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THE

Theory

of

Music.

AS

APPLIED OF

TO VOICE

THE

TEACHIN" AND INSTRUMENTS.

AND

PJtAOTICE

LOUIS
Author
of
"

C.
Cuwositibs German oi' ELSON.
Mtjsic,"
Etc.
"

History

of

Song,"

This

Course

is

adopted

and

used

in Music.

the

New

England

Conservatory

of

BOSTON

:

New

England

Consekvatory

of

Music.

EIGHTH

MDITION.

1900.

Copyright,

1890,

by

Lotjis

C.

Elsom.

F.

H.

GILSON,

MUSIC

PRINTER

AND

BOOKBINDER,

BOSTON.

PREFACE.

This

work

is

not

so

much a intended

for

self-instruction,as course to

provide may systematized their is

by the which

teachers

assist which keen at pupils sary neces-

toward to that

general knowledge true musician. branches the to The

tion competipresent, to in

the

musical

is

gradually merely of such those as a

leading specialist j principles

musician counteract become

this, a study all which

underlie

music,

the most laws

of

Acoustics, and a

musical

form,

etc., is are

necessary, to this

little volume of such the

intended
It

become

text-book but an studies. details In the

naturally gives are outline, the of which matter are

to be

filled in

by

teacher. facts to of of the

Acoustics, utmost only

those

which musician touch

importance no the to are

stated, all the It is I

and

attempt of is made the

upon

ramifications as a

ing interestnot as subject. an means

therefore, may be

end,

that

hope and this

work

accepted
El

by

musician

public.
Lours
C.
SON.

m

TABLE

OF

OOI^TES"TS.

PAGE.

Chapter

I.
.

7 String
Vibrations.

Acoustics."

Chapter

II. Perception ol 12 Sound." Overtones. 21
. .

Chapter

III.
Tlie

Tempered

Scale."

Pitch.

Chapter

IV
Classification of Vibrations.

29

Chapter
The

V. Orchestra VI.
. .

33 and its

Instruments."

The

Violin. 41

Chapter

Viola."

Cello."

Contrabass."

Harp,

etc.

Chapter
The

VII Woodwind
"

49
:

Flute."

Piccolo."

Oboe."
The

English

Horn. Bass-

Bassoon

"Contrabassoon." Basset
Horn.

Clarinets."

Clarinet."

Chapter
The

VIII.
Brass
Instruments
:

59
French Tuba." Horn."

"Trombone."

Bass

TrumpetOphicleide.

Comet.

Chapter

IX.
Instruments of Percussion:
Bells."

71
The

Kettle-drums."
Bass Drum." Drum."

The The

Glocli-

enspiel."

Xylophone."
Military

bals." Cymbourine, Tam-

Tamtam."

Triangle."

Castagnettes. Chapter
X.
Musical

81

Bhythms."

Tempo-marks,

and

Accents.

Chapter

XI
Abbreviations
Rests
.

87 and "Accidentals.

Signs."

Abbreviations

of

Notation."

Chapter

XII
Musical

93

Groups.
Dunmuendo."

"

Metronome

Marks.Slurs

Crescendo and Ties.

and

Syncopation."

(5)

''

CONTENTS.
FAGK.

Chapter

XIII.
,

105
Embellishments." The Turn." Mordenia."

Musical

bination-signs. Com-

Chapter

XIV
The Trill.

118

Chapter

XV
Grace

126

Nptes."

The

Appoggiatura.

"

The

Acciacoatura.

Chapter

XVI
Musical Form." -Thematic

129

Figures

and

their

Treatment."

IPhrasing.
136

Development.

Chapter

XVII
The Suite." bande." The The Old Dances." The Chaconne." The SaraThe Courante." The uet." Passacaglia." The MinThe Gavotte." The Bourree." The Pavane." The AUemande." The Eigaudon." Gigue.

Chapter

XVIII
The Sonata." Sonatar-movement.

143

Chapter

XIX
The Slow Movement." Bondo-f orms Minuet-form." Finale ."Song-"orm." The The
.

155
Scherzo."

Chapter

XX
Other Sonata
Forms."

167
Overture." Concerto." Sonatina.

"Symphony.
Chapter
The

XXI
Vocal Forms." Cavatina." The Mass." Ariar-form.Vocal The Art-song. Bondo.

172

Strophe-form."

Chapter

XXII Contrapuntal
Forms." Imitations."

178

Monophony."
Canon.

Homophony."

phony." Poly186

Chapter

XXIII

TheFugue." tion." Answer." Eepercussion and

Subject."
Coda.

Counter-subject."
Episodes."
Stretto."

ExposlOrgan
195

Point."

Chapter

XXIV
Modern Waltz. Polonaise." Mazurka." Galop." March. nade. SereCavatma." Eomanza " Bhapsodie. pourri." PotBarcarolle. Pastorale. Tarantella. Albumleaf." Ballade." Berceuse. Nocturne." Poem. "Symphonic Dance "ThePolka." Beverie."
" "

Fonns.-Drawing-room-Music.-The
"

"

"

"

Chapter

XXV
Conclusion.

204

THE

Theory

of

Music

CHAPTER
ACOUSTICS. STRING

I.

VIBRATIONS.

Sound

is

a

sensation

made

on

the the

organs air. of

ing hear-

by treats peculiar of the laws

vibrations

of

Acoustics and governing the name

these

vibrations from the

their verb could

production,
"to

coming the Greek there set hear." no "Without and

presence

of

air

be

sound,

the of two

air

is

generally and in

motion

by the vibration can

collision of one or

bodies, of the 'Such

quent subse-

both

them. in the on tion vibracase

be

most

readily and are as understood some the

of

stretched musical will
Let
at

strings, instruments these

of

most

important principle we founded

this

examine the

first. a following figure represent
:
"

string fastened

both

ends

H
If this

"^ be string

plucked

in

the

centre

it will

begin

to

8

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

swing other to and

fro

on

each

side of its one point and of rest. to a

A the

complete swing, and as

first to

side

then called

back

to the

startingpoint is

tion,* vibra-

illustrated

by the following figure:

Both

stringsand which the to or

other wiU

substances be have

more

plex com-

vibrations vibrations thus are explained later. imparted to These

of

string are ear. the air, and slow

carried

the

If

they

are

very

they is inaudible, when convey reach or only single,isolated shocks, sixteen per

but

they
The the
K

second, a a

tone

heard.

beauty they uglinessof regular

sound

depends these a

chiefly upon vibrations. musical will tone regularity or are of irregularity and

continuous

is heard, while a tteir irregular succession

produce at noise. the vibrations

The thus the at quicker about the

higher the pitch : second we

sixteen tone vibrations of we

per

hear

deepest pedal thirty-two

the

largest church reached organs, about the

vibrations

have

*

In

France, twice used and

the the this

motion number

to

each

side

is called

a

vibration, in this

thus

giving
Chladni
in

of

vibrations The double with

stated vibration

work. used

system.

system

England

America,

originated

Newton.

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

9

lowest

C per of

a

seven-octave we pianoforte, at 260 a tions vibrato

second

attain

tone

approximate
4160

the

middle per at C

of the we instrument, hear the

at about

vibrations

second

highest C per of

the sound piano, is and

about

38,000

vibrations the

second

vanishes diflferent in altogether,although in some

vanishing point speed of state different

ears.

The the wann, sound the

depends

degree air, but

upon in

of

atmosphere, than in

being quicker clear damp
1100

weather

cold, in a

it is about

feet

per

second

moderate All The which All in temperature. of sound of the have the same kinds

velocity. to vibrations are strings are
Canons
one

subject

four

laws

called

of the stretched

string.

of these, except the some relatingto tension, apply fore there-

degree are to

other

vibrating substances, the they the different to most

important points to memorize, comprehend instruments.

if

student

would

construction laws

of

musical

These and relate

the

length, thickness, tension,
Canon.
The

density of the

string.
First

longer

a

stringthe the have

slower

its

vibrations, in inverse is, if a proportion to feet should same length. the That

string of twenty per tions vibrafifty same second, but the

string,under to ten same conditions, one shortened in feet, would

have

hundred

vibrations

the

time, sounding

10

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

an

octave the

nigher number a

than of

the

note

first

produced, produce number the

since the the

twice octave octave

vibrations and rule

will

above below. given note,
The above

half

applies also

to

the

length

of organ

pipes.
The
thicker a Second

Canon.

string the to slower

its vibrations

in inverse

proportion certain of half

the

thickness. vibrate all other

That twice

is, a as string of as a

diameter

will

slowly
Canon.
will

one

its diameter,

conditions

being equal.
The
be its root Third more tighter a string is drawn, vibrations, in direct of the tension.

the

rapid to tion proporif a the a square

Thus, at string with it, had

twenty-five pound per weight

the

end

of the one fiftyvibrations to one

second, we by changing would attain the

weight hundred number.

hundred per

pounds second, vibrations

twice

original

Fourth of the slower the all same Canon.

The of which

greater the the specificgravity the substance

string is composed, two its vibrations. made of

Thus the strings of of not

wire, in the as one

platinum,

other

iron, but at other rate as

conditions

alike, will is vibrate three since iron.

platinum
The

nearly of times should number heavy four to

proportion to weight the be

one

in

order

obtain

half

of

vibrations.

TSEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

11

All of of

the for

above while and rules

are

applied wires in

the

stringing short, a

piano,

the of

upper

are

thin, are tightly long, with drawn, thick, copper have

steel

only, drawn, the and lower

ones

rather

loosely

coiled

around

or

wrought a iron,

both

of

which than stances sub-

greater violin, specific the last

gravity three canons

steel.

In

stringing and the

are

garded, re-

thickness,

tension, the and

density

(the

last

produced

by of coiling vibrations. G

string)

give

the

requisite

proportion

12

TEEOBr

OF

MUSIC.

CHAPTER
PERCEPTION
OF SOUND.

n.
OVEETONES.

We sound

have

already human second

stated ear that

the at at

perception about of

by the per per

begins ceases sixteen

vibrations vibrations and
;
a

about

38,000

second and

this interval minor

comprises about an eleven octave octaves

third, beginning third above are below three
"

the

deepest C of the piano, and ending and a

nearly

octaves

minor

its to highest note be able to to be

the five-lined C. which ear. Women are said

perceive sounds by the male of these has

too

observed about seven

In are only than octaves

high in pitch music practical employed, and lower melodiused

although the these but cally,

organ

tones

both are higher and not seven

octaves, they in combination to add

only

with

other

notes, to after) here-

give fulness, or to tone a the harmonics in (of which would have

chord.

Stated

vibrations, the

lowest about over

ordinarily employed in thirty-two per second, and
4000.

music the

The be the

deepest

tones
"

highesta attainable by an

trifle

orchestra

would

following:

THEOST

OF

MUSIC.

13

Contrabass, four-stringed,
.

.

^
Sva
Oass,

Contrabass, five-stringed,

m

Harp,
Contrabassoon,
while the

M
^
. .

Wk

^
W
Zva

highest

tones

of

Violin
8m

(harmonics)

or

^

Piccolo the

are

a

little below so I

1=
The volume

vibrations

of it is

strings move necessary or

a slight

of air that as always of a

to re-enforce

them, just

the

light

locomotive The is the

of

a

lighthouse is strengthenedby in the case reflectors.

reflector

of

musical

stru inis

sounding-board, as and

its function lens in a quite

as

important the that of sound a

Fresnel a great

lighthouse, for would be

of at aided, vibrating string,un-

inaudible

the

distance reflected

of

even

a

few

feet ; it is the

amplified and cause on

vibrations which

of the we sounding-board which when a

the full tone

hear a note

is sounded The

piano, violin, and is in

less

degree, harp. made Pine of for this

piano sounding-board wood, and the

generally makers use

Spruce

violin

ment. important part of the instru-

Vibrations

which

cause

sound Difference

can

differ in in

rapidity,

extent,

and

shape.

rapidity would

14

TBEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

affect

the

pitch only and :

difference

in

extent

would

affect the fullness

power

of the tone.

.c^

The tone stringA B, when it

for

example, as will

produce when a

louder it swings

far

as

E, than decided only

reaches

D, since it gives a a more

shock

to the

air, producing

greater compression of a more

and

expansion, definite and

and, therefore, sound-waves clearer character. in Differences in the the cause shape that of vibrations and makes can cause we

differences must qualityof tones, of in a these musical best

seek able. agree-

much

tong

These

differences

be

illustrated

by

studying they exist
Just
waves ones the

shape

of

string vibrations, although the these a in all a vibratingsurfaces. on ocean

as

large wave its breast, and

bears

smaller

upon upon

again carry yet smaller vibrating surface its chief the or their surfaces, so vibrations
:

ries car-

smaller one along

with

mental fundaof

but, different smaller from

undulations in a

water,

these as vibrations set subdivide a order, and, which each

produces

regular fainter,higher tone tone that a mingles chief with

the fundamental

produced

by the

vibration, it follows

regular set

THEOMY

OF

MUSIC.

15

of tones, each is sounded

one

fainter

and

higher than production as

the other, tone. simultaneouslywith which govern or the fundamental and The these

laws

the

order

of

overtones, were harmonics,

they

are

frequently and the fact of

called,

first

thoroughly in 1863, tones was

formulated

plained ex-

by Helmholtz, the existence as although stated are

of

such

by Mersenne present be in

early

as

1636.

The

overtones

every causes musical tones tone, and of it is their

proportion which power to

the

same

pitch and other because of a

tingu dis-

from as a

each the an

of their

qualitj^ flute,or of every

for

example, from sound

tone

violin

from

a

clarinet

oboe. on The the

character number as

musical

depends the and

tionate propor-

strength of tones overtones,

all fundamental does to not our have

the

same

quality. Nature fundamental ,

sent preears. tones over-

simple, or merely
The
tones are tones

in music

which

are

most

devoid

of

those

produced by lower the

largerstopped pipes of a

in

a

church-organ, the flute, and away. tones

simple keyed it is

wooden

the sound on of

a

tuning-forkas hand result

dying are When in very

the

other

the overtones is a present

large proportion,the such as

thin oboe The

penetrating tone, or is

produced by therefore few be the

violin. effect of the as "

overtones a may

marized sum-

follows,

tone

in which and

harmonics while

are

present is dull, hollow,

monotonous,

16

THEOMT

OF

MUSIC.

one

with
A

many thin

harmonics metallic some is tone bright, penetrating, can and low mel-

sharp. by be

made harmonics

more

causing and a

of and the

upper

to

appear dismade

dull

hollow to tone

can

be

brighter has been

by

adding

harmonics in it.

The

principle of musical made lower melconical

directly applied and the

manufacture flute was instruments, in to

the

Boehm

tone-color, thus by

changing

its bore half dull of

from the

cylindrical, the organ, was eliminating was overtones, in while

which

too

toned

its- diapasons

enriched certain "

and

made as brighter
"

by

the the

addition
"

of the was stops

the

Mixture," the Quint," which We

Fifteenth," furnish that be and absent

others,

function

of

to

the the

overtones.

have overtones said can subvibrations

which in be

cause

the

most

readily

observed would

ing vibratthe tire en-

strings

;

the the

chief

vibration from arise the end

of but will length vibrations the overtones of will

string

to

end, these of

smaller

instantly on and

sound wiU the

which

beauty

the

tone

depend. manner The in which

following these diagrams arise. will

illustrate

18

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

The of the

explanation of overtone the

diagram

is

an

explanation string to be system. sounds Supposing great C but on a the

the

wire

which

pianoforte,Fig. which would sounds also 1 wculd

represent the whole note sets
;

vibration the wire

the

fundamental in two vibrate

of

subvibrations "V. S." in segments, as and

marked be

(called ventral the diagram) and, the these

would

half the twice the is set length of as entire

string, the 2.

they

would thus

vibrate

fast an as

the

full vibrations, above in

sounding that another

note

octave as fundamental,
Meanwhile

small

C,

Fig.

of three vibrations ventral another

has

started, and dividing the string into sounding Fig. tone segments, set, into and but small

G,

"

Fig. 3; the one-lined to begun
"

simultaneously,
4
"

divides

strings
C ;

fourths thus a and

sounds is intended musical the

string which in the and smaller

represent

single

scale, is subdividing itself into

smaller

segments, which The

and

sounding been an
"

tire en-

assembly chord of notes,

have

called be the monic har-

of Nature." series of

following would and the

great C, that same

it must

be

borne its own in mind series

that formed every of

tone

is sounded intervals octave as

has

the

those the a

represented tal, fundamen-

here,

i. e., the

first,an a above next the next a next,

fifth

higher, the next a

fourth, the

major third, the

minor

third, etc.

.THEOST

OF

MUSIC.

19

-

^

fit

X-

"K.

^

-s^

fea.tti=. :S

The

notes

marked notes to as thus used

x

are

not our exactly of musical the

pitch of to these than

in notes scale, but in in our nearer

them

any

other

tem. sys-

The vibrations

points marked indicate the the ventral or "N" or the

diagram rest a

of

nodes,

points of
If

tial) (par-

between

segments. of any from no string be

struck

near,

at, the

node

particularovertone, the chance

that

overtone

disappears

series, its to particular subvibration
This
fact is of

having in the

form.

importance
The

excitation are of

strings by the their

of instruments. hammers at

piano

wires to struck one-ninth to from

one-seventh two length,thus causing the poor the

overtones

disappear, seventh, sixth and is the

eighth of

series.

The

which mere faint and a good but unimportant, because cide duplicationof lower tones in the series, also in-

disappears. to vibration at about

The

violin

strings are of excited in one-tenth

of their

length,and or harp, guitar,and even all instruments to plucking due the

cussio per-

down to the

kettle drums,

regard of deter-

must

be

had and

this the

principle of of contact

formation

overtones,

point

thereby

20

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

mined.

In

the is

principle found written without the

of

the

overtones

and of

theit St.

combination Paul's And

scientific

explanation
2000

sentence

nearly life years

ago: whether the

"

even

things harp, how 1

giving a sound,

pipe sounds, or

except shall Corinthians in in the the it

they be give known xiv.

distinction what And is the

in

piped question

or

harped?" put 7.

by

Paul

first nineteenth

century,

was

completely
Helmholtz.

swered an-

only

by

Hermann

TJLEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

21

CHAPTER
THE TEMPERED SCALE.

m.
PITCH.

In the harmonic that to series

given previously it tones was

tioned menpond corres-

certain

of the

did

not

quite by us. any

of the notes that

of the scale the reader used

As

it is

pre-supposed familiar of of

this volume

is

already we with

the elements

practicalmusic, intervals in

will not diatonic speak of the succession scale, but of the we of the en our

may

state

passant, have or

that, a while fixed

all nations succession

civilized world of one

chosen

of tones

kind no one

another

to

represent their musical able even

systems, such a

has

yet

been

to

explain why has succession a is used,

and

Helmholtz

here

given at rather

metaphysical,
The of

and

unsatisfactory attempt of vibrations in the to explanation. key-note, can it is

portio proour

different the

intervals

scale, and be their relation

however

accuratelydetermined, as and as we

quite possiblethat century, B.C., to Pythagoras explained upon long of ago

the sixth

these. laws

When

attempt

form we a

scale a the

natural

proportions,

obtain

22

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

result unsuited charms

of

especial sweetness, to but

a

succession one rather chief note modulation, as we

which understand to is

of
As
to

the each the the as of music with

it.

is calculated or reference be entire

its relation

note keynote key-

tonic,

it may the

supposed that when
"

changes, called, is we scale of out nature,"

it is

thrown

somewhat the

of tune, and more the farther out depart from scale key first used, the a of tune vals inter-

the

will be

unless

re-arrangement of the fact the case, is made. therefore

This

is in

and

it will

readilybe and understood can that while on certain

gressi pro-

chords

be founded a natural

laws, mind,

the and art of modulation

is

product any of the human

does

not

derive

itself from is at present

physical law. by
The
octave

The

scale which nations is a

employed

all civilize which

compromise. as a

must note

always twelve the this use "

be

taken

true as interval, its upper lower, is divided trifle out of tune vibrating scale twice

as

fast

its a into with and the with called equal semitones, all of nature, but scale
"

none

distressingly so, called, admits and minor

tempered all the

as

it is

of

of

twenty-four major system "

keys

equal facility. This
' '

is also was sometimes as Equal the ;

temperament

and

advocated

early as and sixteenth but in

century by WiQaert, not Zarlino, until and

others S. Bach

it his was

thoroughly adopted of J.

noble

collection

preludes

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

23

fugues proved entitled

' '

The

Well-tempered

Clavichord

"

the

practicabilityof the in all of the number of our system, by

writing before compositions only
The
a

different had

keys,

where

very

limited

been as employed. founded on

deviations scale natural

intervals, from of the

the as tempered given by
The flat. The

system, laws true are intervals

proportion, from the

chieflyas
:

follows, reckoning upward

key-note of a

perfect fifth

is

only one-fiftieth one-fiftieth semitone

perfect fourth

is

of

a

semitone

sharp.
These the are so near to the

true ear pitch that to it would the

quire re-

keenest Those

musical most perceive

tion aberraare :

at all.

perceptiblyout of of of a a

of tune

The The The

major third, one-seventh minor semitone

sharp. flat. third, one-sixth

semitone

major sixth, one-sixth minor a

semitone a sharp. flat. flat.

The The The
In there notes but The

sixth, one-seventh seventh, one-sixth

of of semitone

minor

a

semitone a major seventh, one-eighth of the semitone

sharp. such scale be of nature, a or

the

enharmonic between scale,

would as distinct

difierence or A-sharp and

B-flat,

C-flat and distinctions

B-natural,

in the

tempered scale scale these came disappear. voice tempered the into for because being chiefly

of

keyed

instruments,

violin

and

can

24

THEORY

OP

MUSIC.

give the changeable intervals

of the

true

scale with

and facility, at times attain beautiful effects thereby. tions have spoken of deviaIn preceding sentences we of pitchof one-fiftieth of a semitone ; these are the smallest ear can

deviations We can which

even

a

trained

musical two tones

hear.

scientifically prove of human a to differ

by

one

one-hundredth any semitone, but ear. it

would ears not can be

perceivedby

Ordinary about a

to

from to fifty 100 distinguish the octave, and highlytrained

vals different interears

600.

It

seems as

strange that for one

cannot

represent to the mind

fixed

tone, set example of a

middle

C, the and

by

a

number

vibrations,but variable more a one

standard the note

of

pitch

has

always been

in question

might consist of it belonged to as

or

less vibrations lower

ing accordof

higher or which was

standard

pitch.
435 had

Thus

the note

A

in Paris at present has and in 1699

vibrations,in

1858

given 448,

only 404,

while Handel's

dated 1740, tuning-fork

416 vibrations. The note standard gives the same since the days of of pitch has been graduallyrising

Bach

and a Handel, tone was

in whose than

time at it

was

about

twocause

thirds of

deeper the of

present.

The

of this rise

manufacturers of our course own

greater brilliancyought for by s pianos and wind instruments ; but was the time

vocalist

the

sufferer find lower

by it,and a in

it is

to gratifying

brave

with battling

pitch.

The

good success high pitchof

for

a

army standard of
' '

the

present is called

con-

26

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

(lave

already the seen

that of it halving the length ot its vibrations.

a

string take been a ioubles

number

If

we

long wire, and attained which which result a

draw will can

tight until

a

tension once has a allow be

it to vibrate

second eye, ;

(a and we

readily attained we by no the

regulated pendulum) however per call this

will

hear note sound

can

imaginary

C, which,

at

one

vibration

second, will be the unit of the physical
If
we a now

system measure of

vibrations. ascei'taining of two oflf half will

the

wire,

we

will per have
;

length another which

give us

vibrations and we

second

division another of

of and

the wire we attain another

four and a

vibrations, the have

eight,yet is speed is sixteen If manner, vibrations we reached, and

deep wire tone

heard. same now

continue the ninth per

dividingthe division we a in the

at

attain note the

rate

of nine

512

vibrations above second. second,

which
C

is one octaves per

the

first, theoretical
This is but one of

vibration

of many of a modes

of

ascertainingthe for number we of

vibrations

given note, the number number can although in have

only be ascertained

of vibrations vibrations

in the different any one C's, yet if the known, compute
The
one

of a note process note.

by

simple present of

arithmetical in the any other

the

number table

contained will

following in proportion of the vibrations of the musical

the

two

notes

some

intervals

:

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

21

The the

application of or these

tables, which

represent be as

enharmonic

natural

intervals, would

fol-

28

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

lows

:

if

middle,

or

one-lined

C

UJj

Ihas

260

tions vibra-

per

second,

this

note,

(^ a \ being of a

perfect three to

fifth

above

it,

would

have

the

proportion
390
=

two,

i.

e.
,

three-halves

of

260

;

this

note

1(5)

an

octave

above

the

last

would

have

twice

its

vibrations,

Ii.

e.
,

780

;

this

note

(A)
^

|a of major
260^325;
to

third

above

middle

C, table would of

have

five-foui-ths fifth and

in

the

logarithms a a

added minor

a

fourth, to a

minor

third

to

major will sixth,

a

second of the

a

major

seventh,
In W.

etc.,
Pole's fall

give admirable the

logarithm
' '

octave.

