Premium Essay

The Clash of Civilizations and Radicalism

In: Science

Submitted By zan1zan
Words 3926
Pages 16
Also known as Dr. Madan Lal Goel
University of West Florida Abstract. The notion of a clash of civilizations has gained notoriety since the terrorist attack on WTC on 9/11/2001. Professor Samuel P. Huntington has popularized the view that the coming global conflict will be among major civilizations, not among different political ideologies. He identifies eight major civilizations: the Western (Europe and North America), Slavic (Russia and Eastern Europe), Islamic, Confucian, Hindu, Japanese, Latin American, and the African. Of particular focus in the present paper is the threat to civilization from radical Islam. Three factors that foment radicalism are described: the Islamic theology of exclusiveness, the nostalgic memory of a Muslim empire that lasted nearly 1,000 years, and the consequences of oil boom in the Middle East. Population estimates for different civilizations are provided at the end.


The theory of a clash of civilizations has been with us for some time. British historian Arnold Toynbee used the term in a series of lectures he delivered in 1953. The Middle East specialist Bernard Lewis wrote in 1990 that the Muslim rage against the West is “no less than a clash of civilizations” (Lewis, 1990, p 60). Samuel P. Huntington, a Harvard University political science professor, has given new currency to the notion of a clash of civilizations. His 1993 article in Foreign Affairs has gained global audience. A few years ago, I lectured to a political science class at Pondicherry University in Southern India. I was pleasantly surprised by the extent of the knowledge that Indian students possessed on this topic. A majority of the Indian students agreed with Huntington(s conclusion. The bipolar division of the world based on political ideology (communism versus...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay


...CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS Ms. Majabeen Khaled Hossain Program Director Institute of Hazrat Mohammad ( SAW) House no: 22, Road no: 27, Block K Banani, Dhaka 1213, Bangladesh Phone: +880 2 8816478, 8860206 Fax: +880 2 8812679 E-mail: Table Of Contents SL. No 1. 2 3 4 5 Topic Introduction Defining Civilization Islamic History Why a chash of civilizations Theories negating the existence of a threat Page No 3 5 5 6 9 6 Islamic Threat : Myth or Reality 10 7. Summary 15 8. Bibliography & Works Cited 15 Page 2 of 16 FANTASY OR INEVITABLE Civilization covers a wide variety of essential elements which are required to constitute a civilization with its development, refinement and improvement. The elements are not only available but exist in abundance within most of the regions around the world. Those only need to be searched or explored and benefits drawn to the utmost in order to gradually establish a civilization by using our body and mind bestowed by the Creator as the best of all the creations on earth. It takes time to attain any level of civilization in any country or region. It is a slow process which grows with the extent of time given to it and the amount of efforts made on it. There is hardly any standard parameter by which to judge the level or the measure of civilization attained except their standings as projected at the world stage in terms of progress and development. When a civilization develops in...

Words: 5088 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay


...Afghanistan Diaz, Aida Helen Steinhofer April, 3, 2015 The War on Terrorism: The War in Afghanistan. It was this state of chaos and confusion from which extremist governments like Taliban and fanatics like Osama bin Laden emerged. 86). similarly, their policies about marriage, divorce and other legal proceedings are also derived from their religion (Aronoff, p. He wanted to give back Germany its past glory and respect in front of the world, and for that he wanted to create more living space for Germans and thus he conquered the surrounding German speaking areas and created hatred among the leaders of those countries. This is the only way to co-exist peacefully in today’s world. This is important because it is seen in the past that attempts to bring democracy and socialism in the Arab world have failed so badly that it has made the people of the Arab world to denounce these ideas altogether. This attack is important not only because of how widespread it was; but it is also important because of the way it changed the course of the West towards Islam. With that, the West needs to incentivize the Muslim world to adopt democracy and liberalism so that they see the benefits of these systems themselves. ISLAM AND THE WEST – AN INTRODUCTION Islam and the West are different entities in many ways, but because of the globalization in the world; we see that there is an increasing interaction between these two entities, which becomes a reason for......

