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ESSAY FOR SBI DESCRIPTIVE TEST
CYBER CRIMES
Millions of people around the world use computers and the internet every day.
We all use it in school, work even at home, computers have made our lives easier it has brought so many benefits to the society but it has also brought

some problems and cybercrimes with them. Today, the world is moving towards a point where everything from banking stock exchanges, are traffic control, telephones to electric power, health care, welfare and education depends on software. This exponential growth, and the increase in the capacity and accessibility of computers coupled with the decrease in cost, has brought

about revolutionary changes in every aspect of human civilization, including crime. As a result, the increased capacities of information systems today come at the cost of increased vulnerability. Information technology has begun to produce criminal opportunities of a variety that the brightest criminals of yore could not even begin to dream about.

The term “Cyber Crime” has nowhere been defined in any statute or Act passed or enacted by the Indian Parliament. Any criminal activity that uses a computer either as an instrumentality, target or a means for perpetuating further crimes comes within the ambit of cyber crime. It is rapidly evolving

from simple e-mail mischief where offenders send obscene e-mail, to more serious offences like theft of information, e-mail bombing to crashing servers etc.There are various forms of cyber crime like spamming, phishing hacking etc. I am sure all of us has encountered unwanted product advertisements which is an example of spamming.
PIRACY is also a serious threat that involves illegal reproduction and distribution of software applications, games, movies and audio CDs which is causing a huge monetary loss to entertainment industry world wide.

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Hacking is also a serious crime by a hacker who is simply a talented computer user who misuse his vast knowledge.
Virus attacks that say “I love you” enters our computer and destroys all the computer information is also a serious threat. Computer frauds , thefts and harassments through social networking sites like twitter and facebook are also

daggering our lives. Undoubtedly we cannot single out only one crime that is posing maximum threat but all forms of crimes are equally posing a serious threat to both business and individuals.
Capacity of human mind is unfathomable. It is not possible to eliminate cyber

crime from the cyber space. However, it is quite possible to check them. The home user segment is the largest recipient of cyber attacks as they are less likely to have established security measures in place and therefore it is necessary that people should be made aware of their rights and duties. Users must try and save any electronic information trail on their computers, use of anti-virus software, firewalls, use of intrusion detection system etc. and further making the application of the laws more stringent to check crime.
Moreover, fighting Cybercrime requires intelligent knowledge and that has to be IT intelligence. IT experts should be recruited into law enforcement agencies

to assist in the fight. At this hour when cyber crime is growing in leaps and bounds with growing technology the government need to strengthen criminal penalties against computer crimes; work to harmonize laws against cyber crime internationally; and improve coordination among law enforcement authorities in different jurisdictions.
There will always be new and unexpected challenges to stay ahead of cyber criminals and cyber terrorists but we can win only through partnership and collaboration of both individuals and government. There is much we can do to ensure a safe, secure and trustworthy computing environment. It is crucial not only to our national sense of well-being, but also to our national security and economy.

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WOMEN EMPOWERMENT
The subject of empowerment of women is becoming a burning issue all over the world including India since last few decades and with the slogan of women empowerment the question arise that “have women become really strong” and
“has long term struggle ended”. Many programmes have been implemented and run by the government such as International Women’s day, mother’s day, etc in order to bring awareness in the society about the true rights and value of the women in the development of the nation.
The need of women empowerment arose because of the gender discrimination and male domination in the Indian society since ancient time. In 18th and
19th centuries in India and elsewhere they were treated like ‘objects’ that can be bought and sold. For a long time women in India remained within the four walls of their household. Women are being suppressed by their family members and society for many reasons. They have been targeted for many types of violence and discriminatory practices by the male members in the family and society in India and other countries as well. Wrong and old practices for the women in the society from ancient time have taken the form of well developed customs and traditions. There is a tradition of worshipping many female goddesses in India including giving honour to the women forms in the society like mother, sister, daughter, wife and other female relatives or friends. But, it does not mean that only respecting or honouring women can fulfil the need of development in the country. It needs the empowerment of the rest half population of the country in every walk of life.
The government of India has implemented various constitutional and legal rights in order to eliminate ill practices and gender discrimination against women. However, in order to solve such a big issue, the continuous effort of

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everyone including women is required. Modern society is being more aware about the women rights which results in the increasing number of several selfhelp groups, NGOs, etc working in this direction. Women are being more open minded and breaking the societal barriers in order to achieve their rights in all dimensions even after crimes are going side by side. Some of the acts passed by the Parliament for upliftment of women are Equal Remuneration
Act, Dowry Prohibition Act, Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, Pre-Conception
& Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act,
Sexual Harassment of Women at Work Place (Prevention, Protection and) Act, etc in order to empower women with legal rights.
Today, women empowerment is an important feature in our plans at every level. Recently, we can take the example of Union budget where Indian
Government has allocated 200 crores for the most vulnerable groups including single women and widows. Various multisectoral programmes will take place to reduce maternal and child malnutrition and to scale up this activity the govt has allocated Rs 300 crores.
Though the status of women has uprooted manifolds from previous centuries yet there are certain areas where government still has to hook at. Like safety of women is still an issue in our country, society see women as a quench to their physical thirst and for the same government should come up with strict laws and rules to punish the guilty in the worst way they can so that women feel safe and contented in the society.

Moreover, in order to really bring

women empowerment in the Indian society, it needs to understand and eliminate the main causes of the ill practices against women which are patriarchal and male dominated system of the society. It needs to be openminded and change the old mind set against women together with the constitutional and other legal provisions.

