Premium Essay

The 4 Models

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By tyler27
Words 284
Pages 2
Linear Model:
The linear model shows a sender transmitting messages to a receiver. Once they are finished it is assumed the roles are reversed and the sender becomes the receiver and the receiver becomes the sender. In 1949, two engineers added noise to the equation to show its effect on communication.
Interactive Model:
The interactive model adds the variable of dual roles. In this model, it assumes that the parties involved in the communication can be senders and receivers. A big part of this model is the field of experience and feedback. Feedback is a method of sending a message to indicate what they are getting from the conversation. Field of experience is another factor that will dictate how two people communicate. For example: An engineer will speak differently to other engineers as opposed to customers who would not understand the technical aspects.
Transactional Models:
Transactional models add the dimension of constant communication between 2 or more parties. Instead of depicting senders/receivers as fulfilling one role at a time, this model portrays them as filling both roles at the same time. Even if you are not the speaker, body language and responses (or even lack of responses) is a form of communication.
Books Model:
The books model adds outside influences such as societal forces, culture and context. When two or more people are communicating, factors such as the culture or the context of the discussion will change the messages dramatically. Even when talking to the same person, the conversation will change a lot depending on the location and context. Talking to a friend about sports at home is a lot different than talking to the same friend about family at a…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Facets Model Module 4

...achievement of the organization’s objectives.3 3 4— S T R A T E G I C C O R P O R A T E S O C I A L R E S P O N S I B I L I T Y Simply put, a firm’s stakeholders include those individuals and groups that have a stake in the firm’s operations. Such a broad view has not always been the norm, however. Over time, as the impact of business on society has grown, the range of stakeholders whose concerns a company needs to address has fluctuated—from the initial view of the corporation as a legal entity that is granted societal permission to exist by charter, to a narrower focus on the rights of owners, to a broader range of constituents (including employees and customers), and back again and at the end of the 20th century, to a disproportionate focus on shareholders. Increasingly, however, companies are again adopting a broader stakeholder outlook, extending their perspective to include constituents such as the communities in which they operate. Today, companies are more likely to recognize the degree of interdependence between the firm and each of these groups, leaving less room to ignore stakeholders’ pressing concerns. Just because an individual or organization meets this definition of an “interested constituent,” however, does not compel a firm (either legally or logically) to comply with every stakeholder demand. Nevertheless, affected parties who are ignored long enough may take action against the firm, such as a product boycott,4 or they may turn to government for......

Words: 12285 - Pages: 50

Premium Essay

Oi 361 Week 4 Individual Mental Model/Mindsets Paper

...OI 361 Week 4 Individual Mental Model/Mindsets Paper To Buy This material Click below link ssume you work in Human Resources as a part of the management team for AAA Transportation in Waukegan, WI, which has recently been acquired. AAA Transportation is an interstate trucking company that specializes in transporting wholesale produce in refrigerated trailers throughout the Midwest. The new owners want to make some sweeping changes in the services offered.  One of the things that they would like to do is add delivery of nonperishable products, such as canned foods, to their delivery routes, allowing AAA to expand the area they cover and to provide expanded service to their existing customers. They think that, because many of the routes do not require a full load on the trucks, there is room to add the nonperishable goods and provide delivery at a lower rate than the customers are now paying. Two of your coworkers, Vernon and Bud, are resistant to the changes proposed by the new owners. Vernon supervises the company’s drivers and Bud works in the corporate offices. Vernon does not think that it is a good idea to expand out of their core business, while Bud thinks that AAA is not strong enough to compete with existing companies that service the nonperishable foods market (several of whom AAA has had a long history of mutually respecting each others’ customers and routes); they risk......

