Premium Essay

The 4 Models

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By tyler27
Words 284
Pages 2
Linear Model:
The linear model shows a sender transmitting messages to a receiver. Once they are finished it is assumed the roles are reversed and the sender becomes the receiver and the receiver becomes the sender. In 1949, two engineers added noise to the equation to show its effect on communication.
Interactive Model:
The interactive model adds the variable of dual roles. In this model, it assumes that the parties involved in the communication can be senders and receivers. A big part of this model is the field of experience and feedback. Feedback is a method of sending a message to indicate what they are getting from the conversation. Field of experience is another factor that will dictate how two people communicate. For example: An engineer will speak differently to other engineers as opposed to customers who would not understand the technical aspects.
Transactional Models:
Transactional models add the dimension of constant communication between 2 or more parties. Instead of depicting senders/receivers as fulfilling one role at a time, this model portrays them as filling both roles at the same time. Even if you are not the speaker, body language and responses (or even lack of responses) is a form of communication.
Books Model:
The books model adds outside influences such as societal forces, culture and context. When two or more people are communicating, factors such as the culture or the context of the discussion will change the messages dramatically. Even when talking to the same person, the conversation will change a lot depending on the location and context. Talking to a friend about sports at home is a lot different than talking to the same friend about family at a...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Evaluate The 4-D Model

...Maylor (2003) proposed the 4-D Model to effectively deliver a project. He identifies the stages as: Define the project. According to Maylor (2003), this involves determining what the project is about and its reason for existence. At this stage possible alternatives to the problems which are presented can be explored. Denis (2010) states that ‘before any person or organization considers investment in a new project, before a contractor can begin to prepare a tender for undertaking work for a customer, or before a company executive can be asked to accept responsibility for managing an internal IT or management change project, the project requirements must be clearly established, documented and understood. The project has to be defined as accurately...

Words: 1109 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Facets Model Module 4

...CHAPTER 1 WHAT IS CSR? eople create organizations to leverage their collective resources in pursuit of common goals. As organizations pursue these goals, they interact with others inside a larger context called society. Based on their purpose, organizations can be classified as for-profits, governments, or nonprofits. At a minimum, for-profits seek gain for their owners; governments exist to define the rules and structures of society within which all organizations must operate; and nonprofits (sometimes called NGOs—nongovernmental organizations) emerge to do social good when the political will or the profit motive is insufficient to address society’s needs. Aggregated across society, each of these different organizations represents a powerful mobilization of resources. In the United States, for example, more than 595,000 social workers are employed largely outside the public sector—many in the nonprofit community and medical organizations—filling needs not met by either government or the private sector.1 Society exists, therefore, as a mix of these different organizational forms. Each performs different roles, but each also depends on the others to provide the complete patchwork of exchange interactions (products and services, financial and social capital, etc.) that constitute a well-functioning society. Whether called corporations, companies, businesses, proprietorships, or firms, for example, for-profit organizations also interact with government, trade unions, suppliers,...

Words: 12285 - Pages: 50

Premium Essay

Oi 361 Week 4 Mental Model-Mindsets

...Mental Model/Mindsets Paper Student Name OI/361 April 7, 2014 Instructor Name Mental Model/Mindsets Paper Reality representations that people use to understand and identify the particular phenomenon are known as mental models. Mental models represent assumptions that are deeply ingrained and they influence how people take action and how they understand the world. Mental models are developed over time through experience, socialization and interaction with others. They are opinions, beliefs, perceptions, assumptions, values and truths. Mental models are often hidden and one is not aware of them or their effect on one’s behavior. When mental models are created they become reinforced in the mind and it becomes hard to change them (Von Stamm, 2008). Vernon and Bud have been in this company for more than twenty years, thus there mental models are deeply rooted and difficult to change. It is hard to convince both of them to change their mental models or adopt new ones. The mental models that these two coworkers have impacted greatly on how they behave in the company and the decisions they make. Vernon is afraid of the expansion and Bud is against competing with other organizations. Changing Mental Model/Mindsets In any organization, change is constant, hence the need to keep changing mental models of employees. It is hard to change mental models since they are not forces that one is aware of consciously, but subconsciously. Vernon and Bud are against the new change that......