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
The last decade in the global arena has witness a tremendous growth in the area of information technology. Rapid advances in the technologies for communication media like television, computer, internet, printing and publishing has enabled us to get prompt access to required information. Information technology (IT) has become one of the most robust industries in the world. It, more than any other industry or economic facet, has increased productivity, particularly in the developed world, and therefore is a key driver of global economic growth. The IT sector has emerged as a major global source of both growth and employment.
ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Even a single day without computers leaves us feeling paralytic. Information
Technology (IT) has made us completely dependent for even the simplest day to day task. It is dynamic and vast and its absence for a day leaves a severe effect on us. Internet being the simplest form of IT has a major role to play in our daily lives. It has become the backbone of every organization as well as house hold.
1. It has entered almost all industry verticals for instance, railways, airways and sea networks are connected with the help of IT, as information plays a vital role in the smooth functioning in those sectors and lack of even for a second can create havoc.
2. Banking is another sector that depends a lot on IT. From carrying out important transaction to storage of confidential data, IT has made several complicated and

time

consuming

work a

lot simpler and

faster

with

considerable amount of safety. In fact e-commerce has made online banking

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as well as online purchasing and selling of commodities and services much easier and faster adding to the convenience of the common man.
3. Similarly, the travel and tourism sector all over the world has benefited a lot from the development of IT industry. One can avoid the crowd and lengthy procedures of booking air or railway or bus tickets. One can choose from the best deals and book tickets online from the comfort of their living room.

4. IT plays a major role in simplifying various organizational processes. Most business enterprises rely on the power of information technology for carrying out their daily tasks conveniently and faster. IT makes complex procedures easier, faster and also helps a lot in avoiding redundancy. It lets individuals’ access necessary data ensuring the safety of confidential ones.
5. The field of education has also been blessed with the benefits of IT. Online application to universities, checking results study materials and much more has made the reach of education broad and easier.
POSITIVE IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN INDIA
- Technology can be used to provide better education and understanding of its applications, making it an effective tool for every individual.
- Technology teaches an easier way of doing things effectively and efficiently. - More sources are utilized thus creating more employment. Technology also gives rise to new innovations and it helps in various discoveries.
- It plays a pivotal role in developing a country’s economy and also their mind-sets. - In house technology helps in getting the country name and fame on international platform.
- Improvement in technology today means less dependence on other countries in future.
The growth of the IT industry has also helped to forge positive political ties with nations round the global for the mutual exchange of intellectual resources.

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NEGATIVE IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN INDIA
- Technology is uniformly distributed throughout the country, but urban areas are far ahead in technology. Thus more technology results in more employment and more income, thus the difference between the urban areas and the rural areas.

- There is a major cut down in the employment charts as technology reduces the dependency on manpower which is favourable to an organization(as it leads to more profit) but it makes lot of people lose their jobs. - This brings in light the difference between the rural and urban people as the urban people have the knowledge about technology, making them the obvious choice of selection by organizations.
- Companies opt only for those who are technically sound, further demoralizing other individuals and pointing to some gaping holes in the
Indian education system.

With most recent graduates these days being absorbed into IT companies and BPOs and then getting their ticket to America and Europe, India is losing a large chunk of its brains which will perhaps be detrimental to the growth of innovative, indigenous technology and inventions in India.
CONCLUSION
The IT industry in India has seen massive change, growth and development over the years. The future of this industry seems bright with more growth being predicted. Financial analysts are optimistically predicting strides in software technology development in India. Additionally, the growth of the IT

sector is expected to bring about a corresponding growth in other sectors like employment, exports and Foreign Direct Investments. IT sector is also intimately linked to other relevant sectors like biomedical technology, defence and infrastructure. Thus the future of the IT sector will directly impact the growth of the nation.

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FREE WIFI AT PUBLIC PLACES
The smart city dream and facility of free wifi services is making everyone enthusiastic but we are yet to realize the potential threat of having free Wi-Fi at public places. Recenty, in Bengaluru airport a researcher armed with a device $100 walked in and confirmed fears of security risk associated with offering free Wi-Fi at public places. He easily hacked into the computers of hundreds of users who had connected to the airport's complimentary WiFi.
And while he was at it, he also accessed the users' WhatsApp conversations, credit card numbers and encrypted user names and passwords for good measure. This casts a dark shadow over the government's plan to offer free WiFi in
2,500 cities and towns across the country. While the government is at it, some researchers have concluded that security is at higher threat with free Wi-Fi at public places. We wouldn't want to compromise with the security of our device which is most likely to contain confidential data which at wrong hands can spell havoc, and that too for a few bucks worth free Wi-Fi. But once you spot an open Wi-Fi, it is absolutely instinctive to instantly get your device connected.
Let us review the pros and cons of the free wifi at public places.
Pros:
1. As private telecoms are practicing monopoly with net tariff plans not everyone can afford 3G and 4G connectivity. Thus free Wi-Fi would mean good savings of the common people.

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2. Students and youth can benefit largely from free public Wi-Fi. They can easily refer to e-books and online learning methods. With distance learning becoming popular in India, cost of data has always posed a problem.
Broadband compromises speed and 3G/4G is priced beyond affordability.
3. In emergency situations free Wi-Fi can work wonders. Earthquake in Nepal and adjoining areas of India recently left people short of communication measures to check on near and dear ones. While mobile phone and network connectivity was a lost cause for days altogether in many areas, it was a long spell of apprehensions for people trying to get in touch with their loved ones.
4. Internet has opened various ways in which people can develop their skills and businesses.

