room in a hotel, seat in a theatre, or seat on a train, aircraft, etc.
Reservation the act or an instance of reserving.
Transaction is the act of transacting or the fact of being transacted.

Chapter II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter shows the gathered information and related ideas of the researchers. They have used the internet since it offers a wide source of information through research. This focuses on related literature, related procedures, and methods used to be a basis in support of making the proposed system. The following studies were cited to or relates with the proposed system. Related Literature
The application of the Internet in the business world has become a major trend in practice and generated a hot stream of research in the recent literature. The Internet, as a collection of interconnected computer networks, provides free exchanging of information. Over 400 million of computers or more than 400,000 networks worldwide today are communicating with each other (Napier, Judd, Rivers, and Wagner, 2001). As such, the Internet has been becoming a powerful channel for business marketing and communication (Palmer, 1999), and for new business opportunities - as it is often called as "e-business" or "e-commerce" today (Schneider & Perry, 2001). This new e-business or e-commerce virtual marketplace allows small companies competing with business giants by just having a better web presentation of their products/services. Under the same wave, online customers can enjoy a wider choice of products or services, more competitive prices, and being able to buy their favorite items/services from the sellers located thousands miles away. It provides communication between consumers and companies and through electronic data interchange (EDI), buyers and sellers can exchange standard business transactions such as invoices or purchase orders with remarkable ease.
The hotel industry is certainly full aware of this trend and fully willing to contribute its share in this effort. In fact, the industry has realized that during those early forays into cyberspace, the industry didn’t view e-booking strategically (many hotels simply considered online room bookings at the time as a way to pick up additional business by selling distressed inventory through those online travel agencies), and handed over too much control of inventory and pricing to those third party online travel agencies. Now the industry is in the unenviable position of trying to take back the reins after early shopping patterns have been established. While the pressure to sell their inventory rooms online will be continuing, the industry has developed its new online strategy striving to get a better grip on this emerging marketing channel. (http://www.iima.org/CIIMA/CIIMA%20V3%20N1%201%20Yang.pdf) Online system has evolved to be a cornerstone in support of computer software users of all kinds. It is an electronic interactive system that delivers information to users via telephone lines to personal computers (PCs) or via cables to terminals. Such a service provides information, usually in text form, about news, education, business, entertainment, shopping, and more. Some also provide message services and graphic and audio information.
(http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/429262/online-system)
Online hotel reservations are becoming a very popular method for booking hotel rooms. Travelers can book rooms from home by using online security to protect their privacy and financial information and by using several online travel agents to compare prices and facilities at different hotels. People can book directly on an individual hotel’s website. An increasing number of hotels are building their own websites to allow them to market their hotels directly to consumers. Non-franchise chain hotels require a “booking engine” application to be attached to their website to permit people to book rooms in real time. One advantage of booking with the hotel directly is the use of the hotel’s full cancellation policy as well as not needing a deposit in most situations.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Online_hotel_reservations)
Online Hotel Reservation Software (OHRS) is an easy to use arrangement that enables agents and guests to reserve rooms directly via the internet once they have confirmed availability of rooms in accordance with the itinerary. OHRS is an efficient and brilliant software, yet it is easy and uncomplicated to use. OHRS grants complete authority and power on hotel or motel room booking over the internet. This entails that one can accumulate all guest payments; enter own room descriptions, facilities, rates and allocations into the Reservation System. OHRS also allows to confirm accommodation in real-time at hotel’s web site and close the sale without more ado.
(http://www.dotcomtechno.com/ohrm.html)
There are several benefits of OHRS. It makes the reservation process computerized and thus helps one to undertake a large amount of transactions at a low cost. It lets the hotel in charge of over margins and pricing strategy. It enables one to check available inventory and complete an online booking form making the reservation process more efficient and less time consuming. The clients can settle the room rates and special offers at no extra cost.
OHRS assists hotel’s guests and agents with different payment options such as credit/debit cards. The system can track hotel’s performance on a regular basis as all information concerning payments is updated online and sent to the reservation manager by means of e-mail or mobile messages.
Gate six Hospitality offers online hotel reservation system development services for lodging industry including Inns, motels and resorts. Gate six provides its hotel clients with the highest quality Internet presence as well as a seamless, embedded online reservation engine that allows for easy navigation for the consumer and greater flexibility for the hotelier. Their online hotel reservation system, "gRes" was crafted from strategic knowledge of the hotel business and a passionate commitment to excellence in hospitality services. (http://www.gatesixhospitality.com/online-hotel-reservation-system.php)
Bug Hotel Reservation System was designed to simplify the task of online booking. It provides users a unique, intuitive and easy to use interface that improves the way people use the web today. Through personalization and rich features, Bug Hotel Reservation System enhances the entire Web experience. Bug Hotel Reservation System offers an online web based reservation system for hotels, properties, motels and b&bs at affordable prices. (www.bughotel.com)
Online hotel reservations are also helpful for making last minute travel arrangements. Hotels may drop the price of a room if some rooms are still available. Large hotel chains typically have direct connections to the airline national distribution systems. These in turn provide hotel information directly to the hundreds of thousands of travel agents that align themselves with one of these systems. Individual hotels and small hotel chains often cannot afford the expense of these direct connections and turn to other companies to provide the connections.
Several large online travel sites are, in effect, travel agencies. These sites send the hotels' information and rates downstream to literally thousands of online travel sites, most of which act as travel agents. They can then receive commission payments from the hotels for any business booked on their websites.
Lastly, people can book directly on an individual hotel's website. An increasing number of hotels are building their own websites to allow them to market their hotels directly to consumers. Non-franchise chain hotels require a "booking engine "application to be attached to their website to permit people to book rooms in real time. One advantage of booking with the hotel directly is the use of the hotel's full cancellation policy as well as not needing a deposit in most situations.
To improve the likelihood of filling rooms, hotels tend to use several of the above systems. The content on many hotel reservation systems is becoming increasingly similar as more hotels sign up to all the sites. Companies thus have to either rely on specially negotiated rates with the hotels and hotel chains or trust in the influence of search engine rankings to draw in customers.
The ultimate service provided by these companies to the hotels and the online consumer is that they provide a single database from which all reservation sources draw immediate room availability and rates. It is very important that hotels integrate with all the supply channels so that their guests are able to make accurate online bookings.
There are many ways of making the online reservation, most of the online reservation systems use the centralized system for making the reservation with the hotel directly. The online hotel reservation through the centralized system is just the tentative reservation, means that a client do not need to pay at the time of reservation and instead pay at the time of check in or check out.
Stuart (1995) in a study entitled “International Reservations Systems - Their Strategic and Operational Implications for the UK Hotel Industry”, presented details of the method and results of an investigation of the role and influence of international reservations systems within the UK hotel industry. The research comprised three questionnaire surveys of the use of computer reservations systems and distribution services by UK hotels. These were analyzed and produced an indication of general use of systems and the contribution which these currently make to hotel groups and consortia. The work also included a study of developments in access methods and changes in buyer behavior as observed by representatives of computer reservation and distribution system, travel agency, hotel representation and intermediary companies.
The case study made by Jiaqin Yang, Jan Flynn and Krista Anderson of Georgia College and State University (2005) aimed to describe some recent development of e-business application in the hospitality industry ( e.g. travel industry, and recreational entities) and illustrate with two case studies. One is about a local hotel industry’s effort to use the Internet to boost its local market. Another describes the operations and its competitive strategy of an emerging online travel agency. The research objective is to investigate the trends and level of prevalence of application of the Internet in the hospitality industry focusing on some emerging issues and challenges.
Casa Intramuros Reservation System was used by CITHM students as a front desk operation simulation only. It has 9 modules which consist of reservation, registration, checking reservation, room orders, billing system, housekeeping, main panel, reports and user’s module. The system provided hands-on training for the students to explore and know the step by step procedure in dealing with hotel reservation system. This system is similar with the system developed by the authors in a way that it provided a hotel reservation and management system.
OPERA System is the MICROS property management system used in many large hotel chains, such as Travelodge Hotels UK, Hyatt Hotels and Resorts, Rydges Hotels and Resorts, Marriott Hotels, Resorts and Suites, Radisson Hotels and Resorts (subsidiary of Carlson Companies), the InterContinental Hotels Group and the Thistle Hotels.Designed to meet the varied requirements of any size hotel or hotel chain, OPERA PMS provides all the tools a hotel staff needs for doing their day-to-day jobs — handling reservations, checking guests in and out, assigning rooms and managing room inventory, accommodating in-house guest needs, and handling accounting and billing.
Opera can essentially be the only management software a hotel needs, as it can handle Reservations, Customer Profiles, Housekeeping Management, Maintenance logs, Cashiering, Accounts Receivable, Agent commissions and third party interfaces such as Minibar systems or Guest TV. Arrivals and in-house guests are served using the Front Desk features of the property management software. This module handles individual guests, groups, and walk-ins, and has features for room blocking, managing guest messages and wakeup calls, and creating and following up on inter-department memos.

