Premium Essay

The Chemistry of Sunscreen

In: Science

Submitted By ericamak
Words 1771
Pages 8
The Chemistry of Sunscreen
My written study report is about sunscreen where we can usually find it in some beauty shops and drugstores. Sunscreens in different brands would have different properties and selling points.
The main function of sunscreen is to protect our skin from the exposure of Ultra-violet (UVA and UVB) which can cause severe erythema (sunburn) and skin cancer. Some of them also claimed to moisturize and brighten up our skin. Normally, people who have a higher consciousness on their skin condition would apply sunscreen on their face and body frequently whenever they go outdoors. Athletes are also the main users of sunscreen as they often do exercises under sunlight over a long period of time; therefore they have to apply sunscreen to prevent long-term damage on their skin. It is stated that only a tiny amount of sunscreen is enough to reach the desire effect and protection.
The prices of these kinds of lotion vary a lot as it depends on their SPF(Sun Protection Factor) rating as well as PA degree, ranging from $60 to $250+. This product is popular worldwide especially in United States as people nowadays often do outdoor activities while they are highly aware of their health.
The main reason of choosing sunscreen as study Project topic is that I am curious about how do the chemicals inside sunscreen can protect us from sun burn and the potential risk of applying it. As far as I am concerned, some of the chemicals inside sunscreen are nanoparticles. Would there be any differences in terms of properties between the normal size of particles and Nano-sized particles? This report will look into it step by step.

Main Content 1. The main chemicals found in Sunscreen
Sunscreen mainly contains Oxybenzone (C14H12O3), Zinc Oxide (ZnO) and Titanium dioxide (TiO2). Sunscreen can be divided into two types, which are chemical and physical sunscreen....

Similar Documents

Premium Essay


...Nanotechnology (first used the term nanotechnology by Richard Feynman, in 1959) can be defined as the manipulation of atoms and molecules at nano (one billionth) scale (1–100 nm) to produce devices, structures or systems having at least one novel or superior property. The materials having at least one dimension in the nano scale are called nanomaterials. 10-9 meter (1 nanometer) to 10-7 meter (100 nanometer) Human eye can visualize up to 20μm only 1μm = 10-6 m DNA= 2.5nm- 3nm Protein= ̴ 5 nm Virus= ̴ 150 nm Human hair= ̴ 5000 nm Properties of Nanomaterials 1. The surface area to volume ratio of the nanomaterials is relatively larger than that of bulk materials of the same mass. This increases the chemical reactivity and affects strength and electrical properties of the material. 2. The quantum confinement is observed at nanometer sizes that changes the optical, electronic and magnetic properties of the material. The band gap increases as the size of the material is reduced to nanometer range. I II III IV Reduction in particle size increase in its Surface area Now, material is NANO so surface area will big… HOW? Let us consider a sphere of radius ‘r’ Surface Area = 4 x π x r2 Volume = (4/3) x π x r3 ratio of SA to Vol = 3/r Thus, radius of sphere decreases, Surface area will increase Let us consider a cube of sides 1 m Area= 6 x side2 = 6 x 1m2 = 6m2 Now, cut the same cube into 8 pieces, then the SA will increases Area= 6 x (1/2)2 x 8 = 12m2 Similarly, the...

Words: 2807 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Nanotechnology: Is It Safe or Are We on a Path to Disaster?

...Nanotechnology: Is it safe or are we on a path to disaster? In the last few decades, science has driven technology to new heights. The most prominent and significant change has been the reduction in size of these technologies. However, in the effort to simplify our lives by making things smaller and smaller, some of us fail to see the risk in such bold endeavors. This quest to manufacture objects at the microscopic scale has created the field of Nanotechnology which refers to the creation of devices and materials on extremely small scales. The products of Nanotechnology are composed of individual particles called Nanoparticles which have one dimension (width, height, or length) that is less than 100 nanometers. To put that in perspective, the width of a human hair is about 10 to 1000 times bigger than a nanometer. At such miniscule size, materials can be created with valuable chemical and physical properties, such as the ability to conduct electricity in the case of electronics, which enable for a wide range of technological applications, ranging from faster computer chips to new ways of treating cancer. The incorporation of Nano-technologies in commercial products has begun what some scientists and journalists are calling a “Nano revolution.” In other words, more and more technologies have at least some component that was engineered using Nanotechnology. With such wide range of applications, it is no wonder groups like the International Council of Nanotechnology (ICON)......