Cons:
1. Crores would be spent on building of infrastructures and further in managing the cost of free Wi-Fi to the entire city or town. A larger part of the annual budget would be spent in this project and as the trend in India goes, there would be

more

scams

from

the

executives

involved.

2. Lot of people using free public Wi-Fi would eventually result in slowing down of data speed or limiting the data usage per device in a day or month.
Where is the advantage in accessing free Wi-Fi when the speed is down to
2G?
4. Sharing confidential data over the internet would become risky and internet users can unknowingly become victims to hackers accessing their accounts.

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5. Even if measures are taken to keep public Wi-Fi secure, hackers will find the way out to create fake hotspots to steal information.
Conclusion:
While there are ways to fix security bugs, there is no way for users to tell if they are the target of snooping. At an average end-user level, it is very difficult to detect such scenarios. However, one must understand that anything that goes into the Internet is subject to snooping and other forms of attacks. The user should be vigilant while accessing and sending sensitive data over such mediums. At the same time the government should consider that there are definite cons of providing free Wi-Fi in cities and measures should be taken to provide complete security over public Wi-Fi. No loopholes should be left from wherein snooping could be possible. Awareness should be created especially in not so developed towns about ways to ensure security and confidentiality. Speed regulation should also be kept in mind before taking the major step. With these precautionary measures well implemented, India can benefit largely from free Wi-Fi in cities.

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E- WASTE MANAGEMENT
Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the rapidly growing problems of the world. E-waste comprises of a multitude of components, some containing toxic substances that can have an adverse impact on human health and the environment if not handled properly. In India, e-waste management assumes

greater significance not only due to the generation of its own e-waste but also because of the dumping of e-waste from developed countries. This is coupled with India's lack of appropriate infrastructure and procedures for its disposal and recycling.
E-waste broadly covers waste from all electronic and electrical appliances and

comprises of items such as computers, mobile phones, digital music recorders/players, refrigerators, washing machines, televisions (TVs) and many other household consumer items. These are made of a multitude of components, some containing toxic substances that have an adverse impact

on human health and the environment if not handled properly. Often, these hazards arise due to the improper recycling and disposal processes used. It can have serious repercussions for those in proximity to places where e-waste is recycled or burnt.
The absence of government mechanisms to manage and recycle or dispose

E-waste effectively has opened doors for social entrepreneurs to take the lead to address this issue. While companies are helping to integrate the informal recycling sector and setting up an effective e-waste take back programme through training and consumer e-waste collection/awareness events, however, to tackle this issue effectively, at a much larger scale and faster, we need the support of governmental agencies like municipal corporations.
Given the recent efforts of the government to foster growth and development of industries and manufacturing units under the Make in India programme,
India today boasts of allowing 100% FDI for solid waste management.

Replicating successful initiatives in e-waste management set up and skills across Indian cities require support from government.

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Having the proper mechanisms and skills already in place, it is essential to utilise them. While countries like China are importing waste, India is merely seen as a large scale dumping ground, for which adequate disposal mechanisms without affecting the lives and health of its people are not taken care of. While programmes such as the Swachh Bharat are helping to keep the city clean, nevertheless, the garbage is still being dumped in landfills and

so is the e-waste, which is far more harmful. Public private partnerships can help to manage e- waste more effectively while various other parameters such as carbon credits given to companies under their CSR initiatives could give a boost to the programmes.

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CHILD LABOUR
Child labour has been an international concern because it damages, spoils and destroys the future of children. The problem of child labour is a serious matter not only in India but also in other developing countries. It is a great social problem. Children are the hope and future of a nation. Yet, there are

millions deprived children in our country who have never known a normal, carefree childhood.
The law in Indian soil says that any child below age of 14 cannot be employed either in a factory or office or restaurant. In fact, India’s international business

has been severely affected in many cases because child labours, violating human rights, have been used in some stage or the other in manufacturing, packaging a transport of those items. And, in a large number of cases of export of ready-made garments, prawn and several other items from India has been rejected on grounds of child labour being used.
Causes of Child Labour
Now what is the background of engaging child labour, o To have or increase the income of a poor family

o

To reduce the labour cost in a production organization

o

Misc. reasons for engaging as domestic aid as the children are less doubtful about dishonesty or less liable to misbehave or be violent.

In a developed society where every citizen counts and all citizens have to have proper education, health care supports, games and entertainment and complete his education so that when he is a fully grown adult he can get a full employment with standard salary.

Steps taken by the government to curb child labour
In a major overhaul of child labour laws, the government has approved a complete ban on employment of children below 14 years, except for some

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family businesses, entertainment and sports activities, while raising the punishment for violations to up to three years of jail.
Making child labour a cognizable offence, the fine has been increased to up to Rs 50,000 for the employers.
The children can be employed only in non-hazardous family enterprises, TV serials, films, advertisements and sporting activities (except circus) with a condition that they would be made to do these jobs after school hours.
A new definition of adolescent has also been introduced to further prohibit employment of those aged 14-18 years in hazardous jobs
The amendment bill provides that there would be no punishment for parents or guardians in case of first offence, while a maximum penalty of Rs 10,000 can be levied in case of the second and subsequent offences.
Under the existing law, any violation attracts imprisonment of a minimum 3 months to a maximum of one year for the first offence, while the fine is Rs
10,000-20,000. This has been enhanced to imprisonment of 6 months to two years and fine of Rs 20,000-50,000 for the first offence.
For the second offence, the jail provision has been increased from 6-24 months to 12-36 months.
The current law prohibits employment of children, aged below 14 years, only in 18 specified occupations and 65 processes and regulates the conditions of working of children in other occupations/processes.
The new bill provides that employment of children below 14 years will be prohibited in all occupations and processes. Besides, the age of prohibition of employment will be linked to age under Right of Children to Free and
Compulsory Education Act, 2009.

