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Terrorism and Homeland Security: The Impacts on Preventative Measures

Abstract
This paper explores four different topics on homeland security and anti-terrorism policies. The creation of the Department of Homeland Security or (HDS). What policies had to be implemented and what did the creation of a new agency affected or benefit. The impact that international terrorism has caused the United States of America and how this policies and changes help build a stronger defense against them. The implementation of local enforcement agencies and the community in the fight to deter terrorist attacks. The Federal Emergency Management Agency or (FEMA) and how organizational bureaucracy hindered cooperation and communication among local and federal agencies. This paper will address what measures have been and can be taken in the future to improve inter-agency cooperation and communication.

Table of Content
Terrorism and Homeland Security: The Impacts on Preventative Measures
Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………………2
Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………..4
Terrorism and the creation of the DHS………................................................................................4
USA PATRIOT ACT……………………………………………………………………………...5
Appropriate roles of agencies and community………………………………………………….5-6
Preventative plans…………………………………………………………………………………6
Community Emergency Response………………………………………………………………...6
FEMA……………………………………………………………………………………………..7
National Response Plan…………………………………………………………………………...7
Interagency cooperation………………………………………………………………………...7-8
Development of information sharing system…………………………………………………...…8
Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………….10
References……………………………………………………………………………………11-12
Appendix A: Al-Qaeda…………………………………………………………………………..13
Appendix B: French Revolutionary War………………………………………………………..14