Philosophy proportions

of

Music will be

"

a

very

explanation

of

these

found.

TMEOUT

OF

MUSIC.

29

CHAPTER
CLASSIFICATION OF

IV.
VIBRATIONS.

In order musical next

that the

student which be

may are fullyunderstand to to

the in the

instruments

be

described

chapters, all musical to it may sounds

well

reiterate

the

fact

that and

consist

of

regularvibrations, that supplement can it with as the statement follows
:
"

these

vibrations
First.

be

classified

The

vibrations to of manner strings ;

these

differ the

in

quality according is set in

the

in which

string piano; motion,

i. e.,

as by striking, or in the

by plucking, as as with

harp of the

guitar; and family. reeds. of thin by friction
A
of

with

instruments

violin

Second. musical

The

vibrations is a a reed, in wood ; or instruments,

tongue

which metal, against

current

of air is directed

the

reed, swaying rapidly to into intermittent vibrations therefore sound. a and

fro, breaks form many

this current tone. puffs,which thin and

the

Reed and

generallyproduce rather overtones,

penetrating quality of

Cabinet-organs, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, are etc.,

examples

of reed

vibrations.

30

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

Third. organs current The

vibrations human of elastic

membranes, in motion

erally gen-

of the

body, a set

by pet, trum-

a

of

air.

The

lips of

player of horn, the vocal of this kind

cornet, the human

trombone, throat, is of are etc., and

chords

in

examples same of vibration, as which vibration. Fourth. in same the

general of character

reed-

The

vibrations blow. a

elastic move membranes

set

motion manner by

a

These

the do. air

in

the

as

sounding-board would such Drums most give examples drums of

vibrations, and a although almost do

not

produce

strictlymusical a sound, the any kettle-drums

give
The

as

musical of their

tone

as

percussive instrument

pitch. substances set

Fifth. material. vibrations These are of solid almost

of

tic elas-

always

in motion are ples exam-

by percussion. Bells, tuning-forks,etc., of this class of vibrations. vibrations
"

Sixth. confined The space, of

the tube. air

upon

itself in the

a

generally a

Although is the

air in

which motion gives by of some the

sound-vibrations

generally set
If

vibrating substance, yet is not air with at ance assistwe

the column across

latter of a always some an

necessary.

force into of

a

degree angle tube once

of

rapidity instead cause a a

or

tube

such

that

passing directly through
"f
air at one the at it will

flutter

end,

we

produce

tone

THEOBX

OF

MUSIC.

31

directlyfrom any other select

the

air

without itself, for the

the tube

necessity will at once of

yibrating body, with it. The wind

the sound-waves

which

suit its

length, or in a

chroni synor

whistling in what

chasm

cave

is

a

natural

example

of this, while

flutes, organ manner man

(diapason) pipes, etc., has the

show

applied the principle. In the flute, the player is power this blown or breath with in

of a at no a

certain will

angle which of

and

certain

tone or result, but causes the the

organ-pipe alternate to

angle and deflection contraction

expansion

the

air a sary neces-

produce sound-waves, that ,

is caused which the mouth. open of

by

plug remains or

sharp edge (similarto one boy places
It

at

end to of add

his

only

whistle) at the that the pitch of length. tone.

pipes depends pipes affects the are on chiefly

their the

The wide width

quality of not narrow

In

pipes these the

harmonics hollow and same prominent,

and

therefore

have

tones

;

pipes bright produce current

have

prominent harmonics, tones. ;

fore there-

and more penetrating than one

The

pipe

can

tone

if the tones rapidity of ensue. tone over-

the a of air be or increased, other tube In

cylindrical pipe is only a every

alternate meUow made

strong, which
Flutes
In a gives and rather are quality upon this are to the

tone.

clarinets

principle.

conical up to a

pipe

aU

the

overtones

clearly present

reasonable

height,

which

32

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

causes

the oboe
If

penetrating and bassoon. that is

quality

heard

in

the

tones

of

the

a

pipe called open

be

plugged pipe," an at

its the

end

(it a is

then

a

"

stopped once and

plug and the

"

tompion,") tone it becomes

at

sounds hollow

octave

deeper, because the column more

and

dull, in an

of is the sound.

air

is

now

undivided, at while of both

open

pipe which and

a

node

formed column

the

centre

the

tube, a divides

in

two,

giving

brighter

higher
The the

foregoing connection facts, between although practical merely music an

outline

of

and

tics, acous-

may to yet student suffice of the

to

give

a

general upon comprehension which musical

the

principles

instruments

are

made.

34

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

the

old Greek

theatres

the

chorus

was

placed the are

in the

front

part of the auditorium, just as at

edge

of

the in a stage, modern the

instrumental

musicians
The for

placed when operatic performance. no ancient

world

possessed allowed true

orchestras, to even

they

many

instruments

play together,they our formed per-

unison work is of

music,

while

idea

of the

orchestral

part-music. essentially operas When the

tion composi1600, a began, also A

a

little before into

year in

the orchestra

sprang modern

being, but

rather

state. prinaitive ever consists three

of less than bands in

grand orchestra and members, fifty a scarcely band with not is practically a one,

string band, a of

wooden

wind-instruments,
;

and

brass

band were cussio per-

but

these but one early no orchestras divisions of
:

only

much
"

smaller

had of

such

;

for

example,

Euridice," had ,

the

earliest

operas one 1600) one the

followingorchestra viol, used one (A. D. harpsichord, and large guitar, one of the extreme

large lute modern three

while the orchestra flutes,

in Berlioz's

"Requiem"

(one

works

of the

school)
,

contains

strings (violins,violas, violoncellos, the number

and

contra-basses)to four one

of

nearly

a

hundred,

flutes, two

oboes, four twelve clarinets,eight bassoons, horns, four cornets,

English horn,

French two sixteen

tenor-trombones,

icleides,twelve

bombardons, four ophtrumpets, eight pairs of kettle-drums,

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

35

two

bass-drums,
The difference

three

pairs

of

cymbals, orchestras our

and of

a

gong.

between and those

the of

a

couple could be

of

centuries

ago, more own

time it must

scarcely be borne strongly marked. that the vast Yet

in mind

gatherings of too not

talists instrumen-

which the the do occasion true not sense are

heard

in America

frequently on orchestras in we of

special festivals,are of the

word, at for in orchestral and power,

work but at

aim or wholly

volume

semble en-

precision, unity,

refinement

of

shading, be fied classi-

etc.,
The

as

well. different follows
:
"

parts of the orchestra

can

as

The

stringband, second ,

or

the

"

Strings,"
"

first violins and has not ,

(soprano)
'cellos and

violins

contra-basses member

(alto) violas (tenor) (bass) The harp, which
,
.

become to a

of the most

modern

orchestras, is stands or

be

classed

with

but strings,

by the itself. wind," "wood-

The
"

wooden

wind-instruments,

flutes, oboes, clarinets, and

bassoons, and being of a

respectively soprano, almost all orchestral

alto, tenor,

bass, of the foundation quartette (for four-part writing is the

work)

and
,

an

English horn, very to

piccolo, a

contra-bassoon, are a

bass-clarinet, and the ranks

rarely, a basset-horn, this division. In

admitted

of

the brass

band

we

find

the

French

horns,

trum-

36

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

pets (generallyreplaced cornets, "

in

American

orchestras and the

by bones. trom-

a

poor

substitution),tubas, is counted and with

The and consists

percussion of brasses,

kettle-drums,

occasionally bassand other bals, cym-

drum, less side

drum,

cymbals, triangle, gong,
The

important and instruments. are bass-drum, classed "

triangle name sometimes music together the on

under

the

of a ' '

Turkish

(even is a

mans Gerthe

give
Turks
name.

it

similar music

;

Chinese

name) might
,

which be a

libel

more

appropriate

Of most these

groups

of instruments and form the are the backbone

stringsare

the

important,

of modern

orchestral are writing. They the the in most

expressive,

given

foremost are position

the

placingof

the

orchestra,

and

numerically and four

the

strongest, fift

stringed eight woodThe violins

instruments

occasionally playing or against

wind, are six brasses. two violins

divided the

into

sections, the second violins same first

playing

soprano,

the

the of

alto ; both instruments.

divisions,however,

using the

kind

THE

VIOLIN.

This

instrument

probably
Hindoos
It the

comes

to

us

from an the

Orient, the ancient

having possessed appeared in

stru in-

of this class. the

Europe the about ninth.

eighth century

or

beginning of

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

37

Only value true

in the as last

two

centuries, however, instruments its

was

its full and the

king
The
1650

of

understood, and the

knowledge about of

proportions of manufacture was attained. from the

golden period to violin-making this 1750, of for within

period of fall the

greatest

creations

the

great
"

masters

Cremona

school and are of

violin-making,
The

Mcolo

Amati, has of four gut, cat-

Stradivarius, which strings, but are Guarnerius.

violin as always spoken of from the

being

in

realitymade the cat

intestmes of

of the

sheep the four

or

goat,
The

being

innocent

violin music with The

at least.

G-string

is wired, in

accordance

acoustical

principlesalready tuned as

demonstrated.

stringsare

follows

:

"

1^"^) ^"*
^

The

ordinary

orchestral

compass

of

the

violin

is

about

P demanded The

although Wagner greater can

and

other

composers

have

a

compass an from

orchestral

players.

soloist
The

play nearly is octave

higher.
G-clef, whence
At

violin

always

notated
'

in the

that clef is often

called the tone an

'

Violin and

clef." its

times

the

quality of diminished It

the

is

altered

power

much or dino. sor-

by is a

appliance this must

called upon cause

the the

mute,

weight placed as bridge of

the

instrument,

and

this

important

38

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

carrier

of vibrations

to

move

less

freely,the
When
the

entire mute amplitude of vibrations is desired

is lessened. marks and
"

the

composer

Con

Sordino," tone and

when
"

it is to be removed

the natural
All the to restored

8enza

Sordino" can is written. executed on ishments possible embellall tions emo-

be

violin, and the wildest

from

the it deepest pathos
It is as jollit too, belong as to

by right. melodic two

unlimited the human harmonic

in its expression voice

the

human a voice. than tones

Like a it is rather

instrument. from the but One

can

produce and this

simultaneously
"double
a

violin,

is or called

stopping," at a

single stopping, is the real like instruments bow

producing of singlenote the time, fore, there-

character the human to the

instrument, needs which

voice

support
At

of other

obtain is like

its full effect. discarded a times and

the the of

the

violin

altogether this instrument is called open

plucked
^^

guitar;

mode

of on ing playthe

pizzicato," and in the in middle the

is most

effective

stringsor and since register,

it sounds

woodeny hoarse dry

higher register,and the rather

in the lowest.

The

violin

bow

is

placed of nearer

upon

strings at

about

one-tenth the of their student that more length, but the the

this

position varies, and will careful

preceding chapters bow understand

the

approaches will to the

bridge

the

of the

higher

overtones

blend

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

39

with

the

fiindamental

tone,

and

the

brighter that be tone

will be.

High

tones

of

a

peculiar,piping quality can

duced pro-

from

the the

instrument

by placing the fingervery a lightlyon of its and vibrating string at forth These the
"

regular proportion in ventral instead ments segof

length, thus causing give one it to vibrate of

its overtones which

its fundamental. skill on tones, the require are erable considvery call

part of

performer, but their the

properly them that

called

Harmonics." "because

Germans

tones "flageolet

quality resembles notated in is to touch to instrument.

They notes are

frequently the would

diamond the shaped

where

finger be string (a the tone a feather's

weight in the result.

suflSicient notes produce actual result)and which is to

ordinary

for

the

When the

string is

sounded its

without entire is

stopping

it with is finger, vibrating an " "

length, the sometimes are

tone

called

open

tone," and the designated produced by

by

an

O."

When open ' '

harmonics into sub-dividing an they are string

ventral

segments, a called

natural

harmonics are ;" when
' '

stopped

string is
There
easiest

thus

divided

they

called

artificial

monics har-

are

seven

positionsused where of the the neck in violin

playing, the near being at the

those end

hand of is held the

the

scroll

instrument.

'

40

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC,

The the

higher bridge, Paganini, are positions, more where difficult.

the

hand

approaches

who that died

in

1840,

was

the of

greatest his liant bril-

violin

virtuoso

ever

existed. harmonics

Some have The his

cadenzas

in

double

never

been

executed is that he

by used any

of

his thin successors.

probability performance,

very

strings more in

as

these

would

respond necessary readily produce tone

to

the

tary segmen-

divisions

to

these would be high weakened and

peculiar

tones, the although diameter the of

by

lessening

the

strings.

42

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

allows

it

a

few

notes no more

(of can course

in lower the

upper its since register,

instrument but

go the ;

than

deepest string) forced, the drier middle viola and

the

higher becomes instrument

is the its tone

it is

only in of lower

register that
In dark some the

rich tone composers the have lins vio-

is eifective.

cases

attained from

impressive the effects

by omitting the the violas the

strings,and
Brahms and

giving this at

especial of prominence. great Requiem, of and

does Beethoven

beginning slow for ment move-

begins the with a

his

fifth

symphony
In

theme

viola

'cello in unison.
Italian

the

slow

movement

of Mendelssoh tiful beauof

Symphony
Gluck
in

the viola understood all also has the operas prominence. the gloom to viola, and
But

it is used the most "

his

good

purpose.

important
Childe
viola

work

for this instru

is Berlioz's which and was

Harold" concerto Symphony, for begun the In

as

a

Paganini, touches in which

most

characteristic the instrument of most

viola

appear.

this

work

personifies
Harold,
effect. and Byron's melancholy has character of the

Childe

obligato passages
THE

graphic

VIOLONCELLO.

The

Tioloncello, because or

simply "'cello," of its size, is held All execution is

a

larger the violin, which knees between which

while

being played.

is

TSEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

43

possible on
'cello, but demand as a

the its violin

can

also

be

produced

upon

the

deeper pitch style than

and that

longer finger-board of the violin.

slower as It is the It

expressive is the violin but a is masculine richer

where tone. latter has

feminine, having t strings,-he tuned two broader, lower ones

four

being
I^

wired.

These

strings ^a"

are

as

follows

:

_'" ==h

and

the

compass

of

the

instrument

is about

I^

w)

=^

In the

some

cases

a

good

effect as can

be

attained did 47. in

by tuning one ment move-

C-string to B-flat, of his 'cello is in the

Schumann

piano quartette. Op.

The

notation

of the

bass-clef, sometimes the in the tenor-

clef, and some rarely in precede united that

G-clef, the

last named to having the sages pasthe an of peculiarities reading, according that it. In the

orchestral

passages

'cello octave is

with

contra-bass,

playing in "Der as above

instrument, in the the bass

part, but

in soft passages

(as for example,
'cello alone

Prayer the Freischiitz")the contra-bass The would

gives the bass,

the

be too

heavy for called the "Bass

effect

desirtd.

'cello is sometimes

Viol."

THE

CONTKA-BASS.

This made

is

the

largest

of

the

violin

family. with It

is

with

three,

four, and

sometimes

five

44

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

strings. tated lower

The

four-stringedinstrument in is the
It
an

one no-

generally employed in the

orchestral it scores

works. sounds on is

bass-clef,and written. In

always

octave

than

it appears as the lowest

line.

Its

stringsare course, an

tuned octave follows

:

sounding compass of

deeper. an Its

ordinary

is about

|^: violin |sounding execution octave

deeper. on Not

all

points of

can

be

given has the the

contra-bass. thick

The

harmonics, but on

account mute

of

strings, sound little too

poorly, the

parativel com-

effect, and to double-stopping is be effective. Per is also

toge al-

muddy-toned very tra, con-

the

pizzicato is
The
but strings,

effective, as is not

the

tremolo. of the and contra-bass the are only the foundation

bass

of the entire artificial orchestra,

although been classical in "Ye

its solos some rather

products, it effects be

has in given

very The

important obligato earliest Ye of these Thunders in scores.

may

found St.

Lightnings,
Passion
"

!" of Bach's second of act Matthew
' '

Music, where the

the

of

Gluck's

Orpheus upon barldng give he

Cerberus scores is imitated

the was instrument, and the first to How

in the real

of

Beethoven, to who

dence indepen-

the instrument. be well

accomplished passages this

may

judged

from

the

wonderful

TKEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

45

(in. combination fourth

with the

'cellos)in
Trio of the the the

the

finale

of

the fifth

symphony, of Scherzo

of the

symphony, finale passage the and, above the ninth

all, in

first part last the and of the noblest ing formmental instru-

symphony, for the which

ever

composed

instrument, went bridge over to vocal either

the master
The color

from

work. earnest of

the or contra-bass it can can

be

and

portentous, and an

be the

made latter

grotesque and use can

comical, in the

instance of

of

be

found The

finale

Beethoven's are eighth sjTnphony. produced by allowing the

reverberations in his

of thunder

Beethoven 'cellos and

sixth

symphony, to by

contra-basses

play

taneousl simul-

in dissimilar

groupings.
HAEP.

THE

Although of the

the of "

hai-p is the not

reckoned may

as

a

member well to family

it strings," a be

as

explainit here. it has within been 125

Although into very

ancient

instrument, ranks admitted years. the old and

the

orchestral

only lect nega

The

reason

for this apparent was is that

harp

in all countries not tonic dia-

instrument, to could

modulate

from

key a key

without

re-tuning. made an

In

1758,

M.

Simon,

native in the

of Brussels,

important to improvement set instrument,

by

giving wheels it

a

of

pedals

which

moving

certain

with

pins, shortened

46

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

the

strings at will, by to a

which

a

flat note

could

be

changed such natural as instantaneously.
Mozart

This

allowed the

composers in a and

Gluck into to introduce a harp,
Mozart Gluck
The

restricted a manner,

few

scores,

writing using
1810

concerto

for of
"

flute

and

harp, not a

and

it in his opera the Orpheus." did occur

perfectionof when harp however,
Erard

until

Sebastian

introduced any note

tem sys-

of be
As

double-actingpedals by either a

which a could at will.

raised the

semi-tone

or

whole

tone,

pedals could note, in order of a

only raise, not that be was a

lower, the pitch and of any

the natural every

sharp add each first

gree dein

tone manner,

could it

gained in necessary flat note

case,

a

similar

that in

open

wire

should is done one represent in the

place. there This is but

tuning

the

modern the
"

harp, are and

as

key

in which

notes

all flat,the

harp is tuned
The

in that has very

key

C-flat. compass harp with on

nearly the

of the

piano, the Its

with starting

the lowest its

C-flat of that

instrument, and as ending piano, highestF-sharp. staves, one

It is notated and one two

treble upper

bass. of

stringsare wired, are or

of of

catgut

in the

octaves,
The that of

catgut

heavy wire, red, the

in the lower.

C-strings the any

colored may F-strings blue, see former per-

readily the the

position the note, of exactly

as

pianistis guided by

distribution

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

41

the

black used keys the on

the once, an

piano keyboard. in one

Beethoven

only of "

harp

of the ballet numbers work. was

Prometheus," wife use was a almost

obsolete

Spohr, first to

whose make

fine

harp player, instrument, a

the

of the Erard and but

Berlioz, Wagner, composers, instrument.

Schumann, have The made

host

of use modern

the most sounds best

important in flat

of the

harp

keys.
INSTRtnVIENTS.

OTHER

STRINGED

The

guitar is

not

admitted at first to

to the

orchestral

ranks,

although as Schumann

thought of employing of his
D he minor

it

accompaniment
;

the

Romanza

symphony is made used the in

but

findingit too lighttoned,
This
whei'e same tuted substi-

Violms, pizzicato,for it. a substitution have

few

other

cases

composers as, guitar or serenade or

similar of Alma

instruments, viva in

for

example, of Rossini's

"Barber in Mozart's

Seville," opera. the serenade the The latter of Don case Giovanni composer In

the

used
:

the

mandoline.

guitar is generally tuned

^^
5* having wi-itten. are

m sounds octave

six

strings,and
The in mandoline

an

lower

than

has the same

eight strings,which notes as

tuned

pairs, to
A and E.

the not violin

G, Btrings, D,

It is

plucked, but

with

48

THEOMX

OF

MUSIC.

the

fingers, substance a

small

plectrum used. of
The

tortoise-shell

or

ilar simof

being substances, strings brass are

made

diflferent

copper,

steel,

and

catgut

being
The

used. zither is sweet-toned a

instrument less hook

of

about

thirty plucked is worn

strings by on

(some the have and a

number), of iron

and which

is

fingers, thumb is

by

a

the

of

the

performer.

The

board fingercross-

of

the

guitar the be

fretted find (that the is,

raised

pieces

guide must player stopped to

place to where the a

string note), zither by of the

the

finger mandoline, treated,

produce but the in and

so

is

that

the

only

five

strings being are

thus

ing remain-

twenty-five but a

open

strings, and intended

to

give

single

tone

apiece,

they

are

used

for

companime ac-

only.

^^^o^Va D^

so

WAR

iw^XxumeAiti o^W-x"wCaa^

t^^ gV\ ~K.O'"'V\ 5.\\
.

T\'\e,B"o.ss\Vv\A^.

Xavjed. TxHTO^aX.

to-twe.^. "Jf?l\Lvv\tvX'Tv;v\wi^e.l.

^^c,\Je.4^~V^e^\"^\l "\\d\\v"^XiWaX^xffttV'^V''^.

~\rcvV\re.

V

"o\'\%\5oY\e.
,

"Bc^ss TuJbcv..

.1^:311)
SlicSle, *ProvMl)0"\'\e
.

TKEOSY

OF

MUSIC.

49

CHAPTER
THE

YII.
WOOD-AVTND.

We

have

already

seen

that it is

the

wood-wind no is

an

independent quartette, but used in this manner, with and instruments of the in strings, means by

means

always wind one

combinations

of woodform

various

manners,

most-used as of

obtaining colors effective his

tone-

colors, for so the

aitist blends

mixes

on

palette, in the

composer to different

instruments The soprano

his

score

obtain

especial effects.

of the

wood-wind

quartette is
THE

FLUTE.

The

tone-color It

of this instrument is

by itself is rather the monotonous.

plaintive in

lower

register
Its
com-

and

i-ather brilliant and

showy
\

in the upper. flutes pass

is

usually \J(^ }

m to although some in was

are

made

which
1834
a

extend

B-flat

the

lower

register. in the tion construc-

In

great improvement instrument made

of the

by

a

German

named

Boehm.

50

THE

OB

Y

OF

MUSIC.

The

flute before the

that

time

was

a

little insecure some m

its

pitch in were lowest

tones,

and

of

the on flat the

keys sharp very

others difficult, was means

impossible,

ment instru-

which

then of a chiefly adapted new to

the

keys. have By also system on of

keys (which wind wood-

been

successfullyused the the other made

instruments) all the lower octave keys true were

practicable greater rendered

in

pitch, and
The

rapidityand lost some

brilliancyattained. its mellowness to cylindrical

flute,however, was of made

by the change, and counteract thereafter

its excessive

brightness.
THE PICCOLO.

The or full

name

of this instrument name is Flauto

Piccolo, its small

flute, a
It is causes which

sufficiently explains the flute but of a character. size which the

exactly like it to

smaller

sound It

higher sound and

and

shriUer called octave than the

larger instrument. flute because

is sometimes an octave

its notes

higher ment instru-

than

written. of the

It is the

highest

shrillest

orchestra, and
It is

is used

sparingly by good to composers.

generally used

picture any witches' wild,

feverish etc. gaiety (drinking has a

songs,

revelry,

)

in
,

portraying anything diabolical,and used it to

Beethoven the whistling written

(Sixth symphony) of the wind in imitate as storm.