RELATED STUDY The application of modern information technology dominated so far by the use of Internet websites and online reservation systems, gives competitive advantage to other with same establishment. However, the potential competitive advantage can be transformed into real advantage if only the websites have proper design. As a result, the advocator conducted research on the facts related to the system that might be helpful to its development.
The following are the gathered related proposed system:
Jeong et al. (2005) discuss the role of website quality in attracting online bookings and empirically test their proposed model with potential lodging customers. Authors indicate that information completeness and ease of use are important determinants of website quality.
Schegg et al. (2002) analyze Swiss hotel websites over different criteria and conclude that they provide static information and limited transactional functions. Law and Leung (2002) examine airfare reservation systems over attributes like information quality, system use, system quality, services quality, and customer loyalty. Their results show that North American-based websites outperform Asian-based ones.
Landvogt (2004) evaluates several online booking engines over 23 different criteria, like overall user friendliness, payment method, instant confirmation, reliability, and invoicing function among others. These criteria present some of system’s functions and design principles discussed further in current paper. Law and Wong (2003) find the three most important factors that contribute to a successful website, according to the on-line purchasers, are secure payment methods, different price ranges for products/services, and user-friendly system. http://www.studymode.com/essays/Online-Reservation-System-466908.html Online Hotel Reservation System
Supervisor
Mr. G.J.K.
November 2012 The project is carried out to develop a web-based application called Online Hotel Reservation System. The purposes of building the Online Hotel Reservation System are for guests to make online reservations and for hotel personnel to manage reservations, housekeeping matters and content of the web application. Problems with the current system which were discovered during business studies are time-consuming reservation process, ambiguity view of hotel condition, static content in online system and lack of housekeeping management system. The Online Hotel Reservation System is significant to optimize the potential of the system, which offer the speed and convenience of one-stop availability check, instant purchase and confirmation in reservation process. The system to be developed would also allow staff to manage housekeeping matters and update all data on the Internet, 24 hours a day, without involving a web designer. Research on this project is conducted by visiting the websites of various hotels and material on hotel reservation all from the internet. The methodology applied in developing this system is Waterfall Paradigm.
In conclusion, this automated system is aimed to save time and money for users thus resulting in high profit to the hotel and better services to the customers. Hotels will need low maintenance cost to maintain the system. The system to be developed would also provide an economical way for the customers to do room or meal booking, or to obtain information. http://www.studymode.com/essays/Hotel-Reservation-System-1248194.html?topic
658 Apartelle online reservation system By abibituin, august 2010 Because of the rapid increase of foreigners visiting the Philippines for a vacation, a common sight is the establishments ad sophisticated hotels for competitive advantage. As the result of the competition between different hotels, various business strategies had been made to attract customers, such as putting discounts, having beautiful and relaxing environment and above all having a state of the art computer system and facilities. The current problem observed is the manual guest list records, the manual reservation of guests, the manual booking of rooms for the guests which takes a long time to accomplish. According to the manager in the establishment, because they keep on doing their job manually, it resulted to a very messy office, lots of papers around the desks and sometimes important documents disappear. From the information gathered, the proponents came up with an idea of proposing a system that is relevant to the needs of the establishment, highly efficient to meet their needs and most of all simple, easy to use system. The 658 Apartelle Online Reservation Management System is not only a database for guest list but also an online reservation system, where potential guest can have online reservation which will automatically be sent to the database of the 658 Apartelle. Based on the proponent’s observation and interview, they have found many problems such as time consuming logging of the guest list names to the log book, difficulties in making reservations and difficulties in retrieving information on their previous guests because of the papers that are scattered everywhere and misplacing of the guestless records. http://www.studymode.com/essays/658-Apartelle-Online-Reservation-System-375787.html ONLINE HOTEL RESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
FOR THE COLLEGE OF INTERNATIONAL TOURISM AND
HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT (CITHM)
Glenda A. Delizo, Mischelle A. Esguerra
Instructor, College of Computer Studies,
Lyceum of the Philippines University, Batangas City, Philippines glenda.delizo@gmail.com Instructor, College of Computer Studies,
Lyceum of the Philippines University, Batangas City, Philippines This study aims to develop and design an on-line hotel reservation and management system for the College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management of the Lyceum of the Philippines University, Batangas Campus. It presents user-friendly features that will familiarize CITHM students on the online hotel reservation system, evaluate it and highlight the benefits it can provide to the college and staff. In addition, it will purvey supplement material in their front desk operation course. The researchers used the System Development Life Cycle and Microsoft Web Developer 2008 as the programming language. The developed software served as a tool for the students of CITHM to familiarize them on how to operate an online hotel reservation system. The developed software was an effective aid for the instructors in teaching the basic operations of hotel reservation system to their students. It also provided online security to protect privacy and financial information of clients.
The system will be deployed via the Internet. The researchers used Microsoft Web Developer 2008 as a programming language. Microsoft Visual Web Developer was used to create web sites, web applications and web services using ASP.NET. It is an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) that provides a set of tools and utilities for developing ASP.Net 2.0 web applications. It is a part of Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 that can be used to develop powerful ASP.Net web applications using various tools for developing web applications included in .Net Framework. Visual Web Developer offers the programmer benefits of productivity and easy web site administration utilities along with wide variety of improvements that provide much better IDE. Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 Edition includes many improvements that enable one to create the ASP.Net 2.0 web applications by using pre-built server controls and developing rich user-friendly features with few lines of code.
Hotel Reservation System
Author: Arlene Mercado, http://www.scribd.com/doc/31359025/Reservation-System-Thesis
Date Published: 05/14/2010
Objective: This study aims to solve the problems encountered and to change the manual reservation.
Specific Objectives
1. To increase the security between the management and staff.
2.To lessen time consume.
3.To highly integrate data.
4.To spend less time in searching and retrieving of files.5.To create a back up of files in every successful transaction.6.To become make easier to find the availability rooms. HOTEL OPERATIONS PROVED EXTREMELY PROFICIENT FOR THINK PROPERTIES
Author: Hotelogix, http://www.hotelogix.com/case-studies/hotel-operations.html
Date Published: 03/14/2008
Objective: They were looking to replace the existing system in New York, for smoother operations. Essentially, the challenge for THINK Properties, were that they looked for a flexible system that could handle reservations from both web booking engine and Frontdesk. They needed a Web Booking system that was easy to handle the reservation system well. Mark also says, “Switching was incredibly easy and quick. We were able to load our entire inventory and set rates within 24 hours. Within a few days our card processing was set up.”
Initially they looked into expensive older and traditional systems, they were extremely expensive and difficult to access remotely, thus not feasible. Also, they did look into some other online options, which were detailed, however seemed to be lacking user friendliness. Think Properties needed a solution that could handle their complex booking style while remaining ‘user friendly’ and ‘easy to adapt.’ Our smooth Web Booking reservation engine handled group bookings and offered multiple packages, it also gave the efficient PMS, thus increasing the hotel operations effectively. http://www.studymode.com/essays/Related-Literature-On-Hotel-Systems-1040143.html?topic Chapter IV
Thesis Title: LARICA HOTEL ONLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM
Software and Application Used: Building the system needs system requirements tools to have a systematic output. The proponents use Sublime Text 3 as a text editor and PHP as the front-end programming language, XAMMP as a web server and MySQL as database the back-end in this system. The proponents chose PHP because of its open source in addition to that it also runs on different platforms compatible with almost all servers used today. Text Editor | Sublime Text 3 (PHP:Hypertext Preprocessor) | Web-Server | XAMPP 1.8.1 (Apache) | Database System | MySQL |

