Free Essay

The 14th October Uprising

In: Historical Events

Submitted By Modelliza
Words 2801
Pages 12
The 14th October uprising The military domination of Thai politics, started soon after the 1932 revolution, but its consolidation of power came with the Sarit military coup in 1957. The economic development during the years of military dictatorship in the 1950s and 1960s took place in the context of a world economic boom and a localised economic boom created by the Korean and Vietnam wars. This economic growth had a profound impact on the nature of Thai society. Naturally the size of the working class increased as factories and businesses were developed. However, under the dictatorship trade union rights were suppressed and wages and conditions of employment were tightly controlled. By early 1973 the minimum daily wage, fixed at around 10 baht since the early 1950s, remained unchanged while commodity prices had risen by 50%. Illegal strikes had already occurred throughout the period of dictatorship, but strikes increased rapidly due to general economic discontent. The first nine months of 1973, before the 14th October, saw a total of 40 strikes, and a one-month strike at the Thai Steel Company resulted in victory due to a high level of solidarity from other workers. Economic development also resulted in a massive expansion of student numbers and an increased intake of students from working-class backgrounds. The building of the Ramkamhaeng Open University in 1969 was a significant factor here. Student numbers in higher education increased from 15,000 in 1961 to 50,000 by 1972. The new generation of students, in the early 1970s, were influenced by the revolts and revolutions which occurred throughout the world in that period, May 1968 in Paris, being a prime example. Before that, in 1966 the radical journal, Social Science Review, was established by progressive intellectuals. Students started to attend volunteer development camps in the countryside in order to learn about the problems of rural poverty. By 1971 3500 students had attended a total of 64 camps. In 1972 a movement to boycott Japanese goods was organised as part of the struggle against foreign domination of the economy. Students also agitated against increases in Bangkok bus fares. In June 1973 the rector of Ramkamhaeng University was forced to resign after attempting to expel a student for writing a pamphlet criticising the military dictatorship[22]. Four months later, the arrest of 11 academics and students for handing out leaflets demanding a democratic constitution resulted in hundreds of thousands of students and workers taking to the streets of Bangkok. As troops with tanks fired on unarmed demonstrators, the people of Bangkok began to fight back. Bus passengers spontaneously alighted from their vehicles to join the demonstrators. Government buildings were set on fire. The “Yellow Tigers”, a militant group of students, sent a jet of high-octane gasoline from a captured fire engine into the police station at Parn-Fa bridge, setting it on fire. Earlier they had been fired upon by the police. The successful 14th October 1973 mass uprising against the military dictatorship shook the Thai ruling class to its foundations. For the next few days, there was a strange new atmosphere in Bangkok. Uniformed officers of the state disappeared from the streets and ordinary people organised themselves to clean up the city. Boy Scouts directed traffic. It was the first time that the pu-noi (little people) had actually started a revolution from below. It was not planned and those that took part had a multiplicity of ideals about what kind of democracy and society they wanted. But the Thai ruling class could not shoot enough demonstrators to protect their regime. It was not just a student uprising to demand a democratic constitution. It involved thousands of ordinary working-class people and occurred on the crest of a rising wave of workers’ strikes. Success in overthrowing the military dictatorship bred increased confidence. Workers, peasants and students began to fight for more than just parliamentary democracy. In the two months following the uprising, the new royal appointed civilian government of Sanya Tammasak faced a total of 300 workers’ strikes. A central trade union federation was formed. New radical student bodies sprang up. On the 1st May 1975 a quarter of a million workers rallied in Bangkok and a year later half a million workers took part in a general strike against price increases. In the countryside small farmers began to build organisations and they came to Bangkok to make their voices heard. Workers and peasants wanted social justice and an end to long-held privileges. A triple alliance between students, workers and small farmers was created. Some activists wanted an end to exploitation and capitalism itself. The influence of the CPT increased rapidly, especially among activists in urban areas. As part of the political reform process, in December 1973, the king presided over a hand-picked National Forum (often referred to as the “horse track assembly”, due to its location). This forum, which had members chosen from various professions, was tasked with selecting a new parliament. Kukrit Pramote was chosen as the chairperson of the new parliament when it opened on the 28th December, while Sanya Tammasak remained prime minister. However, this parliament and the Sanya government could not solve the increasing tensions in society between the conservatives and the left or between the rich and the poor[23]. The first democratic elections, since the October 1973 uprising, were held in January 1975. Parliament had a left colouring and government policies reflected a need to deal with pressing social issues. Left-wing parties, such as the New Force Party, the Socialist Party of Thailand and the Socialist Front Party gained 37 seats (out of a total of 269) but did not join any coalition governments. The first coalition government, made up of the Democrat Party and the Social Agriculture Party, was established under Seni Pramote. This right-leaning government announced that it would follow “social democratic” policies. However, the government lost a vote of no confidence in parliament in March 1975 and was replaced by a new coalition government headed by Kukrit Pramote from the Social Action Party. The new government introduced a number of pro-poor policies, including job creation schemes. This government presided over a period of increasing social tensions. Strikes, demonstrations and political assassinations occurred on a regular basis. Eventually parliament was dissolved in January 1976 and elections held in April. The April elections resulted in a swing to the right. This was due to a combination of factors, such as intimidation of the left and a right-ward shift among the middle classes who were afraid of radicalism.