Words: 1269 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Eco 302 Wk 4 Assignment 1 the Solow Growth Model

...ECO 302 WK 4 ASSIGNMENT 1 THE SOLOW GROWTH MODEL To purchase this visit here: Contact us at: http://www.activitymode.com/product/eco-302-wk-4-assignment-1-the-solow-growth-model/ SUPPORT@ACTIVITYMODE.COM ECO 302 WK 4 ASSIGNMENT 1 THE SOLOW GROWTH MODEL ECO 302 WK 4 Assignment 1 - The Solow Growth Model Write a four to six (4-6) page paper that answers the following: 1. Discuss the three (3) basic assumptions of the Solow Growth Model and analyze their compatibility with real-world economic conditions. 2. Analyze the effects of an increase in population growth on the growth rate of capital per worker. More Details of the Question are hidden... Activity mode aims to provide quality study notes and tutorials to the students of ECO 302 WK 4 Assignment 1 The Solow Growth Model in order to ace their studies. ECO 302 WK 4 ASSIGNMENT 1 THE SOLOW GROWTH MODEL To purchase this visit here: Contact us at: http://www.activitymode.com/product/eco-302-wk-4-assignment-1-the-solow-growth-model/ SUPPORT@ACTIVITYMODE.COM ECO 302 WK 4 ASSIGNMENT 1 THE SOLOW GROWTH MODEL ECO 302 WK 4 Assignment 1 - The Solow Growth Model Write a four to six (4-6) page paper that answers the following: 1. Discuss the three (3) basic assumptions of the Solow Growth Model and analyze their compatibility with real-world economic conditions. 2. Analyze the effects of an increase in population growth on the growth rate of capital per worker. More Details of the Question are......

Words: 871 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Oi 361 Week 4 Individual Mental Model/Mindsets Paper

...OI 361 Week 4 Individual Mental Model/Mindsets Paper To Buy This material Click below link http://www.uoptutors.com/OI-361/OI-361-Week-4-Individual-Mental-Model-Mindsets-Paper ssume you work in Human Resources as a part of the management team for AAA Transportation in Waukegan, WI, which has recently been acquired. AAA Transportation is an interstate trucking company that specializes in transporting wholesale produce in refrigerated trailers throughout the Midwest. The new owners want to make some sweeping changes in the services offered.  One of the things that they would like to do is add delivery of nonperishable products, such as canned foods, to their delivery routes, allowing AAA to expand the area they cover and to provide expanded service to their existing customers. They think that, because many of the routes do not require a full load on the trucks, there is room to add the nonperishable goods and provide delivery at a lower rate than the customers are now paying. Two of your coworkers, Vernon and Bud, are resistant to the changes proposed by the new owners. Vernon supervises the company’s drivers and Bud works in the corporate offices. Vernon does not think that it is a good idea to expand out of their core business, while Bud thinks that AAA is not strong enough to compete with existing companies that service the nonperishable foods market (several of whom AAA has had a long history of mutually respecting each others’ customers and routes); they risk......

Words: 449 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Eco 316 Week 4 Chapter 24 Linking the Financial System and the Economy the Is-Lm-Fe Model

...This pack of ECO 316 Week 4 Chapter 24 Linking the Financial System and the Economy The IS-LM-FE Model contains: 24.1 Multiple Choice Questions 1) Why did the Fed cut interest rates in late 1991? 2) Why did the Fed cut interest rates in late 1998? 3) A general equilibrium is an outcome in which 4) The money market includes trade in 5) Purchases and sales of stocks, bonds, and houses take place 6) In macroeconomic models, Y typically represents 7) In macroeconomic models, Y stands for 8) An increase in the expected profitability of investment will cause 9) A closed economy is one in which 10) In a closed economy, the total quantity of goods demanded equals the sum of 11) In a closed economy, the goods market is in equilibrium when 12) In a closed economy, if the goods market is in equilibrium, national saving is $2 trillion, national consumption is $7 trillion, and government purchases are $2.5 trillion, then GDP equals 13) In a closed economy, national saving equals 14) For the goods market to be in equilibrium in a closed economy, which of the following must be true? 15) Which of the following is NOT a key factor in determining household saving? 16) An increase in the expected real interest rate will have a 17) An increase in government purchases reduces national saving as long as 18) Evidence suggests that when government purchases rise 19) An increase in the real interest rate will 20)...