Its compass

is

THE

OUT

OF

MUSIC.

51

$^ above. but

it sounds

an

octave

higher,as in the

stated

The

piccolo is finelyused overture, in the

finale of the of in "Der

"Egmont"
Freischiitz
"

the
' '

drinking

song
"

and

in

Infernal

Waltz

beer's Meyer-

"Eobert."
THE OBOE.

The

wood-wind, can although forming in a

four-voiced the harmony,

be classified

groups

according to
The clarinets and

style of mouth-pieces employed, piccolo have open in

also. the

flute and

mouth-pieces, have used

have

a

single reed
The number

their and double

mouth-pieces,

the

oboes, pieces. mouthtone a English horns, of the

bassoons reed

double-reed

gives with to

the

higher nasal. harmonics

considerable

prominence, and The oboe

the

tone-color

becoming thin, penetrating pathos, ;

somewhat can ' '

depict
Heroic"

direct

as

in the funeral and

march

of the as symphony

innocence
"

plicit sim-

in the
"

movement

entitled
"

In

the Fields,"

in

Berlioz's

Sinfonie

Fantastique the ;

and, above

all, of the

rustic

gaiety, it being used and

pastoralinstrument manner orchestra, and sixth in

this

in

Beethoven's works.
The

symphony,

numerous

other

compass

of the instrument

is about

\J^^

$^

'
.

j'^^^ ^^^

52

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

lower ones a

notes

are

somewhat and

hoarse in

and

the

highest best trifle forced

screaming in the of

quality, the

efiects nearer more

being we attained to middle

register. easier Because not

The the

keep the the

key

C,

the

and

natural

oboe

part will be. the oboe

of its be too

very

characteristic in

color

should The

freelyused tunable of at the note

obligato or its solo

work. the oboe

orchestra it is less

usually receives than pitch from

(as

the

other

instruments, instrument concert

with

the

tion excep-

the

that clarinet)

giving composition, all the

beginning being given and of on each an or

this

open

stringby

stringed

instruments,

being
THE

in medium

registerbesides.

ENGLISH

HORN.

The there the word are ' '

horn

"

must as not

deceive as the

student ones, ;

wooden horn is a horns

well

brass

and The

English horn seen

belongs the to the

former

variety.
We
an

English already lower, and transposing instrument. contra-bass an

have octave that

sounds

and

the

piccolo and octave to higher oth^ than forth

than

written, ments instru-

it is natural as correct

speak of such are transposing : to but

there

instruments the a which

transpose which other therefore

degrees give

octave, different of this

instruments

note

from

that which

is written.

The

reason

TSEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

58

puzzling practice is found instruments to secure in the fact that on ment wind-instruor

players frequentlyperform of the of is same

two

more

feren dif-

family, and to others

in order

uniformity applied to one lingering and applied which

blowing,
;

the

system the notated

for

ple, exam-

English horn, very much as is

a

larger oboe, and will the

is

that

instrument, to former perthe

who

is accustomed

the

oboe

play

English

horn

quite a like

that

instrument, the same

but notes it will which are actually sound are perfect

fifth below

written.

The but

clarinets, in the the C-clarinet

way, sounds

all

written notes a as

alike,

only,

the

they

are

written, the B-flat the A-clarinet horn a clarinet minor as sounding below a

tone

below,

and The

third

the

notation. the of

English will we

then,

it sounds in F,

fifth below the of scale F.

written

notes,

is said to

stand

as

C, written, for in

actually sound desired in to the

scale

If, horn example, a English we a

composition write the

the

employ the key of E-flat, key sounds. The

should fifth

be

obliged to to it in the

of B-flat,

above,

attain

required horn written

compass

of

the

English

is

i^
^

i

but

the

actual

sounds

thus

represented horn are

The

tone-color

of

the

English

is rather

melan-

54

THEORY

OF

MUSIC,

choly, a middle or

more

masculine

oboe.

It sounds

best

in its

lowest

register. is Berlioz

tique) uses
The

it to represent

the

Fantas(Sinfonie of a shepherd. voice to instrument and frequently the overture

used to represent the
"Manfred,"
passages

Alpine horn,

"William

Tell,"

"Wagner's and other

"

Tannhauser,"

Schumann's

works

present very

characteristic

of this kind.
THE

BASSOON.

This

is also

a

double-reed is It not instrument. that of weird the

Its toneoboe or color, however,

like a English can horn.

has be sombre,

effect, yet
So
much can very

readily

made

grotesque. that the

is be this latter

qualityemployed lifeless m

bassoon

called the clown is dull and

of the orchestra.

Its middle

register by le to

(thisis splendidly employed incantation tones upper scene Meyerbeer
Diable"),
the used woodto the

of a ' '

Robert

and wind.

its lower The

afford notes fine bass sometimes compass

are

picture agony

and

distress.

Its

is

about

\^
S*-

Tr^ or 'm^
The

^^^

^* ^^ notated

in the

bass

and with he

tenor

clefs. who bassoon

was

a

great favorite effects which

Beethoven

enjoyed its comical in used

copiously and in

his

Sixth other and

Eighth

phonies, sym-

numerous

of his

compositions.

B6

TBMOBY

OF

MUSIC.

(;[) I but
I

good
The may,

soloists

can

give

"made

notes"

yet higher. clarinets,and wood-wind. and used minor sombre the

B-flat

clarinet

is the

finest

of

all

in fact, be a called the tone king than of the ten writis a It sounds

whole

lower The

is used

in the

flat in

keys.

A-clarinet and sounds

for

compositions lower than of its the

sharp keys, written. The

third

Its tone

is rather

because

deep pitch. diflfer so said to

character that in of the of registers may notes

clarinet be much be two instrument

almost

to

one.

The which

deepest has belong

the chalumeau

register the the

following extent notes but

:

^fetS. During
"

execution remains used and

of these

the at so-called one-lined

twelfth b this

key" key is untouched, the tone

quality changes. and The

chalumeau has

is dark, been scene gloomy,
"

spectral in by
Weber

its effects,and in the

finely employed of Der
"

incantation in Freischiitz," and
Scotch

by Mendelssohn and the first part of his

Symphony,"
Berlioz restricted

in the to beginning chalumeau almost above. very

of a his much "Elijah." more gives

the

but register,

all clarinettists The like a allow

the

register as this ,

given

middle human

register of voice instrument the is

(soprano)

and

highest

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

61

notes

is

a

cuttingin quality. The clarinet instrument, the reed being placed in single-reed are fierce and

the lower of the

part of the mouthpiece against the
The
clarinet is

tongue
It

player.

quite

modern. entrance was-invented to about

1690, but

did not a obtain

the

orchestra did of

until not nearly use century later. to Bach

and the
His

Handel credit
E-flat

it, and

Mozart

belongs symphony.

having to introduced

it into in

symphony, the composed

1788, first gives music. of and

prominence however, the out clarinet the

in classical ancient

He,

still followed in to

custom

giving turned wood-wind the oboe

three-part harmony, room make

for the are it.

Higher-pitched are clarinets, as

the

E-flat, and but A-flat shrill

used not in

military bands, for the

they of very

and

fit

refined in order
' '

orchestral

music,
"

although use Berlioz

his

Sinfonie

Fantastique instrument The

makes a of

the E-flat third clarinet, which wiitten. sounds is

minor

higher than

clarinet

cylindrica

in its bore.
THE

BASS-CLAEESrET.

This and but is

a

much

largerand

deeper

clarinet

of solemn

organlike quality. sounds It is notated written.

in the C-bass

G-clef, clarinet a

deeper than an The

transposes down lower as

octave, the B-flat sounds
The

ninth

than

written.

written has

compass

is about

follows

:

l"") i^ I. Berlioz

^

used

the bass-clar-

58

TBEOBT

OF

MUBIO.

inet

to

picture de the

gloom
Faust."

of

descending

night,

in

his

"Damnation

THE

BASSET-HOEN.

This

instrument few

is

now

so

rare

that the

it

may

be

missed dis-

in

a

very

words.

Like

English fifth horn lower it

stands

in

F,

that

is,

it

sounds

a

perfect

than

written.

Its

written

compass

is

about,

|

It suits has it a

very

mournful, to gloomy music. It

tone-color,

which

well
It

funereal

plays by works.

easiest Mozart

in

flat his

keys. great

was

prominently and in other

used

in

"Requiem,"

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

59

CHAPTER
THE

Vni. rNSTEUMENTS BRASS

.

These

are

not

often wind or used are as

a

quartette, are as

the in

strings and unison, or

woodin two, on ;

they

frequently
Tone brasses

three-part harmony. the is the into

produced vibration the open, all the

of

orchestral the is

by

of

lips of

player or as

he

blows

mouthpiece, which only the to

more

less conical, but

saxophones this The rule use and

sarussophones

being their exceptions their and

having lips the reeds in this

in

mouthpieces. and of

the

manner,

position in producing the width hollow ,

sounds, in is called

the

Embouchure. upon or

Quality of tone, of the tube the

brasses,

depends

mellow

tones,

nanx)W

(wide tubes giving ones bright and shallow bell pieces mouthand the

ringing tones) the shape mouthpieces giving hollow bright ones), shape force of the the of

the

mouthpiece (deep the in the upon

tones, of Pitch of as size

player's lips. on brass tube ments instruand

depends of the

the

length as the

blowing,

well

the

rigidit

60

THEOMT

OF

MUSIC.

or we

laxity of have the

lips. that a

In

the than

chapters one on

Acoustics could said from

more

tone we be

produced this instruments difference

single tube, with made

and fact

now some

ment supplebrass

statement are the

that any

without and keys, series. There

and

by

in

blowing of the

embouchure

produce
These
are

part are or

the

whole natural and

harmonic

called

instruments.

ural nat-

horns but these are trumpets rare made,

without the

any

keys, ments instru-

very

in

America,

bugle being brass the chief

representative of the us. natural

among The use of

keys

on

the

brass

instruments the is to to lengthen natural the tube, thereby

causing series of from any

instrument

produce another, deeper, tones, produced without harmonics. of are The ments instrubest a these

touching be as

the

keys,

the on in

quality. instrument or a It will such

seen,

therefore,

that

brass

horn, trumpet, not cornet, trombone, a tuba, each whole key represents, it single note, in a

but

series,as

puts the instrument
The

different

pitch by lengthening the tube. of this must may state one practical tion applicawe

be derived in the a an

from

the teacher, but of three

that lowers third

instrument a keys, a the

first

pitch and can

tone, the second a tone, semiminor

the

tone

half used

(that is, a in third),and

these

keys

be

combination,

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

61

thus, the minor third
;

first

and

second the would

lower and

the a pitch

a

third

also ; first and

second a third,
;

major and all

the

third,

perfectfourth

three, a diminished all these can or fifth, augmented

fourth.

With scale

series of tones

at command

a

chromatic with

be

played

on

any

brass

instrument

keys.

THE

FRENCH

HOEN.

This
"the

instrument horn." but There

is most are frequently called horns in all a simply different the

keys,

it is not

necessary for

to make

ment special instruof

in each

key,

by

the the

addition

sections the pet trum-

of

tubing, called "crooks," and horn

(as also and set

cornet) can its natural

be one. lengthened
The in

in another used'

key

than

horn

generally would in the

orchestra

is the any

one

F, which,

in its natural

state, without

added than made

crooks,

sound

a

perfectfifth
The

lower

its notation. is that as highest horn mouthpiece pitch,the but in

C-alto, which

is

non-transposing, sounding out written. can By

drawing a the in

the

horn horn

be

lowered

tone semi-

C-alto the score

thus

becoming

B-alto.

All the horns
In
an

C-alto the

transpose horns are

downwards. notated a

orchestral of

in

the

key

C,

and

the the the

B-alto B-flat

sounds alto one a

semitone

deeper
A-hom

than a notated, third,

tone,

the

minor

A-flat

horn

major third,

62

THEOnr

OF

MUSIC.

etc.

The an C-horn octave is lower

different than from

the

C-alto,

and

sounds all the ninth down

written.

The

deepest of sounds the
a.

horns lower to

is that than

in B-flat The

basso, which horns the

written.

from

C-alto

the

G-flat

horn

give note harmonic

series of about the

tones

from

the fundamental

1*^

I to

ninth

harmonic

i
I

/f. ],without
''"'

touching add the

keys. series can

The

keys acting as explained above, natural on

lower scale to the

tones,

so

that

a

chromatic

be

played to the

instrument.

The

horns

from

that in F, tone that

in B-flat but

basso, lose the fundamental

of

the tones series, up to

give

the

entire

harmonic

series

of the of

the

fifteenth to harmonic,

although
The
tone

tenth

overtone

is difficult

produce.

the which the horn

is

modified

by

the

player's right hand,
When
as

is

placed in the is the

bell of the instrument.

hand

pressed escape very

firmly in lowered and

the

tube,

if to

prevent the of any

air, a "stopped" a tone

is The

result, and the the horn it to

pitch is

semitone.

quality of color and reverse is mellow romantic the the in never tender,

its tone-

suiting forest effects,and

woodland are pictures,but are stopped

tones

the

of this, and can most

repulsive tone-color orchestra. that

be

produced

the

Stopped with open

tones, therefore, should

be

mingled

64

TSEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

one

stopped

tone

F) being bearable, (two-lined like a

the fact

others

sounding absurdly was child's

toy,

a

which
"

taken

advantage of of

by Wagner, in the

in his

Mastersingers guilds,to are Nuremburg," in the

procession of
The C-trum-

the

usher

toymakers. and like of the C. the pets

non-transposing, are horns, the
There
are

trumpets trumpets downwards,

scored

in

key

in

B, B-flat, A, A-flat, and and others There lower in D,

G, transposing

E-flat, E, and

sposing F, tranin

upwards.
F,

is also another than and

trumpet

sounding are a

fifth

written, and

bass-

trumpets

used

by Wagner to a

others, in various downward. as

keys, transposing even practical application of brass ninth

The all the

the be trumpet,

of

instruments, furnished must

acquired through the it is proper in

illustrations to state

by

the teacher, but

here, that the explanationsgiven by Berlioz on his

great treatise or Instrumentation, there have been since not are

no

longer in the as exact use reliable, as brass changes

of

some

instruments do

his time, and

America same manner

and

Germany of invariably have in France.

the The

scoring as
The

that used

most-used a trumpet tone. is that in B-flat,transposing down

whole

trumpet

was

very

much

used of the build

by lastfrom Bach

and

especiallyby Handel, instruments were

but a some

century those of

different narrower of the

present day, being

and

longer.

TKEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

65

There

was

an

interregnum in the classical

the

art

of and

ing trumpet-playBeethoven, very ingly, spar-

during
Mozart,
and in and

period, the Weber easy were

used passages

instrument

only. to A

revival

took in place when the its time proper

keys

attached the in the instrument,

of Berlioz, and

trumpet the works

again of are

resumed

prominence with into

Wagner. ally graduthan the

Trumpets

slides use, like the and

trombone, a coming keyed have

better in
"

tone

instrument. and

In his fanfares other operas,

Tannhauser," has used

"Lohengrin," natural Wagner

trumpets, without
THE

keys.
CORNET.

The and

full

name

of this instrument with

is Cornet

ajpistons make the

it is

always supplied

keys which

instrument

capable of producing the chromatic

scale.

Without the

touching

these

keys are the

cornet

can

produce series of

following tones,
\"

which
^

the

harmonic

this fundamental

^^E
Some
it

J^6=" and soloists

can

produce the fundamental means ' '

lower set chromatically by being called of

the

keys, this
There
are

of

tones

the

pedal can tones."

also than

skillful we performers given in who the play higher series. tones

have

above

The

ordinary

66

THEORY

OF

MU8I0.

compass

used

in

modern

works

would

be

about

W keys, one,

'

Comets

can

be

made

in many

diflPerent

the

C-cornet the of cornet

being most the used

only non-transposing is that The in

but

B-flat, the cornet, all

best-toned

all a the minor cornet cornets.

E-flat

transposing up the and cornets. can

third, is the is a

highest of

The

very

flexible instrument it is seldom

be

played of his

with

great rapidity ; and In as called it in

for in classical some music, only Berlioz other employing works, scores

syrnphonic trumpets. appears,
"

in

combination the "

with

the

operatic in "La

cornet

frequently
Lammermoor,"
etc.

Juive,"
"Les

Lucia

di

Lucrezia

Borgia," made or

Huguenots," have a

Cornets which the be a are can sometimes be which closed a

fixed

crook

opened of this into

instantaneously;
B-flat
or an

advantage at once

is, that one cornet

can

changed keyed

in

A,

E-flat

into

D, the first pitchesbeing adapted fewer tones

to

flat

keys (since the
,

the

better

the

the eflfect)

latter to

sharp keys.
TROMBONE.

THE

This the instrument

is built

on

two

different with at systems which are

:

valve-trombone

is furnished those described

keys

used

exactly

as

the

beginning

of

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

67

this

chapter

in connection no with but

the

horn

;

the

slide-

trombone the tubes

has

keys, are is made to can

in two so sections, that the

of which

caused

overlap,

player, by drawing and The natural cause them

out,

elongate series the instrument, of tones. it to are give

different

tones

those

produced there and the

with

closed

slides, but in in the

slide-trombones these

ence is little differtones

quality between slides. The but The

produced is the much

with easier the

open to trombone

with

keys has into than six

play, tone. one

the

slide-trombone are better

slides a drawn lower of

tions, posione

each

being

semitone the

the

preceding, in thus

lowering same pitch as the

instrument

exactly the

degree
"

the

combinations fifth.

of
The

keys, already explained, trombone tenor, and is at a

diminished in three times a present
In

made

pitches, alto, soprano bone trom-

bass.

former

existed, but, although Berlioz its when

plore depathetically be

obsolescence,

it

can

readily seldom, replaced the desired, which
The

is very are are

by

deep in trumpets.

trombones and

generally written as three-part hamiony,
The with closed treated

ing. non-transposE-flat trom- alto-trombone

is called

the

bone, series as,

slides, it gives the with the

harmonic

of E-flat, beginning, not the first overtone,

fundamental. seven but

with

jSH"

"

^,and giving

b=r-

68

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

tones

of the harmonic

series.

The

slides

lowering

as

above

stated, make

the

compass

about

chromatically. The of this are tenor-trombone used
;

is the instrument tenor-trombones

family most in a

often

only

found

symphonic its orchestra, although this is
This is a a

faulty arrangement. note B-flat with of

trombone, slides. that

being with fundamental,

closed this

Beginning gives seven intermediate the first overtone

series, it

natural tones tones, and of a

the

slides

supply the of this

full chromatic

scale

compass,

m

^
:^.

The

bass-trombone even is made in in different notes pitches,as ing representinstance. of in G, in F, and the fundamental It will be E-flat,these closed that of we with

slides in each have true remembered as spoken compass the

fundamentals

outside have the each can of the

trombones, overtone ;

and

begun the series with attain the first mental, fundapiece, mouthof

yet good

players lower the

by protruding and slides. and be must can lips well into the the tone

then

by

means
' '

the
"

These

deep

tones

are

called the The on a

pedal

tones

be

sparingly used. tones following

would
:

the

pedal practicable

tenor-trombone

THEOBT

OF

MTJSIO.

69

^=1

I

I :=!=

The
As

pedal

tones seen, have the in

a

growling, unpleasant quality. is notated and the has in the the

already in the

alto-trombone

alto-clef, the

tenor

tenor,

bone bass-trombeen even bass-clef.

The

trombone it was in

use

for many last with

centuries, but

poorly used, used in the unison

century. the The

old

composers a it in

contra-basses, bass. Mozart

barbarous appears the

mode to of

strengthening been and the the his use the

have

first to of

have

appreciated in in
' '

instrument, and was

trombones scene his

"Kequiem"
Giovanni
"

in the

graveyard
Beethoven

Don

beginning into and

of real trombonewas

writing. to the and

first uses introduce in

trombones

symphony, ninth cf

he

them coda

his fifth,sixth, first ment move-

symphonies.
Schubert's of

The

of the

great "C-major Symphony," masterly are use

is

a

splendid example
The in act scene, a of means these

ments. instruused

trombones
;
"

by

no

always in the in the can loud

manner

the

trombone-chords

third sailor

of

Wagner's show how

Flying Dutchman," a impressive

soft efiect

be made

with

this much-abused

instrument.

THE

BASS-TDBA.

This

is the

deepest

and

most

ponderous

of

the

10

THE

OB

T

OF

MUSIC,

brass

instruments.

It

is made

in

varying pitches, is about

but

its

ordinary orchestral

compass

^ keys. ^

It is was non-transposing,and the is German a played

with

It

invention

of

a

bandmaster is case

named

Wieprecht. using a Sometimes

fine effect

attained the

by

quartette of tubas, in which the nium eupho-

and are baritone, both

tubas

of

a

higher pitch,
Bruckner,

employed, his together but with uses bass-tubas.

in

seventh

symphony, makes this effect, and
'

ner, Wagtubas.

in the

expressive

barbaric

'Hunding use even

motive"

in "Die
Tubas
are

Walkiire," made with

masterly

of the five

three, four, and

keys.

THE

OPHICLEIDE.

This

instrument

is

now

obsolete

in in

Germany
France

and and

America,

although
It has more still

employed compass England. but has a about

the and of the tone.

bass-tuba, ssohn Mendelhis

rasping the rough very to

used

ophicleide

successfullyin
"Midsummer

"Elijah,"
Dream" drunken tuba modern takes

and

in his overture expresses

night's of the

comically weaver, the means snoring of it. The

Bottom,

by

bassall tone-

the

place but of the

ophicleide

in almost

works,

scarcely reproduces

its odd

color.

12

Tim

OUT

OF

MUSIC.

The and tuned are kettle-drums notated to any note

at

present

are

non-transposing
G-drum
:

in the in the

bass-clef; the

can

be

followingcompass of [=@"|" a .

of

course

being capable

producing any but

single
The

note, and
C-dram
The notes can

requiringretuning to give be tuned within this

other.

compass can :

"\,J=^^ give small two pair of kettle-drums, in therefore,

the

octave

between

great

F

and

F.

The

tuning is done

is done

by tightening or which constitutes half a loosening the the screws

calfskin This its many

membrane

drumhead. around and

by
This

means

of

dozen and

edge. tuning but the can process

is slow

laborious, made inventions can have be recently been more by which by a the

done

rapidly,and is never

single
As drums kettlemost

screw,

the drum intonation is tuned but two quite slower our

as

perfect as

when we by notes to

the from

process.

obtain it is but

pair of the two

natural

suppose are that

important

notes

of the scale are chosen, and to the

tle-d ket-

therefore, and dominant the of the is generally tuned of the

the tonic

key on composition. sometimes times Someon

tonic

one

drum,

the

other, this being regulated by the exigenciesof the compass. In the dominant the

keys is on

of B, C, D-flat, D, E-flat the

and the

E, the C-drum,

G-drum, tuned the

tonic

on

instruments

being

in fourths ; in

'

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

73

the tonic keys is on

of

G-flat, F-sharp, G, lower A-flat the

and

A, on the the

the

(G) drum,
F,
the

dominant in fifths. can C-drum,

and

the

tuning and is therefore

In the in and

keys of fourths dominant or B-ilat

tuning but the

be the

either tonic fifths, both in their

drums

having them compass,

composer tuned. and the

should

indicate

which

way

he

desires

Sometimes are other the

notes

than

tonic

dominant

given

on

kettle-drums, appears. although

tonic,

at

least, almost scherzo octave

invariably his "

Beethoven,

in the

of

ninth

symphony, on gives

a

melodic has a

figure (F seventh F)

the

kettle-drums,
;

and

similar of his

effect in his

eighth symphony the in the an in the are scherzo tuned Eobert

symphony introduced two

kettle-drums second entire act

in sixths. le

Meyerbeer,

of

"

Diable," has

march

for kettledrums, on played by the four

pair of these
C,
E.

instruments, used the

notes,

G,

D,

Wagner most tle-d ketments mo-

solo, very of his operas, dread. of

freely in the to intense suspense, at the

picture anxiety, in "

or

They of are

used the and Lohengrin
Dutchman,
stabs manner. ''

death at Telramund,
Senta
"

in

"Flying the Dutchman" in the

meeting other "Die

Gotin

terdammerung similar composers as when

Hagen in Siegfried,and Many in their

climaxes, use this

ern modscores,

three of

kettle-drums the this

gives control

tonic, dominant,

and

sub-

T4

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

dominant to one

notes,

and

at

times

allows

the

instrument Auber
"

be

used

through

various

modulations.
"

was ture. overon

of the first to do Beethoven was this, in his the first to

Masaniello use a

chord

the

kettle-drums, the two

in

the

adagio struck of his

ninth

symphony,
Brahms But uses drums

being writer "Childe on together. of three most kettle-drums

in many

his

scores.

the

wholesale
In his

for

these

instruments

is Berlioz.