The 1973 democracy movement Student demonstrations had started in 1968 and grew in size and numbers in the early 1970s despite the continued ban on political meetings. In June 1973, nine Ramkhamhaeng University students were expelled for publishing an article in a student newspaper that was critical of the government. Shortly after, thousands of students held a protest at the Democracy Monument demanding the re-enrolment of the nine students. The government ordered the universities to shut, but shortly afterwards allowed the students to be re-enrolled. In October another 13 students were arrested on charges of conspiracy to overthrow the government. This time the student protesters were joined by workers, businessmen and other ordinary citizens. The demonstrations swelled to several hundred thousand and the issue broadened from the release of the arrested students to demands for a new constitution and the replacement of the current government. On October 13, the government released the detainees. Leaders of the demonstrations, among them Seksan Prasertkul, called off the march in accordance with the wishes of the King who was publicly against the democracy movement. In a speech to graduating students, he criticized the pro-democracy movement by telling students to concentrate on their studies and leave politics to their elders [military government]. As the crowds were breaking up the next day, on October 14, many students found themselves unable to leave because the police had attempted to control the flow of the crowd by blocking the southern route to Rajavithi Road. Cornered and overwhelmed by the hostile crowd, the police responded with teargas and gunfire.

The military was called in, and tanks rolled down Rajdamnoen Avenue and helicopters fired down at Thammasat University. A number of students commandeered buses and fire engines in an attempt to halt the progress of the tanks by ramming into them. With chaos on the streets, King Bhumibol opened the gates of Chitralada Palace to the students who were being gunned down by the army. Despite orders from Thanom that the military action be intensified, army commander Kris Sivara had the army withdrawn from the streets. The King condemned the government's inability to handle the demonstrations, ordered Thanom, Praphas, and Narong to leave the country, and notably condemned the students' supposed role as well. At 06:10PM, Field Marshal Thanom Kittikachorn resigned from his post as Prime Minister. An hour later, the King appeared on national television, asking for calm, and announcing that Field Marshal Thanom Kittikachorn had been replaced with Dr. Sanya Dharmasakti, a respected law professor, as prime minister. October 15 until December 31 Political freedom was in full bloom. The most active movements were those of students and now the worker's union and even farmers. The history of Thailand since 1973 saw an unstable period of democracy, with military rule being reimposed after a bloody coup in 1976. (The previous military rulers had been removed, as a result of the Revolution of 1973.) For most of the 1980s, Thailand was ruled by prime minister Prem Tinsulanonda, a democratically-inclined strongman who restored parliamentary politics. Thereafter the country remained a democracy apart from a brief period of military rule from 1991 to 1992. The populist Thai Rak Thai party, led by prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra, governed from 2001 until 2006. In 2006 mass protests against the Thai Rak Thai party's alleged corruption, prompted the military to stage a coup d'état, in September. A general election in December 2007 restored a civilian government. The events of October 1973 amounted to a revolution in Thai politics. For the first time the urban middle class, led by the students, had challenged the ruling junta, and had gained the apparent blessing of the king for a transition to democracy. The leaders of the junta were forced to step down; they took refuge in the United States or Taiwan. Thailand, however, had not yet produced a political class able to make this bold new democracy function smoothly. The January 1975 elections failed to produce a stable party majority, and fresh elections in April 1976 produced the same result. The veteran politician Seni Pramoj and his brother Kukrit Pramoj alternated in power, but were unable to carry out a coherent reform program. The sharp increase in oil prices in 1974 led to recession and inflation, weakening the government's position. The democratic government's most popular move was to secure the withdrawal of American forces from Thailand. The communist insurgency led by the Thai communist party gradually became more active in the countryside, allying with urban intellectuals and students. Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia fell to communist forces in 1975. The threat of the communists in the neighboring countries soon led to panic among the people. The arrival of communist regimes on Thailand’s borders, the abolition of the 600-year-old Lao monarchy, and the arrival of a flood of refugees from Laos and Cambodia swung public opinion in Thailand back to the right, and conservatives did much better in the 1976 elections than they had done in 1975. prices in 1974 led to recession and inflation, weakening the government's position. The democratic government's most popular move was to secure the withdrawal of American forces from Thailand. The communist insurgency led by the Thai communist party gradually became more active in the countryside, allying with urban intellectuals and students. Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia fell to communist forces in 1975. The threat of the communists in the neighboring countries soon led to panic among the people. The arrival of communist regimes on Thailand’s borders, the abolition of the 600-year-old Lao monarchy, and the arrival of a flood of refugees from Laos and Cambodia swung public opinion in Thailand back to the right, and conservatives did much better in the 1976 elections than they had done in 1975.

