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The Bioecological Model of Human Development

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SIOP® LESSON PLANS
Grade 9/SIFE Reading/Language Arts/Writing
Unit/Theme: Emotions and The House on Mango Street
*Content Objective(s):
*Students will describe Cisneros’ voice and style, listing some of her creative uses of language as characteristic of this author’s craft*Students will explore the physical and emotional prisons in which people live. *Students will discover and evaluate different methods of escape from these prisons. *Students will practice writing in the persuasive mode, using evidence from the text and from their own lives to construct effective arguments proposing the best way to escape the troubles of life*Students will peer edit and revise for content, for sentence structure, and for use of figurative language.
*Language Objective(s):
*Students will continue to build vocabulary resources for discussing emotions. *Students will identify fragmentary sentence structure, voice, and effective use of figurative language in Cisneros’ style and use knowledge of style to develop originality in their own writing style. *Student will be able to participate in and contribute to collaborative learning, such as “think, pair, share” and “expert groups.”
Key Vocabulary: prison, escape, safe haven, voice, style, figurative language, persuasive mode, context, concept map, anticipatory set, peer editing, rubric, tapping prior knowledge, description, sensory detail, quotation, five senses, , sentence fragments, “unacceptable in academic writing,” punctuation, prejudice, graphic organizer, Venn diagram, fluent, non-fluent, cycle of abuse, helpline, counselor, “think-pair-share,” editing, revising, support for assumptions, inadequate, off-topic, content, assessment, expert groups, game format
*Supplementary Materials: The House on Mango Street, paperback copy for each student
*SIOP Features
*1. Content Objectives Clearly Defined, Displayed, and Reviewed with Students
*2. Language Objectives Clearly Defined, Displayed, and Reviewed with Students
*3. Content Concepts Appropriate for Age and Educational Background
*4. Supplementary Materials Used to a High Degree
*5. Adaptation of Content to All Levels of Student Proficiency
*6. Meaningful Activities that Integrate Lesson Concepts with Language Practice Opportunities
*7. Concepts Explicitly Linked to Students’ Background Experiences
*8. Links Explicitly Made between Past Learning and New Concepts
*9. New Vocabulary Emphasized
*10. Speech Appropriate for Students’ Proficiency Levels
*11. Clear Explanation of Academic Tasks
*12. A Variety of Techniques Used to Make Content Concepts Clear
*13. Ample Opportunities Provided for Students to Use Learning Strategies
*14. Scaffolding Techniques Consistently Used, Assisting and Supporting Student Understanding
*15. A Variety of Questions or Tasks that Promote Higher-Order Thinking Skills
*16. Frequent Opportunities for Interaction and Discussion
*17. Grouping Configurations Support Language and Content Objectives of the Lesson
*18. Sufficient Wait Time for Student Responses Consistently Provided
*19. Ample Opportunity for Students to Clarify Key Concepts in Language 1
*20. Hands-On Materials and/or Manipulatives Provided for Students to Practice Using New Content Knowledge
*21. Activities Provided for Students to Apply Content and Language Knowledge
*22. Activities that Integrate All Language Skills
*23. Content Objectives Clearly Supported by Lesson Delivery
*24. Language Objectives Clearly Supported by Lesson Delivery
*25. Student Engaged Approximately 90% to 100% of the Period
*26. Pacing of the Lesson Appropriate to Students’ Ability Levels
*27. Comprehensive Review of Key Vocabulary
*28. Comprehensive Review of Key Content Concepts
*29. Regular Feedback Provided to Students on Their Output
*30. Assessment of Student Comprehension and Learning of All Lesson Objectives throughout the Lesson
Lesson Sequence
FIRST DAY: Give copies of "CONCEPT MAP"(3.1), “Prison Graphic Organizers” (3.7),(3.8A-C) and “EMOTIONS CHART” (3.5) to students. The “CONCEPT MAP” will be used for any unfamiliar vocabulary encountered in sustained silent reading. The use of the “Prison Graphic Organizers” and the “Emotions Chart” are explained in paragraphs 3 and 6 BELOW. [SIOP Features #5, #9, #12. #13, #14 and #27]. Students will use these in the Anticipation and Tapping Prior Knowledge Activities. [SIOP Feature #7] Throughout the unit, teachers should use extra time in class to encourage students to read stories from the book silently, including those that won't be covered in preparation for the assessment. It's a good idea to read some of the happier stories at the end of a "weighty" day. ("Laughter", "Our Good Day", "Gil's Furniture Bought and Sold", "Meme Ortiz", "And Some More", "Chanclas", and "Hips". Tto keep students accountable for sustained silent reading. Introduce the book by looking at the book jacket or cover, title and the Table of Contents. Ask students: Who are the characters? What do you think the setting might be? Can you tell anything about the