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Kellie Mairin Matack
International Relations I
Professor Laura Culbertson
25 April 2015

International Relations Theoretical Perspectives of Putin, Obama, and Rouhani
Vladimir Putin The current president of the country of Russia, Vladimir Putin predominately exhibits realist tendencies on the international stage. While Putin may be motived by variables that inevitably fall under constructivism and other theories of international relations, he most recently has adopted a realist viewpoint of how his country fits in to the world as an international actor. The definition of the realist theory as described by Wilkinson, explains that the world of international politics is a constant struggle over power, motived by self-interest and primarily maintained through military power that is acquired by commerce and industry wealth (2007, 2). During Putin’s address to the Federal assembly, he exemplifies a realist view in his statement, “Every nation has an inalienable sovereign right to determine its own development path, choose allies and political regimes, create an economy and ensure its security… we will have to protect our legitimate interests unilaterally”(2014). It can be seen that President Putin justifies Russia’s actions on the international stage through purporting that every nation has it’s own interests and has the right to do whatever it takes to ensure those interests are secured. When President Putin was serving as the prime minister in Russia, he oversaw the occupation of Russian troops in Chechnya (BBC 2013), further exemplifying his views on the essential nation of military power and occupation. President Putin also realizes the need adopt the realist mentality of surrounding oneself with hard allies or easy neutrals, as well as gaining control of the media and non-governmental organizations that are backed by foreign funds. It is through these means that he can ensure he remains sole proprietor of absolute power in Russia, as described by Machiavelli as an essential component to realism, “the sovereign who rules the state is the true and only guarantor of internal pace because he alone has power to enforce the peace” (Wilkinson 2007, 2).
Barack Obama When reading through and analyzing the limited information presented and allowed for the particulars of this assignment, it is difficult to ascertain a conclusion as to Obama’s theoretical perspective. However, one can deduce that his theoretical perspective is in fact realism with an American politically “pleasing” dose of liberalism. As previously stated, the theory of realism is the assumption that the international community consists of independent, anarchic political states that can never be sure the intentions and ulterior motives of another state. The driving force of the states is self-preservation and maintaining power/sovereignty over their constitutes and civilians; thinking rationally and strategically as to how to survive.
In regards to President Obama’s foreign policy, he has maintained conceptualization and sometimes implementation, primarily in his own hands; being responsible for his presidency record than most predecessors. This is a prime example of ensure the sole sovereignty and power rests in the hands of one individual. In terms of his actions regarding Cuba, he has adopted a liberalist theory of promoting economic interdependence, rebuilding trust between US and Cuba by restoring normal diplomatic relations and providing leniency on treasury and commence legislation through utilizing loopholes in the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity Act (Roberts 2014). The theory of liberalism promotes intergovernmental organizations, negotiations, as well as the use of more than just military strategies (i.e. economic and social) to maintain power. Obama recognizes that to rebuild trust with Cuba, facilitate cohesive foreign relations, and essentially hold more power in the country, one must begin to chip away at the US-Cuba embargo.
However, Obama has enacted many things that allude to his “pragmatic realist” tendencies. As stated by Michael Boskin (2012), President Obama has enacted a stimulus bill, Obama Care, promoted excessive spending, pushing executive power, and facilitated centralized power in Washington; carried out in a manner that a realist would favor. Machiavelli points out that when the magistrates (Congress) hold power, the system is inherently weak, because it depends on their approval and action. This is one of the guiding principles that America is governed by, ensuring that it does not become a dictatorship or monarchy, keeping the “prince” in check. Machiavelli advocates that a “A prudent ruler ought not to keep faith, when doing so would not be in his best interest,” meaning he should do whatever is necessary to keep power, even if it may mean deception, manipulation, violence, cruelty, etc. Considering this, one can see why President Obama continually exhibits defiance towards Congress and manipulates executive power. This is exemplified through the most recent “executive order” of allowing amnesty towards millions of illegal aliens (BBC, 2012), violating a very clear “no” from Congress (an entity put in place to ensure the President acts according to how the people voted), or committing the United States to war with Liberia without Congressional approval. In both situations, President Obama was frustrated with Congress’s decision, so he unilaterally moved to get things done, thus proving his Machiavellian pragmatism and “the means justify the end.”
Hassan Rouhani
The theoretical perspective of Hassan Rouhani, the seventh president of Iran seems to be as much of a liberalist as he is a constructivist. According to Wilkinson, the theory of liberalism relies on institutionalism and interdependency, stressing the importance of non-state actors, and upholding an optimistic view of mankind; through interdependency, it is believed that this will strengthen cooperation and provide greater opportunities to the world as a whole (2007, 4).
Rouhani clearly states his preference for this theoretical application in a recent article on the opinion page Project Syndicate, “…focus on mutual confidence-building with our neighbors and other regional and international actors, thereby enabling us to orient our foreign policy toward economic development at home. To this end, we will work to eliminate tensions in our foreign relations and strengthen our ties with traditional and new partners alike” (2014), holding true to the liberalist preference for cooperation and intergovernmental organizations. President Rouhani also recognizes that we are living in an “increasingly interconnect and interdependent world” and that any issues can only be resolved through “interaction and active cooperation among states…collective responses” (2013).
While Rouhani has a belief in practicing liberalism, he does not fail to recognize the world of international relations is ever-changing and evolving, and in some regions, closely motivated by the culture, social norms, as well as evolving ideas and perceptions, which is a clear definition of constructivism. In an interview with The Washington Post, Rouhani made an important point of address that the motivating issue of tension in the Middle East is the “issue of identity…without comprehending the role of identity, many issues we all face will remain unresolved” (2013), shedding light on his knowledge and preference to the theory of constructivism.
It can be deduced that President Hassan Rouhani is as much as a liberalist as he is a constructivist. He recognizes that to coexist and have favorable international relations, one must first begin to understand the identity of each international actor; only then can interdependency and cooperation between intergovernmental organizations can happen.

Boskin, Michael J. (February 1, 2012). A Referendum on Obama. Project Syndicate: The World’s Opinion Page. (accessed April 25, 2015).
British Broadcasting Corporation. (2012). Profile: Barack Obama. British Broadcasting Company. (accessed April 25, 2015).
British Broadcasting Corporation. (2013). Profile: Vladimir Putin. British Broadcasting Company. (accessed April 25, 2015).
Machiavelli, Niccolò. The Prince. iBooks.
Putin, Vladimir. (December 4, 2014). Address by Russian President Putin to the Federal Assembly. Council on Foreign Relations. (accessed April 25, 2015).
Roberts, William. (December 20, 2014). In bold move on Cuba, Obama asserts powers. Aljazeera. (accessed April 25, 2015).
Rouhani, Hassan. (January 8, 2014). What Iran Wants in 2014. Project Syndacite: The World’s Opinion Page. (accessed April 25, 2015).
Rouhani, Hassan. (September 26, 2013). CFR Events: Hassan Rouhani. Council on Foreign Relations. (accessed April 25, 2015).
Rouhani, Hassan. (September 19, 2013). President of Iran Hassan Rouhani: Time to engage. The Washington Post. (accessed April 25, 2015).

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