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The Communication Process Notes


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The Communication Process - communication : the sharing of messages - intrapersonal communication within oneself - interpersonal direct sharing of experience between two people - group communication small group organizational - mass communication communication from one person of group of persons through a transmitting device (a medium or channel) to large, diverse audiences
Mass Media Definitions - mass media are industries or businesses that create and distribute the following to large numbers of people: songs, novels, newspapers - MM are key institutions in society that affect our culture, buying habits, politics, etc - MM are profit-centered businesses making money is priority #1 concentration of ownership
The media are good and bad - At their worst the median can erode out quality of life - at their best help us understand events and trends facilitate connections with others shape our identity - media literacy is crucial we can have a say in the role media play in our lives
Media Convergence - convergence refers to the appearance of older media forms on the ewes media channels - convergence also refers to newspaper, broadcast, and internet outlets existing under one corporate roof
Models of Mass Communication - linear model : sender -- message -- mass media channel -- (gate keepers) -- receivers media messages - cultural model: culture: the symbols of expression that people use to make sense of their lives and to articulate their values audiences actively interpret messages and assign diverse meanings to messages audiences assign value to messages culture connects us to our society, providing both shared and contested values, and the media help circular those values - mass media are the culture industries - social scientific model: - tests hypothesis with measurable data cultural model - culture as skyscraper: high culture low culture different media for each but many people consume both
- culture as map culture is an ongoing, changing process modern vs. postmodern values

* Functions of mass media 1. to inform or educate public 2. to survey the environment/ act as a watchdog: surveillance **MOST IMPORTANT THING MEDIA CAN DO FOR US** 3. to transmit our cultural heritage/ values: socialization don’t have affairs 4. to entertain 5. to persuade advertising, commercials, political campaigns 6. to make money- the media * Why should we care about media research? - Media research helps shape public policies towards media industries ratings systems (movies – g, pg, pg13, r) what’s regulated and what’s not how to regulate - Theories shape how research is conducted, how much money is dedicated to which projects - Types of media offered often depends on what research shows we like - For businesses - Determine audience numbers for shows or networks determines advertising rates determines type of programs produced in future - Helps determine what type of media campaigns have been effective - Helps determine type of messages that are effective businesses, nonprofit organizations, politicians
Media research methodology - social scientific research surveys laboratory experiments content analysis - cultural studies textual analysis – movie, television program, song audience studies political economy studies – power, power structure focus groups – show group and ask their opinions
Early concerns of media effects - concerns about media effects have been around a long time - propaganda analysis – control of opinion by significant symbols… - public opinion research examined how the mass media filter info and shape public attitudes surveys polls influential during political events such as elections unreliability of pseudo polls – not accurate representation - social psychology studies measured behavior, attitudes, and cognition of individuals
Payne fund (1929-1933) sleep patterns attitudes about violence delinquent behavior knowledge of foreign cultures found negative and positive effects
Payne studies contributed to establishment of film industry’s production code – killer had to die at end of move, no promiscuous girls no sex during 1950’s -marketing research emerged in 1920’s evaluated consumer buying habits and media use listening to radio bought which products advertisers and product companies used to track consumer preferences - Hypodermic needle (magic bullet) model media “shoots” effects directly into audience media ideas directly affect people’s behavior proven untrue - minimal effects model media alone don’t cause people to change their attitudes and beliefs selective exposure reinforces existing beliefs- you only expose yourself to certain messages that you already believe, not a lot of different messages selective retention means people retain messages that confirm existing values people who are most influenced by media are those who don’t already have a strong view * Social learning theory * 1963 Albert Bandura – Bobo doll * people learn how to behave by observing others, including those in the media * people copy or model behavior imitation: direct copying identification: more generalized response
Agenda setting - media set agenda for major topics of discussion * media don’t tell us “what to think” but “what to think about” * change our perception about what’s important amount of space or time devoted to an issue or story placement of story or issue in paper or broadcast consistency across media * concern because of small number of media outlets * *

* How are books unique? * printed books are released content does not have to be in line with advertising companies - the reading of printed books is person (fiction) type of voice talking to them readers control what they see in their minds people read books to relieve stress, to escape from reality, for information, to kill time
Importance of books - oldest mass medium, was only mass medium for hundreds of years * fueled major developments revolutions and rise of democracies new art forms: poetry, fiction spread of religions literacy - primary repository of history, knowledge, wisdom, everyday experiences
Parchment * treated animal skin * gradually replaced papyrus * codex * first protomodern book * bound materials by the romans, 4th century * manuscript culture: medieval church * illuminated manuscripts * grammar rules developed * block printing invented * each block or “page” was hand carved * Chinese invent movable type, 1000 CE * individual characteristics that were reused * faster * Gutenberg invents the printing press, 1453 * first modern books * mass production possible * knowledge spreads * traditions challenged * book publishing develops * first American book, 1640 * paperbacks, mid 1800s led to dime novels, pulp fiction * - offset lithography, early 1900 reduces cost, speeds production publishing houses form now we have conglomerates - book publishing dominated by handful of major corporations with ties to international media conglomerates CONCERNS they eliminate “distinctive style” of older houses produce cheaper than independent publishers their huge marketing budgets allow them to out-promote independent publishers may mean some ideas are harder to get published
Book types - trade books (hardcover, quality paper bound books) fiction and nonfiction other popular writing adult and juvenile divisions - professional books - textbooks - mass market paperbacks - instant books topical books published quickly after an event occurs * reference books * university press titles * audio books * E-books
August 2010 amazon sold more ebooks than hardcover
End of 2010 sold more ebooks than paperbacks
Borders went out of business- barnes n noble closing
Economics of the Book Industy - mail order - book clubs - TV and movie rights - foreign publishers - merchandising
Books get banned because - book is not age appropriate - sexual content - nudity - explicit language - Satanism - racists, sexist, homophobic, ageist - anti- family - anti- fill in the blank
Google books library project controversy

- A collection of reading material issued regularly
- Periodical: term for mags based on the idea of regular interval of - publications
- Magazine: National politics, culture, ideas, lifestyles: some regional
- Newspaper: daily events of local communities
- Created the first spaces to discuss important social issues in history
Public education, abolition, women’s suffrage, Civil war
- Today more than 19,000 magazines are published in the US
- Magazines reflect and create what’s going on in American life
Early history
- European origins _ France
- Magazine derives from French term magasin, meaning “storehouse”
- Looked like newspapers; published less frequently
American colonies, early 1700s
- Magazines developed slowly lack of widespread literacy no advanced printing technology small middle class
- Frist magazine launched (1741)
American magazine (Andrew Bradford)
General magazine and historical chronicle (Ben Franklin)
Magazines helped a young US define itself
Reached national audience
Idea of specialized magazines gains momentum
Religious magazines
Literary periodicals: Emerson Thoreau, Twain
Mags devoted to law and medical professions
General- interest magazines created
The Saturday evening post (1821)
Frist national publication
Womens magazines appear
Ladies magazine (1828)
Godey’s Lady’s Book
Current trend: highly specialized magazines.
Appeal to narrower audiences
Guarantee advertisers can reach niche markets
Groups defined by:
Profession, lifestyle, gender, age, ethnic group
Hobbies and special interests
Elite, minority, alternative, tabloids
Began during Great Depression in US
Extremely popular 1930s 1940s
Comic books were blamed for juvenile delinquency
Internet allows magazines to extend or maintain reach
Printable coupons
Controversial content is often purged from magazines to satisfy advertisers and corporations

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