author? Prediction is a higher-order thinking skill.] Notice that the first story has the same title as the book. There is a way for us to tell the difference. Write: The House on Mango Street (/u) and “The House on Mango Street" on the chalkboard. Tell students that when a title is underlined, it is the title of a complete work (book, magazine, encyclopedia). When a title is in quotes, it is a part of something bigger (chapter, article, subheading). Remind students of the difference and emphasize the correct usage of underlining and quotation marks throughout the unit. Do you remember the theme we are going to look for in this book? (Point to prison and escape concept maps on wall Read “The House on Mango Street” to meet the main character of the book. Tell students the little girl who is telling the story is named Esperanza.
Teacher and students will read together the article “SANDRA CISNEROS”, focusing on the main ideas presented in the article. Teacher will help students read past the words and phrases that are unfamiliar in order to get to the meaning of the passage. Students will then do the worksheet “ABOUT THE AUTHOR.” Teacher and students will discuss how a person's background influences how he/she thinks. Students will give examples from their own lives following the format practiced on the worksheet. (cause - arrow - effect) Teacher and students will fill in the first row of “EMOTIONS CHARTtogether, determining the most accurate word choice for the main emotion in the story “The House on Mango Street”. After choosing an emotion, teacher and students will write a complete sentence showing the cause of that emotion. For example, “Esperanza feels ashamed because her teacher thinks her house isn't good enough.” Students can add a quote from the book to justify their decision.
SECOND DAY:
To start the class, ask students to describe a safe place in a journal. Tell them you want them to include these things: Where is it? What does it look like? What does it sound like? What does it smell like? What does it feel like? What does it taste like? What emotions do they feel there? Who creates this place
Pass out The House on Mango Street books and read aloud “Hairs”. Ask students to answer the questions from above about the safe place in the story. Have students look at their own journals and make a Venn diagram (two overlapping circles) comparing their safe places to Esperanza's. Analyze Sandra Cisneros's style in the story “Hairs”. Point out to students that she appeals to the senses and the emotions. Ask students to look at her sentences. “Are they all complete sentences?” (No.) “Incomplete sentences are called fragments. Why do you think she used fragments in this story?” Help students see that Cisneros purposely used fragments to create the voice of a little girl. Explain to students that in academic writing fragments are not acceptable, but in creative writing, the author can use them for voice. Now students will practice writing in the computer lab with a child's voice about their own safe places. They can use “Hairs” as a model for their writing. (A different option for this assignment is to assign each student a different topic from the following list: arms, voices, mouths, hugs, feet, laughs, eyes, noses, ears, hands, smiles, teeth) See “HAIRS ESSAYS”(for examples of student writing. Have students peer edit each other's papers for content: emotions and 5 senses. Have students edit a new classmate's paper for voice: Does it sound like a child wrote this? Students should write a suggestion for change if they feel it doesn't have a child's voice. (BEWARE: You may have a student or two who would like to give this essay a different voice. As long as they can explain whose voice they are using, let them “tweak” the assignment.)Pass out the first of many copies of the Prison Graphic Organizer from the “GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS” PowerPoint – Fill it in together for “The House on Mango Street”. The PowerPoint “GRAPHIC SAMPLE” will take you and the students through the graphic one part at a time. Save the explanation of how to choose and punctuate a quote until you've finished reading and discussing the stories about prejudice: “Smart Cookie”, “Boys and Girls”, “Those Who Don't”, “Cathy Queen of Cats”, and “My Name”. Fill in a prison graphic for each story, gradually encouraging students to work more independently. Have students leave the quote section blank for now. Pass out copies of “QUOTES and walk students through “How to Choose a Quote” and “How to Use a Quote”. Walk students through the two pages Then have them search the stories you've already read for quotes that show the prisons of each character and write them on index cards. Pair students and have them check their ideas to make sure the sentence(s) they chose prove the ideas on their prison graphic organizers. Only then should they fill in the Quote blank on each organizer, paying close attention to punctuation. Grade the organizers for choice of quotes and correct punctuation. *This is preparation for the 2nd paragraph of the assessment. Students need examples of prisons with details and quotes.