Harold" the symphony in his

changing and in

triads

are

played the kettle-drums,

the he picture employs as of

Judgment-day of are

"Requiem," and ten A as eight pairs four drums

kettle-drums used in

mers, drumtrill on trills.

on

these

drums

is not

composed but is a of two

notes,

the

piano, violin, etc.,

roll, produced
;

by rapidly

alternating the important the notes one drumsticks

there fourth

is

a

remarkably in the

in Beethoven's

symphony, long notes, the first movement. kettle-drum tone (the,

Among may the

points of execution

of

be

mentioned

short

being

checked

by

player placing muted the

his the

fingeron last the

and drumhead), trills,

tones, head. drumone

produced
There
are

by laying three kinds

a

cloth

over

of drumsticks one used, leather with

sponge

tipsfor and one

soft strokes, with

with

tips and for medium, sudden tones. not wooden

tips for loud of name

Among

especial uses we the the

drums kettle-

mentioned

above,

may

practi-

TSEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

15

cal

joke played by an by Haydn the of in

in loud four

his

' '

Surprise Symphony in the midst which

unexpected passage, a

stroke strokes

of so a

very

soft

form

important peal of part

Beethoven's
Berlioz's
"

violin

concerto,
Fantas-

the

thunder the

Sinfonie of the

tique," and of and the m.

beginning in of the march
"

knights acts Holy

Grail

Wagner's

Parsifal,"

I

THE

GLOOKENSPrEL.

This is

German to a

name,

signifying a small with a chime

of

bells,

applied on set

of

bars

of

polished steel,

which,

being

struck

ling mallet, give forth tinkThe

tones

of definite

pitch.

glockenspielis only and the instrument at all.

used

in passages is

of extreme in sweetness,

scarcely used can symphonies in the

Examples in of its

use

be "Die

found

Feuer-Zauber in Mozart's

ner's Wag-

opera Flute."

Walkiire,"

and

"Magic

BELLS.

Sometimes or full-toned

bells

are

required
Berlioz in

in orchestral his march duced pro-

operaticperformances. pilgrims, "Childe the effect

of

the

Harold"

symphony, cathedral with the bell

of

a

deep-toned of the

by

uniting the of and but

reverberation and a

horn bell in a twang

the

harp,

higher-toned in which

by using flute similar manner,

clarinet the

together with harp, a general way

bell-tone

is

produced

'^"

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

is

by strikinglong

bars

of

steel

with may in

a

wooden be the
"

let. malin

Examples the of

such

bell-tones

found

great the bell bell

figure in "Parsifal," in F here

nots," Huguebell massacre representing the the
"

the

of

St. Germain,

which

gave and signal for
Trovatore."

the

of St. Bartholomew, in the

passing bell (alsoin F)
H

Miserere

of Verdi's

THE

XYIOFHONB.

This bars and trashy with instrument

consists

of

a

number on a

of

of wood struck as

of different a lengths, placed
It has a frame,

mallet. as definite

pitch but ever, how-

has

much

noise

tone.

It is "Danse

finelyused,
Macabre"

by St. Saens in the

in the

his

where, represents

revelry of of

dead, the xylophone

the bones

the

skeletons

knocking together.
WITHOUT

mSTEUMENTS

OF

PERCUSSION

PITCH.

These

instruments, although they give are no

definite

notes,

notated

in

order

to

show

their

rhythmic They require may of

position,and appear a

the in length of the their sounds. and erally gena

G-clef,

of course, This note note

on

a

single degree only. and be the

chosen staff. stand

at

will

is

generally in for of the

the middle

The for a following phrase, passage on

example, might ments instru-

any
:

percussive

which

follow

it

TJSEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

71

^r-ru'^g^^^g
THE

etc.

BASS-DEUM.

This used

is sometimes in called

the to long

drum.

It

can

be

loud

passages

represent hurly-burly and as festivity. In and also The
"

soft passages,

in Gounod's

first Mass,

Mors

et

Vita," it represents mystery. in the Venus is of music with at a

"Wagner

uses

it thus

in

"Tannhauser."

bass-drum a played

single drumstick, its end. the

"with

knob can chamois-skin

Its toneof the a quality dmmhead. with tune score

be

altered

by changing has used the

tension in Berlioz

bass-drum even trill to two

kettle-dinimsticks, and instrument. "

endeavored this idea used
"

the

Verdi

followed Beethoven

in the

of his

Miserere." tawdriest

this di'um Battle of furiously in his
Vittoria."

work,

The

CYMBALS.

These

Turkish

instruments

are

also the without of

definite

pitch.

They for are

used

for

clangor are and festivity,

rhythmic clashed of

effects.

They

two

plates of

a

composition of are copper

(one part) and in each

(fourparts) and tin together,one being held allowing the one hand to ;

the custom the mer bass-drumto

also

play

cymbals, tying tolerated in

the

side

of the drum,

is not

the best

orchestras.

T8

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

When

short

notes

are

desired,

the

tone

is An

stopped by especially up one pressingthe plates against the explosive cymbal note chest.

effect

can

be

attained

by hanging drumstick. of the in

and it

striking it can with a a

The

last

(if in be

called

note)

"Sinfonie the Fantastique" is music, "

of this sort.

Wagner, a Venus suous sen-

Tannhauser,"

obtains

mysterious,

effect of by

the rattling

cymbals

together,instead

'

clashingthem.
THE TAMTAM.

This China.

is the
It

ordinary gong, in is only used be obtained

and music

comes

to

us

from of a at

climaxes used

nature, yet catastrophic a it is not

always a forte; on good

effect and a

can

by in and

soft stroke

the

gong, stroke

crescendo

is also

impressive. the opera

A
' '

soft ert" Rob-

is used

by Meyerbeer the nuns,

of

at the

of rising at the

in Rossini's of Mnus. uses a

"

SemEven

iramide" so opening a of the tomb as conservative

composer

Cherubini Mass."

stroke

of the

gong,

in his

"Requiem
MILITARY

THE

DRUM.

This

is called etc. the It

side-drum, is used

the

tenor-drum,

the

snare-drum,

in

military pictures, or chiefly,and very is most

effective in trills up a

rolls.

It

is

effective in obtains

working

crescendo, and

beer Meyerit in

considerable

power

by employing

80

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

music.

It

appears

in

Berlioz's

"Childe in ,

Harold"

symphony
Carnival"

(the

last

two in

movements)
Weber's
"

the

'

'

Roman

overture,

Preciosa,"

etc.

THE

CASTAGNETTES.

Two

hollow

bits

of

hard

wood

which

are

clicked

together. no Naturally of when musical used they

are

only yet or

rhythmic, they gypsy used in are giving quite dances. Bizet's

semblance

sound, in attractive The

Spanish

castagnettes
"

are

prominently

opera,

Carmen."

CHAPTER
MUSICAL

X.
AND ACCENTS.

EHYTHMS,

TEMPO-MARKS,

Accent to in music notes or

may

be

defined

as

that

force that

given upon certain

chords, greater than or the

surrounding
The of The

notes

chords

;

it

is therefore

generally relative music caUed

rather

than

positive. leads to the

regular recurrence speed with each music.

of accent

tion pulsa-

rhythm. which the

accents, the or

pulsations, or follow

other
As

constitutes the it will

Tempo,

"time,"

of the

latter be

term

is often to ously ambiguuse

employed, former. The as preferable from the to chief marks

of tempo,
,/

slowest
4
-

quickest, are
Grave,

follows

:

i.

Largo, ^arghetto, Adagio,
Moderato,
Prestissimo. words have been literal

Lento,

dante An-

Andantino, Presto, and
These
custom

Allegretto, Allegro,

Italian rather

given

this order tino, Andanthan come by

than

by their

meaning. slower it has

for

means example, literally a dante Anto

yet, by

misunderstanding,

be

82

TJSEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

used

in

exactly the opposite are sense.

The

slow as tempothe

marks

not

so

fixed in their

succession and ers, othused

and

Lar

ghetto. Adagio, some Lento,

are

interchangeably by
The
and

composers. are rhythms

in music

classified

as

even,

triple,

peculiar.
Even

rhythms into are

those

where

the

measure

divides

naturally
4-4, and

halves. are 2-1, 2-2, 2-4, 2-8, 4-1, 4-2, of such

4-8,

examples are rhythms.
$$
or

The
EH

following signs
4-2, $
The the for

also
E to

employed: from was

for

2-2,

and

for 4-4. us sign E

comes

the middle held to ages be the

when

triplepulsation of as was

music

only

perfectrhythm, the the monks

held with
"

that it the
:

represented the Trinity. and )

It

written
' '

followingsign, monks it

O

was an called even Perfectum

when

admitted tum"

rhythm, they the circle

called

"Imperfecthe

and
E.

broke

in

writing

sign halves into as thus: When or the

measure

divides each of these

naturally into sub-divisions even

quarters

and

thirds, the
:

result

is

compound

rhythm,

lows fol-

6-2, 6-4, 6-8, 6-16,
24-16.

12-4, 12-8, 12-16, and

even

Triple rhythms itself occur

when as, the

measure

divides

naturally

into

thirds,

3-1, 3-2, 3-4, 3-8, are 3-16, and

compound

triplerhythms

those

where

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

83

the

measure

divides

into

thii'ds,and into used.

each as, of

these

thirds 9-16
;

again even sub-divides has been occur thirds,

9-4, 9-8,

18-8

Peculiar into fifths

rhythms or when as, the

measure

divides

sevenths,
Sometimes
are

5-2, 5-4, 5-8, 5-16, 7-2, when 7-4, 7-8, 7-16.

these

rhythms of well each even are

employed

they

only

an

alternation It

and the

triple rhythms. teacher to at

(N. piano, B.

will

be of

for

give practical examples the and also to of the these dent stu-

rhythms to accustom

identifydifferent rhythms by ear.) or Complex dissimilar combined are rhythms used the be most occur

when

two

rhythms and Berlioz but

simultaneously such employed. to Wagner

have

effects

good of the bined com-

advantage, of this first act a probably is to

ment ingenious employin the Mozart in finale has

device

found

of "Don Minuet in

Giovanni"

where a three-four, in Gavotte

two-four, in a

and

a

Danza

Tedesca

r three-eight,hythms,
"Consecration
of combined natural or gle sin-

movement. affords

Spohr's fine instance can of

Tones"

another

rhythms.
The the

Accents

in music

be

artificial.

natural

accents,

explained They former above, are constitute into rhythm and Each contain

of the music. the divided

primary measure. secondary, measure a

beginning music with

each be of

a

piece of

will a found

to

strong part contrasted

weaker

part,

84

THEOMY

OF

MUSIC.

and

to these

the

names

of thesis and is considerable

arsis

have as been to the

given, although there true doubt

of interpretation

these

two

Greek

words.

The

former, however, is generally applied to the strong accent of the a measure.

In

slow

tempo than the natural in a are

accents

are

generally of to

less marked
Artificial

quick accent case

one. an

accents or either

intensification none was

a

natural

accent,
In

an

where

be

expected.

either time they

disturb can the be

natural divided and rhythm into two

for

the

being.

They

those classes,first,

having
In

suddenness or force, and of second, those

having

fullness

strength music tone, without

suddenness. the

piano

the ond sec-

first

might the be

called

percussive accent, the
The
are following

pressing accent. the the chief the would same signs of

former, used more

a

""

both
,

meaning this a

thing

unless the

together, when forcible. also are be

considered

Staccato and marks stems

convey used or a

degree express of accent, accents. double word a

also

to

The to Sforzando, strong and

Forzando, accent. is also

used

denote

sudden

It is abbreviated

Sf., 8fz., or Fz., and is generally used to on a signify an accent singlenote or chord, being usually re-written and of if further accents are

desired.

Its

superlative,Sforzandissimo course is
,

abbreviated, Sffz.,

denotes

great force.

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

85

The

pressing of tone, or accent

is would

expressed denote by the fullness It

word and

Rinforzando, strength single music music in its

which

without and and

suddenness. is sometimes sometimes is abbreviated, to a

Bf., note Rfs., chord, are

applied to an

or

entire

phrase.

There

certain

signs which and have

come

into

only when in this

century,

which

began to in

piano

that instrument

commenced

improve different tenuto-

expressive qualities,which styles of pressing thus, -^
"

denote The

degrees and mark accent

accent.

written
;

a signifies

clinging,soulful the same

the

marcato

also

means

pressing

style of execution, from would seem but

with

each the much

note

somewhat

arate sep-

its to neighbors ; signifyvery a portamento, the same once .--"T^ as the told

marcato, one but

in

less to degree. the notes Both passages.

Moscheles
"

of a are

his mark pupils

let

sob

out," where and tion separa' '

such

appeared. in such

pressure,

desired is

The in is

word

mento" Portafor

decidedly misapplied over," when the which

this

case, means it

means

"carried desired

by

no

the fact effect

sign

is written.

The

that the sense, we

singeruses seem the word to in another, a and

its true,

would

make
" '

desirable, and change
"

suggest this mode The

that the term of execution.

Demi-marcato

be

applied

to

words

Forte-piano,

abbreviated

Fp., affect

86

THE

OUT

OF

MUSIC.

two

notes

or

chords

;

the

one

where

the

sign

appears the one

is

to

be

played

with

loudness

and

suddenness, softness and effect

immediately of marked power.

following,
The

with of denote decrease

superlative would this

would

be

S^, in and

a

very

strong soft be thus

accent, note followed, chord. abrupt chief contrast, accents,

by then, a

very

or

The

may

fied: classi-

Sudden, and or

forcible

accents,

a,

"-,

sf,

fp,

sfp,

"ffz.

Pressing,

or

expressive
"

accents

(without

ness) sudden-

" "

,

,

-i-

i
,

T^.
,

and

rf. which in oegan vocal and in Even have music.

those

accent

signs accepted piano orchestral sic mu-

now

been

88

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

ABBREVIATIONS

OF

NOTATION.

The

musician

is of

frequently guided a in

the

rapid

comprehension
Most
to

passage, the case by when its a abbreviation.

especially is be this

single note example, we

is

repeated the note

many

times. to If, for in desired notes C an be

repeated measure, thirty-second we throughout to entire note would but not

proceed write second show a write

the

thirty-two times, with :

would

single notes whole under note, it the

sign

of

thirtywould into

thus

|(^) |, which a to that

its whole
A

note

was

be could

sub-divided be seconds. thirty

half-note

similarly

divided two notes

into

sixteenth

notes, to thus: one [jLg-|, and combined could the

be alternated

half their

value, would by

following notation, that [(jh^^I,which to one

denote

C to and the

E, value in

were

be

played

in

thirtysecond

notes

of

half-note. or Eepetitions denominations hooks of in their which

of are figures

eighth-notes

smaller

designated by placing

the

flagsor the denomination

immediately
This,
for to after

figure would they the appear.

example, be thrice

show after that

initial

figure was
:

repeated

its first

performance

THE

OB

Y

OF

MUSIC.

89

If the

figurehad bars been

in

thirty-secondnotes, employed, an three

oblique notes, thus

would one. have
The

been

if in

eighth-

only

repeat of

entire

measure

is

shown

:

$
Other, simpler, repeat-marks, as "

D.

C." and may "

D.

S.''

(which are by no means the explanations of the

synonymous) teacher. be

left to

RESTS.

Few

changes since the

have

taken

place

in

this

department of definite of

of notation

the introduction

of rests

length,in difference thirteenth that well the

century, the chief mediaeval points

being as the as musicians

used

longer rests, longest rest notes, ages rest

occasionally. was The

of

middle

equal

to

eight use whole-rests. the double

The

longest

at

present in
=i=-

is

whole-rest, in the

written notation

thus: of rests

One been the

salutary change alteration the each and has
"

of the quarter rest from

^

to

^

as

formerly

quarter other eighth rests, be have

written

^ ^ resembled

too

closelyto

readily distinguishedin stated ;

rapid sight-reading. We whole-rest is at times found It may in not

that the double may employed
Bach's be

examples of it

readily be

"Well-tempered to state

chord." Clavicon-

amiss

in

this

90

THE0B7

OF

MUSIC.

nection, that

the

double

whole-note iwi .

is

still

more

freely used,
On
to

and

is written

the

other

hand, in the

smallest is the

note

or

rest

used in any

extent
"

music

but sixty-fourth,

Beethoven's will afford

Sonata

Pathetique" the notes, even

introduction in Dussek's

examples of 128th
2, may
!

and an Op.
256th

10

No. notes! be

found

example be denoted

of

Rests, of many on bars, may

by numerals

placed

the

staff,

ACCIDENTALS.

These or are

the in a

temporary appearance musical of better ' '

of flats, sharps, The some naturals, the name

passage. Cancel expresses "

natural

has

received and

name

from

theorists,
The
of

this

its function. different of the the forms eleventh

flat and

the

natural the

came

from notation to the

letter B, in and letter a

crude

ury, cent-

both a were

used

show

positionof

that

only,

square

[^signifyingthe higher petition, lower. A mistake as round

one,

i",the two in

to

the

meaning being given at a

of these

perpetuated mistaken to

signs led to an error to this Germany day, the an which square is B

for note H, and

the

name

of that

letter in the

it and

represented. was are

The

sharp

came

later

epoch,

originallya is not

St. Andrew's in modern

cross.

Accidentals

frequently over-used over-use a

notation, yet their

fault,and

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

91

this upon fundamental
:

rule

may

be

strongly

insisted

Always that its The as use

an

accidental

before sure. a

doubtful be note

meaning chief may rules be made

two

for accidentals

may

stated

follows
1.

The

effect

of the

accidental is tied

ceases

at

the

bar-

line unless measure. the note

affected

over

into the next

N.B. note and of

There the

is

an

obsolete be

rule

that if the an last

measure

affected next not measure by

accidental, same the first note

of the need

be of the
;

pitch,the rule accidental more be re-written

but in

this the is

now

honored

in the

breach

than

observance.
2.

An as accidental the one does

not or affect notes lowered In

of the

the

same

letter

raised or by

sign, but

in other

octaves

parts.

this

example.

the

sharp

does

not

properly

affect the

second

F, yet

this rule is very and to

frequentlyviolated a in vocal

exercises, is made very in violin music, where do

single accidental scale the or duty through
In
case,

an

entire

arpeggio octave-mark frequently. used as

however,

is

in the

following:

,92

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

the

accidental Double

need

not

be

re-written.

sharps for and

double

flats

need

but

a

single were natural

their after

cancellation, a yet flat it

if

a

single

flat

required notated double

would

generally the be

with

a

natural

preceding be flat, with a

and

the

same

would, followed of

course,

the

case

double

sharp

by

a

single

sharp,

as

follows

"

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

93

CHAPTEE
MUSICAL

XII. METEONOME-MABKS,
ETC.

GROUPS,

GROUPING.

Groups
Natural their

of

notes are are

either in

natural

or

artificial.

groups normal those In

which cases the the

notes notes

retain are value.

such to grouped passage together merely written facilitate

reading.

A

thus,

^^=g=g=;=g^gg^^ would written be as far

more

difficult
:

to

read

than

the

same

follows

^^"""^^^^^
Yet
all music anterior was to

the

beginning in a

of the

eenth eight-

century
In

notated

the

former

manner.

1660,

John and Playford,

distinguished English our composer

music-printer,invented the notes

system but of the

grouping, calling
,new

"tyed very notes," not method used gained until favor

slowly,

being

much

after 1700.

94

TSEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

Artificial an grouping gives to value, indicated
The smallest

the

notes a thus

treated

abnormal them. by

numeral

placed is of two above notes artificial group

only, these as taking

the

place of three
:

normal

notes,

in the

following example

The its notes notes

triplet is notes the

artificial

group value most

used, and two three

have own the

of

normal two of their can denomination. be Triplets of of the of notes sometimes

used,

one

ing hav-

two-thirds, value, There seven, the

other

one-third,

the

total

^^^ are also any

artificial groups

of

four, five, six, but in a and

greater

number are of notes, to be

when

a

very

large number and them are of notes not given treat single to as a measure,

of

normal

value, it is best to notate

in small

notes, and

them

cadenza.

The manner group is the

most

frequently written
The value true in

an

incorrect is a

sextolet.

sextolet

group notes not

of

six notes,

having all the

of

four

normal

of the divisible denomination at or

it is written an in, and on either

(having into accent

its first note of two notes

only),

divisible

three

groups

96

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

which times

will then per swing an to

and

fro

that

number

of each of

minute,
When

audible made the

click a accompanying bell, of the

oscillation. this or with

sound measure appliance denotes

beginning the each

important rhythmic were subdivision. use Beethoven metronome and in

Czerny marking
The

the

first to

their

tempi. of the different the names

tempi,

as

"Allegro," metronome, to

"Andante," are etc., upon

scale and are

of the not often

very

misleading,

be

citly impli-

followed.
The 1. M.

following are
M.
mean

examples of
2.

metronome

marks
60.

:

J
:

=

42. 1
.

M.

M.

^'

=

These

would

That at the counter

weight and that

of the metronome each or

is to be to set

forty-two, a click

is

represent the speed of that notes

quarter note, at the rate

in other

words, quarter

the a speed

is to be

of

forty-two is not be to minute. such slow

As

the

metronome

always well to

exact double an in

movement, and thus

it would

the

number

allow

each
84.

click
2. at

represent

eighth note, the is to be metronome J**
=

This

signifiesthat and is to a be

set

sixty,
The

each

click may

represent

dotted

quarter.

metronome

rigidlyused but in technical not exercises

with

good

results, in actual Yet

should as be

so

constantly

employed would ensue.

music,

a

mechanical use style a its constant

is not

fault

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

91

with

such

pupils as
N.
this

are

lax

in

the

matter

of correct do well to time-keeping. supplement and B.

The

teacher

would a lesson

by

procuring etc. ,

metronome

explaining its mechanism,
CEESCENDO
AJSTD

to

the

students.

DrMINTTENDO.

Music, increases decreases mark it is all

fi-equently, but in in power in

by

no

means

always, and to as ascending ones. passages,

descending

It is in a impossible work, or

th^ signs of shading

musical louder be

constantly growing points of shading of must

either

softer. the a Many taste therefore all left to have to the to performer. hurry
;

Almost

pupils and tendency in this fault

in the

Crescendo teacher passages, should

lag

Diminuendo

guard against

the wherein by early presenting passages is designated, as phrases marked opposite course ed for

Allargando, Diminuendo

accelerando. marks The may

lowin folbe must general given, although
1. of a rules the

Crescendo and :

teacher,

good taste, the always guide the performance
In
a

Crescendo or occurring during its execution to scale note note

grand arpeggio, than note.

endeavor

make

each louder
2.

louder

predecessor, that

is, grow

by

In

a

Crescendo groups, occurring where group be

the

music

is in

or figures

let each

louder

than

its

98

THEOBr

OF

MUSIC.

predecessor; not let the

Crescendo

proceed by groups note by
3. In

notes.

vocal

music, generally, each than its

is to

be

made

louder

predecessor;

the

Crescendo

proceeds by
4.

notes.

Unless

previously contradicted continues by

some

other

sign,the Crescendo in which 5
.

throughout the phrase grand Crescendo similar in to it

occurs.

The

best

culmination

of

a

is

in

a

sforzando.
The rules

6.

for Diminuendo

are

the

first four manner given above, growing passages grow

softer louder. the

same

that these

SYNCOPATION.

Syncopation of the natural It is can

is

an

artificial accent, the music.

an

interruptio where a

pulsationof

be
,

produced by giving an both accent

none

expected by taking away it is expected, or by where
The natural

the accent methods

from

point

combined.

rhythm used must

be a restored

after the syncopation the one has been ear for

short

time, otherwise as a

will accept the the efiect of

artificial accent

natural

and

syncopation be in lost. must Syncopations be accompaniments

be

strong to if the

effective.
The

effect of any

syncopationis heightened

note

precedingit

is shortened.

