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The Battle of Bull Run

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History 1301
Central Texas College
Selwyn Johnson

The Battle of Bull Run

Mr. Etheridge

2 The American Civil War (1861-1865) was a major war between the states of the United States, “The Union”, led by President Abraham Lincoln, who opposed the expansion of slavery and rejected any right to secession and the eleven Southern slave states that declared their secession and formed the Confederate States of America, led by President Jefferson Davis. (Carnes, Garraty, pg. 392) The First Battle of Bull Run (named after the closest body of water), also known as the First Battle of Manassas (named after the closest town), took place on July 21, 1861, and was the first major land battle of the American Civil War. Unseasoned Union Army troops under Brigadier General Irvin McDowell advanced against the Confederate Army under Brigadier General Joseph E. Johnston and P.G.T Beauregard at Manassas, Virginia, and despite early successes, were routed and forced to retreat back to Washington, D.C. (R.M Johnston) On the morning of July 21, divisions under David Hunter and Samuel P. Heintzelman crossed Sudley Springs and swept back the Confederate left flank. All that stood in the path of the 6,000 Union soldiers were Confederate Colonel Nathan Evans and his reduced brigade of 900 men. Evans had been informed of the Union flanking movement and had hastily led most of his men from their position fronting the Stone Brigade to a new location on the slopes of Matthews Hill, a low rise to the northwest of his previous position. Sounds of the fighting quickly drew other brigade commanders to Evans aid. (Battles of Bull Run) Evan received reinforcements from two brigades under General Barnard Bee and Colonel Francis S. Bartow, but just that quickly, the Confederate line slowly crumbled, then
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broke completely. In a full run from their Matthews Hill position,

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