Words: 399 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Principles of Software Engineering

...Individual Assignment The two software development methodologies that I have selected for this assignment are the Waterfall Model (as chosen by you) and the Spiral model (chosen by me). These two methods often cause confusion amongst software developers as they are unable to decide which of the two is better for the software they are developing. The first software model to be used was the waterfall. The spiral, that came later, is one of the most popular models in the field of software development. I will go further into each of the above mentioned two models after I describe the four laws given in the prescribed text. I will start with the Glass Law (dubbed law 1). If I was to describe the Glass law, I would say in a nutshell, requirements are the foundation of any project, and incomplete or misinterpreted or misjudged requirements are the key to failure. What I mean by the above is that when the requirements are not clarified, incomplete, unstable or far too many to cope with, the project will face a high chance of failure. A real world example, which added approximately $560M USD to the cost of the airport and became a modern era example of Glass law, was originally planned to automate the handling of baggage through the entire airport, but due to underestimation of complexity, changes in requirements, underestimation of schedule and budget and other causes was a drastic failure. Moving to Boehm’s laws, the first and second law complement......

Words: 1378 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Information Decision Making

...decision making Andor Kovacs CMI no: 4205133 Assignment 5_Submission1 AEA group Assignment Requirements 5002.....................................................................................4 Learning Outcome 1: Be able to identify and select sources of data and information ....................................................................................................................................4 1.1 Discuss the nature of data and information......................................................4 1.2 Evaluate relevant sources of data and information..........................................4 1.3 Discuss the criteria for selection of data and information................................4 1.4 Identify the legal requirements relating to the collection, use and storage of data and information...............................................................................................4 Learning Outcome 2: Be able to analyse and present information to support decision making..........................................................................................................4 2.1 Evaluate the decision making models which are used to support decision making....................................................................................................................4 2.2 Identify those to be involved in analysing information and decision making..5 2.3 Evaluate methods of presenting decision made...............................................5 Learning......

Words: 1352 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Store 24

...retention program in place. But first, he wants Sarah Jenkins to check whether manager tenure and crew tenure are related to store profit. Accordingly, run the three regression models per instructions given below; data for these 3 models is in the worksheet labeled Data for Case A. Important note: For all regression models, use a 5% significance level Model 1: Run a full model for profit that includes both tenure and site location related variables. Tenure related variables are MTenure and CTenure. Site location related variables are population, number of competitors, street level visibility, pedestrian access, type of neighborhood, and whether a store stays open 24 hours. These variables are also defined on page 4 of the case Store24 (A). Question Interpret the coefficients for MTenure and CTenure in model 1. Which of the two variables contributes more to profits (i.e. which one has a greater $ impact)? A common way of determining the relative importance of two independent variables is by assessing the incremental r-squared attributable to that variable. The following two models (Models 2 and 3) allow us determine the relative importance of manager and crew tenure in predicting profits at Store24. Model 2: Run a model for profit with all of the independent variables from model 1 other than managerial tenure. The difference between the adjusted...

Words: 782 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Nothing

...ME7680 Spring 2015 Manufacturing Processing Techniques Individual Projects 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The dimensions of the flip-chip package is shown on page 2. The flip-chip package is under thermal loading of repeated temperature variation from -40C to 125C. There are ten different models as shown from page 3 to page 12. There are two element orders. Each student MUST do one Incompletely-Filled model for fatigue analysis, accompanying with the Completely-Filled model. Every student MUST write his/her own final report, and turn in on Apr 25, 2015 (see the posted guidelines). Every student MUST turn in his/her ABAQUS input file and the .msg file on Apr 25, 2015 for evaluation. Every student MUST follow the Project Naming Convention to name the project. Also use this name to make a file folder which stores all the related files to be submitted. P 3R 2 Model number Element order: 1=CPE4, 2=CPE8 Fillet: ‘R’ for fillet, ‘N’ for non-fillet 1 Dimensions of the flip-chip package (not drawn to scale, unit = mm) Thickness = 1.0mm 3.5 With Fillet 0.7 0.87 r=0.015 C 0.3 0.8 1.5 1.11 1.46 D O Without Fillet 11.84 y o x 2 Model 1: Completely and Incompletely Filled Flip-Chip Packages (1) Objectives: Predict the fatigue life of solder balls in completely and incompletely filled flip-chip packages to understand the effects of underfill material. (a) Completely Filled (b) Incompletely Filled (Case I) ...