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

99

The under
1
.

chief the styles of syncopation
;

may

be

classified

following heads a Where measure, long

note

is written over on

a

lightpart

of

the

extending measure, as

the

succeeding strong

part of the

2.

Where

accents

are

written

over

the weak

parts

of the measure,

$
V

^
V
are

3.

Where the tenuto measure, marks and

written

over

the over light the very

parts of

staccato

marks

strong parts.

This

however, and are

produces often on

only

a

light syncopation,
4.

is not written notes employed. the accented on WTiere measure, rests

paits cented unac-

of

the

and
:

or

chords

the

parts

5. of

Where measure short

slurs

connect

the

unaccented

parts

the

with note the is not

accented

parts, the provided first :

that the second

longer than

^^J^j^
6.

Where

notes

are

written

between

the

beats

of

100

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

the over measure

and

are

of

sufficient or length beat. to

continue is the the used succeeding

accent

This

most

styleof syncopation

:

The

teacher

will

here

illustrate also all

both cause vocal the

and

instrumental to syncopations, and examples of

dents stu-

write

foregoing styles of

syncopation.
SLURS
AND TIES.

The with notes slur

first

appeared was in

notation to a

in connection

violin-music, and were used

show

how

many

to

be

executed was with

single stroke admitted of notes to

of the

bow.

Soon to after this it indicate breath. of the the It

also

into vocal be sung in notation in the a number was single

very

sparingly

used

piano-music and the weak

last

century, since

only

the

clavichord

piano of that epoch and because

could

give that one

a

legato effect (the spinet and

harpsichord being the rule was s essentiallytaccato

instruments) legato unless the all music

is

otherwise

marked

of the

of principles

posers. eighteenth-centurycom-

The notes tie is of the

a

curved same line

connecting two merging not consecutive them into on a

pitch, and notes single sound. the same

These

need

be

written

degree

of the staff,(althoughthey

generally

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

101

are) world can

for in the the

tempered the scale of

used two by

the

civilized notes flat and the be an same

sharp

contiguous following

mean

sound,

and tie
:

the

would

therefore

enharmonic

^
If the above a two

notes

under

the line

curved a line

have

dots

them,

the

curved

is not

tie, but becomes
This is an portamento of (demi-marcato') such a

mark.

example

mark

:

m
K dot The the over ^

second

note

only,

in

such be

an

example, has of a

a

it, the effect would

that

short

slur.

following.

^ would some

be

played

as

two

notes, the the

first

receiving

degree

of accent, a and little

second

being played than its written

"with value. lightness,and be shorter

Slurs slur over

can

classified over as

long

and

short, and a

a

short

extending three or

two

notes

only,

long

slur

more.

102

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

It is almost

impossible of the

to

give are absolute so rules

for

the execution
Yet
cases
:

slur, there

many

tions. excep-

the

following rules

may

apply in general

SHORT

SLDBS.

1.

When or two

notes

of

small

denomination

ter (quar-

notes note

less) are the ;

connected

by

a

slur, the

first

is

generally accented, of note

the second

played lightly; that of

the

tone

first is to the second

overlap into note the

second

and

is

ened. frequently short-

This

example.

P would often be

played

thus

;

#
2.

^ notes are

When the the slurred second of

a

longer than more

ination, denom-

is not second slur

generally shortened. note 3. the

When efiect of

the the is

longer nothing

the

first a is often

than

legato mark.
4.

Short

slurs

need

not

be To to especiallyaccented lift the check

in be an rapid running-passages. sufficient hand the will

in

piano music, work. breath

instant, in vocal

104

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

2.

The effect

long of a

slur

can

be

correctly thus used

to

abolish

the

preceding

staccato,

:

^m
^
3
.

i

In

vocal

music above.

it

is

often

only

a

syllable-mark,

as

explained

TSEOJRT

OF

MUSIC.

105

CHAPTER
MUSICAIi

Xm.

EMBELLISHMENTS.

The

embellishments which are of

music

are

ornamental

ures fig-

added musical

to any

melody

without word forming is rather

an

independent misnomer, but as thought. the music to The

a

these cause figures rarely

embellish a thing, any-

often

assume

frivolous

and

inconsequential character.
The

signs

of

embellishment abbreviations of the

are

among

the

most

important
The
a

of the

of music. embellishment these the are ments orna-

larger part legacy were signs of to bad

from

the last century, when

very

freelyused of prolong and tone What

of

the

flimsy instruments in the

piano family.

began a necessity was there continued were enlarged through in false taste, and and add

clavecinists ago, who to were

France, of note

a

hundred

fiftyyears
Even
the

boasted every

their of a ability to opinion embellishments then there

composition. as differences embellishment

of

to

o intei-pretationf

the

signs, and

at the

present day it is almost

impossible

106

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

to

give rules
The

that will coincide

with

the views

of aU

teachers.

explanations from the of and best

classifications

which

follow

are

collated

authorities,beginning with
Emanuel
most

the

early works etc. ,

Philip

Bach, modern be

Leopold

Mozart, on and

including the
Yet
much one thought desired, the

subject. entire is left to that

and

the

subject is a requires the practical of same

guidance of become in modern than

teacher. and Many the are

the

signs are have

obsolete,

when

effects in sire de-

music a they

notated

full,rather works at are represented by
S.

doubtful which were

sign. were The

of a J. time fuU the

Bach,

however, ornaments composed very necessary,

when of these careful teacher also these

signs,and study should of the of

for this reason,

if for

no

other,

the some subject is recommended. of the works of of

The and play the Bach, and to

some

compositions

Rameau

Couperin, attention introduced of the

to

students, before

proceeding should which to the

study of the succeeding rules, and to call

especia been the

embellishments

have

into the or pieces merely

sustain

the tone

clavichord

harpsichord.
THE TURN.

Among have met

all the with more old

embellishments than the turn

none or

seems

to

favor

gruppetto.

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

107

Its dark

sign, s\s, ages, came

from showed Draw to the the a neume

notation of

of

the

and

direction line

the the sion progres-

of the music. group, from note

through the following the note, and at once

origin of
:

sign

of the turn

will

be

perceived

^^JC-C-H^
Aline
drawn

through

any

sign

of embellishment,

9"fi is to denote The turn its inversion.

is

generally played rapidly, at but

some

deviation

is made

times,

in very

slow

and

sive expres-

passages.
The
turn

consists its

of

three, and takes which

four, notes or

five which

notes

according to or position, it after are the

cede prevalue

follow note it, and over or

its

rhythmic

from

the

it stands. the note Its the auxiliary notes below intervals for the upper, always

above

and

note

the of or principal, printed, note.

The tone the a turn

are

most

frequently a interval. semi-tone

for the lower

Sometimes, upper whole

however, a these

are

inverted, and the case

the is a interval is tone. semi-tone, is while

lower

This

frequently the

when

the

108

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

turn

takes

place on

the third

or

seventh

degree

of the

scale.

^^
There
or

are

also

turns, in indicated which

generally,by both intervals

one are

more

accidentals,
:

semi-tones, thus

m^ which would be

played

;

^^^^fa^
There whole are ^

also

turns

in are which

both

intervals and are a

are

tones, but these written quite rare, the ally gener-

out, rather

than on represented by second sign. of They

almost

always
Schumann
can

occur was degree
Number of

the scale.

fond

of this effect, examples

of which

be found

in his Novellette in some 1, in songs. The may 1.

"

Der

Dichter

Spricht," and for the
:

his

general be When a rules as execution

of

the

turn

classified a follows follows a turn

note, and

the

next

note

is of

different

pitch,it

consists

of four in notes

vals (inter of as

explained above,) played

the

last half

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

109

the

rhytlimicvalue or of

the in note. principalnote, a if that of

be

a

quarter value turn

eighth, but a less

proportion teachers note

the a if it is after an longer

Some the

allow a eighth to

dissolve
:

into

turn

of five notes.

Examples
WRITTEN.

PLATED.

^fc^
WRITTEN. PLAYED.

^ta^^^P
2.

When same a

turn

follows

a

note

and of the

next

note

is of the

pitch, it consists the three as notes, rule the one. rhythmic proportions being Examples
;

same

in

WRITTEN.

PLAYED.

3. next When note a

turn a is written different or over

a

note,

and is of into a

the the is of an pitch,if

the note

value notes of

eighth

less, it is dissolved it is of are four

of

equal length ; if, however, the first three notes longer

denomination,

played rapidly

110

TBEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

and

a

pause
:

made

on

the

last,
PLAYED

or

principal,note.

Examples

WRITTEN.

3

^^^^^^
WKITTEN. PLAYED.

P
N.
on

^ teachers allow

^ such a

B.

Some

turn

to

begin to not

the

principalnote, the the above which

would

give but five notes does

the first of occur as

examples, note turn. over this

when the preceding of the turn is of

the

same

pitch and principal note
When
a

4. next is written same or

a

note

the value note an is of the note pitch, if with the

it be

of the

of

eighth now less, it is dissolved

into' four
;

notes, but it is a beginning a principal note it follows

if

note

of

larger denomination,
:

rule

three.

Example

WRITTEN.

PLAYED.

p^^^^
5.
note

When is a

a

turn

follows

a

dotted

note

and

the next a single,short, unaccented value on

note, of out filling note

rhythmical division, the divided into

the

dotted comes is the

thirds on ;

the

first third

note, principal

the

second

third, three

notes

of the

112

TMEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

PLAYED.

MORDENTS.

The verb a

word Mordre

"Mordent"
"

is derived
"

from mordent the

French is to

bite out and

the trill. really

fragment

bitten

of

a

The trill was

sign thus itself

shows thus

this, for
.r."^.".*^^, a

in ancient

days the mordent, of it.

written
-w,

while

the

written intervals are represents mordent, to

singlebeat altered The

of the

unless

by accidentals, on according or the scale, that is, a mordent would the third

seventh and all

degree others of the is taken

have have a

semi-tone tones. interval,
The

would

whole

rhythmic the value

first two

notes

which

constitute

mordent,
:

from

the

principalnote.

Example

WRITTEN. ,/W

PLAYED.

^fe
If there over should

be any

accompanying first note of

note

to

that

which

the mordent with the is written, it is to be the

struck

simultaneously

mordent.

T3E0BY

OF

MUSIC.

113

Example

:

WBITTEN. w PLAYED.

WBITTEN. w PLAYED,

B~~i

t m^ The accent S"E^

is sometimes sometimes upon

upon the

the last two first note or of the

group,
The
erent

and

principalnote. kinds the

Germans names, distinguishthese calling the short accented teacher

by

difi"

first Prdller,

second

SclineUer.
Mordents
are

over

notes, and upon will the

in

rapid passages, of the

generally ( The the first note

group.

here, the

"Sonata

ples give practical examPathetique," in the second

subject of mordent first movement

famishing into an

able admir-

instance.

)

At

times, in very a rapid work,

the

dissolves

its note
WRITTEN.

triplet.

PLAYED.

A

mordent

over

a

long is note

or

on

an

unaccented on portionof

the measure,
:

generallyaccented
PLAYED.

the

last note, thus

WBITTEN.

114

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

The

inverted

mordent*(which thus: the

Germans follows

call the

"Mordent") above is written

'W', note and as auxiliary. affect the auxiliarynote in mordents Accidentals the sign. Examples : only, if written against
WRITTEN.
PLAYED. WRITTEN. PLAYED.

rules,but takes the lower

f

^^^^^F^'^p
The marked double thus :

mordent

is

an

incomplete trill; it is

P and executed thus :

It is also

frequently used

with the short trillbeginning
:

by Bach to indicate ple Examtone. auxiliary

a

^^=^^^^

In the

case

of

a

dotted on note

followed

by

a

singl double note,

a

pause

is made

the last note and of the
/^^w

call -nK- a mordent, teachers *Many "inverted mordent." or "prall-trill,"

"praller,"

TSEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

115

mordent,

and

the

next

note,

if of

small

tion, denomina-

shortened.
WEITTEN.

i
PLAYED.

Se

i
There
are,

H

COMBINATION-SIGNS

.

especially turns in

the

works

of

Bach,

binations com-

of

and

mordents, have represented rise to

by

singlesigns. contention These

signs

given

erable consident differare

among are musicians,

and them.

many

interpretations very music

given when to

They

rarely not at

used

in and
,

modem

piano required obsolete. or
"

music are (in vocal notated in

all)

full, the
The

signs having by in

become

following sign, '"'TMCd a ^,

is

a

mordent,
:

followed

turn,

a

single group.
PLAYED.

Example

WEITTEN.

^f
When the

tempo

is

rapid,

and can there be is

in difficulty in five

executing notes. the

figure in full, it
:

played

Example

116

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

Von This in a Billow

prefers the is a

latter

interpretation. by a sign, C^

turn

followed
:

mordent,

singlegroup.
WBITTEN.

Example

PLAYED,

l^s
The inversion of this
:

figure is signifiedby

this

sign

J

C^'
WRITTEN.

Example

There

are

also

combinations
This

of turns

and

trill, resen rep-

by singlesigns. a sign, C^^^^, with a

fies signi-

trill

beginning

and

ending

turn

:

Cu^^

WBITTEN.

PLAYED.

while with an the

following,0'^+" turn, and

inyerted

a signifies ending with

trill a beginning simple turn.

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

in

Example

:

WBITTEN,

PLATED.

If, short however, note, where

either

of

these

signs not occur

over

a

there

would be

be

time

to

trill,

the

two

turns

alone

can

played.

Example

:

WEITTEN.

I
PLAYED.

118

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

CHAPTER
THE TRILL.

XTV.

The

trill is the in the era. oldest

of

all the

embellishments. of It appears

earliest

musical very manuscripts in the

Christian

It of the

was

freely used to the the

ichord clavescent evan-

music sound unnecessary in the of In the trills on last

century

prolong we of the notes, and trills therefore state even

find many

(in the present of Bach, Mozart. was of the in forte) pianothe natas so-

cadences and

and

Haydn last the

century it upper ;

customary

to

begin above his
' '

all

note, ^'. e., the
Emanuel das

note

the Ver-

principalnote such liber in

Philip
Art
the and

Bach, zu in

die wahre

Clavier

spielen" publishe book on

1752,

first valuable

nique techon

printed, speaks the upper note
;

of

the Mozart

trill

as

beginning the Leopold same (fatherof adds many

great

Mozart) gives the and all "Art rather of which of fanciful are rule

and

minute,

distinctions, among now almost trills, in his

obsolete. Piano-forte."

Hummel, was Playing

the

the

first to

120

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

The or ancient the the

sign for was the a as trill, that

of the one, turn

of

mordent,

photographic the voice line to to

senting reprethus
:

progressionof bend was

the

eye,

-^"^-^"^,

each

of the

signifyingone end with an beat

of

the trill.

If it a desired was inverted usual beat, forming

turn, it
:

indicated

by the

sign of inversion, thus
The addition modern of -"^-s^^"^.

sign is simply tr, sometimes the with

the no serpentine line, but the number tar of

the

latter

longer represents serves beats, although it

to

show

how

the trill is to continue in very

broken, un-

and

is thus

especiallyuseful

long,

and

in chain-trills.
EXILES
FOE TEILLS.

The may 1
.

chief

rules as for trills, and follows
:

classificatiokitrills of

be A

given

trill must

generally begin the next note

and

end

on

the same principal note, pitch, in note, or

unless case is of the
:

the

which the note a it ends

either with note principal same auxiliary if below note the

directl

preceded by
2.

of the on pitch as

its

principal to note, the trill begins

the

auxiliarynote. it is

When, the a

for

especial reasons, note. desired

begin with the trill as

auxiliarynote, grace that note

must
:

precede

short

Example

f

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC,

121

3. are All

grace

notes, written the before

or

after

a

trill,

incorporatedwith
Examples
WRITTEN.
:

triE, becoming part of the
PLAYED.

group.

4. it has if it

A

trill

generally ends value of

with a a

turn, or if especially more, the occurs rhythmic in the an half note

and

ascending turn passage sometimes grace written last passages this turn

final

is

(in descending omitted) and notes, the after the of the grace note is indicated

by

two

below these and two a

the

note, principal to the

trill ;

notes, added

beat

trill notes form are turn, naturally. omitted to

The

concluding rule. A

often

in careless this an notation, therefore

it is a important

remember turn trill without trUl." terminating the is called that a "incomplete beginning trUl It

will also be noticed on trUl an and

ending at principal note
This is not the

has case unequal group a its

close. the

with
:

beginning on

auxiliary note.

Examples

122

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

WKITTEN.

.fitr^

^

^^

^
In

N.

B.

writing teacher some

out

trills

in

full

notation

foi

pupils, the notes, will

generally use are thirty-secondT more although
Accidentals

trills

executed

rap-

idly.
5.
can

be

marked

in or trills either after the

rectl ditrill

against sign ; the latter
:

the

principal note, affects notation

the

auxiliarynote.

Example

WRITTEN.

PLATED.

6.

A

trill upon a a

dotted

note, where of the a this does measure not

constitute rules rhythmic six of
' '

division Turns
"

(see upon five and

)

has

pause to its of

last the when

note, generally equal (principal)

the value

dot, a or

even

in

excess

of note it ;

in

the

latter case, is robbed

singleunaccented

follows, this

TEEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

123

of part of value its value, which of the

is added triU. to

the

rhythmic
:

of the last note

Example

P
9P

^

Bp

a^mP

7.

In

practising the vocal-trill, many, allow their

but

not

all,

teachers

pupils
This is

to

begin to with secure the upper proper to

(auxiliary)note. intonation, and

done

purposely gives an where the

accent

the of less false important note, intonation 8.

chief

danger

lies. are a

Chain-trills the other. succession

of

one trills,

ing lead-

into 9.

Double-trills There

are

two

trills

proceeding two taneousl simulin

is Two

frequently much and trill-signs,

carelessness

marking
10.

these. be serpentine

lines should The

used. trUl" so, "false not is

one

that

seems

to

be

tinuous, con-

yet is to allow

being interrupted sufficientl melody term to appear, to at intervals. a the

notes use of

a

Some on teachers the

the

denote

trill

ning begin-

auxiliary note. octave-trills, and
,

11.

Double-trills,

even are

single at trills

in (forced-trills) piano music,

times

124

TKEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

played action, and with

with

both the trill

hands, is alternating, played in with

wrist-

but

usually

one

hand,

finger-action.

THE

our

OF

MUSIC.

125

CHAPTEE
GRACE NOTES.

XV.

Grace and notes

can

be divided

into two

classes, long

short.
The

long grace-note means is called

the as appoggiatura, it leans to it. over which

the

"leaning note," not into the The

melody, although short "the

belonging the grace-note crushed it is crushed

is

called as acciaccatura, upon meaning

note," into immediately harmony.

its appearance

the

THE

APPOGGIATXJRA.

This

is

one

of

the

most a expressive ornaments long note, harmony, eflfect of and of an music.

Although it is

it is to is

given

accent, to foreign
It

the

and an extraneous

the

melody.

gives the into a

unexpected is akin to dissonance, an melting

consonance,

and

unprepared suspension.
The

appoggiatura in a

or

long grace-note which, however, to is

generally
It

notated its real

small or note as near

represents gen- value,

it

as

possible.

126

THE

OB

Y

OF

MUSIC.

erally receives precedes,
Its
or,

one-half if this is of a the

value

of

the

note

it

dotted from

note,

two-thirds. it rhythmic above value

is taken be

the note to not

precedes, it and, while the it will not

wrong must as

prolong be beyond
It

proportion, it strength as shortened. and is made

receives louder :

well to length,

than

the

note

which

it is attached.

ample Ex-

WRITTEN.

PLAYED.

j^r^^ ^^=^^=^=^
The
a

reason

that

so

important been is a a

note
:

is written it or

as

grace-note has to already but stated

does

not

belong time the

melody, for dissonance
;

sion, suspen-

introduced the

special effect is not

yet

at the

present as a

appoggiatura and even as generally notated
Che faro and grace-note, in the

appoggiature which
' '

appear

such or works the into a Gluck's of notes senza

Euryare

dice,"

sonatas

Haydn in Mozart,

changed
This

regular fault ;

the

modern errors editions. which of

is not

for the innumerable music in the

have

occurred

in modern a matter

long

grace-notes make
The

simpler is to

notation

desirable.

appoggiatura any notes or be which

played simultaneously appear with note. chords

with

its

own

128

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

note

with

a

line It

drawn as diagonally little value

across

the

stem, but to

thus, what which

j^.

receives value

as

possible, the note

rhythmic

it has

is taken
:

from

it is attached.

Example

WRITTEN.

PLAYED.

^g
The with to acciaccatura any must or be which

played is written

simultaneously with the note chord it is

note

which in attached.

Many the students

commit

faults the

this

matter,

playing
:

grace-note

before

chord.

Examples
WKITTEN.

PLAYED.

^

(fc
WKITTEN.

w

PLAYED.

TSEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

129

CHAPTEE

XVI.

MUSICAL

FORM.

FIGURES

AND

THEIR

TREATMENT.

Form may be

is the defined basis as of

all

arts, plasticor reduced to

other, and the contrast

law, since

foundation In

of form

is in effective we contrasts.

poetic form, combined find into (proceeding synthetically feet, as the syllables

difierent

dactyl,

anapaBst, iambus, into trochee, etc., poetic feet combined into lines, lines poems. In

stanzas,

and same stanzas manner into we plete com-

exactly the into find

musical

notes

combined into

figures, figures into and phrases, phrases movements. periods,

periods into

plete com-

Phrasing with proper to is the art

of

presenting

these

divisions ship relationform

balance, and other. A to exhibiting their of musical The

each

knowledge good importance

is

absolutely essential however, foot in is of more phrasing. in music

figure than the and

poetry, for

it is

frequently developed,

130

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

often

entire a compositions plant grows teacher are

evolved a from

a

simple

figure,as
N. B.

from will

singleseed. illustrate The

The

here

this first point ment move-

freely from of different

master-works. fifth

Beethoven's

symphony
' '

is the best to sible pos"

example. can Wohlfahrt's to Guide

Composition the also be

read

good advantage by is used the basis should

student

at

this

stage of study.

The

figurewhich
"the

as

of

a

tion composi-

is called

model," and of marked

generally be its characteristic,and may A be

rhythm, is, however,

that

changes used easily followed. simple in order may be be model that

very

here

as

example,

the

following modes in the

of transformatio

understood.

A 1.

figuremay
By
intact,

changed difierent followingways case :

in transposition, on a

which

the

figureappear scale same
:

degree be new

of the the the as intervals those natural of need

not

always if the

exactly

the notes :

model, of the

position (using the a scale)

necessitates

change.

Example

MODEL.

TEANSPOSED.

J J-J ^i^^J-^i-^^HJ
Continued
sequence. and

regular transposition

leads

to

TBEOBY

OP

MUSIC.

131

2.

Expansion. of in

This

is

a

widening the of

one

or

more

intervals are the a figure. Generally interval. outside
:
.

notes

given

wider

Example

^^^
3.
more

Contraction. intervals method. of

This

is

a

narrowing
The
reverse

of

one

or

the

figure.
:

of

the

preceding

Example

^^
4. notes

^
A

^ of the

Augmentation. of a

presentation

figure in notes larger denomination. originalvalue times the are Generally used, but are of

double notes the of four
:

sometimes

originalvalue

employed.

Examples

^^
5.

^

S

I the BE

1 in notes of the

Diminution. smaller

Here

figureappears

of

a

denomination,

generally one-half

originalvalue.

Example:

^

^
^

-etc.

132

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

6. are Kepetition. repeated. ^

Here

certain
:

members

of

the

ure fig-

Examples

^s
7.

m
This is
: a

J=^-^-^U-

Omission.

fragmentary presentation

of the

figure. Example

P
8.

m

Irregular change employed as

of

the

order

of

notes.

This

is seldom

it is
:

apt

to

make

the

figure

unrecognizable. Example

f
9.

^-

m figure played through

Eeversion.

This
:

is the

backwards.

Example

^^^^
10.

Contrary
The this with

motion.

This must is the

played figure not an

side up-

student

be careful

to

found con-

the

preceding. the in the do

Wherever

upward ward downat

progression takes place in one a original figure,

is to notes occur

inversion. not occur

This in leads

times

to

which

the original

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

133

figure,yet same the as figure the as

a

whole

must

be

upon
:

the

degree

originalone.

Example

P
11. follows

Rhythmic
;

change,

which

might

be

made

as

12.

Elaboration.

This
:

is

a
'

variation

of

the

inal orig-

figure. Example

13.