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Conclusion
"While considering a total prohibition on the employment of child, it would be prudent to also keep in mind the country's social fabric and socio-economic conditions." As in a large number of families, children help their parents in their occupations like agriculture, artisanship etc and while helping the parents, children also learn the basics of occupations."Therefore, striking a balance

between the need for education for a child and the reality of the socioeconomic condition and social fabric in the country, the government has approved that "a child can help his family or family enterprise, which is other than any hazardous occupation or process, after his school hours or during vacation". VISIT- WWW.BANKERSGURU.ORG

ROLE OF MICROFINANCE IN INDIA
The concept of microfinance is not new in India. Traditionally, people have saved with and taken small loans from individuals and groups within the context of self-help to start businesses or farming ventures. Majority of poor are excluded from financial services. Micro finance is a programme to support the poor rural people to pay its debt and maintain social and economic status in the villages. Micro-finance is an important tool for improving the standard of living of poor. Inspite of many organizations of micro finance, micro finance is not sufficient in India. The potential for growing micro finance institutions in
India is very high. Microfinance market in India is expected to grow rapidly, supported by government of India’s initiatives to achieve greater financial inclusion, and growth in the country’s unorganized but priority sector.
Microfinance has evolved rapidly into a global movement dedicated to providing access to a range of financial services to poor and near-poor households. The organizations that provide these services, known as microfinance institutions
(MFIs) may operate as formal micro banks, non-bank financial institutions, nongovernmental organizations, or community-based financial institutions. These providers offer a range of financial services from small business loans to savings accounts, money transfers, insurance, and consumer loans.
PROS:
Microfinance contributes to poverty decline through higher employment and higher incomes, leading to improved nutrition and improved education of the borrowers’ children. This effect will break the poverty trap that ties people to a fate of poverty. A poverty trap is the process in which low income leads to poor nutrition which in turn causes low productivity and low income, and the children’s lack of education leads to low skills and poor job prospects.

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CONS:
Microcredit has driven poor households into a debt trap, since the money loaned is used for daily consumption or luxury goods rather than for business investments. In this way, just like many welfare programs, microfinance leads to financial dependence and decreased income. Even in the case of truly determined and enthusiastic new business owners, due to the lack of experience as well as expert advice, a large percentage has failed to generate the income needed to repay the loan and thrive in the long run. Moreover, because the loans are targeted to very poor households, it cannot effectively generate macro-level economic growth. In fact, one very big drawback of microfinance is that, even if it does not fail, it can only create income opportunities one person at a time and delivering few changes to infrastructure, institutions, or the capacity of the private sector.
REMEDIAL STEPS :
Some of the ways to fix microfinance’s current problems could be :
First, closer examination of small businesses and detailed consultation can be employed so that small businesses have a higher chance to succeed. Second, while not everyone is inclined or able to start their own businesses, certain subsets of the population can adjust to the requirements of self-employment.
Microfinance can provide stability to farmers’ uneven revenue, for example, allowing them to invest more in inputs and capital. As the farmers move from subsistence to surplus, the local economies can also thrive. This type of microfinance will have a higher financial self-sufficiency, since the farmers already have a guaranteed, though fluctuating, income.

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SHOULD INDIA LEGALIZE ACTIVE EUTHANASIA
The word euthanasia is defined as the act or practice of painlessly putting to death or withdrawing treatment from a person suffering an incurable disease.
From the definition, one can say that euthanasia is an unethical act as much

as it is a great sin for those who strongly believe in God. Euthanasia is intentionally killing another person to relieve his or her suffering. It is not the withdrawal or withholding of treatment that results in death or necessary pain and symptom-relief treatment that might shorten life, if that is the only effective treatment. Euthanasia is one of the most perplexing issues which the courts and legislatures all over the world are facing today. The topic has religious and moral overtones. Human life is inviolable. Life is a gift from God and no one, not even the individual himself has right to take it. But if the life of a person becomes painful, fruitless and full of sufferings, should the person get rid of their life? A solution for such a problem is not just legalizing the mercy killing.
It is not desirable or workable as each case has to be judged individually.
There are two types of euthanasia: passive euthanasia and active euthanasia. Active euthanasia is defined as taking an immediate action such as using lethal injection to painlessly put a terminally-ill patient to death.
Passive euthanasia is withdrawing treatment while the life of the patient is still dependent on it and when it is believed that treatment is more burdensome than beneficial. Passive euthanasia allows the patient to die naturally and is often considered more acceptable.

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Points FOR active euthanasia in India


Most of the patients in India are suffering from a heavy pain in spite of receiving the proper treatment. In such cases, active euthanasia can be helpful as it would relieve the patients from the pain that they are suffering. 

By giving active euthanasia to a person through the means of lethal injection, would also save his family from the pain. People would never like to see their loved ones suffering in an extreme stage. At times, all the treatments provided to a person fail continuously and it does not help the patient to recover. In such cases active euthanasia can also save the money of the family.