14 October 1973 Uprising Analyze. What did the Thai “seventies” look like? The first picture in one’s mind should be half a million people, mainly young school and university students, but also ordinary working people, protesting around the democracy Monument on 14th October 1973. This resulted in the overthrow of the military dictatorship. It was the first mass popular uprising in modern Thai history. The 14th October and the following struggles, victories and defeats that make up the “Thai seventies” have continued to shape the nature of politics and society to this day.
The 14 October 1973 uprising dying for a cause The 14 October 1973 uprising will be remembered as one of the darkest periods in Thai political history. It was the Day of Great Sorrow when an uprising by the people brought down a military dictator. But the costs in terms of human lives left an indelible and traumatic scar on Thai society. The principal characters involved were: Field Marshall Thanom Kittikachon,the Prime Minister, Field Marshall Praphat, the Police Chief Colonel Narong, Commander 11 Infantry Regiment. Narong, Thanom's son was married to the daughter of Praphat. Thanom had taken power from Field Marshall Sarit Thanarat in 1963. In 1971, Thanom dissolved parliament and imposed one-man rule. The decade of his rule in the 1960's saw an escalation in Thai involvement in the Vietnam War. The growing US military presence in Thailand and the deployment of Thai forces in Vietnam brought on political, economic and social costs. The early 70's was an age of growing political awareness in an increasingly educated middle-class and demands for economic progress from a society tired of a regime that had stayed too long. The plot thickened as rivalry between various military and political factions intensified. It was against this backdrop that the tragedy on 14 October 1973 unfolded. The flames were stoked in June 1973 when student activists were expelled for anti-government activities. The confrontation reached a climax in October when 13 students led by student leader, Thirayuth Boonmi, were arrested. Students from Thammasat University massed at the Democracy Monument demanding the release of their colleagues. Workers and the general population who were equally disgruntled with Thanom rallied in support. Estimates of number of demonstrators exceeded 200,000, the biggest public demonstration in Thai history. Things came to a head when the student leaders who were released were rearrested. The die was cast for a bloody confrontation on that fateful day on 14 October. When the army moved in, a massacre ensued. Students ran for their lives, many jumping for cover into nearby canals. Some sought refuge in the Royal Palace at Chitlada where the gates were opened for the fleeing students. There were tales of untold heroism as some fought back by pushing buses across roads to block tanks. Recriminations continue to be traded between the people involved on 14 October 1973. Conspiracy theories abound; rivals out to dispose of Thanom by manipulating the students; a plot by army rivals who instigated the confrontation to discredit Thanom. Whatever the causes, it didn't justify the brutal use of raw military might against unarmed civilians. It was to the credit of some military units that they refused to be involved in putting down the popular uprising. In the aftermath of the bloodbath, Thanom, Praphat and Narong were asked to step down in the interest of national unity and leave the country. Sanya Thammasak, the Rector of Thammasat University, was appointed as the civilian Prime Minister. A new constitution was drawn up and elections were scheduled for January 1975. There were hopes for a lasting and stable democracy. In 1976, Thanom returned to Thailand to trigger another round of protests, an even greater tragedy and darker period in Thai political history. Again the events revolved around Thammasat University in the month of October. Where are the protagonists in the 14 October 1973 revolution today? Thanom died in Thailand in 2004. Thirayuth Boonmi, the student leader is a lecturer in Thammasat University and still an outspoken critic on national issues. The October 1973 spirit lives on. The 14 October 1973 Memorial stands as a monument to the sacrifice by the brave young men and women who stood up and died for a cause. There's another memorial dedicated to those who lost their lives in October 1973. It's in the grounds of Thammasat University, just after the main gate, on the right.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Timeline of French Rev