Words: 5505 - Pages: 23

Free Essay


...International Relations Theory The new edition of International Relations Theory: A critical introduction introduces students to the main theories in international relations. It explains and analyzes each theory, allowing students to understand and critically engage with the myths and assumptions behind each theory. Key features of this textbook include: • discussion of all of the main theories: realism and (neo)realism, idealism and (neo)idealism, liberalism, constructivism, postmodernism, gender, and globalization two new chapters on the “clash of civilizations” and Hardt and Negri’s Empire innovative use of narratives from films that students will be familiar with: Lord of the Flies, Independence Day, Wag the Dog, Fatal Attraction, The Truman Show, East is East, and Memento an accessible and exciting writing style which is well-illustrated with boxed key concepts and guides to further reading. • • • This breakthrough textbook has been designed to unravel the complexities of international relations theory in a way that allows students a clearer idea of how the theories work and the myths that are associated with them. Cynthia Weber is Professor of International Studies at the University of Lancaster. She is the author of several books and numerous articles in the field of international relations. International Relations Theory A critical introduction Second edition Cynthia Weber First published 2001 by Routledge Second edition published 2005 by......

Words: 74303 - Pages: 298

Free Essay

Europe and the Middle East Review of European Studies Vol. 4, No. 3; July 2012 Europe and the Middle East: From Imperialism to Liberal Peace? Raymond Hinnebusch1 1 School of International Relations, University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK Correspondence: Raymond Hinnebusch, School of International Relations, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9AX, Scotland, UK. Tel: 44-1334-462-861. E-mail: Received: November 24, 2011 Accepted: April 26, 2012 Online Published: July 1, 2012 doi:10.5539/res.v4n3p18 URL: Abstract Europe’s relation with the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is discussed in the context of normative (International Society) and materialist approaches (World System’s Theory). First, European imperialism’s export of a flawed Westphalian state system is summarized. How Europe is “caught” between MENA and the US and co-opted into a division of labour toward the region is then surveyed. The gap between the normative rhetoric and actual inequitable outcomes and structures constructed under the Euro-Mediterranean partnership is examined, looking at the three “baskets” of economic developmental, political reform and cultural convergence. Four “hard cases,” EU policies toward Palestine, Iran, Syria and Turkey, illustrate the ambiguities of the EU’s approach to MENA. MENA public opinion’s ambivalence toward Europe reflects these realities. The conclusion is that the EU’sMENA......

Words: 11398 - Pages: 46

Free Essay

Terrorism and Globalization

...TERRORISM AND GLOBALIZATION “Terrorism has rarely been absent from history, and over centuries has appeared in many guises”1. Referring to Walter Laqueur, no state or international system has been exempted from this form of non-state violence. However, the major shifts carried by globalization, that is to say the transformation from a state-centric world to a global system, seem to have perturbed the way violent non-state actors act, claim, interfere, and wage war in the new international system. If we follow the vision of Carpenter, we can talk about a “new world disorder”2 because of the multiplicity of new actors supported by international markets and transnational links. But, should we use the adjective “new” to describe nowadays’ terrorist organizations and attacks? Since 9/11 attacks, world seem to have toggled in major insecurity and fear of those modern organization that can act wherever and whenever they want at any place in the world. Undeniably, terrorists’ forms of violence have evolved by taking advantage of criminal organizations’ and illegal trades’ favourable trends. But this method, more than a political doctrine, represents a non-state use of violence or threat of violence to spread fear and bring political reform or revolution. Therefore, it should be reconsidered with the former violent actors and the disintegration of states. Moreover, the subject comprehension have to be reinforced in order - for great power or American superpower - to prevent those...