Words: 1743 - Pages: 7

Free Essay


...1. Which sentence uses verbs correctly? Choose 1 answer - ANSWER D – A. Angry cats are wanting to be let outside. –WRONG TENSE should be “want” B. The hungry dogs have ate their breakfast. - WRONG TENSE should be “eaten” C. Yesterday, the teacher prepares the assignment. - WRONG TENSE should be “prepared” D. The children are ready to go to school. 2. Which sentence has the correct subject-verb agreement? Choose 1 answer ANSWER A – ignore the stuff between the commas A. The children, hushed by their teacher, try to keep quiet. B. The books, read by the student, is returned to their shelf. INCORRECT – plural “books” doesn’t match singular “is returned” C. The librarian, anxious to find the books, browse the stacks. Singular “librarian” does not match plural “browse” D. The student, bothered by the uproar, request less noise. Singular “student” does not match plural “request” 3. Which sentence has the underlined word spelled correctly? Choose 1 answer ANSWER A – B is spelled correctly but it’s the wrong use. A. The principal sent the student a letter of congratulations. B. The principle ate lunch with the students. INCORRECT – wrong version of word for sentence C. The prinsipal signs the final grade reports. INCORRECT – no ‘s’ D. The princepal earned minimal interest. INCORRECT – no ‘e’ 4. Classify each sentence according to whether it exhibits or does not exhibit parallelism. Select......

Words: 6519 - Pages: 27

Free Essay


...Anthocyanin from Basella alba (Alugbati) stems as light-accumulators for making of dye-sensitized solar cells ________________________ An Investigatory Project Presented to Association of Science Educators of the Philippines (ASEP) in cooperation with Department of Education (DepEd) ________________________ As an Entry to the 2014 REGIONAL SCIENCE QUEST (Regional Level – Physical Science Team – Private Schools Category) ________________________ Proponents Dan Carlos C. Calubaquib Lisa Marielle S. Tagasa Rea Melissa P. Espiritu EFREN PAZ Research  Adviser ________________________ Roosevelt College Science High School Sumulong Highway Cainta, Rizal November 2014 ACKNOWLEGDEMENT We would like to thank our parents for their nonstop support during our research project. Thank you for Mr. and Mrs. Tagasa for letting us stay at their house to do our experiments in the middle of the night. Thanks you for Mrs. Espiritu for helping us to find Indium Tin Oxide, which is essential to our study. And last but not the least, thank you for Ms. Corpuz for helping us to find the chemicals we needed. To our friends that encouraged us to continue. Thank you for Austin Kinn Rubin for giving us a piece of advice on what would be the best thing to do for our research. And to the entire Batch 10, we thank you for the support you gave. To our teachers that taught us how to think and not what to think. To Ms. Luzita Alcid, our principal, who helped us defend our study better. To our......

Words: 5240 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Nanotechnology Final

...Nanotechnology Nanotechnology, which is widespread subject, is what is likely to be the driving force of many scientific changes of our earths future. It’s the technology of manipulating matter at the nano scale. Nanotechnology is applied in countless different fields such as science, health care, agriculture, security, computing etc. The ground breaking developments that are made in these various fields due to nanotech is why the world will continue to invest its time and money into the subject matter. “Many experts even predict that Nanotechnology is going to have as significant a place in the field of science and technology as the steam engine had at the time of its invention. Due to the potential it bears most developed and developing countries are making significant investment into nanotechnology research and development where the combined investment from the private and public sector is estimated to be around $12 billion annually.” (Michelson et al, 2008) The revolution of nanotechnology is not only expected to make many products and services friendlier economically, but is also going to allow for the miniaturization of control systems. Diseases will be more simple to cure, and we will have new cures for diseases that we do not yet have cures for. On the contrary with advantages come disadvantages. There are many widespread discussions regarding the negative effects of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology has its benefits but can also be lethal if used......