...constitution is established. | 23rd June 1789: | King rejects Resolutions of the tiers etat. | 9th July 1789: | National Assembly declares itself Constituent Assembly. | 12th July 1789: | Necker is dismissed. 50,000 citizens arm themselves with pikes and form National Guard. | 14th July 1789: | Armed citizens storm and capture the Bastille. | 15th July 1789: | Lafayette appointed Commander of National Guard. | 17th July 1789: | ‘Great Fear’ begins as peasants revolt across France. | 5-11 August 1789: | National Assembly decrees abolition of feudalism. | 26th August 1789: | National Assembly decrees Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen | 5th October 1789: | Women lead delegation to King in Versaille demanding bread. After scuffles, they are fobbed off by the King. | 6th October 1789: | King returns to Paris. | 2nd November 1789: | Constituent Assembly decrees expropriation of Church property. | 16th December 1789: | National Assembly legislates for departments, etc. | 28th January 1790: | Removal of civil disabilities against Jews. | 13th February 1790: | Suppression of religious orders and vows. | 19th June 1790: | Abolition of nobility and titles. | 14th July 1790: | Civil Constitution, subordinating the Church to the civil government, inaugurated by Louis XVI. | 18th August 1790: |...

Words: 906 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Colonial History of Indonesia

...than you will find a way of doing so.,” an Indonesian proverb utters. Spread across thousands of islands between Asia and Australia, today the Republic of Indonesia is the world's largest Muslim population in Southeast Asia as well as Southeast Asia's biggest economy. Nonetheless, the road to Indonesian success on freedom and independence was full of hurdles and challenges. Throughout the centuries, Indonesia faced Portuguese, Dutch and Japanese invasions, as well as governmental conflicts, terrorism, and natural disasters. In the hands of colonizing powers and invaders, Indonesian independence was not proclaimed until the mid-twentieth century. However, its history goes back to 14th century, way before the very first colonialism spark in Europe. Despite the scarcity of information regarding 14th- 15th century Indonesia, the presence of two dominant states Majapahit in East Java and Malacca in Malaya can be mentioned. Like many island countries, landforms and climate of the region had great significance on agriculture, trade and state formation in Indonesia. Java is the largest piece of the Indonesian island group, thus being land based unlike other states. The island is divided into east and west by a set of volcanic mountains, forming a spine along the island. The other mountains and highlands are the primary cause of isolated region formation throughout Java, which are also among the richest wet-rice cultivation provinces in the world. Communication in Java was mainly......