THIRD DAY:
At the beginning of class, have students copy this sentence and finish it as many times as they can in three minutes. “Sometimes I want to _______, but I am responsible for _______________”. You may need to give an example to jump-start their thinking. (Sometimes I want to sleep late on Monday, but I am responsible for teaching my class.) [SIOP Feature #14] Discuss answers- Read “Boys and Girls” and “Marin”. What are the responsibilities of the characters in these two stories? Esperanza describes herself as a balloon tied to an anchor. Discuss the meaning of this metaphor. View power point and hand out the worksheets SIMILIES AND METAPHORS. The balloon represents her desires and dreams. The anchor represents what is holding her back right now. Pass out templates scissors, and construction paper. Each student needs 3 pieces of paper: black(anchor), gray(scissors), and a bright color(balloon). Have students trace the templates and cut out their shapes. (The more templates you make, the faster this will go.) Students write their hopes and dreams for the future on the balloons (large enough to see after balloons are hung on the wall). On the anchors, students write the responsibilities that hold them back. On the scissors, students write their plans to break free from their anchors. On the wall, attach anchors to balloons with string and set scissors to cut the strings. (Another variation of this activity would be to use real balloons, anchors, strings, and scissors. After the teacher has graded them, students set their balloons free with their scissors, saying aloud what the parts are.) This is a great goal-setting activity. - For homework, have students fill in PRISON GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS for the new stories, filling in all of the blanks. *This is continued preparation for the 2nd paragraph of the assessment. Pass out “TRAPPED and ask students to read #1 and write in the margin what the man can do to get out of the cave. Have them share their answers in pairs. Then students read #2 and make a Venn diagram (two overlapping circles) through use of graphic organizer] comparing the man in #1 to the man in #2. They can add feelings and predict future actions, too. Ask students to make a Venn diagram comparing the resources they have now in the U.S. to the resources they had in their home country. They should add feelings and resulting actions as well. (You could prompt them to think about why they left their home countries.) - Read “No Speak English”, “Marin”, “Louie, His Cousin, and His Other Cousin”, and “Darius”. Discuss the ways in which the characters are imprisoned by limited experience and/or resources. - In groups, fill in the Prison Graphic Organizer from "GRAPHIC ORANIZERS" Before BEGINNING these stories. *This is more preparation for the 2nd paragraph of the assessment . For homework, assign each student one character from the book. The student should “become” that character and write a letter to Dear Abby. Then the student should “become” Abby and write an answer to the letter. At the beginning of the next class, students share their letters. Both letters should exhibit the writer's command of fluency. Examples of fluent and non-fluent writings can be found in the examples . At the beginning of the next class, students share their letters. Teacher will discuss the purpose of similes with students: “Sandra Cisneros uses similes throughout her writing in order to make it richer. When she says something using a simile, it creates a picture in your mind. Similes can be funny, sad, etc. Cisneros creates emotion by using similes.” Teacher will define a simile: “A simile is a comparison of two things using “like” or “as”. The two things aren't REALLY the same, but they are compared to make a picture in the reader's mind.” Teacher will write some examples of similes on the board (I'm as angry as a tiger. The clock hands are moving like turtles. His mind is like a machine. etc.) Then students and teacher will look in the book The House on Mango Street to find similes. (See “SIMILES LIST” for a key.) – (. Working in small groups, students will make a list of similes from the book, writing each simile on a separate 4x6 index card. They will analyze each simile, circling the two things being compared and deciding what is similar about them. Teacher will facilitate discussion about the literal meaning of the simile vs. the actual meaning implied. Each group will choose one or two similes from the book and rewrite it in straightforward, non-figurative language. At the end of class, the teacher will read their new (probably boring) versions of the stories, and ask students to judge between the figurative and the straightforward versions. Next, students will each receive a simile card. Each student will tell the class why Sandra Cisneros used that simile in her writing. In small groups the students will work together to create their own similes. [SIOP Features #24 and #21 and #17] Students will use a list of emotions/feeling-words and think of animals and/or types of weather that might represent each word in a simile. Final Review of Similes: Students will write answers to the following questions: “What do similes add to writing? Do you think it's better to have similes or to write exactly what you mean?”