Simplification.
With
so

This a is

the

reverse

of

the we preceding. have Were model
14.

simple

figureas be the model

taken, the simplification would

impossible. above, the

originalfigurethe example be its

next

would

simplification.
This
:

Ornamentation.

is the

addition and trills, of

of

the

conventional to embellishments the turns,

dents, mor-

figure.

This

mode

treatment

is

seldom 15. name. employed.

Rhythmic
The
on a imitation. of a

This

is

explained by model can

its be

rhythm whatever, the latter in

characteristic or imitated no single note, as by

an

instrument or ing givLiszt's

note

bass-drum, may triangle. An in instance

of

mode

be the

found

piano has no

concerto

E-flat, where an triangle,which which definite

pitch, has

obligato phrase

is

134

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

purely rhythmic. may be

But in

the best

instance

ment of this treat-

found bass the

Beethoven's to fifth

symphony,
Our in this first movement, the part

second thus to subject, where imitated. be used

rhythm is too but

of

first

figureis

model manner, simple the in its

rhythm

Beethoven

figure may Example
EHYTHMIC
:

furnish

the

example

for this mode.

MODEL.

IMITATION.

16.

Combinations can of any be

of the

foregoing methods

of transformation still remains

used, providing the figure
:

recognizable. Example

IEEp"
The

above

is

our

figuretransformed transposition. a

by augmentation,

expansion,
In has modern been or and

music introduced. new

style of figure-treatmen
This is the is a use

of

the

motif leit-

guiding figure. definite person,

This

musical

figureto
It represents This

which

some some

meaning thing, or
"Don

is attached. dramatic

event.

idea more is found than a in Mozart's

Giovanni," composed it is used

century ago, but

by Wagner

136

THEOBT

OF

MUSIG.

CHAPTEK
THE

XVn.
ORIGIN. THE

SUITE

AND

ITS

OLD

DANCES.

The

suite, which instrumental was

the

predecessor of its our

sical clas-

forms, had

origin in were, the

ancient

dance-forms.

These

dance-forms

in

fact, the of a

beginning of quick later dance forms.

all musical

form, one and was the

contrast

with

a

slow in

the

germ

of the

the disand When,

the

middle evolved

ages,

esteemed

secular

musicians

contrast

symmetry, which by ending with

the dance-movement

with
"

they began, giving the followingsuccession, slow quick dance, the be

cfance, quick dance, into "

they brought in this may forms of

first rondo found the

form

existence, and of basis

of

many and

the

musical

the present, both
At of a vocal

instrumental.

later

epoch (about 1600) largercombinations begun, and the entered the most dances

were

suite into was

founded. the earliest
:

Among
The

the

dances

which

suites the

followingwere
This and

prominent

Chaconne.

dance

is

generally in triple are rhythm, although 4-4

2-4-chaconnes

in exist-

TKEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

131

ence.

It almost is

always begins on

the

first beat

of the

measure,

The

generallymajor, and often 8arabande. Ti-iple rhythm. statelyin its character. movement slow
This It was in

tempo.

is

always it and dignified as adopted

the

third in a in the best

suites, and

inate orig-

dance. Spanish religious

The

Courante. from Triple rhythm. word "courir" is

Its

name

is derive and the

the French a its characteristic

(to run), rapid, running style. In strict composers,

suites of Bach, second
The
movement.

and

other

it is the

Passacaglia. in Triple rhythm.
It very

Eather

bastic bomthe

character. but is more closely resembles minor than

chaconne, latter. The as a

generally and the

Minuet.

Triple rhythm, it has that name of

slow

tempo

dance, but

been its

so

freely treated is very often from the Latin

by

the

classical composers and tempo

rapid
' '

dashing." The dainty steps.

comes

imus" min-

since (the smallest),
The

it

was

danced

with

ing, minc-

minuet

is the most the

important dance and

of

the

dance-forms, admitted into

since

it

was

only in ularl regsjrm-

the

modern

sonata

phony, while almost

and from

was

also

frequently is derived modern a used

the form suite, used the

its form in

a

musical

constantly in well

music, and

called of

"minuet-foi-m," room, as

which

great

deal

drawing-

as

some

music classical,

is written.

138

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

The The

Gavotte. of

Even this

rhythm, generally quadruple. dance should be on

character
It

genial the which

and

skipping. beat, which one should, properly, begin in a

third is are as results charms

mild

syncopation
The
a

of

the

of Some
,

the

gavotte.

phrases musette generally second short.

gavottes have has part (or trio) the character be rustic. The musette

of which

should drone- always
The It is

generallya

bass, which

imitates

the

bag-pipe. but Bourree. like the
It

Even

rhythm, generallyquadruple. brighter, quicker, on gavotte,

and

heartier. the measure. frequently begins

the

fourth

beat

of

The

Pavane. The the pavane Quadruple is, among among This is is the sarabande

rhythm. the the even Slow

and

stately. similar to

rhythms, in 2-4

triple. in The

Rigaudon.
The the name is in 4-4, sometimes

rhythm. ways, but

spelled correct many

different it was

above out as spelling,

first

brought

in named

the

court

of

Louis It

XIH. on by

a

dancing-master third, or

Rigaud. a begins

the was fourth sung

beat, has as livelycharacter, and danced. 2-4

sometimes The certain

well

as

Allemande. that this was 4-4, a or

rhjdihm. is the suite.

It is not ment move-

dance.

It

first

in the like an regularlyconstructed in allegretto, character.

It is cheerful,

THEOMT

OF

MUSIC.

139

The
4-4 to

Gigue.
In basis

3-4, 6-8, 12-8, and almost of every case sometimes it will be of

even

rhythm. have a

found three rapidly-moving tarantella in

groups

notes. not It is the final movement the and modern

of the

suite, and

is

unlike

character, being heartiness. The not very

rapid, is a

possessing a rough used the

loure

slower

species of gigue, which in the used are. does suite. not replace, but
Other
from The fixed

precedes it, when in movements

suite, but

rive de-

dances, which Air, in is

simply most a

melody. the airs and

It

is not older

rhythm, yet are of

of of

the

composers

in

even

rhythm, the moderate

tempo.
The

Burlesca, with the

and

Scherzo scherzo

(not as to

be

founded con-

modern both

used are in sonata

or

symphony)
There

are

playful, and dances in

any

rhythm. are other

less so important seldom used

in the

suite, but and occurring

that

their

tion enumera-

explanation may
THE

be left to the teacher.

SUITE.

The to at

word

"suite"

means

"

set," and because it

was

applied suite In was this

species of composition, merely stages it a the

first

set

of

dance-movements. the name its

earliest

also

received

of

"partita."

140

THEOnr

OF

MUSIC.

The

contrasts

of the movements

suite

were

well

established the

by

Bach,

and

the
:

gradually the assumed

lowi fol-

order A which

prelude came or

not,

as

composer the

desired, after the sara-

the

allemande,

courante,

bande, the intermezzi, and
The other as finally the,gigue. two to

intemiezzi

were

from

four

dances, composer, or

movements,

left to the choice etc. of the were minuets,

gavottes, the They and generally of not moderate

tempo,

in order sarabande

that

they might the destroy between the which effect of

gigue,
'

they in came.

The

suite, in the last century, had the same

all of its

ments move-

key,

a

uniformity order are

which

tended

to

monotony.
Handel

left the

precise and of

movements

scribe pre"

by Bach, the dance names his suites

very in some

free,

even

being old two

discarded

of them. could or Sometimes,

in the and

suites, a

movement

be two duplicated, bourrees courantes,

two

minuets,

appear. were Variations first and

allowed

to

any

movement were but the of two

the if the

last, and

these were "

variations

kinds

:

melody name merely treated

with

bellish em-

the but if a Les was Agrements" given, it

was was

applied, called is not it

real and variation in

"double,"

the

Handelian

suites

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

141

unoommon

to

find

a

half-dozen

of

such

doubles, in

succession. The a modern

suite

i9\, a

much akin

freer to form.

It

is

succession with of more of movements

the
The

symphony, orchestral but

liberty of
Lachner,

treatment.

suites

Franz

and

the

so-called may

"Rustic serve as

Wedding examples. Symphony"
At the older the

by Goldmark form in their above

times, however,

theinodern

ers compos-

reproduce case, suites, in which is ployed. em-

of

course,

shape

explained

The

prelude names to

the old

suite

appears

under
"

many

ferent dif-

in the

compositions, and
"overture,"
the names intrada,"

"preambule," and last was "

"fantasTa," are "toccata,"'' used. :

sinfonia,"

ajnong wordbf The toccata "to

two a require

a

explanation the some

the

technical a work

(from

word

"toccare,"

touch"), were study

in which

difficulties of it tion execu-

always present,
In

and

generallypreceded a a

fugue.

modem

times on it is still the

study, of a

but

is

more

generally founded
The word

treatment

single

figure.
"

symphony" the had

an

diflerent altogether last in signification that a first half at of the It

century, from a which

it bears or an

present.

meant

prelude,
Handel's

postlude,
Bach's

interlude

(the pastoral symphonies of of

"Christmas

Oratorio," and

142

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

'

'

Messiah"

may or ,

serve

as

examples passage of the

of

this

use

of in the

word) vocal any

instrumental This misuse modern

appearing word and of has been

a

work. in petuated per-

some

music, definition for

puzzles
"

many

a

student.

The is

proper sonata symphony,"

at

present,
The

"a

orchestra." old

'"intrada," of a

in

the

suites,

frequently

took

the

form

march.

144

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

in the birth. to secular

at field, least,it

was

an

epoch

of actual

The
;

opera

spread like wildfire from oratorio was

country the most up

country

the

accepted
;

as was

popular with form

of sacred

music sonata the

suite time sudden

taken a avidity,but the

at that no had

vaguer

standing,and
The
' '

experienced is derived
' '

such

growth.
"suonare,"
" '

word

from
"

the Italian meant to

sound," and that suonata

simply

a

ing-piec sound-

is, a piece for instrumental was were

ance. performto use Frescobaldi

the

first composer in one the

word,

and

his sonatas

movement. and

Other

composers

enlarged called this

shape, has Purcell

(the wrote greatest composer a that

England the produced)

violin -sonata, five movements. The

"Golden

Sonata, "jwhich

has

shape,

as

may until

be

conjectured from

this, was gave a

varying

one,

Corelli the (1653-1713) first one was

it in

two

movements,

of which two binary character form, possessing and themes a of

contrasted of these so-called

keys,

a

transition, and

return

themes.
' '

From

this

shape the was

derived

the

sonata-

movement," and first movement and in the most modern

phony symmodern

sonata, for a

the

important

classical form music. gave to singlemovement the in instrumental

It

was

the establishment
' '

of this form Father that of the

which

Corelli the title of it must be

ata," Son-

but

borne

in mind

the sonata,

TMEOBT

OP

MUSIC.

145

as

a

whole, did

not

spring form of

from

this
;

form, but idea was

its the chief

single-movement and contrasts

only

the

of

succession from movements

derived

the

suite, already explained. the form we Gradually the began

to
;

approach
Domenico and

nearer

to

shape

which

now a more

possess

Scarlatti

(1683-1757) character to to

gave

melodic

homophonic and seemed of ern mod-

his

sixty some or

seventy sonatas,

anticipate,in

degree, the
Kuhnau the

character

piano-music three movements

;

(1667"1722) sonata, first gave some to

and, by the rians, histosonata

is said to have but composed
Bach
was

first true the ;

Philip a Emanuel

actually to first to

give to use

modern the a style of fonn treatment

the

binary form, and to

movements

with that

proper could be

contrast, used in

evolve

rondo

contrast

with
Yet

the it

sonata-movement was of Corelli.
Emanuel Bach

not

Philip

who germ

produced of it can the

true

sonata-form, be although in the
;

readily that the

discovered owes his works

it is to to to

Haydn realm and to world and this

great just
"the
to

addition

the

of music, him it is but title

give

him,

only, the Haydn, of of

father drew of

instrumental from the

form." storehouse his The

however,
Emanuel

royally
Bach,
and

Philip

accepted whatever. rondo-forms

without

any

changes in development

(thematic treatment)

Haydn's

146

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

sonata-forms

is

slightcompared to with

the

great power

subsequently given
Never
was

this

part of the work a thoven by Beeso

there

form to

in music

readily as accepted, the modern first clear and so

speedily brought sonata-form. The of

its culmination, year 1759

saw

the

model

sonata

brought ninth forth

by Haydn, the 1824,

only sixty-five years of Beethoven's and vastest most

later, beheld

completion the in existence. Let us now

symphony,

tionably unques-

developed sonata-form

examine

the salient The use points of of the

shape to to

introduced at by Haydn.

teacher sonatas will find it best,
Mozart

the

beginning, to the the he

exemplify the weakest the poor points which

desires

to

explain are students, since

Haydn's of his

piano

sonatas he on the

of all his sonata-forms, instmment

because

disliked

day; while,

the

other tions, excep-

hand,

Beethoven's side -themes,

sonatas

frequently present are etc., which

apt

to

puzzle

the form.

student

while

in the

early stages of the study of

THE

SONATA-MOVEMEl^T.

This

is also called as "allegro-form" by invariably used symphony, which the in German the

writers, movement it is almost

first

of sonata or or

is

usually

in

a

more

less

rapid (allegro)movement.

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

147

The

first movement introduction can of at the

a

sonata

can

be

preceded
This
when quent subsea

by

an

will to of the

composer.

introduction

sei^ve

inti'oduce

themes for in

desired,

and

at

times

can

furnish is almost

matter

development. tempo, movement. to contrast

It

always the slow

with

the

rapidity of

following the The

sonata-movement

in

a

major key in has

lowin fol-

divisions Division
1.

:

Chief theme, with a

the in tonic that

key,

and

generally ending which there

cadence a key, after

usually follows in its character, a tributary passage, the dominant in that

modulatory key,
N. and B.

leading into dependent the

closing with
If,
instead

half-cadence of a

key. an passage, same independent theme, modulation, Division the dominant appears,
2.

still

following an order

of

it is called

intermediate This

theme. in

Subordinate

theme. with a appears

key, also and have

ends a full cadence

in that

key.
It must

It may be

tributary passage style, with be bold the and the

if desired. first theme, masculine case contrasted, chief in

thus

if the

theme is very

in the

character second (which theme even a

frequently and ),

is

gentle side feminine. can In

extended

works, theme. theme

follow

the

second

Division

3.

Closing theme,

or

themes,

"

for there

148

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

may

be

more

than
"

one.

Mozart's

sonata

in

B-flat

major, beginning, r etc.

has each

three

and closingthemes, all quite recognizable, ending with a cadence. must closing theme or original, derived

The either

be

short, either and

may

be

from

of the

ing precedNo.

themes. sonata The

finale of Beethoven's has a Op. 2,

1,

in F-minor

second theme. end closing theme with which

is derived

from

the

chief must The the closingtheme key. B.

a

full cadence

in

dominant
N.

The

English to theorists

generally apply the nomenclature

the

tenn

"coda" in

this at division, but seems used

Germany to present,

preferablebecause

of its "coda" the ends

simplicity. We

should the

advise

using the

word

designate

supplementary ending of
With
sonata.

entire movement the exposition Divisions

only. of the

the

closing theme

N.B. This

1, 2, and may at a 3 be

are

now

repeated.

is done

that the form

easily grasped by

the musical the these

auditor,

even

first

hearing, and is founded

that on succeeding development, themes, two may be

which

clearly understood. are times Someused

short, connecting passages

here,

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

149

the

first

leading back passage, on

to

the

chief

theme,

and

called

the

returning

the

second

(afterthe called tion) repetition. transi-

leading
Division
on

into

division

4, and

4.

Development. or This

is any a

fveefantasie tained con-

the

themes, in any

portion of divisions. of them,
It is

the in preceding presenting the generally ent differ-

modulatory keys, is, to

character, going through many most

many

and

transformations.

It of and best a the

musician,

interestingpart or large sonata, displays the

string quartette, ingenuity in symphony, in the

of

the of

composer the

light. with of the a It

ends

the on key the tonic, generally dominant, or half-cadence

chord

of the

six-four.
In

( N. B. the this connection of the full it

may

be

stated is

that

first movement

sonata-form second chiefly or intellectual

in its character, the the

emotional

romantic, or third

playful,and in small

the

finale

brilliant,

of bravura

style.) especially or

Sometimes, no sonatas, treatment there

is

real

development
4 becomes

thematic

present,
_

and

division

merely

a

transition

or

middle

part.
Division
in 5
.

Return with

of chief theme its in the

tonic, now as

division to 1, but remain tributary

passage

altered

in the

key

of the tonic.

150

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

Division division

6.

Return now of subordinate key of or

theme, tonic. as

as

in

2, but
7.
now

in the

the

Division

Closing also theme

themes,

in division

3, but
With this

in the

tonic. and

recapitulation of chief, second,
5,6, (divisions the composer a ing clos-

themes

and

7) is at

the

ment sonata-move-

ends, but

liberty to

add

an

appendix, do so.

in

the

shape of

coda, if he

desires

to

The

coda

can

be

or original,

founded it.
It

on can more any be ject-m sub-

which

has

preceded can ulatory mod-

in character, and treatment. present end thematic a Of

course

it .must

with the him a

cadence

in a the

tonic

key. proper second

Beethoven

brought
;

coda

into

positionof at importance

with and it becomes, climax to

times,

a

development Examples can great the the

movement.

be

found

in the

first

movements

of the

"

Sonata etc. Pathetique,"

and fifth,

ninth It

symphonies, remains to to

be

stated

tions that, during the modula-

alluded is not The minor in

above, the signature of the composition

generallychanged. form the movement of the

sonata-movement of

is

slightly
While

different the in succession

its from keys. tonic in

major division proceeds dominant major

1,

to

major

divisions

2, and

3, the

minor

sonata-movement

begins

in

152

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

Division

3.

Closing theme is now

A-flat

major,

measures

41-48.
Division of the passage,

All
4
.

repeated. founded on

Development theme, measures

the chief

ure fig-

chief

49-93.

Keturning in measures

93-100.

Division measures 5. 101-108

Eeturn
;

of

chief

theme

F-minor,

tributary passage theme in

(modulations
F-minor,

measures altered),

108-119.

Division
119-140.

6.

Subordinate

ures meas-

Division measures 7.

Closing theme, extended, coda. in F-minor,

140-152. is no There

The is not

repeat marked necessary, of

at the

end

of this movement

frequently marked
The

in the sonatas

although it was the Haydn epoch.
1, 2, and
3.

repeat of the exposition, divisions however, a must,
As

always

be

made.

clear

example we can

of the

major the form

of the sonatasonata

movement,

cite

Mozart

in

F,

beginning,
"

Division
1-22.

1.

Chief

theme

in from

F-major,
D-minor

measures

Side in

theme measures leading

to

a

half-

cadence

C,
2.

22-40.

Division

Subordinate

theme

in

C-major,

meas-

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

153

ures

41-86. different
"

From

measure

56 but

a

tributary passage in its proper

in

keys
3
.

appears,

it ends

key,

C-rnajor.

Division
86-93. Division in different All

Closing now theme

in

C-major,

measures

is
4.

rejieated. part (in place of development)
94-132,
of F. chief of of

Middle

keys,
5.

measures

ending theme side

on

the

dominant

seventh

chord

Division

Eecapitulation of
133-154.
to

in

F-

niajor, measures but now

Return in the

theme,

altered measures remain 154-176.

key

the

tonic,
"

F-major,
Division but now 6. in

Eecapitulation measures of

subordinate

theme,

F-major, measure 177-222.

Tributary
3, but

passage

begins
7.

192.

Division now Closing measures theme

as

in division

in There

F-major, is no

222-229.

coda. the first sonata-movement movement

Although used in

form of the sonata is or chiefly phony, sym-

the it can also be

employed from the

in other

movements, sonatas in

and which in in

separate compositions. each There

are

movement, and many

first to

the

last, is are this form,

classical

overtures

also

in this

shape. the other

On the

hand, sometimes, of a

but or very sonata rarely, is not

first movement

symphony

154

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

in in the

above

form.

This

is

the

case

with with

the

sonata

A-flat,

Op. Wedding"

26,

by

Beethoven,

Goldmark's

"Eustic this is symphony suite than works. a

(as

already and stated, with rather other

a

symphony),

many
The

well-known value both the of to great scope of the

this

classical and form the in is

that of it the

gives composer poetry is skill

;

former

displayed latter in

a

beautiful

constructiour
In

themes, times the

the

their

ment. develophave freer deavored en-

modern

some

composers a to

give form, a

movement

much Liszt

and

more

extended

Schumann

and

especially
Whatever

building the would careful future be

up

continuous

development. forth in such new may a bring mistake of the

forms, to it

great study

for forms the of to

student

avoid

a

which believe

Beethoven that

was

the

chief

representative, obsolete. or

they

are

becoming

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

155

CHAPTER
OTHEE MOVEMENTS IN

XrX.
THE

SONATA.

THE

SLOW

MOVEMENT.

This

is

generally take the

second

of

the

four

ments, move-

although, for may at times

purposes

of

better In

contrast,

it

the third

place. for as

the first the the

eight slow of

Beethoven's is symphonies, placed second, the example, this movement contrast gives in best ninth with

opening allegro, but the the

symphony, and contrast the slow In a where rather opening rapid movement

is massive best rugged,

than

and

the brilliant, a is attained movement by following it with therefore sonata movement

scAer^o, and

appears

third. slow movement three-movement the slow central movement the

becomes

of the work. emotional free are or

The

is the is

romantic

part of the movement. in the in

sonata, and
Some

more

than not the

first

composers

who are successful sive expres-

sonata-movement

form,

yet is very an the

slow

movement.

Chopin

example

of this.

156

TSEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

The to that

slow

movement

is

generally in for a

related

key-

of the first movement.

Beethoven this

frequently part of the

used

the

key

of the

submediant

sonata. The

tempo

of

the

slow and movement

varies

from

largo (naed by Haydn by
Beethoven in is some his most

others)to allegretto (used and where), elseseventh symphony frequently either works andante or are

but

adagio. introduced In

large slow rapid episodes and the

in the

movement,

efiiect

heightened thereby.
The

slow

movement

has it most

no

fixed form, but

among may the

forms

in which
"

generally appears but be

mentioned,
The

sonata-movement-form, shortened, and as a

with

all its divisions

with slow

a

middle

part rather not than able suitB-flat

a

development, to a

tempo

would

be

full

development. an Beethoven's

sonata. Op. 106, furnishes is example

of this, but

developed.
Andante
con a

variazioni, the variation movement, is not

form,

when in a used slow sets for

slow

has the

each case variation many tempo,

which

with

other

of variations. for a An

example of the variation-form may 2. be

used

slow

movement

found

in

ven's Beetho-

sonata. Op. 14, No.
The

second

rondo-form, which

is

explained

fur-

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

15*?

ther a on.

Beethoven's instance "

Sonata

Pathetique" furnishes

good
The

of this. is a

slow a movement

often an a

dirge, a any funeral

march,

romanza, or reverie,

elegy, or

other

mournful,

emotional

subject.

THE

MINTJET-FOEM

(OE movement "

"

SONG

FORM

WITH

TEIO

). a The scherzo. The old third

is

generally the a

minuet

or

minuet-form

arose

from two form

used were in the

dance-minuets, with close

in which

of these the as

played repeated Thus the

in contrast

each of

other, and

first

one

after

the

the

second, the finale.

second form. in the

minuet This

became

central

part of the minuet

second

minuet

being generally played by the the it wood name seventeenth

century soon -wind of
' '

in

three-part harmony, trio," is no a

received to the

name

which

is

applied

still, although it

longer necessarily in three-part harmony. trio is

The

generallycantabile is in character. many in in

The which

minuet-form are used

in

compositions fact, almost or not

dance-movements,

all

drawing-room form. The

piano -music has is no minuet

rondo but

minuet-form

development, in a

simply presents difierent
The

themes
:

fixed succession.

following is

the form

158

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

MINUET.

Division cadence related

1
.

Chief the

theme, of the

sometimes

ending

with in a

in

key
Second

tonic, sometimes

a

key.
2.

It is

repeated. theme, to a or

Division related theme

transition, in return any

key, in the

but

leading
This

of

the

chief

tonic.

division

is also

repeated.

TRIO,

OR

SECOND

MINTJET.

Division theme

1
.