Document of the Proposal System: La Rica Hotel Reservation System is based an automated system that can be used by the user of the hotel. In this system it can be monitored all transaction manipulated by the user. Offers an operational integration between reservations, guest history, reception/ front desk and Reporting modules. It is designed to simplify the booking process and allow you to get on with running your business. You can analyze the booking, reservation, check in & checkout trends and work towards your forthcoming future requirements although the system can only privilege to manage the user. This system can determine all reserve rooms in the La Rica Hotel Reservation System and it can utilized the data of the system. You can request to the user to input your reserve rooms and can have convenient transaction between the client and the management. Proponents of the system made a local research for hotels need an automated system in management of their establishment. In the search for a good hotel to propose an automated system and La Rica Hotel was chosen since the hotel still using a manual system specifically in their reserving system. The proponents have a short conversation with the front desk of the hotel. And as requirement project, a proposed on line hotel reservation system made for them to substitute their existing medium of transaction.
The system will be a simple application to be run through a web server. That should be a client/server system where the client component is used to manage the reservations and the server centralizes the corresponding data. It is also envisaged where guests will be able to make their reservations from the Internet.
This online system is created for the benefit of the company also the possible customers, as this system will also serve as a promotion for them because of its easy access in the web.
In the completion of this study, the following people were deemed to play very important roles. The authors, in particular the developers are responsible for the layout of the entire system and responsible for the coding and testing. The final output is expected to be user-friendly as possible and easy to access and manage as well. The end-users is the La Rica Hotel Reservation Management group. The administrator will be the responsible for adding, editing and deleting user accounts as well as the rooms of the hotel. They will also have the capability to use the extend reservation button for extending the reservation of the clients and cancelled reservation button for cancelling the reservations. The clients on the other hand can view the reservations using the View reservation button. It is like a record keeping tool in order to know when the clients have checked in or when they checked out. La Rica Hotel reservation management will benefit a much more convenient way of reservation process of their business. In this way their manual system will be substituted by the automated on line hotel reservation system made for them. The system is usually a Hotel On-line Reservation System that can access all in the La Rica Hotel. La Rica On-Line Hotel Reservation Management System is wide-ranging software suite incorporate of integrated modules for various features of hotel management. This system offers an operational integration between reservations, guest history, reception/ front desk and Reporting modules.it is made to eliminate hassle and error handling in recording process in client’s reservation. To provide management that can manage user, room reservation transaction. To have a convenient transaction between clients and management. And that will replace manual procedure system.

Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA): ambooooot!!!! hahaha
Gantt chart: ambooooooot!!!! hahahaha
Requirement Analysis Specification: La Rica hotel still uses a manual procedure in keeping records of their clients and past, current and upcoming reservation of event and rooms. In making a reservation the client must fill-up some forms such as waiver/ gate pass and the reservation form before proceeding to the cashier for payment. This type of process best applies to walk-in customers only since they have the privilege of looking around the rooms and facilities. As for phone call reservation same process applies but it takes more time because of too many inquiries and question, and because it is not a face-to-face transaction error is inevitable.
With the use of online reservation system created by the proponents, this will help the company in updating and improving their current system. The company will have their own website with a user-friendly interface wherein customers can easily book a room or plan an event through online giving them a more easy way and hassle free reservation.
This study is conducted to know the reason behind the proponents on how will their purposed system will help the La Rica Hotel Management. La Rica Hotel Reservation System is fully scalable and designed to provide extensive flexibility and varied choices. Typical La Rica Hotel reservation and e-commerce hotel system software are reservation solutions currently in place and available today are technically designed to achieve the only one objective function, which is to connect client to management.
THE SCOPE
Since their records are only kept in a filing cabinet it can easily be access by any staff in the company, the online system will feature a registration and security module.
This registration module will allow every level of access to register to the system administrators and customers. The adding of new customers in the database will be done by filing up an application form which will be recorded to the database and the proposed system will automatically generate an ID number that will also serve as proof that they are a registered user. The user will then give personal information such as name, address, age, contact numbers and email address. In addition, this module will also verify if the user has an existing record and will prompt a message that the user account already exists and if not, it will be recorded to the database.
In terms of security, the proposed system will include a log-in form. This will have two (2) levels of access. The first will be the administrator of the system and the customer for the second level of access. The authorized users will have a unique username and password, at least six to twelve (6-12) characters long and case sensitive. The user will be allowed three (3) consecutive times of entering an invalid user name and password combination. If ever the user exceeded the number of times in entering the invalid password, forgot password which will generate a new password and send an email containing their log-in details to the registered e-mail address on their account.
As for booking/planning an event, user will have the ability to manage and choose the rooms they need and will allow them to set the date and time depending on its availability. In addition to that they can also make a reservation for a certain type of events and add any additional services that they might need providing that there must be at least a minimum of three (3) days interval before the exact date of the reservation. When reserving for a room the client must fill-up a form provided within the site, he/she must indicate the date of the reservation (date and time of check-in and date and time of possible check-out), the number of adults and the number children before submitting the form. Same goes for planning an event, the user is required to fill-up a form, he/she has must chose a type of event packages offered by the resort, indicate the target date of the event and the possible number of visitors. After submitting the form a notification message will be sent to the email address of the client confirming that the reservation is successfully made, the notification will include details about the reservation, its total amount, and the deadline of the reservation. Fifty percent (50%) of the total amount must be deposited to the bank account of the resort for the down-payment before the deadline of the reservation for it assurance, and the other fifty percent (50%) can be paid on the exact date of the vent. Once the down-payment is receive by the company, another notification message will be sent including the reservation ID of the clients, the detail of the reservation, the total amount paid and the balance of the client. This will also serve as a gate pass for the clients when they came-in to the resort. Cancelation of any reservation can be made a day before the target date, no refunds for the clients who already deposited their down-payment.
The log-in module is the registered user way of gaining access to the additional content of the website not available to unregistered guest.
The monitoring module will display an overview of the system, the administrator is the only authorized person to view and manipulate the content of this module (Calendar Overview, Room Overview, Confirmed Reservation Overview, Pending Reservation Overview, Not Completed Reservations and User Overview).
The report module displays all the past, present and upcoming reservations/ events held in the resort which can be viewed in a month or week display. This will also generate a report about which month has the most reservation made, reservations/events that has been cancelled either by the client or terminated by the system and what type of event packages is usually availed by their clients.
In file maintenance administrator can edit, update and add new offers to their system, updating of account user is also included.
The proponents will be using PHP 5 as the front-end and MySQL as the back-end in this system. The proponents chose PHP because of its open source in addition to that it also runs on different platforms compatible with almost all servers used today.
The Proponents chose MySQL 5 as the data source because it is flexible and allows quick development in the database and it is free to download.
The use of a domain name over the internet will also be required to successfully implement the online reservation.
There will be assigned personnel in order to develop the said proposed system such as the researcher, analyst and programmer.
This study looked into a better impact of using technology today on how it affects our daily lives especially for being the costumer. With this studies it can help our beneficiaries to know the differences of using manual system to a computerized generation today, prioritize is to prove and to give them the right information.