Words: 2766 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Sikorsky's Flying Empire

...Igor Sikorsky’s Flying Empire I am Russian-Ukrainian, from an Eastern Ukrainian city of Ivano-Frankovks. My grandparents from my father’s side are from Russia, and my mother’s side of the family is Ukrainian, thus making me a combination of both. Being Russian in the Eastern part of Ukraine is pretty uncommon, as the eastern part closer to Poland speaks Ukrainian, and the Western part of the country mostly speaks Russian. Ukraine was occupied by Poland and Lithuania in the 14th century. Ukrainian peasants who fled the Polish who forced them into slavery came to be known as Cossacks. The Cossacks created their own colonies and led several uprisings against Polish rule, but ultimately they turned to the Russians for security. The country became one of the republics within the Soviet Union in 1922. Ukraine gained independence after the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. From the nine years that I lived in Ukraine, and the many summers that I’ve spend there after coming to United States, I’ve come to realize that it’s a very beautiful country, with breath taking Carpathian mountains, and the cold Black Sea. Both Ukrainian, and Russian cosines are delicious, with the cultural menus ranging from borsch to the famous pirogues, and my favorite being blini (also known as crepes). Although Ukraine is a wonderful country to spend summers in, but economically and politically the country is currently not doing very well, especially with the ongoing protests that began last...

Words: 1496 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Russian Civil War

...CIVIL WAR EVENTS - the Brest Litovsk Treaty (March 1918) was negotiated by Trotsky….he and he Bolsheivks wanted the int’l rev to spread and so from their vantage point the treaty were “stalling tactics”…the treaty gave up Poland, Baltics, and all territory in the North that Russia had gained since 1618…all told 1.3 mill km2, 26% of her people and 75% of her iron and capacity…needless to say Lenin had hard time “selling” the Treaty - the October coup d’état = “beginning of the Revolution” not end….Bolsheviks in the provinces + the centre had to be decide how to handle local Soviets which asserted authority but happened to be dominated by Mensheviks. - long difficult struggles against anarchy, decentralization + separatist tendencies lay ahead – the future form of gov’t = an “open question” - for Lenin, “Dictatorship of proletariat” was what the revolution needed…now this was a slogan and principle that fit into the circumstances of the winter 1917–1918…but, what did it mean?...it meant: a) crushing counter revolution of the old ruling class – the dictatorship would have to have coercive organs like Tsarist police (i.e. the Bolsheviks would assemble the Cheka) b) that the dictatorship of Bolshevik Party and other political parties was incompatible…and would pose problems c) that giving broad powers to unions + factory committees could in itself be problematic… what if worker ideas differed from Bolsheviks? Problems for the Bolsheviks 1) one underlying problem......

Words: 3349 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Arab - Israel Conflict

...Arab Israel Conflict 1948 War started when 5 Arabs nations (Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan & Iraq) invaded territory in the just-ended-to-be-British Mandate. It happens right after the announcement of the independence of the state of Israel on 14th May 1948. The fight has actually begins before that, because of the Partition Resolution, the United State Resolution (that would divide Great Britain’s former Palestinian mandate into Jewish and Arab states) on 29/11/1947. Arab do not want to accept the arrangement that they think Jewish get more benefits in the arrangement. The United Nations resolution sparked conflict between Jewish and Arab groups within Palestine. Fighting began with attacks by irregular bands of Palestinian Arabs attached to local units of the Arab Liberation Army composed of volunteers from Palestine and neighboring Arab countries. These groups launched their attacks against Jewish cities, settlements, and armed forces. The Jewish forces were composed of the Haganah, the underground militia of the Jewish community in Palestine, and two small irregular groups, the Irgun, and LEHI. The goal of the Arabs was initially to block the Partition Resolution and to prevent the establishment of the Jewish state. The Jews, on the other hand, hoped to gain control over the territory allotted to them under the Partition Plan. The fighting intensified with other Arab forces joining the Palestinian Arabs in attacking territory in the former Palestinian mandate.......