In cases of providing active euthanasia, the organs of the deceased patients can be contributed and used for a good purpose. It would be helpful for the other patients who can get rid of a problem with an organ transplantation.
Points AGAINST active euthanasia in India.
- Most of the times, the patient would like to live his/her life further.
But, they might be forced to take a decision to end the life by their family etc. If active euthanasia is legalized in India, such incidents would occur very often. The doctors should take the consent of the patients before initiating the practice of active euthanasia on them.
- India is a country where the issues related to corruption, theft, illegal trading of organ etc are common. Hence, active euthanasia should not be legalized in India as it would mislead the doctors and a lot of

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killings would be carried out in hospitals in the name of euthanasia.
- According to Bible, life is the most basic gift of God. Every individual has a moral duty to take care of their own life and health and to desire help from others. One should not intend to cause one's own death or death of an innocent victim.
- Sometimes, patients might be on the verge of recovery. Due to heavy misunderstanding, doctors and the families of the patient may move towards active euthanasia to end the suffering. In such cases, usually, the level of patience is very low. Such irresponsible mistakes can lead to the death of a person and it would shorten his life.
Conclusion
The life of each and every individual in this world is extremely important. The government should think multiple times before arriving at a decision regarding the implementation of active euthanasia. We should always remember, once a soul is gone, it is gone forever.
If at all we want to explore this option, it should be carried out with a strict set of rules and regulations. In the past of few months, it has been noticed that certain people in our country stand above the law and have the power to influence the judiciary judgments. In such a case, legalizing the active euthanasia would be a foolish idea as people can commit crime and wash their hands off easily.

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YOUTH CULTURE IN INDIA

Introduction
Youth today is an over-civilized living creature on the earth. We have the evolution process undergoing continuously at every segment of life. Our youth have also evolved much ahead of the imaginations. They have incorporated both the bests and worsts to a very high extent. The gallop that the youth has taken in moulding and modifying their lifestyle is much beyond the imagination capacity of an average human being.
Youth culture is basically the way adolescents live, and the norms, values, and practices they share. Culture is the shared symbolic systems, and processes of maintaining and transforming those systems. Youth culture differs from the culture of older generations. Elements of youth culture include beliefs, behaviors, styles, and interests. An emphasis on clothes, popular music, sports, vocabulary, and dating set adolescents apart from other age groups, giving them what many believe is a distinct culture of their own. Within youth culture, there are many distinct and constantly changing youth subcultures. These subcultures’ norms, values, behaviors, and styles vary widely, and may differ from the general youth culture.
Youth today – positive front
Our present age youth, the stepping stones of the future world, have many positive points to be appreciated and encouraged. Our youngsters definitely have the warmth in their blood which ignite them to gear up and succeed in every possible attempt they make. Today’s generation has a lot more direction than the previous one because unlike them, the young today do
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not lack clarity. They dare to think different and operate with a can-do attitude and confidence. Today's youth is charting new territories not being afraid of the storm, choosing rather to ride into it and creating their own path. The youth of India know exactly what they want out of life.
The youngsters are well aware of the balancing equations of life. The general IQ and the social awareness make them help in the upliftment of the rural segments of the world. They are the ones who plan and promote the development of the under-developed nations.
Youth today – negative front
Though we have a lot many points in favour of the present day youth, still it is a bitter truth that the part of youth is flowing away with the extremities of the abstracts of the emotions. This yielding tendency has led to the increasing concern of violence and rage in to the society.
Though it is good to a extent that the gender bias is removed from the society due to the socializing nature of the youth, still the over-socializing nature has transformed the relations and the physical relationship is treated as a game of the youth. Such a careless move by the young generation is leading to lot many medical complications in the later part of their lives.
Some sort of entertainment is understandable at the young age. But carrying on with the bad habits like smoking and drinking and getting addicted to the pub culture is definitely not a good sign of the future world. Youth treats the life as a game and enjoys the present to the fullest. Though it is good to live at the present, but one need to wisely plan for the future as well. This is what some of our youth fail during the peak years of their life. The junk food is again a bad virtue of the youth culture.
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Our young generation is tech-savvy. They can complete every task in a click. The cyber world have given them a life of ease and comfort. The tech savvy youth have lost the values of physical exercise and are landing into poor health conditions in tender age. We have reached an era where our youth in unable to perceive anything without the technology. They have completely become dependent on the technology. Instead of humans operating the systems, the technology is handling and controlling the present day youth.
Young generation have definitely lost the moral and humanitarian values. All they are marching towards is wealth and property. They lack time for friends, family and loved ones. They lack the values of respect, affection and care. This lack of moral values and emotions have made them mere vegetables. Impact of Society
Society definitely plays a very important role in the shaping and re-carnation of the youth. The encouraging environment definitely gives good results. But our society is also lacking the moral values and everyone has become egoistic and self-centred. Nobody cares to appreciate any good values in their vicinity. Everyone is busy in portraying their false face up. With such a demotivating surrounding, our youth is definitely having a sinking heart and downfall in their progress.

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Conclusion
It is easy to conclude the topic, but the discussion will never cease. The youth definitely needs attention and appreciation. The youth is like the clay in hands of the sculpture. The more careful the sculpture is, the better is the resulting statue. Our youth requires to be moulded carefully and tactfully. All that we need is the encouraging society who could uplift the young generation and create a better tomorrow.