Words: 2396 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay


...Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society Green Advertising and Green Public Relations as Integration Propaganda Nina Nakajima Bulletin of Science Technology & Society 2001 21: 334 DOI: 10.1177/027046760102100502 The online version of this article can be found at: Published by: On behalf of: National Association for Science, Technology & Society Additional services and information for Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society can be found at: Email Alerts: Subscriptions: Reprints: Permissions: Citations: >> Version of Record - Oct 1, 2001 What is This? Downloaded from at University of Wollongong on October 1, 2013 BULLETIN2001/SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETYPR Nakajima tober OF GREEN ADVERTISING AND GREEN / Oc- Green Advertising and Green Public Relations as Integration Propaganda Nina Nakajima University of Toronto lic perception must also be managed. To avoid a negative public image, companies can create the perception that they are effectively handling the problem. This way, public support can be maintained while actually doing very little to solve the problem. Technological change continues to accelerate, and with it come......

Words: 11553 - Pages: 47

Premium Essay

Midnight in the Cemetery

...Are you an interior decorator? Because when I saw you, the entire room became beautiful. Are you religious? Because you're the answer to all my prayers. Do you have a Band-Aid? Because I just scraped my knee falling for you. I'm not a photographer, but I can picture me and you together. They say dating is a numbers game... so can I get your number? Do you have a sunburn, or are you always this hot? Is your daddy a Baker? Because you've got a nice set of buns! Did you invent the airplane? Cause you seem Wright for me. If I were a stop light, I'd turn red everytime you passed by, just so I could stare at you a bit longer. I wanna live in your socks so I can be with you every step of the way. I thought happiness started with an H. Why does mine start with U? I seem to have lost my phone number. Can I have yours? Hey baby, you must be a light switch, cuz every time I see you, you turn me on! Are you a camera? Because every time I look at you, I smile. For a moment I thought I had died and gone to heaven. Now I see that I am very much alive, and heaven has been brought to me. Do you know what my shirt is made of? Boyfriend material. Did you sit in a pile of sugar? Cause you have a pretty sweet ass. Do you have a map? I'm getting lost in your eyes. I don't have a library card, but do you mind if I check you out? Are you an orphanage? Cause I wanna give you kids. I was feeling a little off today, but you definitely turned me on. I'm sorry, I don't think we've......

Words: 4737 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

Global Warming

...Physical Chemistry Understanding our Chemical World Physical Chemistry Understanding our Chemical World Paul Monk Manchester Metropolitan University, UK Copyright  2004 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 8SQ, England Telephone (+44) 1243 779777 Email (for orders and customer service enquiries): Visit our Home Page on or All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except under the terms of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1T 4LP, UK, without the permission in writing of the Publisher. Requests to the Publisher should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 8SQ, England, or emailed to, or faxed to (+44) 1243 770620. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on the understanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought. Other......

Words: 233668 - Pages: 935

Free Essay

Nano Technology in Automotive Industry

...Nano technology in the automotive industry:- ABSTRACT What is Nanotechnology? Nanotechnology is the engineering of materials on the scale of 1 nanometer (nm) to 100 nm, a nanometer being 1 billionth of a meter. At this level, the basic physical laws governing macro objects undergo a drastic change. A macro particle is a cluster of atoms arranged together in random order. The formation of the structure is left to nature, and control over the properties of the material is difficult. Nanotechnology, on the other hand, is a bottom-up approach where materials are created by placing individual atoms together. This decreases the randomness in the structural formation, enabling significant control over the properties of the material. Mechanical properties such as strength, ductility, and resilience can all be incorporated into one material. Currently, nanotechnology is functioning as an enabling technology. It is being used to enhance the properties of existing materials. This is largely attributed to the fact that the technology has clearly not been understood and there is still much more to nanotechnology than meets the microscopic eye. It is rare for a single technology to have the power to dramatically influence almost every major industry in the world. Nanotechnology falls into this category and offers fundamentally new capabilities to architect a broad array of novel materials, composites and structures on a molecular scale. This technology has the potential to......

