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Tex Mex

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Discutir las formas en que un grupo de inmigrantes en particular se ha adaptado la cocina de su tierra natal para ajustarse a los alimentos e ingredientes disponibles para ellos en Estados Unidos. ¿Cómo se los alimentos que consumen y la manera en que cocinar ha cambiado en su nuevo hogar, y cómo se han mantenido fieles al estilo tradicional? ¿Qué significará esto para las generaciones futuras de estos grupos de inmigrantes?

Ha sido tal el arraigo de la comida mexicana en los Estados Unidos con el paso de los años, que ya no solo es popular en el sur, si no que según Gustavo Arellano, Experto mexicanólogo, autor del libro Taco USA: cómo la comida mexicana conquistó a Estados Unidos, “la comida mexicana logró conquistar el paladar de los estadounidenses que la adoptaron como propia en todo el país”. Esta expansión comenzó desde los años 20 y 30, primer periodo de intensificación de la inmigración mexicana. Según el experto mexicanólogo Gustavo Arellano, la influencia de la comida mexicana comercialmente se expandió por medio de la fonda “Cielito Lindo” en los Ángeles, California y después, en los años 60 la gran cadena restaurantera Taco Bell, que se especializa en tacos, inició la conquista comercial de comida fast food pero de tipo mexicana, que hoy tiene más de 6,446 sucursales en los Estados Unidos, registradas en el año 2009. La imagen expuesta nos muestra un mapa obtenido de la página de internet de la cadena restaurantera, en donde muestra sus sucursales en el centro de Houston. Claramente se puede observar la masiva proliferación de los restaurantes en distancias cortas.

Podemos decir que debido a la fuerte presencia de restaurantes, supermercados y cadenas de comida rápida tipo mexicano en todo el territorio estadounidense, refleja la fuerte presencia e influencia de la cultura mexicana. Es importante mencionar también que las familias estadounidenses preparan en su día a día comida mexicana (aunque adaptada a su modo de consumo) como parte ya de su dieta alimenticia. Es importante recordar que en virtud de los Tratados de Guadalupe Hidalgo del 2 de febrero de 1848, Estados Unidos compró a los mexicanos por 15 millones de dólares, Nuevo México y Alta California estableciendo desde entonces la frontera en el Rio Grande. Esto representó la venta de la mitad del territorio y por ende parte de su cultura.

El chile con carne por mencionar un platillo conocido, no es un platillo mexicano, pero su raiz si lo és. La fusión entre las culturas, trajo como resultado la comida TEX-MEX.

Por otro lado, se ha dado una fusión de gastronomía México-Texana o mejor conocida como “tex-mex”, fruto de esa mezcla de culturas entre colonos anglosajones que inmigraron a Texas a principios del siglo XIX y de mexicanos que habitaban ahí y posteriormente, de la emigración de mexicanos a finales del XIX y principios del XX a Texas. Hay que tener cuidado en distinguir la comida mexicana de la tex-mex pues muchas personas cometen el gran error de pensar que los nachos, las fajitas, el chilli con carne, el queso amarillo líquido o los burritos son platillos mexicanos. Otro hecho que demuestra la fuerte influencia de la comida mexicana, es el de que los estadounidenses consideraban la comida tex-mex como una representación de su comida tradicional, cuando en realidad son platillos de origen mexicano, adaptados a los gustos y costumbres de los texanos. Muestra clara que sostiene la hipótesis de que por medio del “soft power” en este caso la comida, los mexicanos están conquistando el territorio perdido en 1848. Pues reconocer o identificar una cocina como representación de tu país significa tener sentido de pertenencia y si esa cocina es de origen mexicano, significa, aunque podría ser inconcientemente pertenencia a México.

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