THE DELIMITATION
The proponents created system also has its limitation. The system only displays other services offered by the company but it is not included in the reservation form, the client can only reserve the room and packages displayed in the website. Asking for any add-ons must be done directly to any authorized person in the company. If the user is not registered member no possible transaction can be done other than viewing the whole website, in terms of client inquiry the administrator can only send a reply to any message sent by the client at a given time. Payment for the reservation made is not include in the system, the customer must personally pay through visiting the resort or depositing their payment to the company’s bank account which is displayed in the site. The admin can only update/edit the price for each room and function halls but he/she can’t edit the content of other modules such us the about module, other services and rates. Also there is no audit trail included in the system.
Its powerful hotel reservation, marketing & merchandising features give you an ability to control dynamic room or tour allotments, distribute confidential trade rates, provide varying rates and commissions. The hotel Reservation system will allow you to dynamically control most of your Hotel reservation without the need for an expensive web designer.

Data Flow Diagram:
System Flowchart:
Database Design

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Term Paper

...Term Papers COMPARING APA FORMAT IN A RESEARCH/LAB REPORT AND A TERM PAPER? WHAT IS THE SAME? * Margins (one inch) * Rules regarding quotations (long and short) * Rules for citations * Rules for references * Rules for page numbers * Rules for title page WHAT IS DIFFERENT?
 Parts * In a lab/research report, you test people/animals to collect data. You then statistically analyze that data and draw conclusions. Because you must report all these activities, a lab/research report must have a Methods, Results and Discussion section. * Term papers are usually about other people's research. Since you do not test people or animals yourself, you do NOT need a Methods, Results or Discussion section. Introduction * In a lab/research report, the introduction must explain what question your data will answer and how your study will help build a body of scientific knowledge. Because of this, the introduction of a lab/research report briefly describes related research by other people (that is, a literature review with citations).. * The introduction in a term paper is more like the Abstract of a lab/research report. It is an overview of the entire paper. In a term paper the literature review (with citations) is found mostly in the body of the paper. 
 HOW TO WRITE A TERM/RESEARCH PAPER IN PSYCHOLOGY PURPOSE:A research paper describes and summarizes a specific area of research by providing a summary and evaluation of the research already done as......