Words: 449 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Eco 302 Wk 4 Assignment 1 the Solow Growth Model

...ECO 302 WK 4 ASSIGNMENT 1 THE SOLOW GROWTH MODEL To purchase this visit here: Contact us at: SUPPORT@ACTIVITYMODE.COM ECO 302 WK 4 ASSIGNMENT 1 THE SOLOW GROWTH MODEL ECO 302 WK 4 Assignment 1 - The Solow Growth Model Write a four to six (4-6) page paper that answers the following: 1. Discuss the three (3) basic assumptions of the Solow Growth Model and analyze their compatibility with real-world economic conditions. 2. Analyze the effects of an increase in population growth on the growth rate of capital per worker. More Details of the Question are hidden... Activity mode aims to provide quality study notes and tutorials to the students of ECO 302 WK 4 Assignment 1 The Solow Growth Model in order to ace their studies. ECO 302 WK 4 ASSIGNMENT 1 THE SOLOW GROWTH MODEL To purchase this visit here: Contact us at: SUPPORT@ACTIVITYMODE.COM ECO 302 WK 4 ASSIGNMENT 1 THE SOLOW GROWTH MODEL ECO 302 WK 4 Assignment 1 - The Solow Growth Model Write a four to six (4-6) page paper that answers the following: 1. Discuss the three (3) basic assumptions of the Solow Growth Model and analyze their compatibility with real-world economic conditions. 2. Analyze the effects of an increase in population growth on the growth rate of capital per worker. More Details of the Question are......

Words: 871 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Eco 316 Week 4 Chapter 24 Linking the Financial System and the Economy the Is-Lm-Fe Model

...This pack of ECO 316 Week 4 Chapter 24 Linking the Financial System and the Economy The IS-LM-FE Model contains: 24.1 Multiple Choice Questions 1) Why did the Fed cut interest rates in late 1991? 2) Why did the Fed cut interest rates in late 1998? 3) A general equilibrium is an outcome in which 4) The money market includes trade in 5) Purchases and sales of stocks, bonds, and houses take place 6) In macroeconomic models, Y typically represents 7) In macroeconomic models, Y stands for 8) An increase in the expected profitability of investment will cause 9) A closed economy is one in which 10) In a closed economy, the total quantity of goods demanded equals the sum of 11) In a closed economy, the goods market is in equilibrium when 12) In a closed economy, if the goods market is in equilibrium, national saving is $2 trillion, national consumption is $7 trillion, and government purchases are $2.5 trillion, then GDP equals 13) In a closed economy, national saving equals 14) For the goods market to be in equilibrium in a closed economy, which of the following must be true? 15) Which of the following is NOT a key factor in determining household saving? 16) An increase in the expected real interest rate will have a 17) An increase in government purchases reduces national saving as long as 18) Evidence suggests that when government purchases rise 19) An increase in the real interest rate will 20)...

Words: 399 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Oi 361 Week 4 Mental Model-Mindsets

...Mental Model/Mindsets Paper Student Name OI/361 April 7, 2014 Instructor Name Mental Model/Mindsets Paper Reality representations that people use to understand and identify the particular phenomenon are known as mental models. Mental models represent assumptions that are deeply ingrained and they influence how people take action and how they understand the world. Mental models are developed over time through experience, socialization and interaction with others. They are opinions, beliefs, perceptions, assumptions, values and truths. Mental models are often hidden and one is not aware of them or their effect on one’s behavior. When mental models are created they become reinforced in the mind and it becomes hard to change them (Von Stamm, 2008). Vernon and Bud have been in this company for more than twenty years, thus there mental models are deeply rooted and difficult to change. It is hard to convince both of them to change their mental models or adopt new ones. The mental models that these two coworkers have impacted greatly on how they behave in the company and the decisions they make. Vernon is afraid of the expansion and Bud is against competing with other organizations. Changing Mental Model/Mindsets In any organization, change is constant, hence the need to keep changing mental models of employees. It is hard to change mental models since they are not forces that one is aware of consciously, but subconsciously. Vernon and Bud are against the new change that......