Chief

theme
,

in contrast

with

the chief

of the minuet, and
2.

in another

key. is Repeated. with the

Division

Second a theme,

in contrast

foregoing, and from that used a different

key

generally of the

chosen

in

the

second of the with

theme

minuet.

It leads and the

into

return

chief theme that (of the trio)
Division
2

division also

closes

theme.

is

now

repeated. the minuet

After

this

is

repeated, this ends

but the

without ment. move-

repeats of
When

its

divisions, and

a

composition it must not or

movement

has in this

the

title

"Minuet," have the

only

be

form, but

minuet-rhythm, but the may numerous

explained other in

a

preceding in chapter,

compositions whatever. two

minuet-form Sometimes trio have

any

rhythm have the minuet twice.

may

trios, or this form

one

appearing

Beethoven

began

in

160

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

found, but even

not

only

in

the

first scherzos
The

(or scherzi), of a

at the

present day. or contrast

ond sec-

movement, the in

trio, with

the

is retained first, may

in

scherzo, and any although the is the are a

scherzo

be

written are rhythm, as overwhelming minuet. in All

majority

in

triplerhythm, symphonic of his other movement. of Beethoven's in some

scherzos works

triplerhythm, but appear 2-4-rhythms much of was in the scherzdl

The the

scherzo

was

very

like

the

minuet, but was dance-like

character

the

minuet-themes

absent, the was treatment

freer, and

development illustrate part will show the all ond sec-

possible.
KuUak's scherzo in F may and

be used the to

of the

above

statement, of teacher

rise and the progress

the

scherzo, by of examining from the

symphonic to scherzos

Beethoven,

the ninth above symphonies. scherzo composers to As

stated, the
Northern

may

be

in

any it

rhythm. in a

The

frequently use it is not

brisk

2-4-rhythm, but represent the Hailing, the and popular dance

of Scandinavia,

only

missib peror as

desirable,

to

represent

folk-songs or dances

in

this

part of the

sjonphony in sonata,

the scherzo The since

is the

popular part may of the classical form. various of

scherzo it has

be the

written most forms,

become

elastic

movements

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

161

in modern

music, representing rather

a

style than

a

shape.
Brahms
not

has

replaced

the

scherzo still it has

with

an

mezzo, intertrace ment. move-

always playful, but influence, in that retaining a a of the minuet Its

double as shape of the

may of

be two summarized themes like

follows the

:

A
.

movement

principal

movement

minuet-form.

A

trio, or

second

movement, instead or

in contrast.

Now, as however, in minuet

of

repeating the a mere

first

ment, move-

scherzo-form, as cence reminisline

of

it re-appears musical

coda.

This

is is a in

with to the rebel modern

spirit, which

beginning by against
Even and

the the many

repetitions of marked past generation. Schubert, are repetitions of Haydn, means others

the

classical

epoch,

by

no

devoutly

cai'ried

out

by

modern

conductors

and

performers. Chopin and made his of the scherzos

scherzo for

an

independent were a

ment, move-

piano the new

ure depart-

in this field. Mendelssohn best

caught

dainty spiritof the the scherzo, Beethoven sides of musical humor

frequently giving in his scherzo
THE

rougher

efiects.

EONDO.

Very with a

frequently rondo. the

sonata

or

symphony

ends

162

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

The among some rondo-forms

have

long in less.

been

a

disputed point in six groups,

theorists, some in them classifying

five, and

others

We the have

thought

it best, in used

this

work,

to

follow fort Frank-

sensible

classification which
All
to

by

Raff

in the

Conservatory, into three will or

divides of the from the

rondo-form groups

groups. found from other

so-called these with

be

be

derived

three,

else

the of

sonata-movement

"middle

part" instead
The

"development." alluded to

classification

is

as

follows

:

FIRST

EONDO.

This thus
1.
:

is

simply

formed

of theme

and

counter-theme

Theme.

(Generally a song-form.) or 2. 3.

Counter-theme Theme as episode in

a

related

key.

at

in first, the tonic key.

SECOND

HONDO.

This
1. 2.

has
Theme

two

episodes or in the tonic

counter-themes.

key. or First

counter-theme

episode, in

any

lated re-

key.
3.
4.

Theme

in tonic

key. or Second

counter-theme

episode,in

any

othei

related

key.

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

163

5.

Theme of or

part two of it in the rondo-forms are key

of the tonic. have to a

Either

these

can

coda. tion, men-

Examples and of the the first

too

general of the
"

need

slow

movement

Sonata

Pathet-

ique" is a
It will any. clear be

example
As

of the

second. of the is a noticed

that

neither

above the have

development. of modern evolved

development unites ;

stone corner-

classical which

composition, this with

rondo-form

has been contrasts the melodic
' '

of the rondo which combines

this is the so-called

sonata-

rondo" the

the as sonata-movement
:

with

rondo-form.
1.
2.

It is

follows as Division Division

Chief

theme

in sonata-movement. as Subordinate

theme

in sonata-movement.

Division

3
.

Closing theme
Chief
theme three

as

in sonata-movement.

Division divisions 4. one, in tonic. is or (No repeat

of

two,
.

and

made.) development theme, ;

Division it flatter, is

5 not Middle as part, as if the

extended

in sonata-movement. as Division movement. 6.

Return

of

chief

in sonata-

ivision sonata-movement 7.

Return
.

of

subordinate

theme,

as

in

Division

8.

Return

of

closingtheme, or as

in

ata-movem son-

Division tonic

9.

Chief

theme,

part of it,

in

the

key.

164

TMEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

A ment coda of

can

be added

if desired.

The

final

more-

Beethoven's

"Sonata

Pathetique'

can

be that

used the to illustrate this form.

It will be observed of the ment, sonata-move-

succession and of

keys is that form is that

that

the

exactlylike there is no that

ously previand

explained, except divisions there theme are repeal? of

1,2, and two 3, before

the

development,

additional
4 and that

presentations of the chief
9.

in divisions

It may

be added in the

first rondo-form

is the or simplest form. music,
THE

except the
SONG-FORM.

lied-form,

song-

This
It may 1.
2.

generallyconsists be simply thus :
Theme.

of two

periods in

contrast.

Episode it may Theme. be

and

return

of

part of the

theme

as

close.

Or
1. 2.

formed

as

follows

:

Episode
Keturn

in related

key. in tonic. be noticed that
"

3. In

of theme case either

it will the

it bears It

semblan re-

to

first rondo-fonn.

ever, has, how-

smaller

divisions."
THE FINALE.

The

finale of

sonata

or

symphony

has

undergone

TBEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

165

Bome

changes

since

Haydn's ended time. a In

the

last

century these

fonns

with the jovial movement was (frequently rondo-fonn) evidently the taken from

spirit of which

the brisk

ending was of

the

suite

"

gigue. at or

Contrapuntal the skill best frequently

playe dis-

end,

as

the very while the

climax, but

ness earnest-

lofty emotion, in an

rarely. Beethoven

made

a

change is last

this, and

the finale of his first symphony above example of of in the in new style of geniality symphony shows force and he phonic symninth adds in a the

movement

his second

great power. advance But a direction third

of

massive

the

(Heroic) symphony grand In the

introduces

style altogether,and make a

variations

climax. fitting uses symphony another Beethoven

again

variations, but the human

novelty by introducing and voice

solos

choruses. be seen

It will ent from main

this that

the

finale

has a diflfer-

shapes,

the

object being to to attain

climax, the and

give
The

a

counterpoise

the

power

of

first

movement.

forms

employed
77ie
than

in the finale are, as "

First. Second.

T7ie Sonata-rondo,

explained already. but with less

Sonata-movement, is used in the be a development as opening movement, chief development

should at the

feature

of

the

first movement,

least, in

large work.

166

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

Third. best

Grand

variations,

which

are

certainly movement, in

the

offset

to

the

development differs from

of

the

first

since the

variation

development

keeping

harmonic of shape these unchanged. modes Examples in of follows

ending
:

may

be

found

Beethoven's First Second

works,
Sonatas

as

mode.

Op. Op. Op. Op.

7, 2,
109

and

Op.
No.
1.

13.

mode.

Sonata Sonatas

Third

mode.

and

111.

The

"Grand

Sonata," which 106,

shows

an

ending rarely, Mozart

in

fugal used form

was

sometimes,

but

more

in

the

classical

epoch,

by

Haydn

and

as

well

as

by

Beethoven.

168

THE

OB

Y

OF

MUSIC.

and

was

not

a

formal from no shape, the opera

but

merely which a

string of and trast. con-

melodies

taken

followed, save put together with,
In modern an regard days a

for

anything song to

small

form

may

begin and such "Fra

overture.

The are overtures

"Zampa" the to

Diavolo" this Italian

examples of of

medley

overture, almost The

and

style and composition precedes operas. all the

French

dramatic It was overture

began in fixed it

with

Gluck but

in the

last

century. an not

shape,

presented
Sometimes the opera, as a

epitome allowed into

of

the

opera

preceded. to Gluck

it to be the

attached directly and not

/eading

first scene, or standing
Beethoven

separate composition, this form a movement.

lowed fol-

ing by preference,although always makmovement of

separate
3
"

it, and

his "Leonora of dramatic to No.

is

one

of

the

masterpieces gave and

overture

style. Wagner idea to

his

adhesion

the

fundamental overtures of

Gluck,

caused lead liis latest

become

preludes, and classical directlyinto that the

opera. it is because

But

of the among on overture

we

speak is of the

overture

the sonata-forms, sonata-movement. form.

for it zart Mo-

directlyfounded was the

the

adapter of this overture The

classical but

has no the

shape of of the

sonata-

movement,

makes

repeat

the

first three

THEOSY

OF

MUSIC.

169

divisions the

second, (chief,
The

and

closing themes) to before

development.
"The this concert overtures

the

"Magic

Flute," of Marriage shape. overture of

Figaro," etc., are

tions illustra-

The

is also most name or

in frequently

this it is

shape, not but

derives to its

from drama the but fact is a that

attached

any

opera

separate,

independent was work the

for chief

concert

performance. of concert at

delssoh Mentures, over-

composer and may

and and this

his

"Hebrides,"
"

"Becalmed serve as

Sea; of Prosperous Voyage school of wrote examples

composition. especially charming the themes were Weber

classical

tures, over-

taking opera to

for them

diiectly from the not

the

which

they

attached, which form did

other do.

composers

in the sonata-movement

THE

CONCERTO.

This

is

generally or a

sonata

in

three

movements

(the scherzo the connection almost every minuet some being generallyomitted) for instrument or are

display of with instruments concertos or

in

orchestra. and

There some for three

instrument,

for two concerto

instruments and

together,as
Beethoven's

Mozart's

for for

harp

flute, and and tripleconcerto naturally with

piano,

violin in

violoncello, both

orchestra

addition.

170

THE

OB

Y

OF

MUSIC.

The

concerto

has second finale.

generally the

sonata

frequently its directly to its
The

(slow) occurs movement

shape, but is joined closing passage

cadenza, which of the of first or near

the or last

movement,

both, is

a

play dis-

technique and but virtuosity,often composed founded on

by the the

performer, ideal the

themes

of

movement. The concerto should but not

be

a

solo with

chestr or-

accompaniment, solo instrument

should

interweave in a

the

with

the fifth

orchestra

harmonious peror") (the "Emso

whole.

Beethoven's in E-flat is a piano

concerto

model

in this in

respect, and B-flat, which

is has

Brahm's the four

second movements piano

concerto

of full sonata-form.

THE

SONATINA.

This without

is any a

smaller

and

cruder

sonata, generally two or

development, but laid down.

having
The

three

short

movements,

preserving the general succession song-form is the of of

keys already used in a is often

it, and

slow the or

movement

frequently
The
ples exam-

merely sonatinas song-form of to

simplest
Kuhlau
can

character. serve as

Cleraenti

wherefrom

study

the

shape.

OTHER

SONATA-FORMS.

The

symphony

is

an

orchestral

sonata.

As

it has

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

171

the

advantage be more

of

orchestral than

color, would be

its

development advisable in a can

extended

piano

sonata.

Instrumental

trios,

string

quartettes, etc. classical

tettes, quinto

sextettes, school of

septettes, music all

belong music than

the

chamber

(that rather is,

fitted in for

performance large
It

in

a

chamber, in the the

a

very

hall)
,

and

are

sonata-form.

will

be

seen

by

student

that

the

sonata-form music

is than

more

prominent any other

in

classical

instrumental

shape.

If 2

TKEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

CHAPTEE
THE VOCAL

XXI.
FOEMS.

The which second much

earliest some vocal

form state to

was

the be as Catholic ancient were as mass,

writers But

the

century. different ; at

the

earlymasses form certainly those into and of three

in their

musical mass from

today chief present, the
"

is divided

parts

the

the Offertory,

Sumption,

the

Benediction.
THE

MASS.

The

mass

contains

the

following also "

numbers the

:

"Kyrie,"
Tollis,"
"

"Gloria," Gratias,"
"

(containing
Quoniam,"
and Et

"Qui
Sancto
"

Cum

Spirito,")"Credo,"
Eesurrexit," and tus," Nobis."
"

(with
Amen,"
as

"

Incarnatus,"
"

Et

sub-divisions,) SancDei," contrast mass

"Benedictus,"
These express, are "Agnus in beautiful

and

"Dona tions emo-

in the has

they been The a and, therefore, the of always the favorite

form mass, composition.

Eequiem and generally shorter, a omits

"Gloria,"

contains

"Requiem

Aeternam,"

THEOMY

OF

MUSIC.

173

"

Lux of

Aeterna,

"

and

"

Dies

Irae," ( a picture of the to day

judgment, )
"

in addition is a the other

numbers.

The
Thomas in

Dies de

Irse,"

Latin

poem

composed century, Irse,"
"

by

Celano,

in the

thirteenth into " "

and

is,

large works,
"

subdivided and Dies

Tuba rate sepa-

Mirum,"

Recordare,"

Lachrymosa," another Mother Jacobus ancient at as

numbers. The form. and the
" '

Stabat

Mater

"

is

sacred cross, It

pictures the was Virgin by the

poem

written

de

Benedictis

in the The

thirteenth

century.
Yeni
poems

hymn,

"

Creator," used other in

is said

to

be

the

est old-

of the at sacred

the

Catholic of the of
"

church

present. we Among may portions the Catholic the and

service,

mention

that

words

tation Saluthe been not of

the the

Host

"

"O
"

Salutaris,"
Maria,"
"

appeal set to

Virgin of "

Ave

have are by hundreds

good

composers.

These

musical strictly of

forms, however, and they

are

rather outside For to jects sub-

composition, will the also fall somewhat of this the opera,

of this

the technical reason, we on explanations subjects however, of

book. student refer

special oratorio, works

cantata,

madrigal, motette, etc.,
There in a etc.

are,

certain and vocal these

forms are which within

are

great degree definite,

our

province.

114

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

Generally they of the instrumental of are

derived

from, are or

akin the to,

some

forms, which

foundation

symmetry may and

good

contrast

in

music.

Among

these

be mentioned

especially
ARIA FORM.

THE

This

is not

unlike

the minuet in form, and in that ends

it

tains cona

two return to

movements

contrast,
Its
:

with may

its first movement. as general form

be

summarized
First Part
:

follows

An bold

instrumental or introduction character ;

; an a

theme mental instru-

generally of
Second
in contrast

brilliant

ending.
Part
:

with

( corresponding to trio. ) A theme the foregoing,generally cantabile,

without After

ornamentation.

this, the first part is repeated in full, sometimes added and Jioriture, a with
The

cadenza. first be constant

Da

Capo theme, or

of the may part after the in almost how our contrasted every second

found

solo aria of Bach

Handel, and shows but as

forefathers the enjoyed repetitions ; such the

spiritof cus- present age is against them, even it has as become "The

tomai'y, in giving to works

siah," Mes-

shorten

this part, and, after

the

conclusion

of the second the first

part, to allow to only

a

short

portion of

part

re-appear

as

the coda, thus attaining

desired

contrasts

without

unnecessary

prolixity.

116

THE

OB

Y

OF

MUSIC.

rato, which

is sung effect. the in

proper

tempo with and

but

with

a

chanting and opera A

Recitative earliest A. so began

Cavalieri, the second

Peri,, in

oratorio
1600.

("Orfeo") caballetta is of the

D.

called from

Caballo its (

"

a

horse"

)

because It is

galloping style of here to

accompaniment.
German

impossible vocal in told

speak

of

the

lied,

(the

short

tone-picture,) the music, ) the folk fixed

ballad, or narrative

song, forms

(the people's must music, for these be studied is one also have

no

but

practicallyin detail can

their form

various of

styles, yet short and

there works Either stanzas one

of

the

these

vocal

that

be

explained specifically the same

analyzed. different to

they repeat of a

music music

to

the

poem,

(having they end. have composed set to

but

stanza,

)

or

music

the

poem

from

beginning to
THE

STROPHE

-FORM.

The verse strophe-form is of the are where

music as is set to but many

one as poetry,

and

repeated can times

there

verses. verses

This are be in

done effectively character.
"The

only

where used the

similar
"

Schubert Miller's

this form
"To

in

his

Impatience," etc. ART-SONG.

Flowers,"

Wander,"
THE

A

dramatic

poem,

or

a

poem

where

the

verses

are

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

Ill

contrasted to in

sentiment, music. The

can

neyer

be

effectively apply to

set

repeating

Germans

the a word

Durchcomponirt where the music and

(through -composed) illustrates does not song words verse.

the

meaning with of

the

throughout,
The
term

repeat been each for "Art^song"
O

has is

suggested
Co

such a compositions, translation To

and

certainly teim less

awkward be. than

of

the the

German

would of such poem, the same illustrate

necessity read to

musical "The music ment, treat-

let the

student and verses, Heine's

Two set Grenadiers," to try

imagine are all let the him

(they the of

equal of length, )
Schumann
understand will the find Art-

then

take its

wonderful and setting he and what

study the use

graphic effects, means. will student

Art-song of both

The

superb song, to

the of

strophe

form

and It on in

the

lieder

Robert

Franz.

is the

ing interest-

note

Beethoven's first number
Auf dem same improvement of "An

strophe

form

in

the
"

die ich verse, feme

Geliebte," where paniment accom-

entitled the

Hiigel to sitz' each

sp'ahend," but the

melody is is the altered is an with

each of

stanza.

Beethoven's and

"Adelaide"

example

the

other,

better,

school,

"

the

Art-song.

If 8

THEOMY

OF

MUJSIO.

CHAPTER
CONTRAPUNTAL

XXII.
FORMS.

All

music

may

be

divided and
"

into

three

styles,
"

monophonic, homophonic, Monophonic melody, ages the or

polyphonic.
For

music

is

that is, single-sounding," in unison. with

passages world was given of music old. is

countless

satisfied

this

species

of

music, the division more into parts

being scarcely

than

700

years music

Homophonic music into a "united-sounding," that is, however, are

of different

parts which,
Such

blended

single mass. harmonic in

music, represented by the not modern

progressions,is
Some
"

200

years to

old,

Rameau, into a

1722, being the

first to

tiy no build

it

system. the words definition

writers

make and

distinction

between but the

monophonic" given the "homophonic," nevertheless the be

above

will

clearlygrasped by a student, and schools necessity of

distinction

between music

the two is
"

understood.
"

Polyphonic voiced "

many-

voiced

or

"pluralof

music, and

is where

the music

is formed

THEOMT

OF

MUSIC.

119

two

or

more

different is the

melodies

going

on

eously. simultanhad its into the

This

contrapuntal music, which year originabout a 1250,

and

was

developed in science

by

the

early be a

Flemish

composers,

fourteenth, fifteenth,and

sixteenth defined as

centuries. a Counterpoint melodies make in

can

combination

of

such and

manner

that

their

progressions words, correct

agreeable music; support support of of

in other

counterpoint is the while melody than that

by melody, chords. as a

harmony

is the

melody by the did

Counterpoint rule, which and the

is less

rhythmic the into fact

harmony,

accounts

for

bar-line, not division the of music

measures,

exist the

during
In
were

strictlycontrapuntal epoch preceding century. of as seventeenth the notation written

the

thirteenth or century

the as notes

often

dots new "points," of musical name and

the

first

applicationof was the of mode

tion construc-

in notes was equal length, the contra applied or to

it

"punctum
"

punctum"
,

"point ened short' '

against point to ' '

(note against note) whence afterwards our contrapunctum,"
The

word

terpoint." coun-

subject to or

melody against which is called the

the

counterpoint

is

be

written

canfus

firmus,

and

the

counterpoint itself,discantus. can Counterpoint

be

ruple, quadsingle, double, triple,

quintuple, etc.

Single counterpoint

is where

180

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

the are positions of the discantus fixed, and cannot and

the

cantus

firmut, below be

inverted

(above

and

each

other)

and

make

correct

music

in either

tion. posi-

Double two counterpoint can occurs

where that

the

positionof can voices above either

be or inverted, each is, they and be

placed music below

other,

make

correct

way. is the

Triple counterpoint or writing they each of

of three be~ voices in parts

in such above

a

manner or that below in any

may

placed

any

order,

other, the yet

form

correct

progressions

six

resulting

positions.
The
more

complicated combinations, rather for that

as

quadruple, lems probso

quintuple, etc., become than mathematical note music,

in these, each all is of

rigidly

dictated lost.

by rule,

the

freedom

music

is

Counterpoint of music, the

may

be

said

to

be

the

mathematics

since the

proportions of

its intervals, and be calculated

steps of its progressions can

with

arithmetical There are nicety. five speciesof counterpoint,viz. of the first order. that are "

Counterpoint note This

is cantus where and is written have

against note, notes is, the struck ducantus

which

ously, simultane-

and

are

of

equal length.

TSEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

181

Counterpoint two notes

of the

second

order. to This note presents of the

of

counterpoint of each

subject. Counterpoint notes the

third

order. to In

this, four of the

of

counterpoint appear counterpoint. is

each

note

subject. Syncopated the In

this

each note note

of

counterpoint
Florid

syncopated with

each

of the

subject. counterpoint, sometimes is orders. found in a called or "free the terpoint," coun-

combination
This is the

of

any

all of most going fore-

counterpoint
It is said the was usually been classical works.

to

have year

introduced in the

by Jean

de

Muris, about he 1330, of University of Paris, where consists or

Doctor

Theology. Counterpoint subject being

more

largely of imitations, less freely imitated in be, the the

counterpoint.
These First.

imitations Literal

may

"

unti'ansposed, when

they same duce repro-

the Second.

phrase

figurein exactly the Literal transposed, when or notes.

the

figure is

r literally eproduced
Third.
on

but

in another

octave.

Strict some melodic, when

the

figureis

duced repro-

other
Free

degree of

the scale.

Fourth. m melodic, when

changes

are

made

the

reproduced figure.

1^2

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

The at imitations

may the

take measure. place

at

any may

interval be or

any

part

of

They

mented aug-

diminished,
Imitation
may be

in

contrary motion, as etc.

prized
CANON.

the very

soul

of

trapunta con-

music.

When canon the is the

imitation result. is

strict and

continuous,

a

A one canon or is the

complete
The

imitation

of

a

melody by may too or more

voices. after the should

imitating voice allowed be lost. to enter

at any an time

subjecthas begun, not but

long the is

interval of when have be

elapse

effect

imitation

would on The

imitation as best then entering similar the to or

even

measure,

it will

accents

the

subject. can The interval

imitating up or

voice

voices the

enter between note at

any

down, the and

intei-val

the of first note

of

subject,and the in name the or iirst

its
;

imitation, determines thus class

of the

canon

there

are

canons

the

unison the

(theseare parts) so on
,

bad

because in the

of the continual

crossingof octave. canons

second, the third, the foui-th,and or up

to

the fifteenth If there is better different and are double to be

two

or

more

imitatingvoices the it a that

each

should

imitate

subject more at

interval, thus keeping the

parts

tinct dis-

giving greater diversity

184

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

tated

in

notes allow

of

a

smaller

denomination. canon, Richter Cherubini of does and not

this

species of it and

but

Stainer

both it must canon. a

permit be very
This

give examples

it.