Words: 4108 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Khoabnamap Study About Religion

...IN CONTEMPORARY SOUTHEAST ASIA ISLAMIC STUDIES AND ISLAMIC EDUCATION i ii IN CONTEMPORARY SOUTHEAST ASIA ISLAMIC STUDIES AND ISLAMIC EDUCATION Editors KAMARUZZAMAN BUSTAMAM-AHMAD PATRICK JORY YAYASAN ILMUWAN iii Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia Cataloguing-In-Publication Data Islamic studies and Islamic education in contemporary Southeast Asia / editors: Kamaruzzaman Bustamam-Ahmad, Patrick Jory ISBN 978-983-44372-3-7 (pbk.) 1. Islamic religious education--Southeast Asia. 2. Islam--Education--Southeast Asia. I. Kamaruzzaman Bustamam-Ahmad. II. Jory, Patrick. 297.77 First Printed 2011 © 2011 Kamaruzzaman Bustamam-Ahmad & Patrick Jory Publisher: Yayasan Ilmuwan D-0-3A, Setiawangsa Business Suites, Taman Setiawangsa, 54200 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means – for example, electronic, photocopy, recording – without prior written permission of the publisher. The only exception is brief quotations in printed review. The opinions expressed in this publication is the personal views of the authors, and do not necessary reflect the opinion of the publisher. Layout and cover design: Font: Font size: Printer: Hafizuldin bin Satar Goudy Old Style 11 pt Gemilang Press Sdn Bhd iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T his book grew out of a three-day workshop jointly held by the Regional Studies Program, Walailak University, and the......

Words: 104903 - Pages: 420

Free Essay

Tyranny of Guilt; an Essay on Western Masochism (2010)

... english translation copyright © 2010 by Princeton university Press First published as La tyrannie de la pénitence: essai sur le masochisme occidental by Pascal Bruckner, copyright © 2006 by Grasset & Fasquelle Published by Princeton university Press, 41 William street, Princeton, new Jersey 08540 in the united kingdom: Princeton university Press, 6 oxford street, Woodstock, oxfordshire OX20 1TW all rights reserved library of congress cataloging-in-Publication data Bruckner, Pascal. [tyrannie de la pénitence. english] The tyranny of guilt: an essay on Western masochism / Pascal Bruckner; translated from the French by steven rendall. p. cm. includes index. isBn 978-0-691-14376-7 (cloth : alk. paper) 1. civilization, Western— 20th century. 2. civilization, Western—21st century. 3. international relations—Moral and ethical aspects. 4. Western countries—Foreign relations. 5. Western countries—intellectual life. 6. Guilt 7. self-hate (Psychology) 8. World politics. i. title. CB245.B7613 2010 909’.09821--dc22 2009032666 British library cataloging-in-Publication data is available cet ouvrage, publié dans le cadre d’un programme d’aide à la publication, bénéficie du soutien du Ministère des affaires étrangères et du service culturel de l’ambassade de France aux etats-unis. This work, published as part of a program of aid for publication, received support from the French Ministry of Foreign affairs and the cultural services of the French embassy in the united......

Words: 64873 - Pages: 260

Premium Essay


...Social Change and Modernity Edited By Hans Haferkamp and Neil J. Smelser UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS Berkeley Los Angeles Oxford © 1992 The Regents of the University of California INTRODUCTION Hans Haferkamp and Neil J. Smelser Haferkamp is grateful to Angelika Schade for her fruitful comments and her helpful assistance in editing this volume and to Geoff Hunter for translating the first German version of parts of the Introduction; Smelser has profited from the research assistance and critical analyses given by Joppke. 1. Social Change and Modernity Those who organized the conference on which this volume is based—including the editors— decided to use the terms "social change" and "modernity" as the organizing concepts for this project. Because these terms enjoy wide usage in contemporary sociology and are general and inclusive, they seem preferable to more specific terms such as "evolution" "progress," "differentiation," or even "development," many of which evoke more specific mechanisms, processes, and directions of change. Likewise, we have excluded historically specific terms such as "late capitalism" and "industrial society" even though these concepts figure prominently in many of the contributions to this volume. The conference strategy called for a general statement of a metaframework for the study of social change within which a variety of more specific theories could be identified. 2. Theories of Social Change Change is such an evident feature of...