Words: 1284 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Questions for Store24 a and B Cases

...whether or not to put an employee retention program in place. But first, he wants Sarah Jenkins to check whether manager tenure and crew tenure are related to store profit. Accordingly, run the three regression models per instructions given below; data for these 3 models is in the worksheet labeled Data for Case A. Model 1: Run a full model for profit that includes both tenure and site location related variables. Tenure related variables are MTenure and CTenure. Site location related variables are population, number of competitors, street level visibility, pedestrian access, type of neighborhood, and whether a store stays open 24 hours. These variables are also defined on page 4 of the case Store24 (A). For categorical variables, be sure to use dummy variables for this and remaining models. Question Interpret the coefficients for MTenure and CTenure in model 1. Which of the two variables contributes more to profits (i.e. which one has a greater $ impact)? A common way of determining the relative importance of two independent variables is by assessing the incremental r-squared attributable to that variable. The following two models (Models 2 and 3) allow us determine the relative importance of manager and crew tenure in predicting profits at Store24. Model 2: Run a...

Words: 870 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Regression

...outputs for Q2 in appendix. Q2: Select the model you are going to keep for each brand and explain WHY. Report the corresponding output in an appendix attached to your report (hence, 1 output per brand) We use Adjusted R Squared to compare the Linear or Semilog Regression. R^2 is a statistic that will give some information about the goodness of fit of a model. In regression, the Adjusted R^2 coefficient of determination is a statistical measure of how well the regression line approximates the real data points. An R2 of 1 indicates that the regression line perfectly fits the data. Brand1: Linear Regression R^2 | 0.594 | SemiLog Regression R^2 | 0.563 | We use the Linear Regression Model since R-squared is higher. Brand 2: Linear Regression R^2 | 0.758 | SemiLog Regression R^2 | 0.588 | We use the Linear Regression Model since R-squared is higher Brand 3: Linear Regression R^2 | 0.352 | SemiLog Regression R^2 | 0.571 | We use the Semilog Regression Model since R-squared is higher Brand 4: Linear Regression R^2 | 0.864 | SemiLog Regression R^2 | 0.603 | We use the Linear Regression Model since R-squared is higher Q3: Here we compute the cross-price elasticity. Depending on whether we use linear or semi-log model, Linear Model Linear Model Semi-Log Model Semi-Log Model ` | Brand 1 | Brand 2 | Brand 3 | Brand 4 | Mean Price | 1.117 | 1.006 |......

Words: 609 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Converting a Physical Data Model to a Logical Model

...tables 4 Assigning appropriate Domains 5 The logical Model 6 Identifying a many to many relationship 7 Replacing a mapping table 7 Renaming Logical Model 15 Entity Names 15 Relationship Names 16 Attribute Names 16 Revisiting Physical Model 19 Relationship Naming 20 FINAL PRODUCT 21 Logical VS Physical 21 Setting up the subject area (if required) 1. Open the target and source Erwin models in the same instance of Erwin. 2. If required create a new subject area in the target model where the tables are going to be copied. Figure 1 – Creating a new subject area 3. Change the default theme to ‘Classic Theme’ (right click on the diagram page and click properties ER Diagram Editor will open up. Change the Theme on the ‘General’ tab) Figure 2 – Selecting a Theme Bringing in the tables 1. Select the tables and relationships (if applicable) from the source model file and paste them in the target model while both models are in Physical mode. Figure 3 – Importing/copying the tables 2. Verify that all the tables you need are copied in the Erwin target model. 3. You can close the source model at this stage (recommended) Assigning appropriate Domains 1. Right click on the table and select ‘column properties’. 2. Assign the correct domain parent to all the columns. Figure 4 Assigning Domains to the columns 3. Once you have assigned the correct domain parent to all the columns close the dialogue box. 4. Repeat...