Words: 1269 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay


...About the Authors Preface Part 1 Chapter 1 ix vii INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION Outline of the Book 2 The Economic Theory of Choice: An Illustration Under Certainty Conclusion 8 Multiple Assets and Risk 8 Questions and Problems 9 Bibliography 10 4 1 2 Chapter 2 FINANCIAL MARKETS Trading Mechanics 11 Margin 14 Markets 18 Trade Types and Costs 25 Conclusion 27 Bibliography 27 1 1 Chapter 3 FINANCIAL SECURITIES Types of Marketable Financial Securities 2 8 The Return Characteristics of Alternative Security Types Stock Market Indexes 3 8 Bond Market Indexes 3 9 Conclusion 4 0 36 28 Part 2 Section I Chapter 4 P O R T F O L I O ANALYSIS MEAN VARIANCE PORTFOLIO THEORY THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE OPPORTUNITY SET UNDER RISK Determining the Average Outcome 4 5 A Measure of Dispersion 4 6 Variance of Combinations of Assets 4 9 Characteristics of Portfolios in General 51 Two Concluding Examples 61 Conclusion 6 4 XIII 41 43 44 XIV CONTENTS Questions and Problems Bibliography 6 6 Chapter 5 64 DELINEATING EFFICIENT PORTFOLIOS Combinations of Two Risky Assets Revisited: Short Sales Not Allowed The Shape of the Portfolio Possibilities Curve 77 The Efficient Frontier with Riskless Lending and Borrowing 8 4 Examples and Applications 8 8 Three Examples 93 Conclusion 9 6 Questions and Problems 9 6 Bibliography 97 68 68 Chapter 6 TECHNIQUES FOR CALCULATING THE EFFICIENT FRONTIER Short Sales Allowed with Riskless Lending and Borrowing 100 Short......

Words: 1893 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Principles of Software Engineering

...Individual Assignment The two software development methodologies that I have selected for this assignment are the Waterfall Model (as chosen by you) and the Spiral model (chosen by me). These two methods often cause confusion amongst software developers as they are unable to decide which of the two is better for the software they are developing. The first software model to be used was the waterfall. The spiral, that came later, is one of the most popular models in the field of software development. I will go further into each of the above mentioned two models after I describe the four laws given in the prescribed text. I will start with the Glass Law (dubbed law 1). If I was to describe the Glass law, I would say in a nutshell, requirements are the foundation of any project, and incomplete or misinterpreted or misjudged requirements are the key to failure. What I mean by the above is that when the requirements are not clarified, incomplete, unstable or far too many to cope with, the project will face a high chance of failure. A real world example, which added approximately $560M USD to the cost of the airport and became a modern era example of Glass law, was originally planned to automate the handling of baggage through the entire airport, but due to underestimation of complexity, changes in requirements, underestimation of schedule and budget and other causes was a drastic failure. Moving to Boehm’s laws, the first and second law complement......

Words: 1378 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay


...MORTGAGE PORTFOLIO ANALYZER: A QUASI-STRUCTURAL MODEL OF MORTGAGE PORTFOLIO LOSSES TECHNICAL DOCUMENT 1 Mar 4, 2011 Roger M. Stein Ashish Das Yufeng Ding Shirish Chinchalkar ABSTRACT This document outlines the underlying research, model characteristics, data, and validation results for Mortgage Portfolio Analyzer, which is an analytic tool to assess credit risk measures, capital levels and stress scenarios for portfolios of residential mortgages. Mortgage Portfolio Analyzer comprises loan-level econometric models for default, prepayment, and severity. These models are integrated through common dependence on local macro-economic factors, which can be either simulated at national, state, and Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) levels or input in the form of stress scenarios. This integration produces correlation in behaviors of loans across the portfolio. The simulation incorporates a multi-step Monte Carlo approach and generates monthly P&I cash flows and losses which enables the model to be used for ALM applications or to be combined with an external cash flow waterfall tool and used for simulation of RMBS transactions. Scenario and stress testing is also done in a multiperiod framework. Furthermore, the model accommodates both loan-level and portfolio-level mortgage insurance. The resulting tool can be used for analyzing the credit risk in both portfolios of whole loans and RMBS transactions. © 2011 Moody’s Research Labs. All rights reserved. Many past and present......