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GLOBAL WARMING
Throughout its long history, Earth has warmed and cooled time and again.
Climate has changed when the planet received more or less sunlight due to subtle shifts in its orbit, as the atmosphere or surface changed, or when the
Sun’s energy varied. But in the past century, another force has started to influence Earth’s climate and it is humanity
How does this warming compare to previous changes in Earth’s climate? How can we be certain that human-released greenhouse gases are causing the warming? How much more will the Earth warm? How will Earth respond?
Answering these questions is perhaps the most significant scientific challenge of our time.
What is Global Warming?
Global warming is the unusually rapid increase in Earth’s average surface temperature over the past century primarily due to the greenhouse gases released as people burn fossil fuels. The global average surface temperature rose 0.6 to 0.9 degrees Celsius (1.1 to 1.6° F) between 1906 and 2005, and the rate of temperature increase has nearly doubled in the last 50 years.
Temperatures are certain to go up further.
Causes of Global Warming
There are natural causes that contribute to climate fluctuation, but industrial practices are behind the recent rapid acceleration in global warming. The demands of a growing population have led to deforestation, burning fossil fuels, and intensive farming. These activities all produce greenhouses gases in our atmosphere - gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane.
Greenhouse gases trap heat from the sun instead of radiating it back to space.
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This causes the earth’s atmosphere to heat up in what is known as the greenhouse effect. In just 200 years, the concentration of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere has increased by 30%.
Impact of Global Warming
Climate change has already had an impact on people’s livelihoods, as well as on our wildlife and environment. Forest fires continue to threaten already endangered species, while changing climates and landscapes drive animals out of protected areas in search of water and inhabitable terrain. The cost of climate change is mounting but the level of impact depends on the rate of increase in the earth’s temperature. A one-degree increase will have a serious ecological impact on the entire world. Climate change will cause some regions to become wetter, and others warmer. Sea levels will rise as glaciers melt, while some regions will be more at risk of heat waves, drought, flooding and natural disasters. Climate change could ruin food chains and ecosystems, putting whole species at risk of extinction.
Remedial steps to prevent global warming
If we all work to plant more trees, practice less of deforestation and try to limit the release of greenhouse gases we stand a chance of slowing down the increase in the earth’s temperature. If we become more aware of how we use energy in our daily lives, and support companies that commit to climate action, we can help build a brighter future for our planet.

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JAN DHAN ACCOUNT
With the view to help poor and unorganized workers of the country , our central government has decided to introduce three new schemes ; two on insurance products and one on repackage the

ongoing

pension scheme. These new schemes might

present

schemes

introduced

by

the

previous

government and might prove more promising than the previous ones. Insurance pools resources to meet unforseen expenses. Given that nearly two-thirds of
Indians are below 35 years of age, the probability of death in the entire population is small and the premium amount can be kept low to mobilise the resources needed to meet insurance payouts. When coverage is expanded to include the entire population, the odds work in favour of lowering costs.
Introducing these schemes does not mean that no state subsidy would ever be needed

in future. But the subsidy requirement will not be that enormous

as it could otherwise be. The sole aim is that the earlier the worker starts saving for the retirement, the lower will be the burden on the government to ensure him a minimum pension in old age. These schemes can work well only when the beneficiaries understand the schemes in question and diligently make their contributions towards them.
The weakness that reflects in the system is not the inconvinience of the poor to cater the small amounts required as their contribution to these funded programmes, but the bank accounts to which these are linked. While large numbers of bank accounts have been opened, but their operating branches are at distant from the customers’ residing places thus making it difficult for them to operate as ever.

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One of the ways of making banking services available is by the use of phone banking which means accessing banking services through mobile phone-linked accounts that can be operated through ubiquitous banking correspondents for depositing or withdrawing cash. Moreover, the RBI should give

liberalisation

to the banking correspondents and allow telecom joint ventures with banking licences to make use of their telecom retail network to service banking needs as well. Once that is done, India will move ever closer to the goal of financial inclusion. VISIT- WWW.BANKERSGURU.ORG

MUTUAL FUNDS
A mutual fund is basically a kind of investment that uses money from many investors to invest in stocks, bonds or other types of investment. A fund manager (or "portfolio manager") decides how to invest the money, and for this he is paid a fee, which comes from the money in the fund. But in the present scenario the fund flow sector has dried up, maybe because of the stringent regulatory restrictions on the remuneration of the mutual fund distributors, brokers and their agents.
Recently, the regulator has amended its rule, allowing mutual funds to raise the share of investors’ money which they allocate towards the cost of services.
Moreover,

now, the fund houses are themselves eating up the distributor’s

revenues, by asking brokers to absorb the service tax, which has reached a to a new hike of 14%, in the commission they receive from fund houses. This once again has the potential to strain distribution and slow down the process of investors channelling their funds to the market through mutual funds.
Distributors play a crucial role in providing services to both fund houses and investors and for the same recovers the price of the services rendered to them. Fund houses pay for that service with a commission. Service tax applies on the service and incidence should be on those who buy the service, that is the fund house. Investors do not directly pay for their services. Investors are charged service tax on the fees they pay, while fund houses should pay service tax on the lower commission they pay, once a part of the distribution cost is borne by the investor.

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At the present time, the cost to equity fund investors has grown manifolds and has reached a new height of 3% of the investments. This has to be brought down. Taking the brokerage fee out of mutual fund costs is one way.
Direct investments, without the help of a broker, is another. That calls for aggressive investor education. A good fund, ultimately, is one that delivers good returns with minimal expenses. Mutual funds should invest in low-cost distribution models, make their products simple and compete on these qualities.

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BLACK MONEY BILL
The government introduced a Bill, specifically dealing with illicit money stashed in foreign banks abroad. This bill provides for separate taxation of an undisclosed foreign income or assets, in a bid to curb the generation of black money in the country. The Black Money Bill provides a short window to income tax assesses to declare assets, pay tax and penalty and avoid imprisonment.
The Black Money Bill appears simple and comprehensive and has adopted a carrot-and-stick approach. Some of the salient features of the bill are mentioned below. 

It provides a one-time compliance opportunity to come clean on payment of a gross tax of 30% and an equal penalty.