Words: 8073 - Pages: 33

Free Essay

List of Chemicals

...------------------------------------------------- Reagent index[edit] A[edit] Chemical name | Chemical formula | Common name | Source and description | Acetic acid | CH3COOH + H2O | 5% Solution: White vinegar | Grocery store; "white vinegar"—5% or "cleaning vinegar"—10%Photography supply store; "Indicator Stop Bath"—89% (with Bromocresol Purple dye) or "Glacial Acetic Acid" 99.5–100% | Acetone | CH3COCH3 | Acetone | General; "nail polish remover"Discount store; Onyx, Cutex. Boating supply; "fiberglass cleaner" Hardware store; "Acetone"While composition varies from product to product, paint removers have more acetone per volume than regular nail polish remover, and industrial grade (rather than consumer grade) paint removers used by professionals + sold in bulk will contain more acetone still. Some stores sell pure acetone as well.[2] | Acetylene gas | C2H2 | Ethyne | Hardware store or Welding supply; "acetylene"By reaction of calcium carbide and water. | Acetylsalicylic acid | C9H8O4 | Aspirin | Pharmacy; "Aspirin" | Aluminium | Al | Aluminium | General; "aluminium foil"Fine art store; "metallic pigment"—powdered aluminiumFiberglass supply shop; powdered aluminium as a filler material.Refined from mined aluminum ore, or bauxite.Often coated with wax to reduce flammability. | Aluminium hydroxide | Al(OH)3 | alumina hydrate | General; "antacid tablets"—blended with magnesium hydroxideAntacid Tablets; Alu-cap, Amphojel, Dialume—100%Fine art supply: "thickening......

Words: 6510 - Pages: 27

Free Essay

Inc1 C451 Comprehensive Study Notes

...How is the scientific method used to solve problems? Scientific method used to solve problems by keen observations, rational analysis, and experimentation. Observation: Closely observe the physical world around you. How is the scientific method used to solve problems? Scientific method used to solve problems by keen observations, rational analysis, and experimentation. Observation: Closely observe the physical world around you. Question: Recognize a question or a problem. Hypothesis: An educated guess or a reasonable explanation. When the hypothesis can be tested by experiment, it qualifies as a scientific hypothesis Prediction: Consequences that can be observed if the hypothesis is correct. The consequences should be absent if the hypothesis is not correct. Conclusion: Formulate the simplest general rule that organizes the hypothesis, predicted effects, and experimental findings. What is the principle of falsifiability? For a hypothesis to be considered scientific it must be testable?it must, in principle, be capable of being proven wrong. Fact: A phenomenon about which competent observers can agree. Theory: A synthesis of a large body of information that encompasses well-tested hypotheses about certain aspects of the natural world. Law: A general hypothesis or statement about the relationship of natural quantities that has been tested over and over again and has not been contradicted. Also known as a principle. Evidence:......

Words: 33649 - Pages: 135

Premium Essay

Does Beauty Have a Cost? the Ecological Footprint of the Cosmetics Industry

 1 Acknowledgements To Caroline Karp, my thesis advisor and primary reader, for her boundless suggestions, ideas, encouragement, and support as I attempted to creatively apply a structured environmental policy analysis to a new problem. To Catherine Goodall, Amit Sheth, and ShaSha at Environmental Packaging International for introducing me to the subject of packaging, guiding me carefully through various analytical techniques, and sparking my interest in redesigning consumerism. To Dave Murray and Joe Orchardo for their assistance running the spectrometer analyses in the Environmental Chemistry Lab as well as their vast patience and willingness to answer my many questions. To Daniela Quilliam and Bill Dundulis at the Rhode Island Department of Health for their honesty in answering my pointed questions and insights into government regulations when funding is a challenge. To my sister, Elena, for her endless patience and support, and especially for her late-night company in the Science Library Friedman Study Center. To my father, Luther, for advising me to work on my thesis early in the year, advice I listened to carefully, agreed with, but never quite followed through. To my mother, Joanne, for never doubting my ability to achieve goals that are seemingly out of reach and for standing behind me......