Words: 2887 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Social Media

...The Role of New Media in Arab Uprisings: Al-Jazeera focus by [Author’s Name] [Faculty Name] [Department or School Name] [Month Year] ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would take this opportunity to thank my research supervisor, family and friends for their support and guidance without which this research would not have been possible. DECLARATION I, [type your full first names and surname here], declare that the contents of this dissertation/thesis represent my own unaided work, and that the dissertation/thesis has not previously been submitted for academic examination towards any qualification. Furthermore, it represents my own opinions and not necessarily those of the University. Signed __________________ Date _________________ ABSTRACT This research is focused on analysing the role played by Social media in the Arab Uprisings. During l8-day period, the Egyptian protesters succeeded to a large extent in achieving maximum publicity and attracting the attention of the world by mobilizing news media coverage of their protests. The role of media is to provide information and communicate messages to others. Media played a significant role in ringing political changes to the countries belonging to Arab region. Since a long time, the people of Egypt, Tunisia, Libya and other countries were facing problems due to the unequal and biased policies developed in the country by the leaders. These riots turned out to be an outcome of the frustrations and annoyance which were filling up the......

Words: 17469 - Pages: 70

Free Essay

Sdvsfve

...AS Level History Russia 1855 – 1917 Alternative F Revision Guide Contents 1. Alexander II 2. Alexander III 3. Nicholas II 4. Stability of the Tsarist Regime 1905 - 14 5. Political Opposition 6. February / March Revolution 1917 7. October Revolution 1917 Tsar Alexander II To what extent does Tsar Alexander II deserve to be viewed as the Tsar Liberator? Think BALANCE!! Alexander II 1855-81 ▪ Came to the throne during the Crimean War (1855) ▪ Initiated a wide range of reforms (social, economic, administrative and legal) ▪ Earned the title ‘Liberator’ for giving freedom to the peasants BUT did not wish to share political power ▪ Assassinated by the People’s Will in 1881 Answering the key question |Introduction |Use this chart to answer any question on Alex II | | |All questions (whether relating to ‘Liberator’ or not) will require BALANCE | | |Precision of knowledge – “Detail is King!” | | |Yes |No | |Emancipation |Emancipation Committees set up |Redemption......

Words: 7115 - Pages: 29

Free Essay

Comunist China

...Communist China * Browse essays using search option * Access free essay links resource page * Need help with paper writing services? * Bookmark our site for future reference Communism in an Economically Developing China The future of communism in China is unknown, as the world economy becomes more international. Communism has been in China since 1949 and is still present in the country’s activities. Presently China is undergoing incredible economic growth and promises to be a dominant power early in the next century. China’s social tradition has come under heavy pressure from forces of modernization generated in a large part by the sustained contact with the West that began in the middle of the nineteenth century. The Western incursion, not only refined China militarily but brought in its course new ideas- nationalism, science and technology, and innovations in politics, philosophy, and art. Chinese leaders have sought to preserve the nation’s cultural uniqueness by promoting specifically Chinese blends of tradition and modernity. China has undergone several major political transformations from a feudal-like system in early historical times, to a centralized bureaucratic empire that lasted through many unpredictable changes till 1911, to a republic with a communist form of government in the mainland since 1949. Economic geography and population pressure help account for the traditionally controlling role of the state in China. The constant......

Words: 2617 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

1066

...1066 Leading up to the battle Seventeen kings ruled England, either by birth, military force or election by the Witan between 871 A.D and 1087 A.D. The definition of a king was difficult to define in those days. It was more a case of the dominant kingdom, such as Wessex, supplying the king or more accurately, the Bretwalda or overlord. Whilst kingdoms were always on a semi war footing with each other, it is a matter of conjecture who finally could be called the first "KING OF ENGLAND". Many historians consider Athelstan to be the first acknowledged true king of England. Wessex became the predominant Saxon kingdom in England. The southern Kingdom's power was such that thirteen kings from Alfred the Great to Harold II originated or had some affiliation with Wessex. The only diversion were the three Viking kings, Sweyn Forkbeard, Canute and Hardicanute and of course, William I (The Conqueror ) from Normandy. | It must be remembered that in the 10th and 11th centuries, most of Europe was much different to the way it is now. In those days most countries were operating on a feudal system. European countries were not always run as the king and his loyal subjects. Almost without exception, countries were divided up into regions or compartments that had their own ruling bodies and run by Dukes, Earls or Lords. To make matters worse they were usually at one another’s throats in the pursuit of power. The King of the country had little power over these areas or rulers. Normandy...