Words: 835 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Term Paper

...TermPaperWarehouse.com - Free Term Papers, Essays and Research Documents The Research Paper Factory JoinSearchBrowseSaved Papers Home page » Social Issues Why Social Networking Sites Are Addictive In: Social Issues Why Social Networking Sites Are Addictive “Why Social Networking sites are so addictive” Next to the numerous games that often hooks are attention, another thing that most parents problems today towards their children is the social networking sites that is said to be addictive due to its unlimited offers. The connection that can be made between two people distant to each other is such a thing that you simply cannot resist. Not only is discovering new content through all the retweets almost invaluable, but simply striking a conversation about common interests or thanking people for retweets, is a joy! Once you've gotten involved in networking sites, things can escalate quickly. One reason these sites are so addictive is that there's a nonstop stream of messages, photos, updates and information coming from those in your network. If you have 10 friends, it shouldn't be a problem keeping up with them. If your network is 100 friends or more, you might end up online for hours every day, trying to check all of the updates. If you're trading messages back and forth with other members, you might find yourself even more caught up in the exchange, just as you would in a normal conversation. We’re able to communicate with so many people from all across the......

Words: 523 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Term Paper

...WORDS TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERM PAPER TERM PAPER TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERM PAPER TERM PAPER TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERM PAPER TERM PAPER TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERM PAPER TERM PAPER TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERM PAPER TERM PAPER TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERM PAPER TERM PAPER TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERM PAPER TERM PAPER TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERM PAPER TERM PAPER TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERM PAPER TERM PAPER TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERM PAPER TERM PAPER TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERM PAPER TERM PAPER TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERM PAPER TERM PAPER TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERM PAPER TERM PAPER TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERM PAPER TERM PAPER TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERM PAPER TERM PAPER TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERM PAPER TERM PAPER TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERM PAPER TERM PAPER TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERM PAPER TERM PAPER TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERM PAPER TERM PAPER TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERM PAPER TERM PAPER TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERM PAPER TERM PAPER TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERM PAPER TERM PAPER TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERM PAPER TERM PAPER TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERMPAPER 250 WORDS TERM PAPER TERM PAPER TERMPAPER 250 WORDS......

Words: 340 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Term Paper

...How to Make  Term Papers Outline ?   A good term paper outline should have the following sequence and contents to write a term paper. Introduction Introduce the topic of your term paper about which you have to write the term paper and proceed to write thesis statement. Thesis statement Thesis statement is an essential part of any term paper. Develop a thesis statement which clearly states the point you are discussing. Body of the Term Paper The body of the term paper has all the points to discuss and support with favorable evidences, experiments or examples. Present the collected data in a way that supports the thesis statement. Conclusions It is the final part where you have to present all the results you got from the research and make suggestions for further development in the field. Bibliography It is the list of references of the sources of information. There are different formats of referencing the information resources such as APA, MLA, Harvard, etc. So use the one instructed by your supervisor. CONTENTS: STEP 1. CHOOSE A TOPIC STEP 2. FIND INFORMATION STEP 3. STATE YOUR THESIS STEP 4. MAKE A TENTATIVE OUTLINE STEP 5. ORGANIZE YOUR NOTES STEP 6. WRITE YOUR FIRST DRAFT STEP 7. REVISE YOUR OUTLINE AND DRAFT               Checklist One   Checklist Two STEP 8. TYPE FINAL PAPER STEP 1. CHOOSE A TOPIC Choose a topic which interests and challenges you. Your attitude towards the topic may well determine the amount of effort......

Words: 2167 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Term Paper

...A term paper is a semester written project that can be in a form of either an essay or a structured research paper. Basically it intends to enhance or develop the skills of the students in the aspects of communication, resourcefulness and discipline. Now what are the parts of a term paper that you should know about? Let me give you the five basic parts necessary for this article. 1. The cover page is the first part of the term paper. Actually it does not contain anything about the topic you have selected. It is just a page that provides the title of your work as well as details about you as the writer. A standard term paper usually has a separate cover page before the main pages of the article. 2. The next part of a term paper is the introduction. This is integrated in the actual page structure of the project. You need to provide a background of the topic that you have written. In this paragraph, make sure that you provide details why the topic is important and what is to be expected in the contents of discussions. You also need to place the thesis statement at the introductory paragraph. 3. The third part of a term paper is the body. Actually you are not limited to using only one paragraph. Depending on the discussions of the topic, you can expand the number of body paragraphs indefinitely. Some research term papers for school will have to contain discussions like methodology, literature review or pictures and diagrams. But always make sure that the body can support the......