Teacher will introduce the term metaphor and explain that it does the same job as a simile without using "like" or "as". Students will look on pp.9, 10, and 17 for metaphors. "USING METAPHORS" PowerPoint may be helpful
Final day:
Culminating Assessment At the end of the unit, students will write persuasive essays, using evidence from the text and from their own lives. They will make effective arguments for the best way to escape the troubles of life. Another option for the completion of the culminating assessment is to have students write each of the paragraphs during the unit just after the prewriting for that paragraph. Then at the end of the unit, students simply link their paragraphs together with good transitions and add the last paragraph. Students will also create a game called "Who's Got Style?" for the practice of all of the elements that make up an author's style, including sentence structure, voice, and the appropriate use of figurative language.

Reference
;<www.Randomhouse.com/highschool/catalog/display.paper/?isbn=97806797347723yi>
www.210.pair.com/udticg/lessonplans/mango_street/ resources.htm
Ehlert, L. Red Leaf, Yellow Leaf. Harcourt Brace & Co. Fl, 1991
Anderson Indiana High School English department

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...CRITICAL EVALUATION OF A PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH PAPER The aim of this report is to critique the research paper entitled “Special Needs Characteristics of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders That Affect Inclusion in Regular Education”, by Stoutjesdik, Scholte, & Swaab (2012). The aim of the research paper is to determine the special needs characteristics of children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD) that predict the placement of these children in restrictive school settings. The researchers point out that children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD) are often placed in the most restrictive educational settings, despite various countries’ aim to place all children in the least restrictive settings possible, based on the Salamanca Statement (1994). This is due to the fact that EBDs are considered the most challenging disabilities to be catered for in regular education settings. The researchers argue that there are differences in the characteristics between children with EBD that are educated in special education schools and those educated in inclusive education schools. It is argued that these differences play a significant role in the decision as to where a child with EBD is placed and the study seeks to answer two research questions: determination of the differences in characteristics between children with EBD placed in the two different settings, and determination of the the difference that contribute most to placement in restrictive......

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Educational Psychology

...HEAD: CULTURE AND PARENTING Culture and parenting Introduction Parenting is the first and likely most important mechanism through which culture is reproduced (Cauce, 2008). Every child is born into a certain circumstance and learns through interactions with the surroundings. Parents are generally the first and key people in a child’s life, so it should come as no surprise that parenting has influences on the development of children’s temperament, which later impacts their school performance. This article is going to explore how parenting varies among different ethnic groups including Asian Americans, African American, Latinos, and European Americans. More specifically, what factors should be included when considering the parenting characteristics of a unique ethnic group and what implications might they have for schooling today. Theories Two of the modern theories that are concerned with cultural influences on human development are Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory and Ecological Systems Theory proposed by Urie Bronfenbrenner. First, Vygotsky’s theory defined culture as the values, beliefs, customs, and skills of a social group. His Sociocultural Theory focuses on how culture is transmitted to the next generation. According to Vygotsky, social interaction – in particular, cooperative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of society – is necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and......

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