Words: 5138 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Motorcycle Diaries

...Year 11 Preliminary English Assessment Task Task: Motorcycle Diaries Question Two: Define Communism. Discuss its origins and how and where it was spread. In your discussion you must refer to at least 3 countries, which have adopted communism and examine its success and failures and the reason behind both. You must also examine the role Marxism plays in Communist ideology. Communism is an economic and social system in which all, or nearly all, property and resources are collectively owned by a classless society and not by individual citizens. It’s an ideology theory of government where all wealth is shared equally so there is no class system, that is, no poor class and no wealthy class. Everything is shared and everyone is equal, whether you’re a doctor or a factory worker. In such a communist society, the wealth and resources were to be regulated according to the needs, abilities and contribution of the people. Differences between manual and intellectual labour and between rural and urban life were to disappear, opening up the way for unlimited development of human potential. Based on the 1848 publication ‘Communist Manifesto’ by two German political philosophers, Karl Max and his close associate Friedrich Engels, it envisaged common ownership of all land and wealth and the withering away of the power of the state. Max and Engels believed that capitalism (private ownership of all property) should be diminished and that uneven distribution of wealth and resources......

Words: 3249 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Trotsky

...which resulted in a state of anarchy and turmoil. The Bolshevik Party of Lenin masterminded the Bolshevik take-over of power in Russia in 1917, and was the architect and first head of the USSR. History, nonetheless, as history often does has opened up a series of questions, It is generally accepted that Leon Trotsky played a greater role in organising and executing the Bolshevik revolution. Even Joseph Stalin acknowledges his major rival’s role in the events in Pravda on the 10th November, 1918, “All practical work in connection with the organisation of the uprising was done under the immediate direction of Comrade Trotsky, the President of the Petrograd Soviet...the Party is indebted primarily and principally to Comrade Trotsky...” This statement by Stalin confirms the role of Trotsky in the revolution, however Terry Brotherstone, a Senior Lecturer at the University of Aberdeen, argues that “The Bolshevik victory in the October Revolution would have been just as unthinkable and unrealisable without Trotsky as it would have been unthinkable and unrealisable without Lenin”. It has been suggested often that whilst Lenin was the visionary of the Bolsheviks, Trotsky was the practitioner. This is most evident in his contribution in the lead up to and during the Russian civil war, which led to the ultimate success of the Bolsheviks. Leon Trotsky had joined the Bolsheviks much later than other members of the party. During his time in London in the early nineteen hundreds,......

Words: 3069 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Ch 13 Nation-States

...Chapter 13 Breaking Up is Hard to Do: Nations, States, and Nation-States A. Logistics Students’ Time Requirements Activity 1: The Rise of Nationalism and the Fall of Yugoslavia Readings 60-90 minutes Fill in the blanks 75-90 minutes Activity 2: Iraqaphobia Readings 60-90 minutes Fill in the blanks 75-90 minutes The fill-in-the-blanks activity works very well as an in-class group project. It helps for students to be able to discuss the questions and readings with other students. If so, it is absolutely essential that students read the assigned articles in advance of the discussion. They will need to consult the readings to find pertinent passages, but if they are reading it for the first time during group work, they will either not finish or not contribute. I remind my students of this fact several times in the days leading up to the project. If students don’t finish during class, they can finish at home. If done in groups in class, you may wish to suggest that a different student act as recorder for each block of questions. Also, assign a different student to be the discussion leader/gatekeeper to keep the discussion on track and prevent any single individual from dominating the discussion. A third student could function as timekeeper. See Chapter 11 and 14 role-playing activities for further discussion of these tasks. Remind students that Balkan and Middle East politics are always changing and can get...