Words: 171529 - Pages: 687

Free Essay


...GLOBALIZATION THE ESSENTIALS GEORGE RITZER A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication Globalization Globalization A Basic Text George Ritzer This balanced introduction draws on academic and popular sources to examine the major issues and events in the history of globalization. Globalization: A Basic Text is a substantial introductory textbook, designed to work either on its own or alongside Readings in Globalization. The books are cross-referenced and are both structured around the core concepts of globalization. 2009 • 608 pages • 978-1-4051-3271-8 • paperback Readings in Globalization Key Readings and Major Debates Edited by George Ritzer and Zeynep Atalay This unique and engaging anthology introduces students to the major concepts of globalization within the context of the key debates and disputes. Readings in Globalization illustrates that major debates in the field are not only useful to examine for their own merit but can extend our knowledge of globalization. The volume explores both the political economy of globalization and the relationship of culture to globalization. The volume is designed so it may be used independently, or alongside George Ritzer’s Globalization: A Basic Text for a complete student resource. 2010 • 560 pages • 978-1-4051-3273-2 • paperback Order together and save! Quote ISBN 978-1-4443-2371-9 GLOBALIZATION THE ESSENTIALS GEORGE RITZER A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication This edition......

Words: 168078 - Pages: 673

Free Essay


...islamic leviathan religion and global politics John L. Esposito, Series Editor University Professor and Director Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding Georgetown University islamic leviathan Islam and the Making of State Power Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr Islamic Leviathan Islam and the Making of State Power Ú seyyed vali reza nasr 1 2001 3 Oxford Athens Chennai Kolkata Nairobi New York Auckland Bangkok Bogotá Buenos Aires Cape Town Dar es Salaam Delhi Florence Hong Kong Istanbul Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Mumbai Paris São Paul Shanghai Singapore Taipei Tokyo Toronto Warsaw and associated comapnies in Berlin Ibadan Copyright © 2001 by Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr Published by Oxford University Press, Inc., 198 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10016 Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza, 1960 – Islamic leviathan : Islam and the making of state power / Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr. p. cm.—(Religion and global politics) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-19-514426-0 1. Malaysia—Politics and government. 2. Islam and politics—Malaysia. 3. Pakistan—Politics and......

Words: 112674 - Pages: 451

Free Essay

Superstar Economics

...TABLE OF CONTENTS Author’s Preface ...................................................................................................................... p. 3 Chapter 1 — Introduction ....................................................................................................... p. 9 Chapter 2 — Desire: The Turning Point of All Achievement ................................................. p. 22 Chapter 3 — Faith Visualization of, and Belief in Attainment of Desire ............................... p. 40 Chapter 4 — Auto-Suggestion the Medium for Influencing the Subconscious Mind .............. p. 58 Chapter 5 — Specialized Knowledge, Personal Experiences or Observations ...................... p. 64 Chapter 6 — Imagination: the Workshop of the Mind .......................................................... p. 77 Chapter 7 — Organized Planning, the Crystallization of Desire into Action ........................ p. 90 Chapter 8 — Decision: the Mastery of Procrastination ......................................................... p. 128 Chapter 9 — Persistence: the Sustained Effort Necessary to Induce Faith ........................... p. 138 Chapter 10 — Power of the Master Mind: the Driving Force ................................................. p. 153 Chapter 11 — The Mystery of Sex Transmutation .................................................................. p. 160 Chapter 12 — The Subconscious Mind: The Connecting Link ........................................

Words: 91742 - Pages: 367

Free Essay


...FOREWORD "Whatever your mind can conceive and believe it can achieve." - Napoleon Hill American born Napoleon Hill is considered to have influenced more people into success than any other person in history. He has been perhaps the most influential man in the area of personal success technique development, primarily through his classic book Think and Grow Rich which has helped million of the people and has been important in the life of many successful people such as W. Clement Stone and Og Mandino. Napoleon Hill was born into poverty in 1883 in a one-room cabin on the Pound River in Wise County, Virginia. At the age of 10 his mother died, and two years later his father remarried. He became a very rebellious boy, but grew up to be an incredible man. He began his writing career at age 13 as a "mountain reporter" for small town newspapers and went on to become America's most beloved motivational author. Fighting against all class of great disadvantages and pressures, he dedicated more than 25 years of his life to define the reasons by which so many people fail to achieve true financial success and happiness in their life. During this time he achieved great success as an attorney and journalist. His early career as a reporter helped finance his way through law school. He was given an assignment to write a series of success stories of famous men, and his big break came when he was asked to interview steel-magnate Andrew Carnegie. Mr. Carnegie commissioned Hill......