Terrorism and Homeland Security: The Impacts on Preventative Measures
Terrorist acts of our modern calamities are a symbol of negative remarks. With the war on terrorism taking over after the 9/11 attacks on the Twin Towers, New York City we have seen the United States of America implement policies and regulations that would help prevent future disasters in case of a terrorist attack attempt. The devastating impact of this international terrorist attacks have pushed local and federal agencies to implement new plans of action that can help prevent and/or deter terrorist attack attempts. The implementation of the local community on the fight against terror marks the dawn of a new era where security agencies and relief groups join forces for an impenetrable homeland security framework structure.
The terrorist movement and creation of terrorist groups following the 9/11 attacks have instilled a different modus operando for federal, state, and local agencies. One of the most important implementations to the national security of the United States of America is the creation of the Department of Homeland Security or (DHS) in March, 2003. The Department of Homeland Security was created with the primary objective of protecting the United States with the partnership of the federal government, public and private sectors, and the local community (DHS, 2015). Specially designed policies had to be implemented throughout the cabinet to aid the prevention of any other terrorist attacks. One of this policies is the USA PATRIOT Act which would unify and strengthen the United States of America by providing the appropriate tools required to intercept and obstruct acts of terrorism (Department of Justice, 2015). The PATRIOT ACT would allow the enhancement of law enforcement and other agencies to investigate and gather information with their capabilities, terrorist-related crimes to include chemical-weapons offenses, weapons of mass destruction, killing Americans abroad, and terrorism financing (Department of Justice, 2015). This was a big turning point for the American security framework in October, 2001. The national need to implement a new or enhanced security structure was crucial to the fight against terrorism. There were changes to be made and it would take more than just the federal government to defend our nation. The United States Army and adjacent fighting forces were almost immediately deployed in the search and offensive strategy against the terrorist group Al-Qaeda (see Appendix A for more information) to bring down to justice after the 9/11 terrorist attack. The USA PATRIOT ACT or Transportation Security Act have not been the only acts implemented in possible fear of an imminent terrorist or foreign attack historically. In 1798 the French revolutionary war also known as Quasi-War (see Appendix B for more information) led current Congress under President John Adams to push for the Alien and Sedition Acts. This Act were four bills passed to protect the security of the homeland: The Enemies Act, The Neutralization Act, The Alien Friend Act, and The Sedition Act. The government had to take action feeling threatened by the revolutionary war as it may influence the masses. The laws were implemented for the imprisonment and deportation of certain aliens who were considered dangerous (Schuber and Calissi, National Security & Liberty A Delicate Balance). This situations can be compared to current day events as an increase in the volume of deportation raised after 9/11. According to David Burnham a co-director of the Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse or (TRAC) a system that gathers government data in Syracuse University "After 9/11, the Bush administration tried to see immigration enforcement as a way to fight terrorism," (ABC News, 2012). The increase on immigration is due to a new immigration enforcement programed called Secure Communities which allows local law enforcement officers to threaten and liaison to the Immigration and Customs Enforcement or (ICE) suspects for deportation in order to obtain vital information that could possibly be tied or lead to terrorist groups (American Immigration Council, 2014). Policies and programs change with time as the current state of the fight against terrorism shifts its endeavors. In 2015 the Secure Communities program was replaced by a more reformed and centralized one, the Priority Enforcement Programs or (PEP) (ICE, 2015).
After September 11, 2001 it was clear that the American population need it to be trained and more prepared in case of a terrorist attack. New positions were created within agencies and the need to create preventative plans was of most importance. A perfect example of a preventative method taken by the North Central Texas Council of Governments was creating a campaign to teach people on what to do in case of a terrorist attack or any other type of disaster (McEntire, 2009). This campaign was possible by a given grant from the Department of Homeland Security. The campaign called KnowWhat2Do helped communities to be prepared on how to protect themselves from harm and what preventative measures to take in case of a catastrophic event (McEntire, 2009). With situational awareness comes mitigation planning and mitigation execution. One of the most important grant program provided by the federal government is the Urban Area Security Initiative or (UASI) in which the local government that are considered to be vulnerable targets can build capabilities to deal with terrorist attacks and catastrophic disasters as long as they collaborate with nearby jurisdictions (McEntire, 2009). This aids local police enforcement, emergency services and local communities to establish as strong line of defense in the event of an attack. The collaboration of local agencies and the community has been a remarkable key of discussion within the different governmental agencies. As this need of collaboration raises groups like Citizen Corps establish community groups and programs to aid local and state agencies. The Community Emergency Response Team or (CERT) is known for its role in training groups of citizens on basic response operations, such as, how to perform small scale firefighting, search and rescue, and medical functions. With the creation of CERTs the community is able to self-sustain for a period of time in the possibility of a first responders team not arriving at the location in time or even help aid a first responder team in the case of casualties. Besides this community oriented organizations the United States has other nationwide agencies that at a much bigger scale mobilize and organize support for first responders and local communities. FEMA or the Federal Emergency Management Agency has played a vital role in numerous situations to include 9/11 and hurricane Katrina. FEMA plays the lead role in preparing for and coordinating post-disaster Reponses (McEntire, 2009). When the government created DHS it created certain drawbacks. FEMA lost most of its funding as DHS was being upraised creating many brick walls in communication of agency and state. By doing so the government developed a new federal response plan called the National Response Plan or (NRP). The NRP added layers of bureaucracy to federal response operations, but it also caused many problems with communication during emergencies like hurricane Katrina as FEMA did not have a direct line of communication with the President (McEntire, 2009). The government in efforts to fix this created a new document called the National Response Framework which would create layers of communication within agencies and clear the chain of communication to help problems such as hurricane Katrina where FEMA and DHS officials couldn’t coordinate important post-disaster functions (McEntire, 2009).
The communication and cooperation within agencies was the most critical point during the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Chaos struck as many agencies had not prepared properly for the possibility of a terrorist attack. Chris Russo a twenty-five year firefighter present at Ground Zero explained that many weaknesses were expose during and post-disaster. According to Russo, “Other agencies responders that arrived at the twin towers had problems communicating due to not having the proper communication capabilities as even the radio systems did not allow for inter-agency communication” (Russo, 2011). The consistency of the communication problem is a vital fact among agencies. When the DHS efforts were directed only towards counterterrorism it created a bigger impact among inter-agency collaborations hindering the communication structure among government and organizations (McEntire, 2009). The endeavors to mitigate only terrorism left other areas unattended. This inappropriate planning cause’s friction among agencies as it hinders the efficiency or agencies and departments working together. Even though the creation of the National Response Framework held create a proper chain of communication and operational tasking to help deal with this recurring problem it is important to understand that funds, jurisdictions and statute limit agency for inter-agency cooperation. When FEMA operational funding and the hazard control operations were directed to the creation of the DHS it deteriorated moral among many veterans on their fields within FEMA (McEntire, 2009). FEMA who had been a leading agency at a cabinet level was minimize to a sub operational agency. This can be taken as an example of improper bureaucratic organization.
The importance of cooperation after the 9/11 terrorist attack has been a key turning point in communication, inter-agency cooperation, and community support. Many of the decision made under the threat of a terrorist are and will still be under debate, whether it was the right or wrong decision to create a new agency and concentrate all other agencies funding’s on it. Different methods of cooperation can be still implemented to improve the productivity and inter-agency cooperation in the fight against terrorism. Many of this problems caused by over-centralization were commonly the main problem when developing the Department of Homeland Security. After a decade the DHS released on 2011 a 67-page report “Implementing 9/11 Commission Recommendations: Progress Report 2011”. This report addressed sectors in which the DHS and agencies can establish the right type of homeland security for the United States. The U.S. still lacks a comprehensive regime for planning and preparing for large-scale disasters. Even with the integration of the security framework and other agency cooperation regiments we lack a proper planning system. Building a national integrated planning system that forces interagency coordination and an inter-agency planning would be the ideal option. The system will require elements, such as, resource management which focuses on assets, equipment, and personnel. Training management to determine the federal and local jurisdictional needs in regards to asset requirements, discipline, and equipment training. Information sharing would be the main reason for the system. The Research and Development Corporation (RAND) is a nonprofit global policy think tank that offers research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces. In September 15, 2010 RAND released a disaster control report to help improve the defense support of civil authorities. According to RAND, “there is currently no comprehensive national integrated planning system to respond to either natural or man-made disasters” (RAND, 2010). The allegations of RAND are cleared based on their data research. If the U.S. implements an integrated planning system that requires all agencies to adhere by an outlined policy that does not over-centralized the mission task the Department of Homeland Security can better mitigate counter terrorist attempts, and natural disasters for that matter. In this modern technological era it wouldn’t need to be a hard and complicated system. Building up a computerized network of information sharing like the Terrorist Threat Integration Center or (TTIC) which FBI, CIA, and DHS uses to gather data from their respective areas of specialty to help reduce vulnerabilities to known threats (McEntire, 2009) could be also implemented with local agencies and even key community comities. This would be information shared with first responders, community responders, and all other higher echelons of authority in the event of a catastrophic disaster or terrorist attack.
International terrorism and domestic attempts have shaped the history of the United States. The void left after the events on 9/11 have taught us the importance of security policies. The need to implement, change, and establish agencies to protect the citizens of the homeland have been the biggest concern to the Congress and President. Different local agencies and communities have had to form alliances and create disaster management plans in order to prevent or deter terrorist attacks. It has been a crucial task but the motivation to better communication and cooperation of inter-agencies has been positively developing during the past decade. It is important to understand that the fight on terrorism like the war on illegal narcotics will be a battle not likely to end in the next 20 years but the implementation of the local community, local agencies, and federal agencies in the fight against terrorist threats will help create an impenetrable defense against outside terrors.