The government proposes to make the Bill effective from the assessment year starting April 2016. The Foreign Income and Undisclosed Assets
(Imposition of New Tax) Bill, 2015 provides for a maximum of 10 years rigorous imprisonment for offenders who evade taxes in relation to foreign assets.



As per the Bill, concealment of foreign income and assets will be noncompoundable and offenders will not be permitted to approach the
Settlement Commission for resolving disputes. There will also be a penalty at the rate of 300% of taxes on the concealed income and assets. 

The Bill seeks to make non-filing of income tax returns or filing returns with inadequate disclosure of foreign assets liable for prosecution with punishment of rigorous imprisonment up to seven years.

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Beneficiary of foreign assets will be mandatorily required to file return, even if there is no taxable income.



Income from any undisclosed foreign asset or undisclosed income from any foreign asset will be taxable at the maximum marginal rate.



However, persons with minor balances upto Rs. 5 lakh at any time during the year will not entail penalty or prosecution.

The above mentioned provisions in the new Bill on Undisclosed Foreign Income and Assets is necessary to help the country to retain the wealth of our country in our country only. Hence this new Bill will be very heavy in terms of tax evasion by Indian residents by making investments outside India through undisclosed sources. The one time opportunity granted by the Government should be taken by all those persons who are in possession of undisclosed foreign income and assets.
Though the Black Money Bill is a good way to curb black money generation,but the biggest lacuna in the bill is that it does not speak anything regarding

tracking the black money.

The Undisclosed Foreign Income and Assets

(Imposition of Tax) Bill, 2015 also known as the Black Money Bill does not have provisions to deal with domestic illegal assets and cash held on Indian soil. Rather than wielding the stick, the government should stem generation of black money. This calls for reforms on many fronts: making political funding institutionalised and transparent, moderation of tax rates and reduction of the cost of compliance, regulation of real estate and adoption of the goods and services tax to create audit trails and widen the base. The larger point is for the government to encourage and respect wealth creation and, in turn, induce tax collections.

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FDI IN RETAIL
E- commerce is one the those sectors of the country that reflects robust growth and a sector

where investors multiplied with each passing day. When rankings

are generated of industry wise annual increments,it is figured prominently that ecommerce ventures are in the forefront of hiring top talent and with it’s growth it is forcing India’s logistics industry to

modernise and expand. Even stodgy post

offices are gearing up to take on a share of the action. There is every reason

for the government to encourage e-commerce; yet its policy hinders its growth,

particularly of small and niche segments that have maximum linkages with smallscale and traditional manufacturing in the country. This must change. The simplest

thing for the government to do is to change its dogged opposition to foreign direct investment (FDI) in retail of all kinds.

As FDI is retail sector in single brand is hundred percent whereas in multi brand it is only 51 percent. The percentage of investment in multi brand in retail need

to be revised as Multi-brand in e-commerce is one such sector that can help the

small players to widen their area of operations as multi brand is a large ecommerce firm that splits up its operations of procurement, warehousing and

inventory management and sale to consumers into separate organisations, and claim foreign investment flows only into the marketplace operations. Opening up

of FDI sectors for small players will lessen the existing superfluous divides between cash rich players and ailing traders. As cash rich players and large traders faces problems in regard to tax compliance and quality control and these

problems are more crippling for specialist e-traders dealing in handwoven silk and handcrafted jewellery. They need to maintain the inventory themselves to control quality, without assurance of which their very existence would be redundant. Such

specialist e-commerce players can greatly improve market access for skilled but

impoverished craftsmen in rural India, but only if they are free to perform the job of curating their merchandise.

Doing same thing over and over agin and expecting different results each time is defined as insanity. In similar way when facts change, sentient beings change

their opinion. Leaders of the government once opposed FDI in e-commerce, based on certain deemed facts. But facts have been altered. Shouldn’t the policy?

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DEFENCE EQUIPMENT STRATEGY OF INDIA
There has always been a debate between guns and butter and in the view of it an enormously corpulent man said, “Guns will make us powerful; butter will just make us fat.” Going by his logic, India is headed towards corpulence: the military complains it has too little money for guns but does it has enough for butter is debatable. As a percentage of the total economy, or gross domestic product (GDP), India spends less on its military than many nations. Our military spend, around 1.8% of GDP, which is pretty lower than that of many other nations like China, Pakistan, the US and Russia.
India should be more meticulous about obtaining the maximum bang for every penny spent rather than raising the defence outlay everytime. And with this in mind, India needs to re-examine its defence equipment strategy. There is no reason why we are the world’s largest importer of weapons, when our official slogan is ‘Make in India’. Most domestic projects, ranging from fighter aircraft to tanks and submarines, have failed and after the failure to make even an efficient handgun at home, is now a challenge in terms of budgetary allocations. Now its high time, India has to make more of its military hardware, get the private sector involved, and start making in India, rather than cribbing about money.
In India, of the three defence forces, the navy is the best organised force, both in terms of planning for and carrying out indigenous production of their kit. There is no reason why the army and the air force cannot achieve the navy’s level of efficiency in this regard. The point is to utilise the offsets that keep accumulating on past procurement in a systematic fashion and create an efficient local

defence

industry.

This

will

give

a

boost

to

advanced

manufacturing in the country, with low cost of material and a better output.