Words: 3373 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Information Decision Making

...decision making Andor Kovacs CMI no: 4205133 Assignment 5_Submission1 AEA group Assignment Requirements 5002.....................................................................................4 Learning Outcome 1: Be able to identify and select sources of data and information ....................................................................................................................................4 1.1 Discuss the nature of data and information......................................................4 1.2 Evaluate relevant sources of data and information..........................................4 1.3 Discuss the criteria for selection of data and information................................4 1.4 Identify the legal requirements relating to the collection, use and storage of data and information...............................................................................................4 Learning Outcome 2: Be able to analyse and present information to support decision making..........................................................................................................4 2.1 Evaluate the decision making models which are used to support decision making....................................................................................................................4 2.2 Identify those to be involved in analysing information and decision making..5 2.3 Evaluate methods of presenting decision made...............................................5 Learning......

Words: 1352 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Integrated Business Plan

...文 The Integrated Business Model for E-Commerce 指 導 教 授:黃焜煌 博士 研 究 生 :譚雅 中華民國一百年一月 The Integrated Business Model for E-Commerce Abstract In today’s ever developing e-commerce world, the success of any enterprise strongly depends on its chosen business model. Since the peculiarities of each firm’s external and internal environment differ drastically, sometimes it is difficult to find a unified scheme for any organization to implement. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to create a universal business model, the Integrated Business Model for E-Commerce, which could be applied to any business. This Model consists of nine main categories, which in their turn are subdivided into different business models. Through its major characteristics:1) it can be implemented for the analysis of any business; and 2) it can be used for the future investment purposes; the Integrated Business Model will serve companies as an efficient tool in the analysis and evaluation of their business. Keywords: e-commerce, integrated, business model, categories ii FCU e-Theses & Dissertations (2011) The Integrated Business Model for E-Commerce CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 Introduction ..................................................................... 1 CHAPTER 2 Literature Review ............................................................ 3 CHAPTER 3 The Integrated Business Model ...................................... 9 3.1 Creating an Integrated Business Model......

Words: 9778 - Pages: 40

Free Essay


...4/4/2016 49004 Systems Engineering for Managers Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) - An Introduction Last Lecture 2 We completed our introduction to systems concepts: Definitions Characteristics Significance Feedback 1 4/4/2016 This lecture 3 We will give a brief description of Checkland’s Soft Systems Methodology (SSM); We will indicate where it is appropriate to use; We will distinguish it from “hard” approaches. 4 Lecture Relevant Reading Checkland P (1993), “The Development of ‘Soft’ Systems Thinking”, Jackson MC (2004), “Soft Systems Methodology”, Optional Reading: Staker RJ (1999), An Application of Checkland’s Soft Systems Methodology to the Development of a Military Information Operations Capability for the Australian Defence Force 2 4/4/2016 “Classical” Systems Engineering 5 One way of thinking suggests… engineering begins when a need is established. the engineer’s task then provides a solution ... A “how to” oriented activity the need is expressed in terms of a system with defined objectives If there is a current situation S0 and a future, desired situation S1, then select the best of the available ways of getting from S0 to S1 so that the process becomes one of evaluating alternative solutions using models and criteria However… 6 More often than not, for managers, the problem is ill-defined – or the need is not readily established “What is the issue?” is the relevant......

Words: 3420 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Stock Market Modeling Techniques

...Applications [Kevin M. Farnham - 24 April 1999] 0. Introduction Models have been developed that reduce the risk of investing in the U.S. stock market, while increasing long-term returns. Algorithms that evaluate the market's price pattern over a given period were studied in relation to the market's subsequent performance. Various correlations were noted. The correlations were merged into a series of models that provide buy and sell signals. The graph shows the annual risk-adjusted return (dividends excluded) of the NYSE and the three broad market models presented in this report over the 30 years from 1969 to 1998. Models #9 and #4 outperformed the NYSE Index and had a positive return in all 30 years. The aggressive Model #9A outperformed the NYSE Index and had a positive return in 29 of the 30 years, the exception being a 1.5% pre-dividend loss in 1985. This performance was accomplished without using short sales, in a market that declined in 9 of the 30 years. This report: 1. outlines a philosophy for building effective predictive models; 2. documents the 30-year performance of three broad market models; 3. provides close-up views of model performance during bear markets; 4. presents the actual trading results for a market-neutral model; and 5. suggests potential applications for the developed techniques. 1. Modeling Philosophy A central problem with developing predictive models based on past market performance is that the future......