Words: 1187 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Path Analysis

...การวิเคราะห์เส้นทาง (Path Analysis) ความหมายการวิเคราะห์เส้นทาง การวิเคราะห์เส้นทาง เป็นการวิเคราะห์สาเหตุ โดยนักวิจัยต้องการศึกษาสาเหตุ ของปรากฏการณ์ต่าง ๆว่ามาจากอิทธิพลของสิ่งใด กล่าวอีกนัยหนึ่งก็คือ นักวิจัยต้องการ ค้นหาว่าตัวแปรตามที่กำลังศึกษานั้น เกิดจากอิทธิพลของตัวแปรอิสระอะไรบ้าง และตัว แปรอิสระนั้นมีอิทธิพลต่อตัวแปรตามมากน้อยเพียงใด (สำเริง บุญเรืองรัตน์, หน้า 91) การอธิบายสาเหตุของปรากฏการณ์ นักวิจัยต้องอาศัยความรู้และทฤษฏีต่าง ๆ มา วิเคราะห์เพื่อตั้งสมมติฐานด้วยการสร้างแผนภาพ (Diagram) แสดงเหตุต่าง ๆ ที่มีอิทธิพล ต่อสิ่งที่ตนเองกำลังศึกษาอยู่ เมื่อนักวิจัยสร้างรูปแบบแผนภาพแสดงสาเหตุดังกล่าวแล้ว ก็หาวิธีทดสอบว่า แผนภาพดังกล่าวเป็นไปตามสมมติฐานที่ตั้งไว้หรือไม่ โดยการวิเคราะห์เส้นทาง (Path Analysis) เทคนิคนี้ ไรท์ (Wright,1934) เป็นผู้คิดค้นขึ้นมา การทดสอบสมมติฐานอาจใช้ วิธีการคำนวณโดยใช้โปรแกรมลิสเรล (LISREL) (การเขียนแผนภาพเพื่อนำไปเขียนคำสั่ง วิเคราะห์ในโปรแกรม LISREL จากตัวแปรอิสระไปยังตัวแปรตามใช้สัญลักษณ์เป็น GA และจากตัวแปรตามหนึ่งไปยังอีกตัวหนึ่งใช้สัญลักษณ์เป็น BE และเขียนตัวเลขกำกับ เส้นทางเรียงจากปลายลูกศรไปต้นลูกศร) ซึ่งโปรแกรม LISREL จะคำนวณค่าสัมประสิทธิ์ สหสัมพันธ์และระดับนัยสำคัญของแต่ละเส้นทาง พร้อมแนะนำเส้นทางที่เหมาะสมให้ด้วย ดังตัวอย่างที่จะกล่าวต่อไปในตอนสุดท้าย ความรู้เบื้องต้นเกี่ยวกับการวิเคราะห์เส้นทาง การวิเคราะห์เส้นทาง (Path analysis) เป็นการศึกษาความสัมพันธ์ของตัวแปรในเชิงเหตุและผล เป็นวิธีที่มีพื้นฐานทางสถิติมาจากการวิเคราะห์การถดถอย (Regression analysis) โดยอาศัยแผนภาพและสมการโครงสร้างของแผนภาพเป็นหลักในการนำม...

Words: 921 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Chapter 10

...Straight Creating a model is a mechanical process; knowing when it is appropriate to use it is a thinking/analysis process. A useful model is the ultimate goal. Linear Models have tools that are relatively simple to understand and interpret: slope, yintercept. We can verify that a linear model is appropriate by checking the conditions and looking at the residual plot. Curved Models can be fit, but relatively speaking are more difficult to calculate. First Approach: Make sure that a re-expression can be meaningful. • Once we re-express, decide if the model is appropriate o Create the model o Plot the residuals o If there is still a curve, build another model o When the model has random, scattered residuals then we interpret using the model • Scatter plot shows a mixture of “signal” and “noise” o Signal is the underlying association between the variables o Noise is the random variation unaccounted for by the association o Example: in a scatter plot of height and weight, generally tall people weigh more; however, not all 6 ft tall people weigh the same—that variation is the noise. We want a regression model that describes the signal (the underlying relationship between ht and wt) Residual plot shows us the variation that is not explained by the model If the plot is random (just noise) then we have captured the whole signal If a curve remains in the residual plot, then we missed some of the signal meaning we need to look for a better model • When the appropriate model is......

Words: 1098 - Pages: 5