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GOLD MONETIZATION SCHEME
Finance Ministry is encouraging and incentivising high net worth investors to park their physical gold holdings with banks and earn interest on that. Finance
Minister Arun Jaitely in his Budget speech had announced 2 new schemes Gold Monetization Scheme and the Gold Bond Scheme - both with an intention to monetize physical holdings of gold and also to curb flow of unaccounted money for gold purchases.
Meaning and the advantages of both the schemes is discussed below.
The so-called gold monetization scheme is a good idea to reduce gold imports and deploy India’s huge domestic stocks to meet fresh demand for the yellow metal. Under the Gold Monetization depositors will be able to park their physical gold with banks, except jewellery, and returns will accrue in their account in the form of physical gold. These schemes are expected to work similarly to bank accounts. Like in banks people periodically deposit money in their accounts and receive interest from the bank. The bank uses these deposits to make loans to others and receives interest in return. The difference between the interest paid and received is the bank’s income. Similarly, under the scheme, households and jewelers will be able to place their gold holdings in a metal deposit with a bank. The bank will pay interest for this. It will lend this gold to jewelers who require gold for their daily working and receive interest in return. The difference between the two interests will be the bank’s income. And you can anytime withdraw your gold in times of need.

The gold monetization scheme has two major benefits . First, it will reduce the dependence on imported gold. India is the world’s largest consumer of gold but has to import about 97% of its annual gold demand. This is a drain on its forex reserves, and is a key reason why the rupee value falls. Second is there is approximately 20,000 tons of gold that is unproductively stashed

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away in household locker. The scheme intends to circulate this stashed gold in the economy by pulling it out of domestic safes and lending it to those who need it. This will save the country billions of dollars of gold imports annually.
The other initiative is a new Sovereign Gold Bond which would enable investors to trade in gold without having to buy it physically. The gold bond will work just like a regular coupon bearing bond that the government issues to borrow money for various purposes. The government receives money from investors, who invest in the bond, and pays a fixed periodic interest known as coupon on it. On maturity, it returns the money to the investors. Similarly, in a gold bond, investors, such as households, will be able to lend money to the government by investing in a bond whose price will be based on the price of a fixed quantity of gold. On this, they will periodically receive a coupon (1.52% according to estimates). On maturity or sale of the bond, the bond holder will receive an amount equal to the value of the underlying amount of gold as on that date. Therefore, they will get the same return as buying gold bars or coins and selling them later, when their price increases.
The benefit of this scheme is that it will remove the need to import gold for investment purposes. At present, when people buy gold as an investment, it has to be imported from outside. This leads to an outflow of forex and increases India’s current account deficit. With the introduction of this bond, the entire transaction will take place in cash, removing the need for buying imported gold.

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GOODS AND SERVICE TAX
What is GST?
Goods and Services Tax — GST — is a comprehensive tax levied on manufacture, sale and consumption of goods and services at a national level. Through a tax credit

mechanism, this tax is collected on value-added goods and services at each stage of sale or purchase in the supply chain. The system allows the set-off of GST paid on the procurement of goods and services against the GST which is payable on the supply of goods or services. However, the end consumer bears this tax as he is the last person in the supply chain. Experts say that
GST is likely

to improve tax collections and boost India’s economic

development by breaking tax barriers between States and integrating India through a uniform tax rate.
What are the benefits of GST?
Under

GST,

the

taxation

burden

will

be

divided

equitably

between

manufacturing and services, through a lower tax rate by increasing the tax base and minimizing exemptions. It is expected to help build a transparent and corruption-free tax administration. GST will be levied only at the destination point, and not at various points (from manufacturing to retail outlets).Currently,

a manufacturer needs to pay tax when a finished product moves out from a factory, and it is again taxed at the retail outlet when sold.
How will it benefit the Centre and the States?
It is estimated that India will gain $15 billion a year by implementing the

Goods and Services Tax as it would promote exports, raise employment and boost growth. It will divide the tax burden equitably between manufacturing and services.

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What are the benefits of GST for individuals and companies?
In the GST system, both Central and State taxes will be collected at the point of sale. Both components (the Central and State GST) will be charged on the manufacturing cost. This will benefit individuals as prices are likely to come down. Lower prices will lead to more consumption, thereby helping companies.
What type of GST is proposed for India?
India is planning to implement a dual GST system. Under dual GST, a Central
Goods and Services Tax (CGST) and a State Goods and Services Tax (SGST) will be levied on the taxable value of a transaction. All goods and services,

barring a few exceptions, will be brought into the GST base. There will be no distinction between goods and services.
What are the flaws in present GST bill?
The government should remove flaws in the Constitutional Amendment Bill and build a consensus with the states on a flawless GST. The Bill, to give the
Centre and states concurrent powers to tax goods and services, is a right step. What is not correct is a 1% extra levy proposed to be charged when goods move from one state to another. If Rajasthan imports goods from
Maharashtra, it will pay 1% tax to Maharashtra, but the levy will not be charged if the goods are imported from outside India. Also, the 1% tax would apply multiple times, every time goods move from one state to another, and could cumulate to as much as 5% in a typical supply chain. This will add to the cascade of taxes that products bear and raise the cost of raw materials, capital and finished goods.
As there will be no set-offs on the extra levy —to be in force for two years or such other period as the GST Council may recommend. However, producing states want the levy on the grounds that they will lose out when the central sales tax is scrapped. There is no logic as the Centre has already guaranteed

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compensation to states while transiting to GST. The extra levy will scuttle the
Make in India plan. It goes against the grain of GST and renders our exports uncompetitive. The extra levy should be scrapped.
Keeping real estate out of GST is a bad idea as credit will not be available for taxes paid on inputs used in construction such as cement and steel.
Construction capital expenditure is 40% of total capital investment in a year, and that’s not small change. Bringing real estate under GST will raise investment and push growth.

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