Words: 2374 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Prediction and Optimisation of Fsw

...making the effective use of experimental data, FIS membership function parameters are trained. At the core, mathematical model that functionally relates tool rotational speed and forward movement per revolution to that of Yield strength, Ultimate strength and Weld quality are obtained. Also, simulations are performed, and the actual values are compared with the predicted values. Finally, multi-objective optimization of mechanical properties fuselage aluminium was undertaken using Genetic Algorithm to improve the performance of the tools industrially. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Objectives of the dissertation include  Understanding the basic principles of operation of Friction Stir Welding (FSW).  Gaining experience in modelling and regressive analysis.  Gaining expertise in MATLAB programming.  Identifying the best strategy to achieve the yield strength, Ultimate Tensile strength and Weld quality of Friction Stir Welding.  Performing optimization of mechanical properties of FSW using Genetic Algorithm. I  To draw conclusions on prediction of mechanical properties of FSW optimization of aircraft fuselage aluminium. ACHIEVEMENTS  The basic principles of friction welding of the welding operations are well studied and understood.  The theoretical concepts of modelling techniques are familiarised.  Gained expertise in MATLAB programming.  The best model that can predict the mechanical properties of friction stir welded aircraft fuselage aluminium has been developed......

Words: 9686 - Pages: 39

Premium Essay

Questions for Store24 a and B Cases

...profit. Accordingly, run the three regression models per instructions given below; data for these 3 models is in the worksheet labeled Data for Case A. Model 1: Run a full model for profit that includes both tenure and site location related variables. Tenure related variables are MTenure and CTenure. Site location related variables are population, number of competitors, street level visibility, pedestrian access, type of neighborhood, and whether a store stays open 24 hours. These variables are also defined on page 4 of the case Store24 (A). For categorical variables, be sure to use dummy variables for this and remaining models. Question Interpret the coefficients for MTenure and CTenure in model 1. Which of the two variables contributes more to profits (i.e. which one has a greater $ impact)? A common way of determining the relative importance of two independent variables is by assessing the incremental r-squared attributable to that variable. The following two models (Models 2 and 3) allow us determine the relative importance of manager and crew tenure in predicting profits at Store24. Model 2: Run a model for profit with all of the independent variables from model 1 other than managerial tenure. The difference between the adjusted r-squared values for Models 1 and 2 is the incremental adjusted r-squared attributable to manager tenure. Model 3: Run a model for profit with all of the independent variables from model 1 other than crew tenure. The......

Words: 870 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...there are a number of recent studies examining volatility and Value-at-Risk (VaR) measures in financial and commodity markets, none of them focuses on the gold market. We use a large number of statistical models to model and then forecast daily volatility and VaR. Both insample and out-of-sample forecasts are evaluated using appropriate evaluation measures. For in-sample forecasting, the class of TARCH models provide the best results. For out-of-sample forecasting, the results were not that clear-cut and the order and specification of the models were found to be an important factor in determining model’s performance. VaR for traders with long and short positions were evaluated by comparing failure rates and a simple AR as well as a TARCH model perform best for the considered back-testing period. Overall, most models outperform a benchmark random walk model, while none of the considered models performed significantly better than the rest with respect to all adopted criteria. Key Words: Gold Markets, Volatility, Forecasting, Value-at-Risk, Backtesting JEL classification: G17, C22, G32 ____________________________________________ 1. Introduction The recent global financial crisis has highlighted the need for financial institutions to find and implement appropriate models for risk quantification. Hereby, in particular Value-at-Risk (VaR) and volatility estimates were subject to significant changes during 2007-9 financial turmoil in comparison to normal market behaviour.......

Words: 12182 - Pages: 49