Naturally
8
.

short. is also a canon

Circle in without described

an

end, but
No. 5.

different

manner

fi-om that relates to in

The

here infinity the modulation,

the

subject starting in tion in that

tonic, followed

by the

imita^-

key, then leading to the dominant and times (somekey of to

the

sub-dominant) the thus

going the from

key,
9.

via

dominant, desires canon,

around to or can cease.

circle

keys,

until the

player is Reversible a canon
,

crab

canon

(^canonecanto

crizens) itself formed forward

which

be made

accompany can by reversing its melody. that read or Canons same also be

preciselythe like the are whether in played ture. literamirror

backward, canons Palindrome

Such canons, sometimes backwards a called

since the

the music

reading before is facilitated

by the holding
10.

min-or, and

reading

reflection. The

epigma with to

canon.

This the

is

merely

a

sical mu-

problem century which tease composers

of the

last

delighted few notes

and

puzzle each from other.

Only any canon

a

are

given, and of A

these, without clefs, etc.) a ot this

addition is to be

(by

means

changed

evolved.

splendid example

tseohy

of

music.

185

kind

of

canon

will which

be

found

in

the fine

'

'

Riithsel

"

by

Weitzmann, ia contains

twelve

works

written

this

style. of Examples found in

the

other

varieties

of

canon

may

be

Eichter, all Cherubini, whom have

Stainer, either Jadassohn, written upon

and

Gurlitt,

of

the

subject,
A
canon

or

have

published which of

collections

of follows

canons.

in

the

imitation

the is

subject

at

the

distance

only

a

single

beat,

sometimes

called

a"ca"one

alsospiro."

CHAPTER
THE FUGUE.

XXni.

The called seems

word because to

fugue

means

' '

a

and flight,"

it is one so

in this the

form otner, of

composition the voices

part a fly before chase. of the

joining in has existed no continuous

Constant

motion

is therefore name the

characteristic for about definite
400

fugue. but were

The

years, and

the very early fugues had much like canons. shape,

Bach him

was

the real father we owe

that

the

fugue, development of follows number
"

of the

and this

it is to

king

of

musical

forms. can Fugues
First.
as
"

be

classified to as

:

According a the

of

voices appearing

two-voiced

fixgue,"
"*

a

three-voiced
"

fiigue,
-^

etc.

^

'wA '\'r}y'^

'v'rvw. to /j-um^HiX numoer Second. a According one a

the a of

subjects; one fugue
Third.

with

subject is double to

single fugue, etc. n

with

two

subjectsis that fugue, the ^J;^" r^rvcA/^ '4 of the answer on

According

exactness

;

An

Answer

exactly

imitates

the

subject

the

TKEOBT

OF

MTISIC.

187

degree while an

of the answer dominant, which to

constitutes has some a

"real

fugue," from the

alterations
"

subject,in order the Fourth. form the of the diatonic keep

it in the a tone

"

or

key

of

composition, constitutes

"tonal

fugue." and According composition to
;

the modulations a scale

fugue is which

keeps within a ' '

progressions one called

diatonic

fugue," while in its

which answer has is chromatic a progressions
Greek
are

subject are and

"chromatic old

fugue." scales called

There

also the

fugues

written

in the and

to j^(srmilar

Gregorian tones) scales, as to a
"

these

Ibythe
'Which

names

of these

doric

fugue," etc' the answer;

Fifth. may According be an

the

style of or or

inverted, augmented, inverted, augmented, the as

diminished, diminished there is the

"producing same vfiigue, although regarding conflict Richter of authorities

last named with Cherubini the

diminished and canon,

denying, existence. to

and

Stainer

affirming,its
Sixth.

According thus "

the may general treatment be a a

of the

composition; a there

"strict
"

fugue,"

"free The

fugue," a diflerent are as fugato,"and

fughetta." a divisions
:

of which

fiigue is

posed com-

follows

1. 2.

The The The

subject. answer. 3.

counter-subject.

188

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

These
"

three

divisions the form

what

is

called the work

the

Exposition" of from which

fugue, and present of the

subject is to

matter

the remainder are be evolved.
4.

They the in the tonic

key. of the

The are episodes and

repercussion.

These

contrapuntal development

keys, although through many the signatureof the fugue remains unchanged. The stretto ; this consists 5 of the subject and than in the exposianswer overlapping more closely tion. pass .

and exposition,

6. in a The

organ

point ; this is is not

not

always present

fugue, and by Kichter. is the be

sion recognized as a separate divi^"'^^ i^f/^ ii^.''V^-" ^"A

This

most

impoi'tantphrase of a the

fugue,
It need

yet may not only

few

notes

in

length. the manner

be

beautiful

in

itself,since rather not on merit

of

the

composition depends it is treated. it It more the be in which as should

wide the

in compass answer keeps itself
The

distinct from will

if

row. nar-

teacher

illustrate the various
' '

styles

of

fugalsubjectsfrom and Bach's student

ichord "Well-tempered Clavto

allow

the

identify the real,

and even tonal the

subjects, and

recognize the of some a brevity, and

prosaiccharacter,

of the

great fugue accent. subjects. The

phrase, and

subjectshould be end should generally

complete musical an on

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

189

THE

ANSWER.

This the is the

subject
As

transferred

to

the

degree it may

of be .

dominant. exact already may above

explained, mutations either
It may

(real) or
,

contain or (tonal)
It this

appear enters either at below of the

the

subject.

generally rule is not answer some

the

end some subject,but
"close

invariable, for

subjects overlap with called a

the and

(the fugue answers is then a fugue") ject submust

appear but

short

time

after the case has be a concluded,

in the

latter

there

short

connecting phrase
THE

called

the

"codetta."

COUNTER-SUBJECT.

This the the mere serves as as

accompaniment appear to

the

subject than or

answer

they the after the

first entrance it is more of a subject, in

exposition,but for it is to with out. accompaniment, possible combinations the be

intertwined answer in

aU

the
It

subject and be in

through either It is

working the below

should it can double appear

counterpoint with above or

subject, as it in the

then

subsequent

treatment.

generally in following parts of

florid is a counterpoint. of The

schedule

the

entrance a of the

difierent

the

exposition of the bass

four-voiced it must

fugue beginning remembered voice can with not part, bass but

be any

that

only the

part, but

begin

the

fiigue.

190

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

Soprano
Alto
Tenor

Answer.

Subject
Answer

Counter-subject
Free Free

Counter-subject part part. part

Bass

Subject

Free Counter-subject

It will

be

observed

that

after in the not the

counter-subjec subject the

has been becomes answer, stated

by

any

voice does expositionthe part present to or free, that is, it but adds

free

counterpoint need not

other

voices. The which counter-subject enters appear

in the

voice

last. the be entrance Regarding fugue tenor, no

of

voices

in

a

four-voiced soprano in and

it may nor here and stated are that

neither

bass

alto

allowed

to enter

pairs, to matter

which bass

of them and cause

comes

first, nor or is it well and

begin as with

soprano,

soprano

bass,

this sound The

would

the

first part of

the

exposition of voices

to

empty.

following are tenor, tenor
,
"

some

good

successions

in

fugal expositions:
Bass
,
" "

alto
,

"

soprano
"

.

Alto
,

"

"

bass
,
"

soprano
"

.

Soprano outside alto
,

tenor
,

bass
.

,

It is best

to

end as an

the

exposition with interior three voice

one

of not on.

the be voices,

would

clearlyperceptiblewith

other voices

going

192

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

is

generally applied only answer, to

the

last

presentationof is puntists. contra-

subject and called in

narrower

position,which the "third

treatment"

by

English of Bach for the leads to established

a

general his to

order

modulations he episodes ; the relative

in

major fugues the dominant

frequently key, then

from

exposition minor, then

the

the

super-tonic minor, the the dominant or mediant

minor, and

to finally

sub-

dominant.
In

minor
"

fugues minor, this

succession

is

frequently

used,

Dominant

"

relative or major,

"

sub-mediant minor. major,

"

and

dominant

sub-dominant

THE

STRETTO.

This

is the

presentation of subject than and

answer

in

closer

succession

they

appear

in the

exposition. but the

It often

takes

place during final the

repercussion, of all the

real stretto with narrower

is the

appearance

voices, this subject, answer the ways are and

counter-subject,in difficult to

state, in the key of the tonic. stretto As many

is at times

form, in the ties libercan

certain required by fugue-writing, to allowed appear and

the

composer. of the

The

stretto

therefore

in any answer. followingguises:

Subject

TKEOBY

OF

MUSIC.

193

Answer

and

subject. subject. answer,

Subject and
Answer and

although changes is in
If
to

this is

ployed. rarely em-

Even are mutations, in the

or

of

subject or form, and strettos are

answer,

allowed The

formation

of the stretto. canon finest

stretto

is called

the

stretto

maestrale. best

several

made, order times Somestrettos.

it is considered of their narrowness, the Bach's

introduce

them

in the

the closest can coming made up

last. of

repercussion in be

fague

C-major.

JVfo. 1 of up

the

pered "Well-tem-

Clavichord," is made has no

of

seven

strettos, and

episodes.
THE

OBGAN-POINT.

This a often

appears

with

the stretto, and

ally, is, natur-

singletone is sustained section

through of the of
If

the

polyphonic
In any

progressions of case, that

fugue. subject or the very note there

generally tfeatment on ter-subjec coun-

going tonic the

above

it.

is the

organ-point appears earlier. at the

end, in the note coda, after the stretto, but if it is the dominant it may appear

Generally the organ-point three or

is found

at are the

close

of

four-voiced the

fugues.

There

few

organ-

points in

"Well-tempered

Clavichord."

194

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

THE

CODA.

This

appears the ritenuto.

after

the

last

stretto,

and

it

frequently
It
ends

presents with a

sub-dominant

prominently.

TBEOBY

OF

MUSIC,

195

CHAPTEE
THE MODERN

XXIV.
DANCE-FOKMS,
ETC.

These

are a rather

rhythms

than

forms, the minuetused

form,

or

simple rondo-form, school being generally
Xevei-theless the

in all this may as of

compositions. to to

it

be the

of

practical benefit

performer familiar as

well with incipient composer, of these
Nor is dance-music it has been a become

the

characteristics

popular stylesof to sition. compoin all tion evoluvery

be

despised, for in the it is not

ancient of

times

great factor days,

music, and for if, in modern of suitable

purposes its

instruction, because and of

the

of superficiality of its

thoughts in the

extreme

plicit sim-

rhythm, in the

the

idealizations

of

the

dance,

as

found

works

of

Chopin, Weber, their force.

Rubinstein, etc., these
THE

objectionslose
WALTZ.

The some waltz

is the minuets to

offspring of of Schubert modern

the

minuet,

and

in

of

the

the transition dance may be

from

the minuet

the

more

clearly

196

THEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

, '

perceived.
In
are

The

works the as of

Johann

Strauss, the elder,

folly established the waltz, rather

new

dance.

in all the

dance-forms, the phrases

square-cut, being of

eight, sixteen,
3-4, but

or

thirty-two measures,
The will be

generally. the each waltz is marked measure rhythm found of that

it a alternate almost

only, has waltzes sound

strong accent; best if

therefore as all

played of if

they

were

written

in

6-4

rhythm.
In
a

set

waltzes but in

each an waltz

is

generally in single waltz can

first the be

rondo-form, second used. The waltz and

extended

rondo-form,

or

the

minuet-form

is

the

most

flowing to of

the

modern

dances,

yields itself readily the dreamy,

legato

effects,although,to obtain is well theme.
THE

full effect of these, it a to

contrast

them

with

brighter, skipping

POLKA.

This It is a

dance

is derived 2-4

from

the Bohemian

"

pulka." of very

skipping of has

rhythm or which

admits
;

little freedom the

treatment

contrast

therefore ment treat-

polka free seldom

been

chosen

for idealized the most may by great
Eaff's "Polka

composers.

Among rhythm
Eeine,"

ant import-

treatments

of this de la

be mentioned

and

Eubinstein's

TSEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

197

"LeBal," is, with at while a Bendel's

"Invitation of a

la

Polka" be

least, the pretty example ineffective what

can

done

rather

rhythm.

THE

MAZUHKA.

This than more dance, of and

of

Polish above.

origin,
It than and is

is in much
3-4

more

free but

either elastic slower the

rhythm,
It is times and a graceful the and in its as the

waltz. at what some-

than

waltz,

has

rather other spasmodic artificial and

style, groups contains

triplets,
A
some

melody. well as

certain

ness springiof

skipping, are degree mazurka. copatio syn-

characteristics

of the

THE

POLONAISE.

The forms.
It is

polonaise

is

the

finest

and

freest

of

dance-

written

in

3-4

rhythm, a and

contains

every

contrast

possible, becoming
The

veritable runs, rhythmic skips, and

fantasie. many melody

contains and artificial in groupings, melody has this

syncopation

occurs

freely both
The

the

and many

the

accompaniment.

accompaniment but rhythmic

changes
"

in

its construction,

rhythm

predominates,

198

THE

OB

T

OF

MUSIC.

The of the The

melody measure. is often

completed

with

the third

beat

polonaise, as was as

its

name

indicates, is a a a

Polish

dance, and the former some much

of

processionalas
Liszt.

dance,

characteristic

being clearlyperceptiblein to of the The bolero

polonaises of Chopin and is similar the

polonaise,but

has

not

its

dignityand

loftiness.

It is of

Spanish origin.

THE

GALOP.

This

is

a

tumultuous

dance-movement and can in

2-4

rhythm. ideas an are

It is

rapid in tempo, any while

its musical as rarely of in worth, it and still be used as exercise

wrist-action many octave-work, weU-suited to

it

generally has studies. None are passages

these

of the

other

dances

used

in the

modern

room ball-

available

for

good

musical

treatment.

THE

MAECH.

Most

marches trio.

are

in the

minuet-form, possessinga is contrasted
The but a rhythm

of the march

generally 4-4 can or

6-8,

lofty processional eifect
12-8

often

be

attained

with
In
to the

rhythm. earlier A^ of secular

the

days

composition, down were seventeenth

century, marches

written

in

200

THEOBT

OF

MUSIO.

form, and

must,

of

course,

be

passionate and rhythm. the cavatina

free in

its character. The song is

It may without

be

in any

words, and

(when must this term

applied to

instrumental and must music) have a

be matic dra-

singable in character, should certain

import, although composer it is not a necessary

that to the the

attach

definite

meaning used work. The senses serenade. in This

word

is

in last different

instrumental in

music.

In

the

century

(and short at times

free suite of

used to denote a rather this)it was pieces,often orchestral, and forming a of music for an programme
;

ance evening performwith a such

serenades

generally began a like marchand a movement, minuet a

contained

slow

movement

among

their intermezzi, and but the

concluded was with a brilliant
In

movement, another sense

the

form

not

fixed a one.

serenade

denoted

turnal noc-

love-song
There is also a of

soothing and which tranquil character. for an

species of

serenade, intended

morning auhade. performance,
Schubert's
to the

properly words is called

glorious"Hark, of bill of

hark in a a the lark" very few

(composed minutes, on

Shakespearian a the back is a fare, in of an

Viennese

restaurant) there The are Tocal

specimen works is

aubade, but

instrumental

in this a spiritalso. rapid dance of

tarantella.

This

very

TSJEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

201

Italian

origin. and It is is running

rather

than

skipping in but of

in

character,

most

frequently is like the in written

6-8 is

rhythm a The
.

saltarello and in

tarantella Some

trifle slower, are skipping
The
word the

style.

the

saltarellos

triplerhythm. means Tlie and in or barcarolle. this the

"boat-song," motion of a composition

cradling of the oars boat,
As used a rhythmical swing is best most is imitated. do are 6-8 in

rhythm slow and

adapted

to

this in the

when that same tempo,

barcarolles

rhythm school, Tlie be

speed. scarcely
A

The differs rustic

gondoliera from the

is of

and

barcarolle. It should a pastorale. and composition. and and or naive

innocent

in character,

frequently fied countri-

drone-bass,

imitating a bagpipe introduced. is many best A

giving a
12-8
to

effect,is moderate a

6-8

rhythm

of

rapidity

adapted rustic producing one genialeffect, and rhythms. in his

pieces have

of 12-8

these

Handel

most

frequently used set rhythm
A

pastoral subjects. is a

potpourri no medley, as or

of melodies save strung that the that

together with of contrast.

rule

to

their be

succession insisted on Yet should

it

may and not potpourri those begin who end

in

the

same

key, to which, unfortunately, is composers always in this

attended

by

dabble

popular style of

writing.

202

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

The

nocturne

is to a

ter, tranquilcharacpiece of gentle, calm of suiting it name, the

evening. and form

Its

Italian

frequentlyused, the word in a is "notturno"

Schumann

used

German

in his "Nacht-

stiick." Field was the

founder and

of

this

favorite

form

of that the drawing-room music, the more

it is to

be

deplored caused poeticnocturnes to of

Chopin

have

healthy, solid compositionsof form, "

this composer,

in this

be in
"

some

nocturne

was

degree forgotten. The word applied, in the last century, to a serenade short, instrumental

of three

or

four

ments. move-

The

albumblatt,

or

album

leaf,is first a

short, unpretentious or piece,generallyin form, such page which of a rondo,

in songon

as

might have be

be

written

spontaneously other short

the

lady's album. this mentioned

Among the pieces and should may improvisationaland impromptu should informal the

character

bagatelle.
The ballade and the

legends

have

a

matic dra-

character, as

if the music of the

were

tellinga tale, may although the meaning left to the

story in tones,

be

of imagination the auditor. and represents in its The berceuse is a cradle-song dle. regular and tranquilrhythm, the rocking of the craAs a moderately slow 6-8 rhythm produces find most thus written. this best, we cradle-songs

THEOBY

OF

MUSIC,

203

There

are

other

names

applied etc., which

to

certain

musical increase

works

as

'^sonnet,"

"jjoeme,"

but

the

of

a

fanciful

nomenclature, be often

is

less, meaningone

is

to

deplored

;

we

need

only

mention

of

these,

the

"Symphonic existence. This

Poem," is a

which

Liszt

brought movement into

long and orchestral

with

themes latter is

and

episodes, continuous ment, developand not but

the

generally of is

confined

to

a

single freedom section than the

work, in while

the

form

has

allowed

more

a

sonata

or

sonata-movement.

204

TSEOBT

OF

MUSIG.

CHAPTER
CONCLUSION.

XXV.

The work has a foregoing chapters give but that is to to an

outline

of the

be

accomplished much-abused has

before title the student "musician." the true right when sketch his

the

Nor, of the cease the we teacher have The constant filled in

details student

given, must art the

work. and

of

music is is

continually to changing, abreast the future

study

needed

keep of of these must changes,therefore the be necessarily a reader. must to not

musician

In his reading,
;

however, would musical be

he

be the

too

omnivorous side it of well

discard

sentimental

altogether. The art is in itself so that there is danger of adding sentimentality emotional in working this evil the muto sentiment, and sical novel is an important factor. literature Sift well the anecdotes
: compositions

attached cases to

various are musical and work

in most

they music untrue, of the no may thus

lead

astray in the in any

comprehension case, fictionized;

needs

such

fictitious aids.

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

205

Bear there

in mind is

that much

in

the

field

of

modern do not music

yet

and partisanship, to a

give out with-

unquestioning

adhesion

single authority that which there

having
Avoid very

consulted

others. Eemember is much

pedantry. music "classic."

good as in existence

is not

yet recognized

Assist there must good yet ;

native be a

music

with

all your master

power;

great American his the at in

the

field of music

try -to hasten of coming. field Read touches

outside all the is broadest

musical some also

;

our

art sician mu-

others who points, and

that

heartily enjoys the other it should to arts

as

well. Cultivate of the and We

ensemble-playing true ;

be

light the de-

musician

often music

sink

his

ality, individusake.

perform good spoken in for music's

have in no

of the

musician

throughout there have as women.

this

book been the

masculine the

gender; musical have

yet

leaders cause field,among been the

The

chief

of this may too that

they

have of studied

music

entirely with will be to intention

pleasing,merely. The study of languages to of vast read importance

the the be musician

who and as

desires composer

exhaustively. tongue To may pianist commended the

German

the

most

important, after his

206

THEORY

OF

MUSIC.

own,

for

there of our are

many

treatises are on

the

various in German.

branches

art

which

only to accessible

The its

a philosophicalspect to of music, its scope,

relation

other

arts, and at life,can

only

be

thoroughly studied,
The
most

present, in German

ture. litera-

vocalist, however,

will

find

Italian,

as

the

ance singableof languages, to be of the first importdetails of in the practicalapplication of some
The

his art.

practice of singing in the Italian without ludicrous to understanding
The in the clue as language

is too

be

seriously spoken lives of.

of the composers of a should we be

studied, for

character to composer

often music. get

some

the

of interpretation

his

Musical older historyis naturallyof great importance. The without can scarcely be understood composers the causes

ing know-

which

led

up

to

their

work.

Every small musician

should reference

early works form in his

for own himself art. a

libraryof should matter

Bach no be

studied faithfially

by every may and

cian, musi-

what the his

special branch correct be, for emotional in Bach's are so a works,

intellectual that a the taste well

balanced

cannot

but

follow

ing comprehension of them, but this understandcome

will not Bach's

all at once, seem and

to

many,

at

first

compositions will

the

personificationof

dullness.

208

TSEOBT

OF

MUSIC.

insight value all his in

into

musical a construction composer
;

is

of

inestimable

forming

"Wagner means. derived

nearly

musical

knowledge can by this be learned

Conducting and only

from

a

teacher,

by actual
It will be experience. readily the famous seen from lines these

concluding

remarks

that

"

Man's

work

is from work is

sun

to

sun,

But

woman's

never

done."

may the this

be

applied
;

with

increased he force loves to

the

labor

of of

musician

if, however, a his

art, much will seem

study,

after

certain a grade severe is

passed,

rather In the of

recreation any case

than the

task.

student art not owes

it to to himself the

and army to

dignity mere "

of his

to

belong

great

drawing-room
In the the

players and that of his these

so-called

sors. "profesmay

hope

suggestions out (with road submit which earnest assistance leads him to a

teacher) point musical volume to the we which to we

fuller

development, of at

this may

condensed

studies, least an

hope musician. guide

him

become

THE

END.

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...Visual Arts 2 Kashata Warren Arts/230 October24,2011 Regina Sadona Visual Arts 2 “Visual Arts are those creations one can literally look at, such as a drawing or a sculpture.”(Visual Arts.com,) One may think of a design or a collage and call it art. Many people visualize art to be a number of creative things. This is why it is so important. During a certain point and time back in history, a group of artist and fine people decided the need to differentiate science and art. “They begin to split up fine Arts into Visual Arts (painting, sculpture, etc.), Auditory Arts (music, drama, spoken literature) and Performance Arts (which can be either Visual, Auditory or a combination of two-but are performed.” (www.arthistory.com,) Introducing a few different “Visual Arts “ which were mentioned earlier in the essay “paintings, sculptures, etc.”(www.arthistory.com) “John Ahearnand and RigobertoTorres’s sculpture “Pat” (1982). “(Sayne, 2010) is a good example of a visual art sculpture. One example of a visual art painting is “Pablo Picasso’s Seated Batter,1930.”(Sayne,2010) Introducing an example of Auditory Art would be “Neo-Classical 5 “(celestical-voices.blogspot.com/2010/04/neo-classical-2010.htm/). Introducing an example of Performance Arts is “The John Oats Band” (performing arts.utf.edu/events/2011/the john-oats-band/. When focusing on art another way one can show their ideas and feelings is through creative expressions. “Creative expressions are ......

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...Visual Art Anthony Rega ARTS/230 July 19, 2014 Monique Derr Visual Art Visual art is appreciated by more than just the artsy type. Visual art is an expression of creativity, communication, and beauty. Many other forms of art also express creativity, but Visual art differentiates from these forms in that it also serves other purposes, such as communication and is left open to interpretation. The value of visual art goes beyond the price tag on it. Visual art has been valued by cultures for recording traditions. There are many influences on how visual art is interpreted. Visual Art Depending on the style or form, art can be appreciated by every viewer. “Art attracts us only by what it reveals of our most secret self.” (Godard, 2014). Within the brain, humans have two lobes, one controlling the left side of the body, the right lobe, which is considered to be the logic side, and one controlling the right side of the body, the left lobe, which is considered to be the creative side. With that being said, everyone has a creative side. Regardless of the ability to express creativity, everyone is influenced by it. Visual art is a general form of art that covers art that is physically seen, such as Paintings, Sculptures, and Photography. Human beings are visual beings, if someone says “big, black dog” we do not visualize the spelling of the words, but we conceive the physical attributes of a big, black dog in our mind. However, visual art does the opposite, it conceives......

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