Words: 92846 - Pages: 372

Premium Essay

Managing Cultura Differences

...MANAGING CULTURAL DIFFERENCES SIXTHEDITION MANAGING CULTURAL DIFFERENCES SERIES Managing Cultural Differences: Global Leadership Strategies for the 21 st Century, Sixth Edition Philip R. Harris, Ph.D., Robert T. Moran, Ph.D., Sarah V. Moran, M.A. Managing Cultural Diversity in Technical Professions Lionel Laroche, Ph.D Uniting North American Business—NAFTA Best Practices Jeffrey D. Abbot and Robert T. Moran, Ph.D. Eurodiversity: A Business Guide to Managing Differences George Simons, D.M. Global Strategic Planning: Cultural Perspectives for Profit and Non-Profit Organizations Marios I. Katsioulodes Ph.D. Competing Globally: Mastering Cross-Cultural Management and Negotiations Farid Elashmawi, Ph.D. Succeeding in Business in Eastern and Central Europe—A Guide to Cultures, Markets, and Practices Woodrow H. Sears, Ed.D. and Audrone Tamulionyte-Lentz, M.S. Intercultural Services: A Worldwide Buyer’s Guide and Sourcebook Gary M. Wederspahn, M.A. SIXTH EDITION MANAGING CULTURAL DIFFERENCES GLOBAL LEADERSHIP STRATEGIES ST FOR THE 21 CENTURY 25TH ANNIVERSARY EDITION PHILIP R. HARRIS, PH.D. ROBERT T. MORAN, PH.D. SARAH V. MORAN, M.A. JUDITH SOCCORSY Editorial Coordinator Elsevier Butterworth–Heinemann 200 Wheeler Road, Burlington, MA 01803, USA Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK Copyright © 2004, Philip R. Harris, Robert T. Moran, Sarah V. Moran. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in......

Words: 229816 - Pages: 920

Premium Essay

Julius Ceasar

...OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY OUTLINE OF OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY C O N T E N T S CHAPTER 1 Early America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 CHAPTER 2 The Colonial Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 CHAPTER 3 The Road to Independence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 CHAPTER 4 The Formation of a National Government . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 CHAPTER 5 Westward Expansion and Regional Differences . . . . . . . 110 CHAPTER 6 Sectional Conflict . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 CHAPTER 7 The Civil War and Reconstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 CHAPTER 8 Growth and Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 CHAPTER 9 Discontent and Reform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 CHAPTER 10 War, Prosperity, and Depression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 CHAPTER 11 The New Deal and World War I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 CHAPTER 12 Postwar America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 CHAPTER 13 Decades of Change: 1960-1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 CHAPTER 14 The New Conservatism and a New World Order . . . . . . 304 CHAPTER 15 Bridge to the 21st Century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 PICTURE PROFILES Becoming a Nation . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

Words: 104976 - Pages: 420

Premium Essay

Maritime Power of Chaina

...The Maritime Strategy of China in the Asia-Pacific Region Origins, Development and Impact HUANG, AN-HAO Submitted in total fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy August 2009 School of Social and Political Sciences Faculty of Arts The University of Melbourne Produced on archival quality paper ABSTRACT This thesis aims to examine how and why a continental-oriented China has shifted its maritime strategic orientation and naval force structure from its coast toward the far seas in an era of interdependent international system. Generally, China is an ancient continental land power with an incomplete oceanic awareness. With the transformation after the Cold War of China’s grand strategy from landward security to seaward security, maritime security interests have gradually become the most essential part of China’s strategic rationale. Undoubtedly, the quest for sea power and sea rights has become Beijing’s main maritime strategic issue. Given China’s escalating maritime politico-economic-military leverage in the Asia-Pacific region, its desire to become a leading sea power embodying global strategic thinking means that it must expand its maritime strategy by developing its navy and preparing for armed confrontation in terms of international relations realism. Conversely, Beijing’s maritime policy leads at the same time towards globalization, which involves multilateralism and strategic coexistence of a more pragmatic kind. This......

Words: 115996 - Pages: 464