Words: 32987 - Pages: 132

Premium Essay

China

...8.5%. Religions (2002 est.): Officially atheist; Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Christian, Muslim. Language: Official--Mandarin (Putonghua); there also are many local dialects. Education: Years compulsory--9. Literacy--92.2%. Total labor force (2010 est.): 780 million. Labor force by occupation (2008 est.): Primary (agriculture)--297.08 million, 38.1%; secondary (industrial)--216.84 million, 27.8%; tertiary (services)--266.03 million, 34.1%. Government Type: Communist party-led state. Constitution: December 4, 1982; revised several times, most recently in 2004. Independence: Unification under the Qin (Ch'in) Dynasty 221 BC; Qing (Ch'ing or Manchu) Dynasty replaced by a republic on February 12, 1912; People's Republic established October 1, 1949. Branches: Executive--president, vice president, State Council, premier. Legislative--unicameral National People's Congress. Judicial--Supreme People's Court, Local People's Courts, Special People's Courts. Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (the P.R.C. considers Taiwan to be its 23rd province); 5 autonomous regions, including Tibet; 4 municipalities directly under the State Council. Political parties: Chinese Communist Party, 76 million members; 8 minor parties under Communist Party supervision. Economy GDP (2010 est.): $5.88 trillion (exchange rate-based); $10.09 trillion (purchasing power parity). Per capita GDP (2010): $7,600...

Words: 4275 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Civil Rights Leaders

...Civil Rights The civil rights movement was a worldwide political movement for equality before the law occurring between approximately 1950 and 1980. In many situations it took the form of campaigns of civil resistance aimed at achieving change by nonviolent forms of resistance. In some situations it was accompanied, or followed, by civil unrest and armed rebellion. The process was long and tenuous in many countries, and many of these movements did not fully achieve their goals although, the efforts of these movements did lead to improvements in the legal rights of previously oppressed groups of people. Table of Contents Malcolm X…………………………..pg. 3 - 5 Martin Luther King Jr. ……………pg. 6-7 Rosa Parks ………………………….pg. 8- 10 Stokely Carmichael…………………pg. 11-14 Marcus Garvey………………………pg. 15-17 Frederick Douglass…………………..pg. 18-20 John Brown…………………………pg. 21- 23 Medgar Evers ………………………pg. 24- 25 Nat Turner…………………………..pg. 26- 27 Homer Plessy……………………..pg. 28-30 Malcolm X [pic] Malcolm X May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965), born Malcolm Little and also known as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz,was an African-American Muslim minister and human rights activist. To his admirers, he was a courageous advocate for the rights of blacks, a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans. Detractors accused him of preaching racism, black supremacy, and violence. He has been......

Words: 3949 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Space Race

...Alen Sonny Mr. Lewis APUSH Period 5 13 April, 2014 The War between Communism and Democracy for Dominance of Space The Space Race was a war of firsts between the United States of America and the Union Soviet Socialist Republics. But it was also the culmination of the dreams of man for many millennia and the team who worked on the space programs was able to discover what so many of the people that came before and after them could only dream of. It was an endeavor that all of humanity was invested in at the time. It was a testament to the power of the human spirit and it showed how nothing was impossible if we persevered and strived to be better. The space race did not start as one would expect with the respective American and Soviet space agencies. But rather it began with the German V2 missile launches towards the end of World War 2. The V2 missile was designed by Wernher Von Braun a German scientist who had dreamed of traveling to the moon for many years; however this dream had to be secret as it was considered to be treasonous and not helpful to the German cause. Von Braun and many other amateur rocketeers were drafted into the German war machine in order to help build a super weapon and their base was Peenemünde. When the war was nearing its end the Third Reich unleashed its secret weapon, the V2 missile. It could hit anywhere within its target range and there would be no warning. When it hit, it caused scenes of mass destruction. The V2 missiles were to be Hitler’s...

Words: 5318 - Pages: 22