Words: 27198 - Pages: 109

Premium Essay

Revlon Case Analyis

...| Revlon: Case Study analysis | BUS 490 Comprehensive Examination: Strategic Management :: Online | | | 3/16/2012 | Table of Contents Introduction 3 Mission Statement 3 Vision of the Company 4 External Assessment 4 Technological trends 4 Demographic trends 4 Economic Trends 5 Political and legal constraints 5 Sociological factors 7 Global trends 8 Industry Analysis 8 Competitor analysis 9 External Factor Evaluation (EFE) Matrix 10 Internal Assessment 11 Company organizational structure 12 Personal policies and management 12 Operational production capacities and policies 13 Financial stability (common ratios and measures) 14 Ratio Analysis 15 Leadership and organizational behavior, corporate culture, etc 20 Marketing 21 Ethical/ legal issues 22 Management information systems and research and development 22 Patents, Trademarks and Proprietary Technology 22 The Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE) Matrix 23 Strategy Formulation 24 Strategic solutions 30 Timeline for Implementation 32 Consequences 33 References: 34 REVLON: CASE STUDY ANALYSIS INTRODUCTION Introduction Revlon is a global color cosmetics, hair color, beauty tools, fragrances, skincare, anti-persiparant/deodorants, and beauty care products company. Revlon case is a comprehensive strategic management case that includes 2006 and 2007 financial statements, competitor information, internal factors, future outlook and more of Revlon Company....

Words: 8786 - Pages: 36

Premium Essay


...2013 Citizenship & Sustainability Report Contents Dr. Dalene von Delft recovered from multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. Early access to a Johnson & Johnson medicine added to her treatment helped. Inspired by her experience, Dalene founded TB Proof, dedicated to raising awareness of TB among health care workers. Read more at New-Hope-for-MDR-TB-Patients CONTENTS CHAI R MAN’S LETTE R S UCCE SS E S & CHALLE NG E S Advancing Human Health & Well-Being Leading a Dynamic & Growing Business Responsibly Safeguarding the Planet H EALTHY FUTU R E S 2015 GOALS & PROG R E SS U.N. G LOBAL COM PACT DATA S U M MARY G R I I N DEX 2 Letter from Our Chairman & CEO 52 Labor Practices & Workforce Guide to the Icons 4 Successes & Challenges 55  Employee Retention, Development & Recruitment 9 Organizational Profile 58 Compensation 10 Report Profile 58 Diversity & Inclusion The icons below help to communicate the scope and boundary for each topic covered in our report. They represent the audience and locations throughout the world impacted by our business segments or enterprise. 11 Citizenship & Sustainability 59  Political Contributions, Public Policy & Lobbying Citizenship & Sustainability Strategy Our Strategic Framework 62 Intellectual Property 13  Our Citizenship & Sustainability Materiality Assessment Process ...

Words: 54528 - Pages: 219

Premium Essay

Vinegar as Alternative Battery

...Republic of the Philippines DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum Technology and Livelihood Education Learning Module HOUSEHOLD SERVICES EXPLORATORY COURSE Grades 7 and Grade 8 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page What is this Module About? ................................................................................................. 2 How do you Use this Module ............................................................................................... 3 LESSON 1 – Use and Maintenance of Cleaning Tools and Equipment............ 4 - 25 LESSON 2 - Practice Occupational Health and Safety Procedures ................ 26 - 61 LESSON 3 – Maintain an Effective Relationship with Clients/Customers ..... 62 - 89 Answer Keys ................................................................................................................ 90 - 95 Acknowledgment ............................................................................................................... 96 HOUSEHOLD SERVICES K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education 1 What Is This Module About? Welcome to the world of Household Services! This Module is an exploratory and introductory course on Household Services which leads you to Household Services National Certificate Level II ( NC II)1. It cover 3 common competencies in Household Services that a Grade 7/Grade 8 Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) students like you ought to possess, namely: 1) Use and......

Words: 20295 - Pages: 82