Words: 352 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Final Term Paper

...Unit 10 Research Paper Part 6: Final Draft of Research Paper Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes * Demonstrate mastery of the writing process, from invention to revision. * Apply principles of composition to evaluate the effectiveness of multiple rhetorical strategies. * Explain and employ the concepts of purpose, audience and tone in relation to compositions. * Locate, analyze, evaluate, and use information from a variety of sources, including the ITT Tech Virtual Library. * Formulate and execute a practical research plan. * Refine the research paper’s introduction and conclusion. * Revise and complete a final draft based on peer and instructor feedback. Assignment Requirements Use your research diary and the revised copy of your research paper to create your final draft. In your final draft, be sure to include: Introduction 1. Consider to whom you will be delivering this information. * If nothing really comes to mind, free-write about everything you know about your audience. 2. Overall, start broadly and narrow as you go. Consider your thesis as the target. * Other strategies also work well, but remember that the goal of an introduction is to help your reader understand why this information is important and/or interesting. 3. Decide which of the five introductory moves works best. * You may have to try a couple different methods here. Don’t be afraid to experiment with your writing. Talk it out with......

Words: 1538 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Term Paper on Physical Planning

...StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays, Term Papers & Book Notes Essays Resource Center Sign Up Sign In Products Home Research Drive Answers About Company Legal Site Map Contact Advertise ©2015 StudyMode.com HOME > LITERATURE > PERIODICALS > PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT IN... Physical Environment in Counseling and Planning Only available on StudyMode Topic: Feeling, Office Pages(s): 7 (1656 words) Download(s): 99 Published: October 18, 2008 READ FULL DOCUMENT SAVE TO MY LIBRARY Please sign up to read full document. TEXT PREVIEW Physical Environment in Counseling and Planning I have recently read an interesting article about the impact of physical environment on the financial counseling and planning relationship and process. The publication raised my great interest because I have noticed before that our offices have several deficiencies that may have negative effects on the quality of our relationships with clients. The physical environment includes many aspects of our surrounding, including furniture and room design, color, accessories, lighting, sound, smell, thermal conditions and others. I have learned that all of these aspects can have bigger impact on relationships and the quality of our work that most people would expect. Therefore I took the initiative and researched the topic a little further to get a better understanding of the issue. Although there’s not a lot of a material available that refers strictly to financial......

Words: 463 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Term Paper

...Looking Where to Order Term Paper Writing Services? Great, than you have come to the right place, as we are ready to deliver them 24/7. Having troubles with essays and research papers? Difficult topics and strict professors? Don’t worry – our term papers for sale will solve your problems. If you are still hesitating whether to buy term paper online or try writing it yourself, let us tell you something: your time is priceless. Do not waste it on something you won’t really need in future. Will it help you make a career? No. Will you become more attractive for potential employers? Most likely, no. Then why bother? Buy term paper online and make a difference Modern educational system sometimes leaves no other option but to address term paper writing services. It may seem that you are just supposed to ask someone for help. And when this time comes, try to make the right choice. Let the first things come first, namely your personal life issues, family and friends etc. And we will take care of the rest. Why do we dare offering your help? Because we can provide it. You may rest assured that our term paper writers will work 24/7 to deliver your precious paper on time. Deadlines met and customers satisfied – that is how we do business here, at Term-paper-writing-services.com. Excellent term paper writers One of the main reasons why we keep positions close to the top is because our term paper help online is delivered by professionals only. No novice writers, no students...

Words: 426 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Term Paper

...avoid plagiarism. Why have we accommodated the latest software for capturing plagiarism? The reason is quite simple. Student example papers can be of different types (example essay papers, example term papers, example research papers, example theses and example dissertations) and students can use example papers in almost all academic subjects. Most commonly example papers online turn out to be APA example papers, MLA example papers, and MBA example papers. Whenever there is a need of student example papers, a simple research can show you a load of free downloads, but you should know that it is all risky and you should not drive your academic career to a dead end. As a matter of principle student example papers such as example essays, example research papers, example term papers and example theses/dissertations can never inspire students to work harder. But custom written papers give students ideas and they can attempt to write the paper with little effort. Only specially written papers, but not free examples of papers, can give you guidelines on how to write your own papers. It is strongly believed that when students look through example papers, none of the new thoughts or ideas can be further generated on the topic. Thus such practice is claimed to be unsuccessful. Example papers (whether it is an essay paper example, research paper example, example of a...

Words: 326 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mba Term Paper

...There are many types of MBA papers that are required in most MBA institutions. The most common of these are the MBA term papers. The MBA term paper is one of the most basic of all MBA papers. You can write an MBA term paper on any topic, as long as it is connected with what you are learning in your course. However, it is not everyone who finds it easy to write a good term paper and hand it over to his lecturer on time. This is mainly because many MBA students have no time to do all the research required in an MBA term paper. If you are one of those having trouble writing and finishing a good business term paper, then you should ask for assistance. Instantly calculate the price for your order! Type of Paper Needed Please note that any orders related to thesis and dissertation papers, as well as their parts/chapters, are only available for University (College 3-4) academic level and higher. Academic Level Pagesinfo Deadlineinfo Select Academic Level first! Total Price Select type of paper first! The price for any of the additional services, such as progressive delivery, writer's samples and/or any extra charge for selecting a particular category of writer will be calculated and added automatically as you fill in the order form. Buy custom MBA term papers online There are many places from where you can get assistance to write your MBA term paper. For instance, you can ask someone in your college to do the paper for you for a certain fee. However,......