References
Advisory Panel on Department of Defense Capabilities for Support of Civil Authorities After Certain Incidents (August 8, 2011). Before Disaster Strikes: Imperatives for Enhancing Defense Support of Civil Authorities, September 15, 2010, p. 29, Retrieved October 3, 2015, from http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/www/external/nsrd/DoD-CBRNE-Panel/Report-Advisory-Panel.pdf
Calissi, R. E. and Schuber, W. Counterterrorism. Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International. Vol. 15, No. 4
Hesson, T. (2015, September 11). Five ways immigration system changed after 9/11. Retrieved September 30, 2015, from http://abcnews.go.com/ABC_Univision/News/ways-immigration-system-changed-911/story?id=17231590
Homeland Security Implementing 9/11. (2015, August 18). Retrieved September 30, 2015, from http://www.dhs.gov/implementing-911-commission-recommendations
McEntire, D. A. (2009). Introduction to Homeland Security: Understanding Terrorism with a Homeland Security Perspective. Danvers: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Russo, C. (2011, September 11). Emergency communication remains a challenge ten years after 9/11 | Homeland Security News Wire. Retrieved October 3, 2015, from http://www.homelandsecuritynewswire.com/emergency-communication-remains-challenge-ten-years-after-911
Secure Communities: A Fact Sheet. American Immigration Council (2014, May 7). Retrieved September 30, 2015, from http://www.immigrationpolicy.org/just-facts/secure-communities-fact-sheet
Secure Communities: U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. (2015, July 1). Retrieved September 30, 2015, from http://www.ice.gov/secure-communities
What is the USA Patriot Web. (n.d.). Retrieved September 30, 2015, from http://www.justice.gov/archive/ll/highlights.htm

Appendix A
Al- Qæda
Al-Qæda is a global militant Islamist organization founded by Osama bin Laden, Abdullah Azzam, and several others, at some point between August 1988 and late 1989, with origins traceable to the Arab volunteers who fought against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Al-Qaeda executed the terrorist attacks to the Twin Towers in New York City in September 11, 2001. Osama bin Laden was killed on May 2, 2011 in Pakistan by a collaboration of agencies to include the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), U.S. Army Special Operations Command, and others (DHS, 2015).

Appendix B
French Revolutionary War The French Revolutionary were a series of military conflicts that transpire from 1792 to 1802. The revolutionary war was attributed to cultural, social, financial, political, and economical reasons. Social inequality was one of the mayor key events during the revolutionary war as the civil upraise against the current monarchy was pressing. The revolutionary war later evolved into the Napoleonic wars, the war of Napoleon Bonaparte against Brittan.

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...Instructions for authors, permissions and subscription information: E-mail: bilgi@uidergisi.com Web: www.uidergisi.com Is Terrorism Still a Democratic Phenomenon? Erica CHENOWETH Assist. Prof. Dr., The University of Denver, The Josef Korbel School of International Studies To cite this article: Chenoweth, Erica, “Is Terrorism Still a Democratic Phenomenon?", Uluslararası İlişkiler, Volume 8, No 32 (Winter 2012), p. 85-99. Copyright @ International Relations Council of Turkey (UİK-IRCT). All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored, transmitted, or disseminated, in any form, or by any means, without prior written permission from UİK, to whom all requests to reproduce copyright material should be directed, in writing. References for academic and media coverages are boyond this rule. Statements and opinions expressed in Uluslararası İlişkiler are the responsibility of the authors alone unless otherwise stated and do not imply the endorsement by the other authors, the Editors and the Editorial Board as well as the International Relations Council of Turkey. Uluslararası İlişkiler Konseyi Derneği | Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi Web: www.uidergisi.com | E- Mail: bilgi@uidergisi.com Is Terrorism Still a Democratic Phenomenon? Erica CHENOWETH* ABSTRACT In recent years, multiple studies have confirmed that terrorism occurs in democracies more often than in nondemocratic regimes. There are five primary groups of explanations for this......

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