Words: 680 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Math Term Paper

...six tips for writing great academic term papers Academic papers are a large part of anyone’s education, and largely responsible for the grade one receives at the end of the term. Writing a great term paper requires a variety of skills and having knowledge of a topic is not enough on its own. You will need to combine that knowledge with good technique and writing style to end up with a great paper. Follow the six tips below to make sure your next paper is right on the mark. Research First. Order is important in academic term papers, so don’t get ahead of yourself by starting to write before you have all of your information collected. As a rule of thumb, try to collect about 50% research documentation than you think you will need. Inevitably, you will decide some of the research doesn’t work in the paper and leave it out. Rather than being forced to go back and look for more, collect a little extra in the first place to make it easier on yourself during the writing process. Make an Outline. This is a key step. After collecting research, take the time to write up a detailed outline that you will follow closely while actually writing the paper. Start Early. Nothing kills a good term paper faster than running up against a deadline. Give yourself plenty of lead time so you aren’t rushed towards the end of the project. You want your brain to be able to think clearly, free of the distraction that a due date can cause. Write Freely. Once you start writing, just keep going.......

Words: 416 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Term Paper Structure

...Term Paper Process The term paper is not a single submission assignment. You have to follow a process and you will earn you grade through all the steps of the process: Conduct background research on your country of choice Write a Term Paper developed through a process of drafting & review: Submit a FIRST DRAFT of your paper Review the drafts of 3 (three) other students and apply the rubric to their drafts After review by 3 other students and the instructor/writing consultant you will receive feedback on your first draft from at least 4 individuals Submit a SECOND DRAFT of your paper After review by 3 other students and the instructor/writing consultant you will receive feedback on your first draft from at least 4 individuals Rework, improve and refine your paper and resubmit it for final grading. Term Paper Format The paper should be: At least 1, 500 (one thousand five hundred) and no more than 2,000 (two thousand) words. Use proper reference citation using formal APA or MLA style and Include a list of sources cited (bibliography). Paper Topic You will need to select a term paper topic from one of the following topics: Outsourcing and offshoring Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) The impact of trade on economic development Cross-cultural challenges in international business The prospects of continued globalization Other topics specifically approved by the instructor. Resources You are provided with several resources that will allow you to......

Words: 1007 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Science Term Paper

...Science paper, which should be written carefully. A writer should be able to present all his/her arguments, authorial quotations, examples, ideas and other relevant details in a concise manner. Unlike dissertation writing, thesis writing, research paper writing or term paper writing, Science essay writing is considered an activity that requires less time. Science essay writing needs precise and authentic information collected from authentic resources but all writing should be properly cited or there are chances of plagiarism. If you are in search of online Science essay help - contact our custom Science writing service. Our Master's; Ph.D. writers will help write a Science essay for you on any scientific topic. Science term paper writing is done on a higher educational level. Science term paper writing should be done after a good research. Before writing a Science term paper, always make a draft to include relevant as well as irrelevant rough ideas. After assembling all the ideas, filter those ideas that are relevant and consider them as headings and start including details. A Science term paper writing is an activity that needs time and effort. As it is a higher-level activity, the students are expected to come up with something that is persuasive and commendable. Our academic writing company is committed to supply you with quality Science term paper help for any academic course level: High School, College and University. Contact us and we will help write a Science term......

Words: 626 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Term Paper

...develop ethical and environmental guidelines for the sourcing of its coffee beans. Starbucks is committed to enhancing and providing an excellent work environment for its employees and partners are treated with respect and dignity. Starbucks, founded in 1985, by Howard Shultz has achieved an impressive rate of growth in earning per share of 20% per year for the past decade. The company has witnessed steady revenue growth in this time period, in spite of overall economic downturns. In addition, an impressive growth rate in store openings and success in maintaining the profitability of current operations. Starbucks has demonstrated its ability to grow steadily and responsibly. Although short term margins have tightened as a result of this aggressive expansion, its long term growth projections show promising growth in retail locations, steady sales growth at existing locations, and a continuously expanding product line that differentiate it from the competition and keep its customers coming back. Starbucks’ ability to combat the risks and external threats that it faces from world economic factors, competitive forces come from its solid brand image, and its dedication to continual product innovation and the quality services that it offers its customers prove it to be a worthy investment. The financial analysis of the company also provides us with more than ample reason to purchase Starbucks stock. Through our analysis using the SWOT Model, we’ve found that......

Words: 328 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Term Paper

... They want to asses if the spread of technology would become a distraction or a help to a student. The investigators were appealed to the topic because gadgets are now able to provide easier access to information and educational advantages. Gadgets get the attention of the students because of its engrossing and fascinating presentations of information. This also helps the parents who are unaware of the effects of gadgets to their child’s study. Overuse of gadgets may result to interference with the student determination and ability to learn. Technology can be used for many things some positive and some negative. The effects that are now being documented on children whom are left unattended for hours on end are nothing but negative. Long term damage is more prevalent in the recent studies than ever before. Researchers are finding that many parents are using the internet and other form of technology to “raise” their children. Thus...

Words: 2595 - Pages: 11